Messina fell on the 10th of July, but Garibaldi, instead of crossing to Calabria, secretly departed for Aranci Bay in Sardinia, where Bertani was fitting out an expedition against the papal states.
The mortality from malaria in 1902 was higher than for any other part of Italy-1037 persons, or 154 per 100,000 (Basilicata, 141; Apulia, 104; Calabria, 77; Sicily, 76; province of Rome, 27).
The number of scholars in the elementary schools for1901-1902was 59.09 per loon (Calabria 42.27, Tuscany 67 09, Piedmont 118.00); the teachers are 1.34 per woo, a total of 1084 of both sexes (among whom only one priest) (Calabria 1.18, Tuscany I 29, Piedmont 2.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
Its southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being united to the mass of Lucania or the Basilicata by an isthmus isthmus 35 m.
The range is, however, continued through the province now called Calabria, to the southern extremity or toe of Italy, but presents in this part a very much altered character, the broken limestone range which is the true continuation of the chain as far as the neighbourhood of Nicastro and Catanzaro, and keeps close to the west coast, being flanked on the east by a great mass of granitic mountains, rising to about 6000 ft., and covered with vast forests, from which it derives the name of La Sila.
While the rugged and mountainous district of Calabria, extending nearly due south for a distance of more than 150 m., thus derives its character and configuration almost wholly from the range of the Apennines, the long spur-like promontory which projects towards the east to Brindisi and Otranto is merely a continuation of the low tract of Apulia, with a dry calcareous soil of Tertiary origin.
This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.
The Crati, which flows from Cosenza northwards, and then turns abruptly eastward to enter the same gulf, is the only stream worthy of notice in the rugged peninsula of Calabria; while the arid limestone hills projecting eastwards to Capo di Leuca do not give rise to anything more than a mere streamlet, from the mouth of the Ofanto to the south-eastern extremity of Italy.
But nowhere are these contrasts so striking as in Calabria.
The modes of life and standards of comfort and morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the former being far in front of the latter.
It predominates along the Ligurian Riviera from Bordighera to Spezia, and on the Adriatic, near San Benedetto del Tronto and Gargano, and, crossing the Italian shore of the Ioian Sea, prevails in some regions of Calabria, and terminates around the gulfs of Salerno, Sorrento and Naples.
of Reggio Calabria.
A certain amount of linseed-oil is made in Lombardy, Sicily, Apulia and Calabria; colza in Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia and Emilia; and castor-oil in Venetia and Sicily.
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Cosenza, Lecce, Salerno, Naples and Caserta are the continental provinces which come next after Sicily.
Leasehold, varying from four to six years for arable land and from six to eighteen years for forest-land, prevails also in Campania, Basilicata and Calabria.
To some extent the industry also exists in Emilia, Calabria, Basilicata, the Abruzzi, Sardinia and Sicily.
In Campania and Calabria the curatoli and massari earn, in money and kind, about 12 a year; cowmen, shepherds and multeers about 10; irregular workmen are paid from 8~d.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
They are as a rule well kept up in north and central Italy, less so in the south, where, especially in Calabria, many villages are inaccessible by road and have only footpaths leading to them.
The pupils of the secondary schools reach a maximum of 6~6o per 1000 in Liguria and 5~92 in Latium, and a minimum of 2.30 in the Abruzzi, 227 in Calabria and 1.65 in Basilicata.
per 1000; Tuscany has 39; Venetia, 42; Calabria, 144; Rome, 146; Apulia, 153; and Sardinia, 360 per 1000.
The minimum of 1.27 is found in the Basilicata, though Calabria gives only 2.13.
1), the name of Italy was first still more limited, being applied only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (now known as Calabria).
The second region included Apulia and Calabria (the name by which the Romans usually designated the district known to the Greeks as Messapia or lapygia), together with the land of the Hirpini, which had usually been considered as a part of Samnium.
From Beneventum, another important road centre, the Via Appia itself ran south-east through the mountains past Venusia to Tarentum on the south-west coast of the heel, and thence across Calabria to Brundusium, while Trajans correction of it, following an older mule-track, ran north-east through the mountains and then through the lower ground of Apulia, reaching the coast at Barium.
The cities of Gaeta and Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombardy in South Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor.
to occupy Sicily early in the 9th century, overran Calabria and Apulia, took Ban and threatened Rome.
the in.vestiture of all present and future conquests in Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, which he agreed to hold as fiefs of the Holy See.
After a prolonged struggle of thirty years, they wrested the whole island from tile Saracens; and Reger, dying in 1101, bequeathed to his son Roger a kingdom in Calabria and Sicily second to none in Europe for wealth and magnificence.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
Sir Sidney Smith with a British squadron captured Capri (February 18o6), and the peasants of the Abruzzi and Calabria soon began to give trouble.
Worst of all was the arrival of a small British force in Calabria under Sir John.
Calabria now rose in.
On the 18th of July, however, Gaeta surrendered to Massna, and that marshal, now moving rapidly southwards, extricated Rynier, crushed the Bourbon rising in Calabria with great barbarity, and compelled the British force to re-embark for Sicily.
The rash attempt of Murat in the autumn of 1815, which led to his death at Pizzo in Calabria, enabled the Bourbon dynasty to crush malcontents with all the greater severity.
The revolutionary attempts of Bentivegna in Sicily ~I856) and of the Mazzinian Carlo Pisacane, who landed at Sapri in Calabria with a few followers in 1857, failed from lack of Dopular support, and the leaders were killed.
He summoned his legionaries,, and in wh p7 August crossed over to Calabria with xooo men.
Almost the only respect in which the Left could boast a decided improvement over the administration of the Right was the energy displayed by Nicotera in combating brigandage and the mafia in Calabria and Sicily.
on the 28th of December 1908, an earthquake of appalling severity shook the whole of southern Calabria and the eastern part of Sicily, completely destroying the cities ~
PASQUALE GALLUPPI (1770-1846), Italian philosopher, was born on the 2nd of April 1770 at Tropea, in Calabria.
NICASTRO, a town and episcopal see of Calabria, Italy, in the province of Catanzaro, 17 m.
west coast from Naples to Reggio di Calabria.
It is situated on the isthmus between the gulfs of S Eufemia and of Squillace, the narrowest part of Calabria, 970 ft.
The conquest of England was made directly from Normandy, by the reigning duke, in a comparatively short time, while the conquest of Sicily grew out of the earlier and far more gradual conquest of Apulia and Calabria by private men.
Sulphur is occasionally found crystallized in Carrara marble; and the mineral occurs also in Calabria.
GIOIOSA-IONICA, a town of Calabria, Italy, in the province of Reggio Calabria, from which it is 65 m.
coast of Calabria 3 m.
This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and Bpirrtot on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occupied the south-western peninsula of Italy in historical times, the ager Bruttius (wrongly called Bruttium) corresponding almost exactly to the modern Calabria.
In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, for administrative and juridical purposes, it was sometimes (with Lucania) joined to Apulia and Calabria.
The boundaries of the original third Augustan region had by that time become somewhat altered, Metapontum belonging to Calabria, and Salernum and the territory of the Picentini to the third region instead of the first (Campania).
From the 6th century, after the fall of the Ostrogothic power, and the establishment of that of Byzantium in its place in south Italy, the name Calabria was applied to the whole of the south Italian possessions of the Eastern empire, and the name-of the Brittii entirely disappeared; and after the eastern peninsula (the ancient Calabria) had been taken by the Lombards about A.D.
Schipa, La Migrazione del nome Calabria (1895), whose conclusions are summarized in J.
of the Cathari, and in Calabria the apocalyptic gospel of Joachim of Floris, all bearing witness to the commotion of the time.
Coloman was twice married, (1) in 1097 to Buzella, daughter of Roger, duke of Calabria, the chief supporter of the pope, and (2) in 1112 to the Russian princess, Euphemia, who played him false and was sent back in disgrace to her kinsfolk the following year.
CATANZARO, a town and episcopal see of Calabria, Italy, capital of the province of Catanzaro, 1125 ft.
The station for the town (Catanzaro Sala) is situated on a branch line connecting the two main lines along the east and west coasts of Calabria, 6 m.
It is beautifully situated on the east coast of the peninsula of the ancient Calabria.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
JOACHIM OF FLORIS (c. 1145-1202), so named from the monastery of San Giovanni in Fiore, of which he was abbot, Italian mystic theologian, was born at Celico, near Cosenza, in Calabria.
Calabria), on a promontory 7 m.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
of Apulia towards Calabria), in Roman times of importance for its trade, lying as it did on the sea, at the point where the Via Traiana joined the coast road,' 38 m.
Yolande of Anjou, who in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudemont, became heiress of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of Rene of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 1480; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes.
Between 1320 and 1323 he harried the Florentines and defeated them several times, captured Pistoia, devastated their territory up to the walls of the city in spite of assistance from Naples under Raymundo de Cardona and the duke of Calabria (King Robert's son); never before had Florence been so humiliated, but while Castruccio was preparing to attack Florence he died in 1328.
Two months later the duke of Calabria, who had been appointed protector of the city in 1325, died, and further constitutional reforms were made.
Yet in spite of these disasters the republic was by no means crushed; it soon regained the suzerainty of many cities which had broken off all connexion with it after the expulsion of the duke of Athens, and purchased the overlordship of Prato from Queen Joanna of Naples, who had inherited it from the duke of Calabria.
(2) In Calabria (mod.
Having gained another victory in 542, this time in the valley of Mugello, he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city and then received the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apulia and Calabria.
In consequence of a fatal duel he was sent back to Naples; there he served under Joachim Murat with the rank of general, and fought against the AngloSicilian forces in Calabria and at Messina.
On the reestablishment of the autocracy he was dismissed from the service, and retired to Calabria where he had inherited the princely title and estates of Satriano.
REGGIO CALABRIA (anc. Regium, q.v.), a town and archiepiscopal see of Calabria, Italy, capital of the province of Reggio, on the Strait of Messina, 248 m.
It is the terminus of the railways from Naples along the west coast, and from Metaponto along the east coast of Calabria.
when Manfred, who by Frederick's will had been charged with the government of the two Sicilies, felt obliged to acknowledge the pope's suzerainty, Innocent threw off the mask, ignored Conradin's claims, and on the 24th of October formally asserted his own claims to Calabria and Sicily.
But the Pisans repulsed them and assumed the offensive in Calabria, Sicily, and even in Africa.
Turned out of the army he became a civil engineer, but when the Bourbons were expelled a second time in 1806 and Joseph Bonaparte seized the throne of Naples, he was reinstated in his rank and served in the expedition against the brigands and rebels of Calabria.
But it did vast damage elsewhere along the strait, notably at Reggio, Calabria, which was also totally destroyed.
Many other smaller towns suffered both in Sicily and in Calabria; the loss of life was appalling and the distress widespread, in spite of the prompt assistance rendered by Italian naval and military forces and by the crews of British, Russian and German warships and other vessels, and the contribution of funds for relief works from every part of the world.
547 Belisarius collected his fleet here before crossing into Calabria.
coast of Calabria, Italy, in the province of Catanzaro, 37 m.
At the end of the 6th century the exarchate included Istria; the maritime part of Venetia as distinct from the interior which was in the hands of the Lombard kings at Pavia; the exarchate proper, or territory around Ravenna on the eastern side of the Apennines, to which was added Calabria, which at that period meant the heel and not the toe of the boot; the Pentapolis, or coast from Rimini to Ancona with the interior as far as the mountains; the duchy of Rome, or belt of territory connecting the Pentapolis with the western coast, the coast of Naples, w i th Bruttium the toe of the boot, the modern Calabria, and Liguria, or the Riviera of Genoa.
About 740 it consisted of Istria, Venetia (the maritime portion of which was ceasing to be a province and was becoming a protected state, the forerunner of the future republic of Venice), Ferrara, Ravenna (the exarchate in the limited sense), Pentapolis, Perusia, Rome, the coast of Naples and Calabria (in the sense of the toe and not the heel of the boot) which was being overrun by the Lombards of the duchy of Beneventum, which with Spoletum held the interior.
It disappeared, and the small remnants of the imperial possessions on the mainland, Naples and Calabria, passed under the authority of the "patricius" of Sicily, and when Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in the Toth century were erected into the themes of Calabria and Langobardia.
COSENZA (anc. Consentia), a town and archiepiscopal see of Calabria, Italy, the capital of the province of Cosenza, 755 ft.
Our only authority, a passage in the Liber Pontificalis, describes the gift as including the whole of Italy and Corsica, except the lands north of the Po, Calabria and the city of Naples.
Aspremont (12th century) describes a fictitious campaign against the Saracen King Agolant in Calabria, and is chiefly devoted to the enfances of Roland.
Reggio Calabria >>
General Stuart's victory at Maida (July 3) shook Joseph's throne to its base; but the surrender of Gaeta soon enabled Massena to march southwards and subdue Calabria.
He is sometimes called Quintus Calaber, because the only MS. of his poem was discovered at Otranto in Calabria by Cardinal Bessarion in 1450.
He shared with Robert Guiscard the conquest of Calabria, and in a treaty of 1062 the brothers in dividing the conquest apparently made a kind of "condominium" by which either was to have half of every castle and town in Calabria.'
In return for his aid against Bohemund and his rebels the duke surrendered to his uncle in 1085 his share in the castles of Calabria, and in 10 9 1 the half of Palermo.
ASPROMONTE, a mountain of Calabria, Italy, rising behind Reggio di Calabria, the west extremity of the Sila range.
known in Gregory's notation as 13, 69, 124, 34 6, 543, 788, 826, 828, or in von Soden's as e 368, S 505, e 1211, e 226, e 257, e 1033, e 218, e 219, all which, except 69, in spite of the dating implied by von Soden's notation were probably written in the 12th century in Calabria.
for his aid against the Ghibellines, he crossed the Alps in June 1301, entered Florence, and helped Charles II., the Lame, king of Sicily, to reconquer Calabria and Apulia from the house of Aragon, but was defeated in Sicily.
On the death of Guiscard in 1085, his younger son Roger, born "in the purple" of a Lombard princess Sicelgaeta, succeeded to the duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and a war arose between Bohemund (whom his father had destined for the throne of Constantinople) and Duke Roger.
After spreading terror through Calabria, he crossed over to Sicily, where he concerted further attacks on the French.
Subsequently the inhabitants of the peninsula, now known as Calabria, broke into insurrection, and under the name of Bruttians established their independence, after which the Lucanians became confined within the limits already described.
The first relates the adventures of a knight who married the young duchess of Calabria, niece of King Meleager of Sicily, but was loved by Medea, the king's wife.
The second poem is the sequel to Ipomedon, and deals with the wars and subsequent reconciliation between Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder, lord of Apulia, and Protesilaus, the younger, lord of Calabria.
Protesilaus defeats Daunus, who had expelled him from Calabria.
He saves his brother's life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria, and, after the death of Daunus, succeeds to Apulia.
The evil reputation of these festivals, at which the grossest debaucheries took place, and all kinds of crimes and political conspiracies were supposed to be planned, led in 186 B.C. to a decree of the senate - the so-called Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, inscribed on a bronze tablet discovered in Calabria (1640), now at Vienna - by which the Bacchanalia were prohibited throughout the whole of Italy, except in certain special cases, in which the senate reserved the right of allowing them, subject to certain restrictions.
His marriage with the heiress of the old Norman kings had made him master of Sicily and the duchy of Apulia and Calabria, and he succeeded in conquering and retaining almost, all the remainder of the peninsula.
(1139) to wrest Apulia and Calabria from King Roger II., and Adrian IV.'s war with William I.
In 1341 the dispute came before a synod held at Constantinople and presided over by the emperor Andronicus; the assembly, influenced by the veneration in which the writings of the pseudoDionysius were held in the Eastern Church, overawed Barlaam, who recanted and returned to Calabria, afterwards becoming bishop of Hierace in the Latin communion.
But during the course of the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries crowds of fugitives poured into southern Italy from Greece and Sicily, under stress of the Saracenic, Arab and other invasions; and from the middle of the 9th century Basilian monasteries, peopled by Greek-speaking monks, were established in great numbers in Calabria and spread northwards as far as Rome.
There is a liturgy which bears his name, and which exists in two forms; the one form was found in a MS. of the 12th century in Calabria, and is, according to Renaudot, the foundation of the three liturgies of St Basil, St Gregory Nazianzen and St Cyril; the other is that which is used by the Maronite and Jacobite Syrians.
He marched southwards into Calabria.
Spartacus now took up a strong position in the mountainous country of Petelia (near Strongoli in Calabria) and inflicted a severe defeat on the vanguard of the pursuing army.
The mountain range that runs out towards the north-east of Sicily is composed of crystalline rocks precisely similar to those forming the parallel range of Aspromonte in Calabria, but both of these are girt about by sedimentary strata belonging in part to an early Tertiary epoch.
He inherited all Sicily, save half Palermo - the other half had been given up - and part of Calabria.
QUINTUS ENNIUS (239-170 B.C.), ancient Latin poet, was born at Rudiae in Calabria.
LAURIA, or LoRIA, a city of Basilicata, Italy, in the province of Potenza, situated near the borders of Calabria, 7-1- m.
Having inherited a fortune, he bought land in Apulia and Calabria and devoted himself to breeding race-horses.
In 1598 an insurrection, headed by the philosopher Tommaso Campanella, broke out in Calabria, and was crushed with great severity.
Meanwhile the court at Palermo sent Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo, a wealthy and influential prelate, to Calabria, to organize a counter-revolution.
Joseph's authority did not exist throughout a large part of the kingdom, where royalist risings, led by brigand chiefs, maintained a state of anarchy, and a British force under Sir John Stuart, which landed in Calabria from Sicily, defeated the French at Maida (July 6th, 1806).
di Calabria, but was immediately captured by the police and the peasantry, court-martialled and shot.
The following year the Venetian brothers Bandiera, acting in concert with Mazzini, landed in Calabria, believing the whole country to be in a state of revolt; they met with little local support and were quickly captured and shot, but their death aroused much sympathy, and the whole episode was highly significant as being the first attempt made by north Italians to promote revolution in the south.
Mazzini's approval, from Genoa, and landed at Sapri in Calabria, where he hoped to raise the flag of revolution; but.
He was soon joined by the rest of his troops, 15,000 in all, and although the Neapolitan government had 30,000 men in Calabria alone, the army collapsed before Garibaldi's advance, and the rose in his favour almost everywhere.
coast from Taranto to Reggio di Calabria.
Landing at Reggio di Calabria he hastened to Monza, where he conducted with firmness and tact the preparations for the burial of King Humbert and for his own formal accession, which took place on the 9th and nth of August 1900.
MESSAPII, an ancient tribe which inhabited, in historical times, the south-eastern peninsula or "heel" of Italy, known variously in ancient times as Calabria, Messapia and Iapygia.
MONTELEONE CALABRO, a city of Calabria, Italy, in the province of Catanzaro, beautifully situated on an eminence gently sloping towards the Gulf of Sta Eufemia, 1575 ft.
of Reggio di Calabria by rail.
PEPE, GUGLIELMO (1783-1855), Neapolitan general, was born at Squillace in Calabria.
the rugged outlines of the coast immediately below, and the mountains of Calabria across the sea to the N.E.
Syracuse was lost, but Bari was won back and those parts of Calabria which had been occupied by the Saracens.
TOMMASO CAMPANELLA (1568-1639), Italian Renaissance philosopher, was born at Stilo in Calabria.
Attacked by Barlaam, the famous monk of Calabria, he was with difficulty persuaded to come forward and meet him in a war of words, in which Barlaam was worsted.
The marriage of Marie de Bourbon, niece of Philip of Burgundy, with John, duke of Calabria, Rene's eldest son, cemented peace between the two princes.
Rene now made over the government of Lorraine to John, duke of Calabria, who was, however, only formally installed as duke of Lorraine on the death of Queen Isabel in 1 453.
The duke of Calabria, after repeated misfortunes in Italy, was offered the crown of Aragon in 1467, but died, apparently by poison, at Barcelona on the 16th of December 1470; the duke's eldest son Nicholas perished in 1473, also under suspicion of poisoning; Rene's daughter Margaret was a refugee from England, her son Prince Edward was murdered in 1471, and she herself became a prisoner, to be rescued by Louis XI.
Among the men of letters attached to his court was Antoine de la Sale, whom he made tutor to his son, the duke of Calabria.
In the 16th century it was collected in Calabria, and until recently was produced in the Tuscan Maremma, but none is now brought into commerce from Italy, although the name of Tolfa, a town near Civita.
In 1057 Robert succeeded Humfrey as count of Apulia and, in company with Roger his youngest brother, carried on the conquest of Apulia and Calabria, while Richard.
invested Robert with Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily, and Richard with.
Guiscard " by Grace of God and St Peter duke of Apulia and Calabria and future lord of Sicily " agreed to hold by annual rent of the Holy See and to maintain its cause..
At his death Robert was duke of Apulia and Calabria, prince of Salerno and suzerain of Sicily.
Here the limestone Apennines proper cease and the granite mountains of Calabria (anc. Bruttii) begin.
The second group extends to the south end of the Italian peninsula, culminating in the Aspromonte (6420 ft.) to the east of Reggio di Calabria.
Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds.
In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here been sunk beneath the sea.
He was soon removed to San Felice in Apulia, and afterwards to Martirano in Calabria, where he died, probably by his own hand, on the 12th of February 1242, and was buried at Cosenza.
When John of Anjou, duke of Calabria, was conquered in Italy (1461) and fled to Provence, Boffille followed him.
Its organization was both curious and mysterious, and had a fantastic ritual full of symbols taken from the Christian religion, as well as from the trade of charcoal-burning, which was extensively practised in the mountains of the Abruzzi and Calabria.
The lesser one was the flight of Greek iconolatrous monks from Asia Minor and the Levant to Sicily and Calabria, where they established convents which for centuries were the western homes of Greek learning, and in which were written not a few of the oldest Greek MSS.
To secure his position he at once entered into relation with the Normans, now firmly established in southern Italy, and later in the year the new alliance was cemented at Melfi, where Nicholas II., accompanied by Hildebrand, Cardinal Humbert and the abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino, solemnly invested Robert Guiscard with the duchies of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, and Richard of Aversa with the principality of Capua, in return for 'oaths of fealty and the promise of assistance in guarding the rights of the Church.
Castro), an ancient town of the Sallentini in Calabria, 10 m.
In 1475 the new tyrant celebrated his nuptials with the duke of Urbino's daughter, and, being again taken into favour by the pope, valiantly defended him in Rome against the attacks of t)ie duke of Calabria, and died there in 1482 of the hardships endured in the war.
Calabria's vast seaboard, meanwhile, plays host to a collage of tranquil sandy bays and hideaway grottoes.
AGOSTINO NIFO (AUGUSTINUS NIPHUS) (c. 1473-1538 or 1545), Italian philosopher and commentator, was born at Japoli in Calabria.
in a direct line from the frontier near Courmayeur to Cape Sta Maria di Leuca, south of Otranto, but the great mountain peninsula of Calabria extends about two degrees farther south to Cape Spartivento in lat.
While the Alps thus constitute the northern boundary of Italy, configuration and internal geography are determined almost entirely by the great chain of the Apennines, which branches off from the Maritime Alps between Nice and Genoa, and, after etching in an unbroken line from the Gulf of Genoa to the Adriatic, turns more to the south, and is continued throughout Central and Southern Italy, of which it forms as it were the back-bone, until it ends in the southernmost extremity of Calabria at Cape Spartivento.
Birth and marriage rates vary considerably, being highest in the centre and south (Umbnia, the Marches, Apulia, Abruzzi and Molise, and Calabria) and lowest in the north (Piedmont, Liguria and Venetia), and in Sardinia.
The figures for 1905 show that the total of 718,221 emigrants was made up, as regards numbers, mainly by individuals from Venetia, Sicily, Campania, Piedmont, Calabria and the Abruzzi; while the percentage was highest in Calabria (4.44), the Abruzzi, Venetia, Ba-~ilicata, the Marches, Sicily (2.86), Campania, Piedmont (2.02).
and N.W.; on the mainland it extends from Liguria and from the southern extremities of the Romagna to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Apulia, and to Cape Spartivento in Calabria.
Throughout the Roman province, and IJmbria, Apulia, the Abruzzi, Basilicata and Calabria, is found in its full development a remarkable system of pastoral migration with the change of seasons which has been in existence from the most ancient times, and has attracted attention as much by its picturesqueness as by its industrial importance (see APULIA).
In Piedmont there were 17.7% of illiterates above six years (the lowest) and in Calabria 78.7% (the highest), the figures for the whole country being 48~5.
The districts of Italy which show between 1881 and 1903 the greatest increase of new institutions, or of gifts to old ones, are Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria, while Sardinia, Calabria and Basilicata stand lowest, Latium standing comparatively low.
The railways showed an increase of 351,685; registration transfer and succession, 295,560; direct taxation, 42,136 (mainly from income tax, which more than made up for the remission of the house tax in the districts of Calabria visited by the earthquake of 1906); customs and excise, 1,036,742; government monopolies, 291,027; posts, 4I,3fo; telegraphs, 23,364; telephones, 65,771.
The Bourbonists in Calabria, utterly disorganized, broke before the invincible red-shirts, and the 40,000 men defending the Salerno-Avellino line made no better resistance, being eventually ordered to fall back on the Volturno.
The Clerical Abuses Bill provoked further dissensions: Nicotera was severely affected by revelations concerning his political past; Zanardelli refused to sanction the construction of a railway in Calabria in which Nicotera was interested; and Depretis saw fit to compensate the supporters of his bill for the increase of revenue by decorating at one stroke sixty ministerial deputies with the Order of the Crown of Italy.
He fled to the district of Sallentum in Calabria, and subsequently to Colophon in Asia Minor, where he settled near the temple of the Clarian Apollo and was buried on Mount Cercaphus (Virgil, Aeneid, iii.
His attempts to attack the English in Sicily ended disastrously, but he succeeded in crushing brigandage in Calabria by means of General Manhes, who, however, had to resort to methods of ferocity in order to do so.
Some Carbonarist disorders having broken out in Calabria, Murat sent General Manhes against the rebels; the movement was ruthlessly quelled and Capobianco hanged in Septemlber 1813 (see Greco, Inlorno al tentativo dei Carbonari di Citeriore Calabria nel 1813).
convoked a council of ninety-three bishops, which excommunicated the iconoclasts, and the fleet which Leo sent to retaliate 273 on the Latin peninsula was lost in a storm in the Adriatic. The most Leo was able to do was to double the tribute of Calabria and Sicily, confiscate the pope's revenues there, and impose on the bishops of south Italy a servitude to Byzantium which lasted for centuries.
Calabria offers several different styles of sun readers in a variety of colors.
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