Calculated sentence example

calculated
  • Dean mentally calculated the time from the airport and told her about 5:00.
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  • I calculated the nearest emerops from there.
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  • The value of the annual produce of the various branches of the cotton industry, which in 1885 was calculated to he 7,200,000, was in 1900, notwithstanding the fall in prices, about 12,000,000.
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  • Dean calculated he was 12 to 14 miles from his car, with noth­ing but corn and cows around him.
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  • The intensity of the secondary light is no longer to be arrived at by addition of individual intensities, but must be calculated with consideration of the particular phases involved.
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  • The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
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  • The capital value of the whole of the lines, rolling stock, &c., for 1 9081909 was calculated approximately at 1/2244,f 61,400, and the profits at 1/25,295,019, or 22%.
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  • Ten years later, in 1959, Francois Genuys used an IBM 704 and calculated pi to more than fifteen thousand digits in just four hours.
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  • In 2009, pi was calculated to more than two trillion digits—in less than thirty hours.
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  • Napoleon was experiencing a feeling of depression like that of an ever- lucky gambler who, after recklessly flinging money about and always winning, suddenly just when he has calculated all the chances of the game, finds that the more he considers his play the more surely he loses.
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  • Gerdien himself makes I + -I_ considerably larger than Simpson, and concludes that the observed value of p is from 30 to 50 times that calculated.
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  • This is insignificant compared to the size of the currents which several authorities have calculated from considerations as to terrestrial magnetism.
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  • Then the best was made of it, and for some years the sultan preserved towards Bulgaria an attitude skilfully calculated so as to avoid running counter either to Russian or to German wishes.
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  • Taking into account the variations in wages and in the price of wheat, it may be calculated that the number of hours of work requisite to earn a sum equal to the price of a cwt.
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  • Roustan therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary corps for the occupation of the Regency.
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  • Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
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  • Interest is usually calculated yearly or half -yearly, at a certain rate per cent.
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  • Its total length is 1325 m., and its drainage area is calculated at 166,000 sq.
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  • Dust particles interfere with conduction near the ground, so the relative conductivity in the upper layers may be much greater than that calculated.
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  • The amount of heat absorbed by the air could thus be measured, while the work done by it in expanding could be readily calculated.
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  • From the known value of the capacity in that position and the inductance the frequency can be calculated.
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  • There are no signs of an extensive coalition as in the days of Shalmaneser; Ammon is probably included under Damascus; the position of Moab - which had freed itself from Jehoram of Israel - can hardly be calculated.
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  • At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
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  • Being greatly outnumbered, Howe had to stand on the defensive, but he baffled the French admiral at Sandy Hook, and defeated his attempt to take Newport in Rhode Island by a fine combination of caution and calculated daring.
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  • He spared neither men, money, nor himself in attempting to carry out his gigantic scheme for the colonization of the south Russian steppes; but he never calculated the cost, and more than three-quarters of the design had to be abandoned when but half finished.
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  • The extent of this decline is seen in Table II., wherein are given the annual average prices from 1875 to 1905, calculated upon returns from the 190 statutory markets of England and Wales (Corn Returns Act 1882).
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  • This, indeed, is the practice in Ireland, and in order to incorporate the Irish figures with those for Great Britain so as to obtain average values for the United Kingdom, the Irish yields are calculated into bushels at the rate of 60 lb to the bushel of wheat, of beans and of peas, 50 lb to the bushel of barley and 39 lb to the bushel of oats.
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  • It thus appears that the average yield of wheat in Great Britain, as calculated upon the crops harvested during the ten years (1896-1905), exceeded 31 bushels to the acre, whereas, for the ten years ended 1895, it fell below 29 bushels.
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  • His own reception at the Speculative Debating Society, where he first measured his strength in public conflict, was calculated to produce selfdistrust.
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  • Normal expenditure might therefore be calculated to rise rather than fall.
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  • The encroachment of land on sea has been calculated at the rate of about three miles in a thousand years.
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  • The funds for Simmons College were left by John Simmons in 1870, who wished to found a school to teach the professions and " branches of art, science and industry best calculated to enable the scholars to acquire an independent livelihood."
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  • Where the agreement provides for the insertion in the lease of " proper " covenants, such covenants only are pointed at as are calculated to secure the full effect of the contract, and a covenant against assignment or under-letting would not ordinarily be included.
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  • It is evident that the buying of cotton on the principles suggested would be calculated to cause great unsteadiness of prices, especially as cotton is not continuously forthcoming, but is produced periodically in harvests.
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  • Expressed both absolutely and as percentages of the price averaged from the 1st of October to the 31st of July, the range of movement, standard deviation, and mean weekly movement calculated between the times mentioned above (October 1st to July 31st), after diminishing significantly for some years after the later 'sixties, have risen appreciably on the whole of late years.
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  • But the dealing syndicate has probably been of late more common and more powerful - that is, the syndicate which exists to make profits out Table calculated from Weekly Prices between the 1st of October and the 31st of July in each Year.
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  • From this point of vantage he began depredations on the Red Sea (1182), building a fleet, and seeking to attack Medina and Mecca - a policy which may be interpreted either as mere buccaneering, or as a calculated attempt to deal a blow at Mahommedanism in its very centre.
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  • The law abounds in contradictions and repetitions, and the compositions are calculated in different moneys.
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  • By 1856 over 15,000 tombs had, it was calculated, been opened.
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  • It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
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  • The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated from the specific heats of its constituent elements.
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  • It contains four independent constants; two of these may be calculated from the heats of combustion of saturated hydrocarbons, and the other two from the combustion of hydrocarbons containing double and triple linkages.
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  • In such crystals each component plays its own part in determining the physical properties; in other words, any physical constant of a mixed crystal can be calculated as additively composed of the constants of the two components.
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  • The subjugation of such districts could only be by a system of effective military occupation and would be a work of time; but Alexander made a beginning by punitive expeditions, as occasion offered, calculated to reduce the free tribes to temporary quiet; we hear of such expeditions in the case of the Pisidians, the tribes of the Lebanon, the Uxii (in Khuzistan), the Tapyri (in the Elburz), the hill-peoples of Bajaor and Swat, the Cossaei (in Kurdistan); an expedition against the Arabs was in preparation when Alexander died.
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  • A far more radical remodelling of the army was undertaken at Babylon in 323, by which the old phalanx system was to be given up for one in which the unit was to be composed of Macedonians with pikes and Asiatics with missile arms in combination - a change calculated to be momentous both from a military point of view in the coming wars, and from a political, in the close fusion of Europeans and Asiatics.
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  • The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.
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  • In the case of more considerable distances, however, a globe of suitable size should be consulted, or - and this seems preferable - they should be calculated by the rules of spherical trigonometry.
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  • The most profitable unit is calculated to be a daily consumption of 1500 tons of cane, or 150,000 in a grinding season of loo days, which implies a feeding area not above 6000 acres.
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  • These duties vary in different parts of the empire: in the vilayets of Constantinople, Bagdad and Adrianople, and in the sanjaks of Bigha and Tchataljatheday'sworkis calculated at 5 piastres (about 11d.); in the vilayets of Aleppo, Trebizond, Angora, lannina, Konia, Sivas and Kastamuni at 4 piastres (about 9d.); and in most other parts of the empire at 3 piastres (about 7d.).
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  • In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
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  • Napoleon's object being surprise, all the cavalry except a few vedettes were kept back behind the leading infantry columns and these latter were ordered to advance, on the signal being given, in " masses of manoeuvre, " so as to crush at once any outpost resistance which was calculated upon the time required for the deployment of ordinary marching columns.
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  • Reinforcements had been coming up without ceasing and at the beginning of August he calculated that he would have 30o,000 men available about Bautzen and 10o,000 along the Elbe from Hamburg via Magdeburg to Torgau.
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  • With the latter he determined to strike the first blow, by a concentric advance on Berlin (which he calculated he would reach on the 4th or 5th day), the movement being continued thence to extricate the French garrisons in Kustrin, Stettin and Danzig.
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  • This can only be calculated on the ground of reasonable probability as to what it may be to the best interest of the adversary to attempt.
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  • At such moments of crisis it almost excelled human comprehension; the mind seems to have gathered to itself and summed up the balance of all human passions arranged for and against him, and to have calculated with unerring exactitude the consequences of each decision.
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  • But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.
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  • The velocity with which the ions move past each other is equal to the sum of their individual velocities, which can therefore be calculated.
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  • The results go to show that, where the existence of complex ions is not indicated by varying transport numbers, the observed velocities agree with those calculated on Kohlrausch's theory.
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  • The ratios of the coagulative powers can thus be calculated to be i: x: x 2, and putting x =32 we get I: 32: 1024, a satisfactory agreement with the numbers observed.4 The question of the application of the dissociation theory to the case of fused salts remains.
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  • The earliest formulation of the subject, due to Lord Kelvin, assumed that this relation was true in all cases, and, calculated in this way, the electromotive force of Daniell's cell, which happens to possess a very small temperature coefficient, was found to agree with observation.
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  • The result is that a high electromotive force is set up, which has been calculated as o.
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  • In this manner the diffusion constant can be calculated in absolute units (HC1= 2.49, HN03 = 2.27, NaC1=1.12), the unit of time being the day.
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  • By experiments on diffusion this constant has been found by Scheffer, and the numbers observed agree with those calculated (HC1= 2.30, HNO 3 = 2 22, NaCI = I II).
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  • The difference of potential between two solutions of a substance at different concentrations can be calculated from the equations used to give the diffusion constants.
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  • On the 2 1st of January 1903 Cardinal Richard publicly condemned the book, as not furnished with an imprimatur, and as calculated gravely to trouble the faith of the faithful in the fundamental Catholic dogmas.
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  • Except in the few special cases when a uniform external field produces uniform magnetization, the value of the demagnetizing force cannot be calculated, and an exact determination of the actual magnetic force within the body is therefore impossible.
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  • The angle B is indicated by the position of the spot of light upon the scale, and the horizontal intensity of the earth's field H E is known; thus we can at once determine the value of H P, from which the magnetization I of the body under test may be calculated.
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  • The values assigned to H were calculated from H= 2ni/r, and ranged from 3.9 to 585, but inasmuch as no account was taken of any 2 Since in most practicable experiments H 2 is negligible in comparison with B 2, the force may be taken as B 2 /87r without sensible= error.
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  • The field due to a coil can be made as nearly uniform as we please throughout a considerable space; its intensity, when the constants of the coil are known, can be calculated with ease and certainty and may be varied at will'through wide ranges, while the apparatus required is of the simplest character and can be readily constructed to suit special purposes.
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  • From data contained in Joule's paper it may be calculated that the strongest external field Ho produced by his coil was about 126 C.G.S.
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  • The primary coil carried the magnetizing current; the secondary, which was wound inside the other, could be connected either with a ballistic galvanometer for determining the induction, or with a Wheatstone's bridge for measuring the resistance, whence the temperature was calculated.
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  • For air Curie calculated that the susceptibility per unit mass was Io 6 K= 7830/0; or, taking the mass of 1 c.c. of air at o° C. and 760 mm.
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  • In the first experiments it was calculated from observations of the mutual induction of two conducting circuits in air and in the liquid; the results for oxygen at-182° C. were I 00287, 228 X IO-6.
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  • In particular, he found that the calculated velocity with which it transmitted electromagnetic disturbances was equal to the observed velocity of light; hence he was led to believe, not only that his medium and the ether were one and the same, but, further, that light itself was an electromagnetic phenomenon.
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  • It is now allowed to stand for some time, decanted from any sediment, and finally mixed with the calculated quantity of potassium sulphate (or if ammonium alum is required, with ammonium sulphate), well agitated, and the alum is thrown down as a finely-divided precipitate of alum meal.
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  • In addition to this economy it was calculated that the lines could be leased for £132,000 a year.
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  • From its duration and frequent battles and sieges this war involved an immense sacrifice of life to Brazil, the army in the field having been constantly maintained at between 20,000 and 30,000 men, and the expenditure in maintaining it was very great, having been calculated at upwards of fifty millions sterling.
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  • Abelard's remarkable compilation Sic et Non was not calculated to allay their suspicions.
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  • But the way in which he founded the leading Christian doctrines (after confessing his inability to rationalize them) on the arbitrary will of God was undoubtedly calculated to help in the work of disintegration.
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  • It is calculated that ioo,000 camels are used for the transport of tea only from Kalgan to Siberia, and that no less than 1,200,000 camels and 300,000 ox-carts are employed in the internal caravan trade.
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  • That the encouragement of the Slav aspirations was soon deliberately adopted as a weapon against the Hungarian government was due, partly to the speedy predominance at Pest of Kossuth and the extreme party of which he was the mouthpiece, but mainly to the calculated policy of Baron Jellachich, who on the 14th of April was appointed ban of Croatia.
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  • The reception it met with was not calculated to encourage constitutional methods.
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  • We find that - loglo (23/13) = � 37 1 6767 =log i n (2.3533) =logio (40/17) nearly; and thence that (23/13) 3 = (40/17) (I+1063/351520o), which can be calculated without difficulty to a large number of significant figures.
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  • This offer was made in the knowledge that the memorandum addressed by President Wilson two days previously to Orlando and Sonnino had met with rejection, and was indeed well calculated to heighten the contrast between the outlook of the two rival nations toward Wilsonian principles.
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  • Its value does not appear to have been calculated.
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  • It gives tables of sines and cosines, tangents, &c., for every to seconds, calculated to ten places.
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  • It is not too much to suppose that the executive in Pretoria had calculated that the occupation of Durban would inspire the entire Dutch nation with a spirit of unanimity which would eventually wrest South Africa' from the British.
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  • The Natal invaders fell back to the mountains which enclose the north of the colony; Oliver and Schoeman retired from Cape Colony before the small forces of Gatacre and Clements; and the presidents of the republics, realizing that the British Empire was capable of more resistance than they had calculated upon, put forward feelers aiming at the restoration of the status quo before the war.
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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.
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  • The extension of the Pan-American railway across the state, from San Geronimo, on the Tehuantepec National line, to the Guatemalan frontier, is calculated to improve the industrial and social conditions of the people.
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  • They maintain that they can adore Him at any time and at any place, provided that the time and the place are calculated to compose and direct the mind towards Him.
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  • Profiting by the experience gained during the Athenian siege, he included in his new lines the whole plateau of Epipolae, with a strong fortress at Euryelus, its apex on the west; the total length of the outer lines (excluding the fortifications of the island) has been calculated at about 12 m.
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  • Many of the riparian potentates derived the bulk of their revenue from this source, and it is calculated that in the 18th century the Rhine yielded a total revenue of X200,000, in spite of the comparatively insignificant amount of the shipping.
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  • For a Prussian official to venture to give uncalled-for advice to his sovereign was a breach of propriety not calculated to increase his chances of favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the public eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him to maintain.
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  • The actual composition, however, of a mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be directly calculated from these figures and the known composition of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, particularly of alkali, occur during melting.
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  • It follows that the pressure of a fluid requires to be calculated in one direction only, chosen as the simplest direction for convenience.
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  • With v=o, the angular velocity of the cylinder is 2w; in this way the velocity may be calculated of the propagation of ripples and waves on the surface of a vertical whirlpool in a sink.
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  • Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that year.
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  • 1070 I 060 960 950 930 911 889 883 858 825 823 810 781 771 753 745 727 722 705 681 668, of squares and cubes, calculated from 1 to 60, have been found at Senkera, and a people who were acquainted with the sun-dial, the clepsydra, the lever and the pulley, must have had no mean knowledge of mechanics.
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  • It is calculated that in the NorthWest Provinces of India 5 per cent.
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  • This is generally effected by adding the calculated amount of potassium chloride (of which immense quantities are obtained as a by-product in the Stassfurt salt industry) dissolved in hot water to a saturated boiling solution of sodium nitrate; the common salt, which separates on boiling down the solution, is removed from the hot solution, and on cooling the potassium nitrate crystallizes out and is separated and dried.
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  • It has been calculated that a single pair of guineapigs may prove the parent stock of a thousand individuals in a single year.
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  • The glare of these seemed to the allies to betoken the familiar device of lighting fires previous to a retreat, and thus confirmed them in the impression which Napoleon's calculated timidity had given.
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  • The Karawanken railway, a direct connexion with Bohemia and the northern industrial provinces of Austria, is calculated to counteract the gravitation of traffic towards the German ports; while the Tauern railway constitutes the shortest route to the interior of Austria and to the south of Germany.
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  • Along with high intellectual powers in certain directions, he had a simplicity of nature charming in itself, but often calculated to render him the easy prey of sharpers.
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  • If so, no Utopia has ever yet been presented in a style so little calculated to stir the imagination, to warm the feelings, to soothe the insurgency of the reason.
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  • What then happened was very natural: imitations of the old wares were produced, and having been sufficiently disfigured by staining and other processes calculated to lend an air of rust and age, they were sold to ignorant persons, who labored under the singular yet common hallucination that the points to be looked for in specimens from early kilns were, not technical excellence, decorative tastefulness and richness of color, but dinginess, imperfections and dirt; persons who imagined, in short, that defects which they would condemn at once in new porcelains ought to be regarded as merits in old.
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  • But the style was not calculated to win general popularity, and the manufacturing processes were too easy to occupy the attention of great potters.
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  • The actual purchase price of the 17 lines was calculated at 43 millions sterling (about double their cost price), on the following basis: (a) An amount equal to 20 times the sum obtained by multiplying the cost of construction at the date of purchase by the average ratio of the profit to the cost of construction during the six business terms of the company from the second half-year of 1902 to the first half-year of 1905.
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  • It was calculated that this redemption would be effected in a period of 32 years, after which the annual profit accruing to the state from the lines would be 51/8 millions sterling.
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  • It has been calculated that in 1860 there were 51 periodicals published in Belgium.
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  • The gain would be the addition to the kingdom of a new and fertile province of the area of North Brabant, a saving of expenses on dikes, diminution of inundations, improvement of communication between the south and the north of the kingdom, protection of isles of the sea, &c. The costs were calculated as follows: (I) enclosing dike, sluices, and regulation of Zwolsche Diep, £1,760,000; (2) reclamation of four polders, £5,200,000; (3) defensive works, £400,000; (4) indemnity to fishermen, £180,000; total, £7,540,000.
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  • The toxicity or relative strength of the cobra venom has been calculated to be sixteen times that of the European viper.
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  • The mathematical expression for this potential can in some cases be calculated or predetermined.
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  • The capacity of two parallel planes can be calculated at once if we neglect the distribution of the lines of force near the edges of the plates, and assume that the only field is the uniform field between the plates.
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  • 2 If a large plate has a Guard circular hole cut in it, and this is nearly filled up by a circular plate lying in the same plane, and if we place another large plate parallel to the first, then the electric field between this second plate and the small circular plate is nearly uniform; and if S is the area of the small plate and d its distance from the opposed plate, its capacity may be calculated by the simple formula C=S/47rd.
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  • Changes of entropy must be calculated in terms of quantities of heat, and must be interpreted in a similar manner.
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  • Matthiessen observed that the density of alloys, the composition of which varies from AuAg 6 to Au 6 Ag, is greater than that calculated from the densities of the constituent metals.
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  • But, unfortunately, there were many things both in the teaching and the practice of the ecclesiastics of that day which were calculated to repel men of sober judgment and high principle.
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  • Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
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  • The vapour density is calculated by the following formula: D - W(1 +at) X587,780 (p-s) V in which W =weight of substance taken, V =volume of air expelled, a= 1/273 = .003665, t and p = temperature and pressure at which expelled air is measured, and s= vapour pressure of water at 1°.
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  • Machiavelli does not seem to have calculated the force of this recoil.
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  • In this way the insect increases with appalling rapidity: it has been calculated that a single mother which dies after laying her eggs in March would have over 25,000,000 descendants by October.
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  • Kriimmel has calculated the mean depth to be 2010 fathoms (12,060 ft.), while the mean elevation of the surface of the continents above sea-level is only 2300 ft.
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  • Dittmar showed that the average proportion of the salts in ocean water of 35 parts salts per thousand was as follows (calculated as parts per 'thousand of the sea-water, as percentage of the total"salts and per hundred molecules of magnesium bromide) :- The Salts in Ocean Water.
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  • Buchanan, which has an arbitrary scale and can be varied in weight by placing small metal rings on the stem so as to depress the scale to any desired depth in sea-water of any salinity, the specific gravity being calculated for each reading by dividing the total weight by the immersed volume; (3) the total immersion areometer, which has no scale and the weight of which can be adjusted so that the instrument can be brought so exactly to the specific gravity of the water sample that it remains immersed, neither floating nor sinking; this has the advantage of 'eliminating the effects of surface tension and in Fridtjof Nansen's pattern is capable of great precision.
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  • Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
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  • Pt = Po(' +0 00367t) and can thus be reduced to its value at o° C. Sigurd Stenius has calculated tables of osmotic pressure for sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
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  • Observations were made on a ring in a pine-wood for a period of nine years, and it was calculated that it increased from centre to circumference about 82 in.
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  • The present annual output is in round numbers 230 million tons, and the calculated available resources in the proved coalfields are in round numbers 100,000 million tons, exclusive of the 40,000 million tons in the unproved coalfields, which we have thought best to regard only as probable or speculative.
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  • It is by the help of numbers that concrete quantities are practically measured and calculated.
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  • In the following table are given the values of the diameters of the molecules of six substances with which it is easy to experiment in the gaseous state, these values being calculated in different ways from formulae supplied by the kinetic theory.
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  • This and the difficulty of obtaining accurate experimental results fully account for the differences inter se in the values of the quantities calculated.
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  • „ air 15° C = 49,800 „ „ „ mercury vapour at o° „ C = 18,500 „ and other velocities can readily be calculated.
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  • This incident well illustrates the ground of his objection to the British system of patent law, which he looked upon as calculated to strifle invention and impede progress; the patentees in this case did not manage to make a practical success of their invention themselves, but the existence of prior patents was sufficient to turn him aside from a path which conducted him to valuable results when afterwards, owing to the expiry of those patents, he was free to pursue it as he pleased.
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  • In coast defence artillery, owing to the fact that the guns are on fixed mountings at a constant height (except for rise and fall of tide) above the horizontal plane on which their targets move, and that consequently the angle of sight and quadrant elevation for every range can be calculated, developments in sights, in a measure, gave way to improved means of giving quadrant elevation.
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  • It was provided with a yard scale calculated with reference to height of site, and elevation was read by the intersection of the edge of the liquid with the graduation for the particular range.
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  • Ammonia is also present, but in very varying amounts, ranging from 135 to 0 I parts (calculated as carbonate) in a million parts of air.
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  • His dispositions on the night of the r5th-16th were skilfully calculated to encourage the allies to mass at Quatre Bras and Sombreffe, and his covering force were pushed sufficiently forward - to Frasnes and Fleurus - to grip whichever ally adventured his army first.
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  • The second step is the conversion of one figure into another by a process of dissection, followed by rearrangement of parts; the figure as rearranged being one whose area or volume can be calculated by methods already established.
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  • When an area has been calculated in terms of square feet, primes and square inches, the primes and square inches have to be reduced to square inches; and similarly with the calculation of volumes.
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  • Then the figure is (usually) the sum of two trapezoids F on base AE, and its area can be calculated as in § 24.
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  • It therefore appears as a calculated length rather than as a definite line in the figure; except that, if there is only one ordinate of this length, a line drawn through its extremity is so placed that the area of the trapezette lying above it is equal to a corresponding area below it and outside the trapezette.
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  • Either or both of the expressions K and L will have to be calculated by means of the formula of § 84; if this is applied to both expressions, we have a formula which may be written in a more general form f f 4 u4(x, y) dx dy = u dx dy.
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  • To find the quantity of timber in a trunk with parallel ends, the areas of a few sections must be calculated as accurately as possible, and a formula applied.
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  • It has been calculated that in the period 1620-1640 upwards of 22,000 Puritan emigrants (the figures have been placed as high as 50,000) sailed from British and Dutch ports.
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  • The elements of this disparate pair, calculated by Dr Vogel on the somewhat precarious assumption that its dark and bright members are of equal mean density, are as follows: Diameter of Algol.
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  • After deducting debts owing abroad the public and private wealth of the colony is calculated to be about £270,000,000.
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  • Macdonald entered upon his active career at a critical period in the history of Canada, and the circumstances of the time were calculated to stimulate political thought.
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  • The velocity deduced at 8.1° C. was U=1435 met./sec., agreeing very closely with the value calculated from the formula U 2 = E/p.
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  • The energy of this fork with a given amplitude of vibration could be calculated from its dimensions and elasticity, and the amplitude was observed by measuring with a microscope the line into which the image of a starch grain on the prong was drawn by the vibration.
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  • The rate of loss of energy was calculated from the rate of dying down of the vibration.
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  • The amplitude of the fork was observed when the sound just ceased to be audible at 27.4 metres away, and the rate of energy emission from the resonator was calculated to be 42 .
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  • From subsidiary experiments (for which the original memoir must be consulted) the pressure variations within the resonator could be calculated from the movements of the plate.
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  • Helmholtz's double siren is well calculated for the investigation of the laws of interference of sound.
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  • The Trans-Siberian railway was the only line of communication with Europe and western Siberia, and its calculated output of men was 40,000 a month in the summer.
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  • In the modern metal bridge every member has a definite function and is subjected to a calculated straining action.
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  • Not only were the bracing bars designed to calculated stresses, and the continuity of the girders taken into account, but the validity of the calculations was tested by a verification on the actual bridge of the position of the points of contrary flexure of the centre span.
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  • It is generally reckoned to be uniformly distributed, but in large spans the distribution of weight in the main girders should be calculated and taken into account.
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  • The following table gives values of the working stress calculated by these equations: Working Stress for Tension or Thrust by Launhardt and Weyrauch Formula.
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  • Waddell has calculated tables of such equivalent uniform loads.
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  • - In order that a girder may become straight under its working load it should be constructed with a camber or upward convexity equal to the calculated deflection.
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  • It was cumbrous and but little calculated to arouse patriotic sentiments in its citizens.
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  • The third volume (1816) contains the very elaborate and now well-known tables of the elliptic integrals which were calculated by Legendre himself, with an account of the mode of their construction.
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  • In spite of his political reforms, he opposed the admission of the plebeians to the consulship and priestly offices; and, although these reforms might appear to be democratic in character and calculated to give preponderance to the lowest class of the people, his probable aim was to strengthen the power of the magistrates (and lessen that of the senate) by founding it on the popular will, which would find its expression in the urban inhabitants and could be most easily influenced by the magistrate.
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  • This he calculated would bring about a retaliatory invasion of Poland by the Turks, which would justify him in taking the field against them also with all the forces of the Republic. In case of success he would be able to impose the will of a victorious king upon a discredited diet, and reform the constitution on an English or Swedish model.
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  • He also calculated that the demand itself would make the szlachta suspicious of all reform, including the Czartoryscian reforms, especially as both the king and his uncles were generally unpopular, as being innovators under foreign influence.
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  • In 1763 he published the British Mariner's Guide, which includes the suggestion that in order to facilitate the finding of longitude at sea lunar distances should be calculated beforehand for each year and published in a form accessible to navigators.
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  • He calculated an orbit for the comet of 1 759 (Halley's), reduced Lacaille's observations of 515 zodiacal stars, and was, in 1763, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
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  • In the account of Lord Macartney's embassy, which crossed the Yellow river in 1792, it was calculated to be 17,520 million cub.
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  • We put and call C the ballistic coefficient (driving power) of the shot, so that (6) At = COT, where (7) AT = Av/gp, and AT is the time in seconds for the velocity to drop Av of the standard shot for which C = I, and for which the ballistic table is calculated.
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  • Denoting by S(v) the sum of all the values of AS up to any assigned velocity v, (is) S(v) =E(OS)+ a constant, by which S(v) is calculated from AS, and then between two assigned velocities V and v, V AT, = vAv or rvvdv vgp gp' and if s feet is the advance of a shot whose ballistic coefficient is C, (17) s=C[S(V) - S(v)].
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  • The differences OD and DI are thus calculated, while the values of D(v) and I (v) are obtained by summation with the arithmometer, and entered in their respective columns.
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  • The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.
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  • The results for and 0, as calculated for the range tables above, are also given there for comparison.
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  • These theorems may prove useful in preliminary calculations where the pressure-curve is nearly straight; but, in the absence of any observable law, the area of the pressure-curve must be read off by a planimeter, or calculated by Simpson's rule, as an indicator diagram.
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  • A table of eighty-seven calculated orbits was appended, enlarged by Encke in the second edition (1847) to 178, and by Galle in the third (1864) to 242.
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  • It is a remarkable fact that, although in a given soil the soda-content may predominate largely over the potash salts, the plants growing in the soil take up the latter: in the ashes of most land plants the potash (calculated as K20) forms upwards of 90% of the total alkali.
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  • The figures are in most, if not in all cases artificial, though the means now fail us of determining upon what principles they were calculated.
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  • In later Christian times the Paschal month was calculated from the astronomical new moon; in earlier Jewish times all months were reckoned to begin at the first sunset when the new moon was visible, which in the most favourable circumstances would be some hours, and in the most unfavourable three days, later than the astronomical new moon.
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  • Most critics, indeed, are now agreed that the fourteen years are to be calculated from the conversion; and most of them still hold that the visit of Galatians ii.
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  • The area and volume of the Pacific Ocean and its seas, with the mean depths calculated therefrom, are given in the article Ocean.
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  • They were the arguments which were best calculated to appeal to them."
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  • His course of lectures was divided into four parts-(1) natural theology; (2) ethics; (3) a treatment of that branch of morality which relates to justice, a subject which he handled historically after the manner of Montesquieu; (4) a study of those political regulations which are founded, not upon the principle of justice, but that of expediency, and which are calculated to increase the riches, the power and the prosperity of a state.
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  • Smith conceived the entire subject he had to treat in his public lectures as divisible into four heads, the first of which was natural theology, the second ethics, the third jurisprudence; whilst in the fourth "he examined those political regulations which are founded upon expediency, and which are calculated to increase the riches, the power, and the prosperity of a state."
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  • The two systems of logarithms for which extensive tables have been calculated are the Napierian, or hyperbolic, or natural system, of which the base is e, and the Briggian, or decimal, or common system, of which the base is io; and we see that the logarithms in the latter system may be deduced from those in the former by multiplication by the constant multiplier /loge io, which is called the modulus of the common system of logarithms.
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  • Having calculated 70,000 logarithms and copied only 30,000, Vlacq would have been quite entitled to have called his a new work.
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  • Briggs had himself been engaged in filling up the gap, and in a lettex to John Pell, written after the publication of Vlacq's work, and dated October 25, 1628, he says: " My desire was to have those chiliades that are wantinge betwixt 20 and 90 calculated and printed, and I had done them all almost by my selfe, and by some frendes whom my rules had sufficiently informed, and by agreement the busines was conveniently parted 'amongst us; but I am eased of that charge and care by one Adrian Vlacque, an Hollander, who hathe done all the whole hundred chiliades and printed them in Latin, Dutche and Frenche, moo bookes in these 3 languages, and hathe sould them almost all.
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  • In the same year (1620) Napier's Descriptio (1614) and Constructio (1619) were reprinted by Bartholomew Vincent at Lyons and issued together.5 Napier calculated no logarithms of numbers, and, as already stated, the logarithms invented by him were not to base e.
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  • The calculation of tables of the natural trigonometrical functions may be said to have formed the work of the last half of the 16th century, and the great canon of natural sines for every 10 seconds to 15 places which had been calculated by Rheticus was published by Pitiscus only in 1613, the year before that in which the Descriptio appeared.
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  • The next great advance on the Trigonometria artificialis took place more than a century and a half afterwards, when Michael Taylor published in 1792 his seven-decimal table of log sines and tangents to every second of the quadrant; it was calculated by interpolation from the Trigonometria to 10 places and then contracted to 7.
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  • In 1784 the French government decided that new tables of sines, tangents, &c., and their logarithms, should be calculated in relation to the centesimal division of the quadrant.
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  • The tables were all calculated to 14 places, with the intention that only 12 should be published, but the twelfth figure is not to be relied upon.
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  • (1802/3); he calculated a table to 14 places, but only a specimen of it which appeared in the Supplement was printed.
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  • Briggs calculated in a similar manner log 6, and thence deduced log 3.
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  • It will be observed that in the first process the value of the modulus is in fact calculated from the formula.
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  • By means of these formulae Adams calculated the values of log e 2, log e 3, log e s, and loge?
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  • Taking as an example the calculation of the Briggian logarithm of the number 43,867, whose hyperbolic logarithm has been calculated above, we multiply it by 3, giving 131,601, and find by Gray's process that the factors of 1.31601 are (I) 1.316 (5) I.
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  • The preceding methods are only appropriate for the calculation of isolated logarithms. If a complete table had to be reconstructed, or calculated to more places, it would undoubtedly be most convenient to employ the method of differences.
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  • The territories of all these tribes can be, more or less exactly, calculated by the existence of Indian local names.
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  • Considering the part he played in this transaction, Walsingham was fortunate to escape the fate which the queen with calculated indignation inflicted upon Davison.
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  • Bion was essentially a popular writer, and in his Diatribae he satirized the follies of mankind in a manner calculated to appeal to the sympathies of a low-class audience.
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  • The first of a series of ephemerides, calculated on these principles, was published by him at Linz in 1617; and in that for 1620, dedicated to Baron Napier, he for the first time employed logarithms. This important invention was eagerly welcomed by him, and its theory formed the subject of a treatise entitled Chilias Logarithmorum, printed in 1624, but circulated in manuscript three years earlier, which largely contributed to bring the new method into general use in Germany.
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  • Iodic Acid, H10 3, can be prepared by dissolving iodine pentoxide in water; by boiling iodine with fuming nitric acid, 61+10HN03= 6H10 3 +10N0+2H 2 O; by decomposing barium iodate with the calculated quantity of sulphuric acid, previously diluted with water, or by suspending iodine in water and passing in chlorine, 12+5C12+ 6H 2 0=2H10 3 +10HC1.
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  • In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic weights of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.
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  • It is a system amply provided with checks and balances; it recognizes and enforces the principle of popular sovereignty, while subjecting that principle to many checks in practice; and it is well calculated to maintain unchanged the relation of its component parts each to the other.
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  • Grienberger, using Snell's method, calculated the ratio correct to 39 fractional places. ?
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  • The latter, as we know, calculated the perimeters of successive polygons, passing from one polygon to another of double the number of sides; in a similar manner Gregory calculated the areas.
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  • About the same time John Machin calculated it correct to Ioo places, and, what was of more importance, gave for the ratio the rapidly converging expression 4 _ I I 5 I 3152+ 5 1 54 - 7 1 5b?.
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  • He calculated that the cost of carriage from abroad of wheat, or the equivalent of the product of an acre of good wheat land in Great Britain, would not be less than 30s.
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  • 395 sec. in excess of the true astronomical value, which will cause the dates of commencement of future Jewish years, so calculated, to advance forward from the equinox a day in error in 216 years.
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  • In the above table for Sikes's hydrometer two densities are given corresponding to each of the degrees 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90, indicating that the successive weights belonging to the particular instrument for which the table has been calculated do not quite agree.
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  • He was tried by a court of inquiry, who found that his conduct to natives had been "unjustifiable and oppressive," that he had used abusive language to his native officers and personal violence to his men, and that his system of accounts was "calculated to screen peculation and fraud."
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  • Thus Abarbanel calculated the coming of the Messiah for 1503 A.D.; the year 1500 was in many places observed as a preparatory season of penance; and throughout the 16th century the Jews were much stirred and more than one false Messiah appeared.
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  • Thus number loo would be 100 metres per gramme calculated on the single strand.
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  • This latter differs very little in actual practice from the previous method of determination by the number of deniers per 476 metres, the denier being calculated on the equivalent of 0.0531 gramme, the English equivalent showing 333 deniers per one dram avoirdupois.
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  • Opticians should supply sufficient information of the dispersive properties of their materials to allow dµ/dX to be calculated easily for different parts of the spectrum.
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  • In other spectra such " harmonic " ratios were also discovered, but their search was abandoned when it was found that their number did not exceed that calculated by the laws of probability on the supposition of a chance distribution.
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  • The most complete hydrogen spectrum is that measured by Evershed 8 in the flash spectrum observed during a total solar eclipse, and contains thirty-one lines, all of which agree with considerable accuracy with the formula, if the frequency number n is calculated correctly by reducing the wave-length to vacuo.9 It is a characteristic of Balmer's formula that the frequency approaches a definite limit as s is increased, and it was soon discovered that in several other spectra besides hydrogen, series of lines could be found, which gradually come nearer and nearer to each other as they become fainter, and approach a definite limit.
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  • Rydberg favours the former view, but he does not attempt to obtain any very close approximation between the observed and calculated values of the frequencies.
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  • In all cases where compound prisms are used, the angles must be accurately calculated.
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  • In common with all enlightened opinion, he complained bitterly of the excessive multiplication of exemptions, of the exaggerated extension of appeals to Rome, of the luxury of the Roman court, of the venality of the cardinals, and of the injury done to the traditional hierarchy by the very extent of the papal power, which was calculated to turn the strongest head.
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  • During the whole tenure of office the Marquis di San Giuliano was an ardent believer in the Triple Affiance, on which he thought that Italy's foreign policy should be based, and attached the greatest importance to a good understanding with Austria, an attitude not calculated to win him popularity in many circles; under his guidance consequently Italy opposed Serbia's desire for a port on the Adriatic and Greece's aspirations in Epirus, and supported the policy of creating an independent Albanian State.
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  • Efforts have been made by the planters of the Duars to prepare Indian brick-tea for the Tibetan market, which is calculated to consume some 11,000,000 lb yearly.
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  • Similar 'considerations show that, since at its freezing point the vapour pressure of a solution must be in equilibrium with that of ice, the depression of freezing point produced by dissolving a substance in water can be calculated from a knowledge of the vapour pressure of ice and water below the freezing point of pure water.
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  • From this equation the osmotic pressure Po required to keep a solution in equilibrium as regards its vapour and through a semi-permeable membrane with its solvent, when that solvent is under its own vapour pressure, may be calculated from the results of observations on vapour pressure of solvent and solution at ordinary low hydrostatic pressures.
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  • Hence the force required to drive one gramme-molecule of sugar through water with a velocity of one centimetre per second may be calculated as some thousands of millions of kilogrammes weight.
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  • This separation causes a difference of potential, which can be calculated and is found to agree with the values obtained experimentally.
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  • Other substances give equally good agreements; thus sodium chloride has a calculated constant of 1.12 and an observed one of 1.11.
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  • - The American people, who had expected little from their diminutive navy, had calculated with confidence on being able to overrun Canada.
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  • There are 980 doctors (most of them fully qualified) labouring in British and American missions; and in 1 9 10 it was calculated that the in-patients in mission hospitals exceeded 160,000, while the visits of out-patients in a year were about 5,000,000.
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  • The Old Pretender himself calculated upon foreign aid in his attempts to restore the monarchy of the Stuarts; and the idea of rebellion unassisted by invasion or by support of any kind from abroad was one which it was left for Charles Edward to endeavour to realize.
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  • In 1889 the total area was calculated at 12,558 sq.
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  • It has been calculated that the gas from a pair of old-fashioned blast-furnaces making i 600 tons of iron per week would in this way yield some 16,000 horse-power in excess of their own needs, and that all the available blast-furnace gas in the United States would develop about i,50o,000 horse-power, to develop which by raising steam would need about 20,000,000 tons of coal a year.
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  • The per capita consumption of iron in Great Britain, excluding exports, has been calculated as 144 lb in 1855 and 250 lb in 1890, that of the United States as 117 lb for 1855, 300 lb for 1890 and some 378 lb for 1899, and that of the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany for 1906 as about a quarter of a ton, so that the British per capita consumption is about four-fold and the American about five-fold that of 1855.
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  • The total upward pressure on this piston is calculated to be equal to 150,000 lb; hence the shaft-bearings are practically relieved from pressure when the wheels are running.
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  • Such instructions were not calculated to promote confidence between Swedish and Danish negotiators.
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  • The ester is separated from the solution by means of its barium salt, and the salt decomposed by the addition of the calculated amount of sulphuric acid.
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  • These efforts to coerce the Dutch, though marred by partial failure, were, however, calculated to win for Joseph II.
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  • In November 1879 it was calculated that there were but 240,000 scholars in the secularized schools against 370,000 in the Catholic schools.
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  • Pursuing the investigations of Laplace, he demonstrated with greater rigour the stability of the solar system, and calculated the limits within which the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetary orbits vary.
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  • Their sustaining power has been calculated at 2016 tons, while the whole weight of the suspended part of the bridge is only 489 tons.
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  • It is a smaller work than the Chenab, but it is calculated to command 1,130,000 acres, of which at least half will be watered annually.
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  • Rapid progress was not expected here, and 792,000 acres was calculated as being the maximum area that could be covered with the water supply available.
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  • It is calculated that the field army would consist, in the third week of a great war, of 633 battalions, 410 squadrons and 574 batteries, with technical, departmental and medical troops (say 630,000 bayonets, 60,000 sabres and 3444 guns, or 750,000 men), and that these could be reinforced in three or four weeks by 350 fresh battalions.
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  • This was a claim exactly calculated to play into Bismarcks hands.
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  • Heights were calculated only when the observed parallax exceeded 1°, but this happened in three-fourths of the cases.
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  • The calculated heights - all referring to the lowest border of the aurora - varied from o 6 to 67.8 km.
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  • On one occasion twelve observations, extending over half an hour, were made on a single arc, the calculated heights varying in a fairly regular fashion from 1 6 to 12.9 km.
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  • The calculated horizontal distances of this arc varied between 5 and 24 km.
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  • Heights of arcs have often been calculated from the apparent altitudes at stations widely apart in Europe or America.
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  • The heights calculated in this way for the under surface of the arc, have usually exceeded 100 M.; some have been much in excess of this figure.
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  • Heights have been calculated in various less direct ways, by observing for instance the angular altitude of the summit of an arc and the angular interval between its extremities, and then making some assumption such as that the portion visible to an observer may be treated as a circle whose centre lies over the so-called auroral pole.
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  • The mean height calculated at Arctic stations, where careful observations have been made, in this or analogous ways, has varied from 58 km.
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  • The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges pass in vacuum tubes.
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  • At the end of 1902 the supernumeraries were discharged - too late to calm the ardour of the Opposition, which proceeded to demand that the Army bills should be entirely withdrawn or that, if adopted, they should be counterbalanced by concessions to Magyar nationalist feeling calculated to promote the use of the Magyar language in the Hungarian part of the army and to render the Hungarian regiments, few of which are purely Magyar, more and more Magyar in character.
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  • On this Taaffe had probably calculated, but he had omitted to inquire what the other parties would do.
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  • The total number of bullocks in the island is calculated to be less than 200,000; and although the ratio of consumption of meat is low in proportion to the population, some of the cattle for slaughter have to be imported.
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  • Sheep and goats, which subsist more easily on scanty pasturage, are relatively more numerous, the total number being calculated at 700,000.
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  • These frauds were all contrived for the heathen public, as a means of propaganda, calculated to inspire them with respect for Jewish antiquity or turn them from idols to God.
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  • The period of the hot winds, called the khamsin, that is, the fifties, is calculated from the day after the Coptic Easter, and terminates on the day of Pentecost, and the Moslems observe the Wednesday preceding this period, called Jobs Wednesday, as well as its first day, when many go into the country from Cairo, to smell the air.
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  • The question arises from what point these regnal dates were calculated.
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  • (2) The duration of a period may be calculated by generalions or the probable average lengths, of reigns, but such calculations are of little value, and the succession of generations even when the evidence seems to be full is particularly difficult to ascertain in Egyptian, owing to adoptions and the repetition of the same name even in one family of brothers and sisters.
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  • These are easily calculated on the assumption first that the observations were correctly made, secondly that the calendrical dates are in the year of 365 days beginning on.
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  • Others are grounded on the dates of certain operations which are likely to have taken place at particular seasons of the year so that they can be roughly calculated on the Sothic basis, others on Manethos figures, average lengths of reigns, evidence of the Turin Papyrus, &c.
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  • She completed and decorated the temple of Deir el Bahri, embellishing its walls with scenes calculated to establish her claims, representing her divine origin and upbringing under the protection of Ammon, and her association on the throne by her human father.
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  • This elevation was reported by the Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geographical Society calculated the elevation at 17,888 ft., it may be accepted as nearly correct.
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  • He calculated the period between the creation and the birth of Christ as 5499 years, and ante-dated the latter event by three years.
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  • The first is the "Adam and Eve" dated 1507, in which both attitudes and proportions are as carefully calculated, though on a somewhat different scheme, as in the engraving of 1504.
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  • An endeavour had been made by the emperor Leo the Isaurian to remedy this evil, but his attempted reform of the law had been rather calculated to increase its uncertainty; and it was reserved for Basil the Macedonian to show himself worthy of the throne, which he had usurped, by purifying the administration of justice and once more reducing the law into an intelligible code.
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  • With regard to the expenses of hunting, it is calculated that a master of hounds should be prepared to spend at the rate of £500 a year for every day in the week that his hounds are supposed to hunt.
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  • In the r6th century Ignatius de Loyola calculated the cost of the voyage from Venice to Jaffa at some 6 or 7 gold florins (£3).
    0
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  • The circumstances of the country are well calculated to impress the inhabitants with a sense of the overwhelming power of nature and of their complete dependence on it.
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  • His efforts for the men had already, it was calculated, amounted to a permanent annual increase in the railway wage bill of 65,00o,000, and an increase of 50%which in Aug.
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  • The railway from Pegu to Martaban, recently opened, passes through this district and is calculated to increase its prosperity and population.
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  • It has been calculated that about 595 different species of vertebrate animals are recorded or still to be found in Palestine - about 113 being mammals (including a few now extinct), 348 birds (including 30 species peculiar to the country), 91 reptiles and 43 fishes.
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  • The separate tribal units of Arabia, more or less impotent when divided and at war with one another, received for the first time an indissoluble bond of union from the prophet Mahomet, whose perfect knowledge of human nature (at least of Arab human nature) enabled him to formulate a religious system that was calculated.
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  • The methods of union adopted are not allowed to impair the strength of structures, which is calculated on the weakest sections through the rivet or bolt holes.
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  • As the weight of bleaching-powder consumed in the world is at most one-fifth of that of alkali, calculated as Na2C03, it follows that only about one-tenth of all the alkali required could be made by electrol y sis, even supposing the Leblanc process to be entirely abolished.
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  • Chemical analysis, like common experience, shows that Indian corn is a very nutritious article of food, being richer in albuminoids than any other cereals when ripe (calculated in the dry weight).
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  • A man of deep religious feeling and an earnest churchman, he strongly resented a measure which was calculated, to his mind, greatly to injure the cause of religion in Wales.
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  • In this way he calculated that he could have raised 1,000,000 men armed with modern weapons, but his chief difficulty would be money and transport.
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  • A further step, calculated to strengthen the relations of amity between the two governments, was taken when it was arranged that the amir should pay a visit to the viceroy, Lord Minto, in India, in January 1907; and this visit took place with great cordiality and success.
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  • The authorities in England favoured the zamindars system already at work in Bengal, which appeared at least calculated to secure punctual payment.
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  • In the early years of the 19th century there were colonies of English planters in many districts of Bengal, and it was calculated that the planters of North Behar alone had a turnover of a million sterling.
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  • It is calculated that an Indian power-loom weaver working 72 hours a week can turn out 70 lb of cloth, while a European working 54 hours can turn out 468 lb, and that one Lancashire weaver can do the work of six Indian power-loom weavers and nine hand-loom weavers.
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  • European scholars have inferred from astronomical dates that its composition was going on about 1400 B.C. But these dates are themselves given in writings of later origin, and might have been calculated backwards.
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  • Comparing the area of his empire with the corresponding area now under the British, it has been calculated that Akbar, three hundred years ago, obtained 152 millions where they obtain only 131 millions - an amount representing not more than one-half the purchasing power of Akbar's 151 millions.
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  • Some heat is generally lost in transferring the heated body to the calorimeter; this loss may be minimized by performing the transference rapidly, but it cannot be accurately calculated or eliminated.
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  • This is generally calculated by assuming values for the specific heats of the materials obtained by experiment between loo° C. and 20° C. Since the specific heats of most metals increase rapidly with rise of temperature, the values so obtained are generally too high.
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  • The Result Calculated On These Assumptions Is Given In The Last Column In Joules, And Also In Calories Of 20° C. The Heatloss In This Example Is Large, Nearly 4.5% Of The Total Supply, Owing To The Small Flow And The Large Rise Of Temperature, But This Correction Was Greatly Reduced In Subsequent Observations On The Specific Heat Of Water By The Same Method.
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  • The First Experiments Of Any Value Were Those Of Regnault In 1847 On The Specific Heat Of Water Between 110° C. And 192° C. They Were Conducted On A Very Large Scale By The Method Of Mixture, But Showed Discrepancies Of The Order Of 0.5%, And The Calculated Results In Many Cases Do Not Agree With The Data.
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  • The following table of values, calculated from these formulae, is taken from the Brit.
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  • It May Be Remarked That Starting From The Same Value At 5°, For The Sake Of Comparison, Rowland'S Values Of The Total Heat Agree To I In 5000 With Those Calculated From The Formulae.
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  • This Is The Value Of The Minimum Of Atomic Heat Calculated By Perry From Diatomic Hydrogen, But The Observations Themselves Might Be Equally Well Represented By Taking The Imaginary Limit 3, Since The Quantity Actually Observed Is The Mean Specific Heat Between O° And 182 5° C. Subsequent Experiments On Other Metals At Low Temperatures Did Not Indicate A Similar Diminution Of Specific Heat, So That It May Be Doubted Whether The Atomic Heats Really Approach The Ideal Value At The Absolute Zero.
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  • The dimensions of the Algol system have been calculated, with the result that Algol appears to have'a diameter of 1,000,000 m.
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  • It depends on the rapidity with which convection currents can supply heat from the interior to replace that radiated, and on a number of other nicely balanced circumstances which cannot well be calculated.
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  • The older one - which may be called the " one-drift " hypothesis, since according to it the stars appear to form a single drift moving away from the solar apex - requires that the apparent directions of motion should be so distributed that fewest stars are moving directly towards the solar apex, and most stars along the great circle away from the solar apex, the number decreasing symmetrically, for directions inclined on either side of this great circle, according to a law which can be calculated.
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  • The position of the solar apex calculated in this way agrees satisfactorily with that found by the usual methods.
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  • Penal servitude, to use the words of the lord chief justice Sir Alexander Cockburn, one of the members of the committee, "was hardly calculated to produce on the mind of the criminal that salutary dread of the recurrence of the punishment which may be the means of deterring him and, through his example, others from the commission of crime."
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  • Dietaries are everywhere the same; they are calculated with great nicety according to the time of durance, and afford variety and ample nutrition without running into excess.
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  • Lauriston, at the head of the column, had been sharply engaged on the 19th, but had spent the 20th in calculated inaction.
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  • The most important apparent exceptions to Raoult's law in dilute solutions are the cases, (I) in which the molecules of the dissolved substance in solution are associated to form compound molecules, or dissociated to form other combinations with the solvent, in such a way that the actual number of molecules n in the solution differs from that calculated from the molecular weight corresponding to the accepted formula of the dissolved substance; (2) the case in which the molecules of the vapour of the solvent are associated in pairs or otherwise so that the molecular weight m of the vapour is not that corresponding to its accepted formula.
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  • Employing the values of S calculated from dH/d0 = 0.305, he found that the product SQ was independent of both pressure and temperature for the range of his experiments.
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  • Values calculated from these formulae are given in the table below.
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  • He proceeds to calculate from this expression the difference of vapour-pressures of ice and water in the immediate neighbourhood of the melting-point, but does not observe that the vapour-pressures themselves may be more accurately calculated for a considerable interval of temperature by means of formula (23), by substituting the appropriate values of the latent heats and specific heats.
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  • It was employed as a purely empirical formula by Bertrand and Barus, who calculated the values of the coefficients for several substances, so as to obtain the best general agreement with the results of observation over a wide range, at high as well as low pressures.
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  • As an instance of the application of the method above described, the results in the table below are calculated for steam, starting from the following fundamental data: p = 760 mm.
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  • The values of the specific heat in the next column are calculated for a constant pressure equal to that of saturation by formula (16) to illustrate the increase of the specific heat with rise of pressure.
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  • The values of the saturation-pressure given in the last column are calculated by formula (25), which agrees with Regnault's observations better than his own empirical formulae.
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  • Many even of the richer towns, notably Nuremberg, ran into debt irretrievably, owing partly to an exorbitant expenditure on magnificent public buildings and extensive fortifications, calculated to resist modern instruments of destruction, partly to a faulty administration.
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  • From March to September 4000 persons were calculated to have died.
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  • During the first few weeks in Bombay it was calculated by Dr Viegas to be as high as 99%.
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  • Berthollet, and is best prepared by decomposing barium chlorate with the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid.
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  • But he calculated that this position, too, must be carried in the first rush, so that he could reach without delay the great ridge of the Stol (6,467 ft.), which stood athwart a further direct advance.
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  • If the system be subject to gravity, the corresponding part of the virtual work can be calculated from the displacement of the centre of gravity.
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  • The balance weights are to be separately calculated for each system, the one set being added to the crank shaft as revolving weights, and the second set being included with the reciprocating weights and operated by a properly placed crank on the crank shaft.
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  • The interesting and important part of the investigation is that a number of experiments were made on small shafts arranged in different ways and loaded in different ways, and the speed at which whirling actually occurred was compared with the speed calculated from formulae of the general type indicated above.
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  • The agreement between the observed and calculated values of the critical speeds was in most cases quite remarkable.
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  • The position of G can be found experimentally~ hence OG is known and the quantity Rican be calculated from which and the ascertained weight W of the body the moment ~f inertia about an axis through G, namely, W/gXRi, can be computed.
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  • Og is then the acceleration of the centre of gravity and the force F can therefore be immediately calculated.
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  • Sesostris is evidently a mythical figure calculated to satisfy the pride of the Egyptians in their ancient achievements, after they had come into contact with the great conquerors of Assyria and Persia.
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  • Indeed, the paucity of women of the Aryan stock would probably render these mixed unions almost a necessity from the very outset; and the vaunted purity of blood which the caste rules were calculated to perpetuate can scarcely have remained of more than a relative degree even in the case of the Brahman caste.
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  • The caste system, always calculated to favour unity of religious practice within its social groups, must naturally have contributed to the advance of sectarianism.
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  • To this end, music, dancing, singing-parties (sankirtan), theatricals - in short anything calculated to produce the desired impression - would prove welcome to him.
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  • This survey of the Indian sects will have shown how little the character of their divine objects of worship is calculated to exert that elevating and spiritualizing influence, so characteristic of true religious devotion.
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  • All the more are, however, the gross stimulants, connected with the adoration of his consort, calculated to work up the carnal instincts of the devotees to an extreme degree of sensual frenzy.
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  • The decline in Italy and Norway is small, but in France, where for a long time the fertility of the population has been very much below that of any other European country, the birth-rate thus calculated fell by nearly 20%, the same figure' being approached in Belgium, where however, the fertility of married women is considerably greater.
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  • The greater part of this is debitable, as just pointed out, to the first year, in which the mortality, calculated upon the number of births, ranged, in the decennium 1895-1904, between 70 per mille, in the exceptionally favourable circumstances of the Australasian States, to nearly 270 in European Russia.
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  • It shows the average number of years which persons of a given age, or, as here, of all ages, will live, on the assumption that they are subject to the calculated probabilities of survival.
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  • The net results of such exchange can be roughly estimated by comparing the rate of natural growth with that of the total increase of the community between one census and another, as set forth in Table VIII., in the last section of which the approximate loss by emigration, as calculated by Dr Sundbarg, is given.
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  • Rule Ix.-Cargo, Ship'S Materials, And Stores Burnt For Fuel Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel had been provided; but the estimated quantity of coals that would have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged to the shipowner and credited to the G.A.
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  • The growth of the Catholic population by decades since 1820 was calculated by a competent historian, the late John Gilmary The number in 1906 was 12,079,142 (U.S. Census, Special Report, 1910).
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  • If carefully prepared there is no objection to these basis wines from a hygienic point of view, although they have not the delicate qualities and stimulating effects of natural wines; unfortunately, however, these wines have in the past been vended on a large scale in a manner calculated to deceive the consumer as to their real nature, but energetic measures, which have of late been taken in most countries affected by this trade, have done much to mitigate the evil.
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  • The scheme was afterwards extended so as to take in the whole kingdom, but lost something of its voluntary character, and the means taken to raise the money, which were not what Bacon would have recommended, 5 were calculated to stir up discontent.
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  • Censure might more reasonably be bestowed on him because he deliberately advised a course of action than which nothing can be conceived better calculated to strengthen the hands of an absolute monarch.'
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  • But his actions in that position were not calculated to promote the good of his country.
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  • It was in 1648 (the year which Kabbalists had calculated as the year of salvation) that Sabbatai proclaimed himself Messiah, and in Constantinople came across an able but somewhat unscrupulous man, who pretended that he had been warned by a prophetic voice that Sabbatai was indeed the long-awaited Redeemer.
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  • On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
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  • Kroupa has calculated that the cost of refining is 8s.
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  • If, however, as is generally recognized, these poems are not the spontaneous and unstudied outpourings of passionate grief, but compositions of calculated art and studied effects, written for a purpose, it is obvious that they need not be contemporary.
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  • Long distances are calculated in farsakhs, a farsakh being equal to 6000 zar.
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  • The twist or surface-shear being proportional to the torque, the horse-power can be calculated if the modulus of rigidity of the steel employed is known or if the amount of twist corresponding to a given power has previously been ascertained by direct experiment on the shaft before it has been put in place.
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  • Crime had already diminished; it was calculated that the annual losses inflicted on the public by the depredations of the dangerous classes had appreciably fallen and a larger number of convictions had been secured.
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  • Both inflammation and fever are protective processes calculated to defend the organism against the attacks of microbes.
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  • As an example of excessive action we may take sneezing, which is calculated to remove irritants from the nose, but when too powerful may cause the patient to burst a blood-vessel.
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