In 1835 a new charter was granted to a second company, and in 1837 the Cairo City & Canal Co.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
Cairo, Egypt >>
above Suhag, on the opposite side of the river, whence there is railway communication with Cairo and Assuan.
of Cairo by rail and about to m.
Paris is served by the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system) railways; the main line and the Cairo division of the latter intersect here, and the city is the transfer point for traffic from the E.
I went into the streets of Cairo, and rode on the camel.
About the same time Mancini was informed by the Italian agent in Cairo that Great Britain would be well disposed towards an extension of Italian influence on the Red Sea coast.
Ibn Batuta went by land from Tangier to Cairo, then visited Syria, and performed the pilgrimages to Medina and Mecca.
above Cairo by river and 418 by rail.
Gabriel emerged into Tamer's palatial home in Cairo.
IBN FARID [Abu-l-Qasim `Umar ibn ul-Farid] (1181-1235), Arabian poet, was born in Cairo, lived for some time in Mecca and died in Cairo.
1730) at Marseilles, 1853, and at Cairo; and with the commentary of Rushayyid Ghalib (19th century) at Cairo, 1893.
When a boy he visited England, and he had an English tutor for some time in Cairo.
In that year Isaac Luria was living in Cairo and trading as a spice merchant with his headquarters in Alexandria.
He crossed Arabia from Bahrein to Jidda, traversed the Red sea and the desert to Syene, and descended the Nile to Cairo.
Payva died at Cairo; but Covilhao, having heard that a Christian ruler reigned in the mountains of Ethiopia, penetrated into Abyssinia in 1490.
He was born at Cordova in 1135, fled with his parents from persecution in 1148, settled at Fez in i 160, passing P g there for a Moslem, fled again to Jerusalem in 1165, and finally went to Cairo where he died in 1204.
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
in., so that if the so-called Cape to Cairo railway is ever completed, there will be one gauge from Upper Egypt to Cape Town.
of Cairo by rail, the railway station being on the opposite side of the river.
On his arrival at Cairo, however, the offer was withdrawn and he only obtained the command of the Egyptian police.
Mr. Churchill went out to Egypt, and held in Cairo a conference of the British civil and military officers then administering those countries.
A fragmentary fresco taken from a tomb at Medum was desposited some years ago, though in a decaying condition, in the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo.
Its final fall was due to the rise of the Arabic city of Fostat on the right bank of the Nile almost opposite the northern end of the old capital; and its ruins, so far as they still lay above ground, gradually disappeared, being used as a quarry for the new city, and afterwards for Cairo.
de Morgan, Carte de la necropole memphite (Cairo, 1897); Baedeker's Egypt; J.
Quibell, Excavations at Saqqara (2 vols., Cairo, 1908-1909) W.
CAIRO, a city and the county-seat of Alexander county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the S.
Cairo is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and the St Louis South-Western railways, and by river steamboat lines.
Lumber and flour are Cairo's principal manufactured products, and the city is an important hardwood and cotton-wood market; the Singer Manufacturing Co.
Cairo is a shipping-point for the surrounding agricultural country.
In 1818 a charter was secured from the legislature of the territory of Illinois incorporating the city and bank of Cairo.
A successful settlement was made in 1851-1854 under the auspices of the New York Trust Co.; the Illinois Central railway was opened in 1856; and Cairo was chartered as a city in 1857.
During the Civil War Cairo was an important strategic point, and was a military centre and depot of supplies of considerable importance for the Federal armies in the west.
A great religious difference divided the Fatimite caliph of Cairo, the head of the Shiite sect, from the Abbasid caliph of Bagdad, who was the head of the Sunnites.
The crusading princes were well enough aware of the gulf which divided the caliph of Cairo from the Sunnite princes of Syria; and they sought by envoys to put themselves into connexion with him, hoping by his aid to gain Jerusalem (which was then ruled for the Turks by Sokman, the son of the amir Ortok).
The hostility of the decadent caliphate of Cairo was the less dangerous; and though Baldwin I.
The plan of conquering Egypt had indeed presented itself to the Franks from the first, as it continued to attract them to the end; and it is significant that Godfrey himself, in 1100, promised Jerusalem to the patriarch, "as soon as he should have conquered some other great city, and especially Cairo."
But the real menace to the Latin kingdom lay in northern Syria; and here a power was eventually destined to rise, which outstripped the kings of Jerusalem in the race for Cairo, and then - with the northern and southern boundaries of Jerusalem in its control - was able to crush the kingdom as it were between the two arms of a vice.
Thus the Shiite caliphate became extinct: in the mosques of Cairo the name of the caliph of Bagdad was now used; and the long-disunited Mahommedans at last faced the Christians as a solid body.
had been advised by his counsellors that Cairo and not Jerusalem was the true point of attack; while in 1200 there was the additional reason for preferring an attack on Egypt, that the truce in the Holy Land between Amalric II.
2 It is true that in 1208 Venice received commercial concessions from the court of Cairo.
In 1221 Hermann of Salza, the master of the Teutonic order, along with the duke of Bavaria, appeared in the camp before Damietta; and as it seemed useless to wait any longer for Frederick II., 4 the cardinal, in spite of the opposition of King John, gave the signal for the march on Cairo.
Damietta was taken without a blow, and the march for Cairo was begun, as it had been begun by the legate Pelagius in 1221.
Saladin had united Egypt and Damascus; but after his death dissensions broke out among: the members of his family,' which more than once led to wars between Damascus and Cairo.
The revolution in Egypt in 1250 separated Damascus from Cairo more trenchantly than they had ever been separated since 1171: while a Mameluke ruled in Cairo, Malik-al-Nasir of Aleppo was elected as sultan by the emirs of Damascus.
An Balieh CIP (Lity Aleppo O F A Tioch Rakka Emirate Of oDamascus Damascus 0103-1554) 'Caesare o Krak of the Desert ntreal =I Cairo ila prestige in the eyes of Europe.
Having received permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, he reached Cairo, where he was presented to the sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barkuk, who insisted on his remaining there, and in the year 1384 made him grand cadi of the Malikite rite for Cairo.
Daressy, Notice explicative des ruines du temple de Louxor (Cairo, 1893); Baedeker's Egypt.
- Plan of Mosque of `Amr, Old Cairo.
970 by Jauhar, the general of the Fatimite Caliph Moizz, who captured Fostat and founded el Kahira, the present town of Cairo.
- Plan of Mosque of Sultan if he is too poor to hire Hasan, Cairo.
The central square court, of moderate dimensions, with halls and great recesses, is followed in other examples in Cairo, among which the Tomb Mosque of Kait-Bey (c. A.D.
- Mosque-tomb of Sultan Kait-Bey, Cairo.
As a contrast to the Ahmedabad mosques, the Kadam Rasul mosque at Gaur in Bengal possesses some characteristics which resemble those of the mosque of Tulun in Cairo, possibly due to the fact that it is entirely built in brick, with massive piers carrying pointed arches.
of Cairo, on the way to Helwan.
and taken to Cairo.
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
88; (6) Survey Dept., Cairo, 1908-11; (7) The Ancient Egyptians (1911); (8) This is the view of Mr. P. E.
There is more than one meaning of Cairo discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
r Alexandria is linked by a network of railway and telegraph lines to the other towns of Egypt, and there is a trunk telephone line to Cairo.
About 90% of the total exports and imports of the country pass through the port, though the completion, in 1904, of a broad-gauge railway connecting Cairo and Port Said deflected some of the cotton exports to the Suez Canal route.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
Alexandria was connected with Cairo by railway in 1856.
Though this prince continued to develop the city, giving it a municipality in 1866 1 and new harbour works in 1871-1878, he developed Cairo still more; and the centre of gravity definitely shifted to the inland capital.
of Cairo in a direct line but 148 1n.
Suez is supplied with water by the fresh-water canal, which starts from the Nile at Cairo and is terminated at Suez by a lock which, north of the town, joins it to the gulf.
The regular Peninsular & Oriental steamer service began a few years later, and in 1857 a railway was opened from Cairo through the desert.
This line is now abandoned in favour of the railway which follows the canal from Suez to Ismailia, and then ascends the Wadi Tumilat to Zagazig, whence branches diverge to Cairo and Alexandria.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
But the approach of the Portuguese fleet put him to flight; some of his vessels were wrecked; and on his return by way of Egypt he was arrested at Cairo and executed.
The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).
of Cairo by rail, on the W.
At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.
More cholera in 1827 and 18 3 2 and another earthquake in 1830 had left the place a wreck, with only half its former population, when Mehemet Ali of Cairo invaded and took Syria.
Lyons' The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906), and the authorities quoted in those works.
Baird landed at Kosseir, conducted his army across the desert to Kena on the Nile, and thence to Cairo.
The great variety of these vessels is well shown in the illustrated catalogue of GraecoEgyptian glass in the Cairo museum, edited by C. C. Edgar.
The craft survived and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus.
From 1833 to 1840 Cilicia formed part of the territories administered by Mehemet Ali of Cairo, who was compelled to evacuate it by the allied powers.
1045-1052) Nasir visited Mecca four times, and performed all the rites and observances of a zealous pilgrim; but he was far more attracted by Cairo, the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Fatimite sultan Mostansir billah, the great champion of the Shia, and the spiritual as well as political head of the house of `Ali, which was just then waging a deadly war against the 'Abbaside caliph of Bagdad, and the great defender of the Sunnite creed, Toghrul Beg the Seljuk.
At the very time of Nasir's visit to Cairo, the power of the Egyptian Fatimites was in its zenith; Syria, the Hejaz, Africa, and Sicily obeyed Mostansir's sway, and the utmost order, security and prosperity reigned in Egypt.
At Cairo he became thoroughly imbued with Shi'a doctrines, and their introduction into his native country was henceforth the sole object of his life.
If we compare this with a similar allegory in Nasir's diwan, which culminates in the praise of Mostansir, we are fairly entitled to look upon it as a covert allusion to the eminent men who revealed to the poet in Cairo the secrets of the Isma`ilitic faith, and showed him what he considered the "heavenly ladder" to superior knowledge and spiritual bliss.
His illness did not, however, prevent his seeing and recording everything of interest in Medina with the same care as at Mecca, though it compelled him to cut short the further journey he had proposed to himself, and to return by Yambu and the sea to Cairo, where he died only two years later.
Commissioned by Mehemet Ali to inform him about the situation in Nejd brought about by the rising power of Abdallah Ibn Rashid, Wallin left Cairo in April 1845, and crossing the pilgrim road at Ma`an, pushed on across the Syrian desert to the Wadi Sirhan and the Jauf oasis, where he halted during the hot summer months.
After a stay in Hail, where he had every opportunity of observing the character of the country and its inhabitants, and the hospitality and patriarchal, if sometimes stern, justice of its chief, he travelled on to Medina and Mecca, and returned thence to Cairo to report to his patron.
The Egyptian pilgrim route from Cairo, across the Sinai peninsula and down the Midian coast to El Wijh, joins the Syrian route at Badr Hunen.
In 640 `Amr-ibn-el-Ass (Amr ibn al-`As) invaded Egypt and the following year took Alexandria and founded Fostat (which later became Cairo).
His son, Fesal, succeeded him, but in 1836 on his refusal to pay tribute an Egyptian force was sent to depose him and he was taken prisoner and sent to Cairo, while a rival claimant, Khalid, was established as amir in Riad.
Mehemet Ali and his son Ibrahim Pasha were, however, now committed to their conflict with Turkey for Syria and Asia Minor, and had no troops to spare for the thankless task of holding the Arabian deserts; the garrisons were gradually withdrawn, and in 1842 Fesal, who had escaped from his prison at Cairo reappeared and was everywhere recognized as amir.
Cairo, various years), and the greatest work of all this class, the Kitab ul-Aghani (" Book of Songs ") (cf.
32 vols., Cairo, 1869, &c., translated in part by Terrick Hamilton, 4 vols., aondon, 1820), and the Story of Saif ibn Dhi Yezen (ed.
Bonaparte, however, who is said to have been introduced by him to Barras, took him to Egypt in his great expedition of June 1798, and after the capture of Cairo he edited the official journal there, the Decade Egyptienne.
Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo; J.
On the same spot `Amr built a city named Fostat ("the encampment"), the ruins of which are known by the name of Old Cairo.
It is true that the Florentine Simone Sigoli, who visited Cairo in 1384, in his Viaggio al Monte Sinai still speaks of "Presto Giovanni" as a monarch dwelling in India; but it is the India which is conterminous with the dominions of the soldan of Egypt, and whose lord is master of the Nile, to close or open its discharge upon Egypt.
of Cairo by rail.
Bilbeis was the first halting-place of the English cavalry in their march on Cairo after the fight at Tel-el-Kebir on the 13th of September 1882.
It was also one of the principal stopping-places between Cairo and Khartum.
Honorary academic degrees were conferred upon him by the universities of Cairo, Christiania, Berlin, Cambridge and Oxford, and he was given both popular and official ovations of almost royal distinction - ovations which were repeated by his own countrymen on his return to America.
The following spring he was in Mesopotamia at Army Headquarters, whence he returned to Cairo as intelligence officer for the Mesopotamia expeditionary force.
In the autumn he was attached to the Arab Bureau at Cairo, under Lt.-Comm.
Lemaire, the French consul at Cairo, sent the Academy an account of the mode of manufacturing sal ammoniac in Egypt.
According to Captain Stanley Flower, director of the Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, Egypt, the ancient Egyptians kept various species of wild animals in captivity, but the first Zoological Garden of which there is definite knowledge was founded in China by the first emperor of the Chou dynasty, who reigned about iioo B.C. This was called the "Intelligence Park," and appears to have had a scientific and educational object.
founded the famous "Menagerie du Parc" at Versailles, which received many animals from Cairo, was maintained for over a century, and furnished much valuable material to French naturalists and anatomists.
The Zoological Gardens at Giza, Cairo, are a government institution administered by the Public Works Department.
Flower, Notes on Zoological Collections visited in Europe in 1907 (Public Works Dept., Cairo); Reference List of the Zoological Gardens of the World (t9 to); C. V.
Fragments, 4 however, of two codices were discovered (1897) in the genizah at Cairo, which illustrate more fully the peculiar features of this version.
It seems even to have lasted in Egypt till the middle ages, as Jabarti and the "katib's guide" both name the ratl misri (of Cairo) as 144 dirhems=6760.
To Nur-ed-din he was invariably submissive, but from the vigour which he employed in adding to the fortifications of Cairo and the haste with which he retreated from an attack on Montreal (1171) and Kerak (1173) it is clear that he feared his lord's jealousy.
In 1177 he returned by Damascus to Cairo, which he enriched with colleges, a citadel and an aqueduct.
Cairo 1324 H., p. 131).
In the mosque libraries at Constantinople there are at least five MSS.; and at Cairo there is a modern copy of one of these, containing the whole of al-Anbari's commentary.
In America there are at Yale University a modern copy of the same recension, taken from the same original as the Cairo copy, and a MS. of Persian origin, dated 1657, presenting a text identical with the Vienna codex.
In 1906 an edition of the whole text, with short glosses taken from al-Anbari's commentary, was published at Cairo by Abu Bakr b.
`Omar Daghistani al-Madani; this follows generally the Cairo codex above mentioned, but has profited by the scholarship of Professor Thorbecke's edition of the first half of the work.
In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at GÃ¶ttingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the khedive.
In 1904 the opening of a standard gauge railway to Cairo placed Port Said in a position to compete with Alexandria for the external trade of Egypt generally, besides making it a tourist route to the capital from Europe.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
Elliott Smith, A Contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt (Cairo, 1906); The Archaeological Survey of Nubia Bulletins (Cairo, 1908 seq.); Dr Lortet and M.
Lastly, mention should be made of a remarkable but scarce little tract by Gabriel Sacy, printed at Cairo in June 1902, and entitled Du regne de Dieu et de l'Agneau, connu sous le nom de Babysme.
(and indeed of Godfrey himself, who had promised to cede Jerusalem to the patriarch Dagobert as soon as he should himself acquire Cairo).
In 1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo.
He lingered for a few years, working to the last, and died at Cairo on the 19th of January 1881.
Poole lived in Cairo from 1842 to 1849, thus imbibing an early taste for Egyptian antiquities.
His manual of Moslem law according to the Shafi'ite school has been edited with French translation by van den Bergh, 2 vols., Batavia (1882-1884), and published at Cairo (1888).
The Tagrib wa Taisir, an introduction to the study of tradition, was published at Cairo, 1890, with Suyuti's commentary.
Nawawi's collection of the forty (actually forty-two) chief traditions has been frequently published with commentaries in Cairo.
Thus the Jews of Cairo celebrated Purim on the 28th of Adar in memory of their being miraculously saved from the persecution of Ahmed Pasha in 1524.
The Church Missionary Society is doing steady work in Cairo and in Upper Egypt.
Northward, Central and East African organizations, following the Cape to Cairo route, are in touch with North African agencies working up the Nile.
His chief work is the Kitab ul-Milal wanNihal, or "Book of Sects" (published in Cairo, 1899).
The Caledonian Railway bridge at Glasgow, the reconstructed Tay bridge (1882-7), Forth bridge (1882-9), the Tower bridge, London, and the Nile lgridge at Cairo were amongst his principal achievements.
MacMichael, Notes on the History of Kordofan before the Egyptian Conquest (Cairo, 1907); John Petherick, Egypt, the Sudan, and Central Africa (London, 1861); Ignaz Pallme, Beschreibung von Kordofan (Stuttgart, 1843; trans.
Prout, General Report on Province of Kordofan (Cairo, 1877); Ernst Marno, Reise in der egypt.
Daressy, Notice explicative des ruines de Medinet Habu (Cairo, 1897); G.
of Cairo by rail and steamer, and 575 m.
Arabi fled to Cairo where he surrendered, and was tried (3rd of December) for rebellion.
north of Cairo (fig.
This conversion work was carried out in the 'of' Upper provinces situated between Cairo and Assiut, a region Egypt.
834), Arabian biographer, studied in Kufa but lived afterwards in Fostat (old Cairo), where he gained a name as a grammarian and student of language and history.
8 39-9 2 3, of which for the last few years we have possessed an Oriental edition in 30 parts (Cairo A.H.
CAIRO (Arabic Misr-al-Kahira, or simply Misr), the capital of modern Egypt and the most populous city in Africa, on the Nile, 12 m.
Cairo occupies a length of 5 m.
The newer quarters, situated near the river, are laid out in the fashion of French cities, but the eastern parts of the town retain, almost unimpaired, their Oriental aspect, and in scores of narrow, tortuous streets, and busy bazaars it is easy to forget that there has been any change from the Cairo of medieval times.
The narrow canal, El Khalig, which branched from the Nile at Old Cairo and traversed the city from S.W.
- The eastern half of Cairo is divided into many quarters.
The oldest Coptic church in Cairo is, probably, the Keniset-el-Adra, or Church of the Virgin, which is stated to preserve the original type of Coptic basilica.
The Coptic churches in the city are not, however, of so much interest as those in Old Cairo (see below).
The dome and the two slender minarets of this mosque form one of the most picturesque features of Cairo, and are visible from a great distance.
In all Cairo contains over 260 mosques, and nearly as many zawias or chapels.
About a mile south of the city is Masr-el-Atika, called by Europeans Old Cairo.
el Wal.da i E l Badrash,ein East 3 1 °"S' Longitude The road to Old Cairo by the river leads past the monastery of the " Howling " Dervishes, and the head of the aqueduct which formerly supplied the citadel with water.
The other buildings in Old Cairo, or among the mounds of rubbish which adjoin it, include several fort-like dens or convents.
Opposite Old Cairo lies the island of Roda, where, according to Arab tradition, Pharaoh's daughter found Moses in the bulrushes.
Two bridges, opened in 1908, connect Old Cairo with Roda, and a third bridge joins Roda to Giza on the west bank of the river.
of Cairo and on the edge of the desert is the suburb of Abbasia (named after the viceroy Abbas), connected with the city by a continuous line of houses.
of Cairo and connected with it by railway is the town of Helwan, built in the desert 3 m.
In consequence of its insanitary condition, Cairo used to have a heavy death-rate.
The commerce of Cairo, of considerable extent and variety, consists mainly in the transit of goods.
- Architecturally considered Cairo is still the most remarkable and characteristic of Arab cities.
The edifices raised by the Moorish kings of Spain and the Moslem rulers of India may have been more splendid in their materials, and more elaborate in their details; the houses of the great men of Damascus may be more costly than were those of the Mameluke beys; but for purity of taste and elegance of design both are far excelled by many of the mosques and houses of Cairo.
Of the first, the mosque of Ahmed Ibn-Tulun in the southern part of Cairo, and the three great gates of the city, the Bab-en-Nasr, Bab-el-Futuh and Bab-Zuwela, are splendid examples.
Before the Arab conquest of Egypt the site of Cairo appears to have been open country.
The town of Babylon disappeared, but the strong walls of the fortress in part remain, and the name survived, " Babylon of Egypt," or " Babylon " simply, being frequently used in medieval writings as synonymous with Cairo or as denoting the successive Mahommedan dynasties of Egypt.
Cairo itself is the fourth Moslem capital of Egypt; the site of one of those that had preceded it is, for the most part, included within its walls, while the other two were a little to the south.
It received the name of Masr, properly Misr, which was also applied by the Arabs to Memphis and to Cairo, and is to-day, with the Roman town which preceded it, represented by Masr el-Atika, or " Old Cairo."
It continued the royal residence of his successors; but was sacked not long after the fall of the dynasty and rapidly decayed., A part of the present Cairo occupies its site and contains its great mosque, that of Ahmed Ibn Tulun.
968, which was named El-Kahira, that is, " the Victorious," a name corrupted into Cairo.
1176 Cairo was unsuccessfully attacked by the Crusaders; shortly afterwards Saladin built the citadel on the lowest point of the mountains to the east, which immediately overlooked El-Katai, and he partly walled round the towns and large gardens within the space now called Cairo.
Mehemet Ali, originally the Turkish viceroy, by his massacre of the Mamelukes in 1811, in a narrow street leading to the citadel, made himself master of the country, and Cairo again became the capital of a virtually independent kingdom.
In 1882 Cairo was occupied by the British, and British troops continue to garrison the citadel.
Poole, The Story of Cairo (London, 1902), a historical and architectural survey of the Moslem city; E.
Reynolds-Ball, Cairo: the City of the Caliphs (Boston, U.S.A., 1897); Prisse d'Avennes, L' Art arabe d'apres les monuments du Caire (Paris, 1847); P. Ravaisse, L'Histoire et la topographie du Caire d'apres Makrizi (Paris, 1887); E.
Lane, Cairo Fifty Years Ago (London, 1896), presents a picture of the city as it was before the era of European " improvements," and gives extracts from the Khitat of Maqrizi, written in 1417, the chief original authority on the antiquities of Cairo; Murray's and Baedeker's Guides, and A.
and C. Black's Cairo of To-day (1905), contain much useful and accurate information about Cairo.
Cairo, Illinois >>
of Cairo, divides the country into Lower aiid Upper Egypt, natural designations in common use, Lower Egypt being the Delta and Upper Egypt the Nile valley.
Another division of the country is into Lower, Middle and Upper Egypt, Middle Egypt in this classification being the district between Cairo and Assiut.
The Delta.About 30 N., where the city of Cairo stands, the hills which have hitherto run parallel with the Nile turn W.N.W.
On its eastern edge, a few miles west of Cairo, stand the great pyramids (q.v.) of Gizeh or Giza.
In the north the desert plateaus are comparatively low, but from Cairo southwards they rise to 1000 and even 1500 ft.
In many instances the Tertiary formation, which occurs betweeii Esna and Cairo, unconformably overlies the Cretaceous, the Lower Eocene being absent.
in July; while at Cairo, where the proximity of the desert begins to be felt, it is 53 F.
Records at Cairo show that the rainfall is very irregular, and is furnished by occasional storms rather than by any regular rainy season; still, most falls in the winter months, especially December and January, while, on the other hand, none has been recorded in June and July.
In December, January and February, at Cairo, the north wind slightly predominates, though those from the south and west often nearly equal it, but after this the north blows almost continuously for the rest of theyear.
The Fayum is celebrated for its grapes, and chiefly supplies the market of Cairo.
The vines are trailed on treiliswork, and form agreeable avenues in the gardens of Cairo.
of Cairo, and Luxor and Assuan in Upper Egypt.
Plague, formerly one of the great scourges of the country, seems to have been stamped out, the last visitation having been in 1844, but cholera epidemics occasionally occur.i Cholera rarely extends south of Cairo.
i A vivid description of Cairo during the prevalence of plague in 1835 will be found in A.
of Cairo, on the edge of the desert and in the ancient Land of Goshen.
The chief towns on the Nile, taking them in their order in ascending the river from Cairo, are Beni Suef, Minia, Assiut, Akhmim, Suhag, Girga, Kena, Luxor, Esna, Edfu, Assuan and Korosko.
from Cairo, by rail.
of Cairo by rail, and is the most important commercial centre in Upper Egypt.
from Cairo, and here the gauge of the railway is altered from broad to narrow.
above Cairo, and Heliopolis lay some 5 m.
west of Cairo, are the largest of the many pyramids and other monuments, including the famous Sphinx, built in the neighborhood of Memphis.
Railway construction dates from 1852, when the line from Alexandria to Cairo was begun, by order of Abbas I.
Trunk lines from Alexandria (via Damanhur and Tanta) and from Port Said (via Ismailia) traverse the Delta and join at Cairo.
From Cairo the railway is continued south up the valley of the Nile and close to the river.
from Cairo, by an iron bridge 437 yds.
Branch lines connect Cairo and Alexandria with Suez and with almost every town in the Delta.
From Cairo to Suez via Ismailia is a distance of 16o m.
Before the Suez Canal was opened passengers and goods were taken to Suez from Cairo by a railway 84 m.
of Cairo, to Abuksa in the Fayum mudiria.
Above Cairo the Nile is the favorite tourist route, while between Sheila!
The Eastern Telegraph Company, by concessions, have telegraph lines across Egypt from Alexandria via Cairo to Suez, and from Port Said to Suez, connecting their cables to Europe and the East.
The telephone is largely used in the big towns, and there is a trunk telephone line connecting Alexandria and Cairo.
The Ismailia or Fresh-water canal branches from the Nile at Cairo and follows, in the main, the course of the canal which anciently joined the Nile and the Red Sea.
Soap-making and leather-tanning are carried on, and there are breweries at Alexandria and Cairo.
The manufacture of tobacco into cigarettes, carried on largely at Alexandria and Cairo, is another important industry.
The silk looms are chiefly at Mehallet el-Kubra, Cairo and Damietta.
There is at Cairo and in other towns a considerable industry in ornamental wood and metal work, inlaying with ivory and pearl, brass trays, copper vessels, gold and silver ornaments, &c. At Cairo and in the Fayum, attar of roses and other perfumes are manufactured.
Weighis and Measures.The metrical system of weights and measures is in official but not in popular use, except in the foreign quarters of Cairo, Alexandria, &c. The most common Egyptian measures are the fitr, or space measured by the extension of the thumb and first finger; the shibr, or span; and the cubit (of three kinds 224, 25 and 263/4 in.).
The grand cadi, who must belong to the sect of the Hanifis, sits at Cairo, and is aided by a council of Ulema or learned men.
There are courts of summary jurisdiction presided over by one judge, central tribunals (or courts of first instance) with three judges, and a court of appeal at Cairo.
The Mahommedans are Sunnites, professing the creed commonly termed orthodox, and are principally of the persuasion of the Shafiis, whose celebrated founder, the imam ash-Shafii, is buried in the great southern cemetery of Cairo.
Education on native lines is given in kuttabs and in the Azhar university in Cairo.
Cairo holds a prominent place as a seat of Moslem learning, and its university, the Azhar, is considered the first of the eastern world.
In Cairo and Alexandria there are also published several newspapers in English and French.
(Paris, 1840); Boinet Bey, Dictionnaire giographique de lEgypte (Cairo, 1899); Murrays and Baedekers handbooks and Guide Joanne; G.
The best maps are those of the Survey Department, Cairo, on the scale of I: 50000 (1.3 In.
Annual returns are published in Cairo in English or French by the various ministries, and British consular reports on the trade of Egypt and of Alexandria and of the tonnage and shipping of the Suez Canal are also issued yearly.
and atlas (Cairo, 1894).
Lyons, The Physiography of the River Nile and its Basin (Cairo, 1906); Leigh Canney, The Meteorology of Egypt and its Influence on Disease (1897).
Annual meteorological reports are issued by the Public Works Department, Cairo.
See for geology Carl von Zittel, Beitrage zur Geologie and Palaontologie der libyschen Whste (Cassel, 1883); Reports of the Geological Survey of Egypt (Cairo, 1900, at seq.).
Mehmet Au banished them to Esna, in Upper Egypt; and the few that remained in Cairo called themselves Awalim, to avoid punishment.
Many of the dancing-girls of Cairo to-day are neither ~Awlim nor Ghawazi, but women of the very lowest class whose performances are both ungraceful and indecent.
In the principal coffee-shops of Cairo are to be found reciters of romances, surrounded by iiiterested audiences.
The tenth day, being the anniversary of the martyrdom of Hosain, the son of Ali and grandson of the Prophet, the mosque of the Hasanen at Cairo is thronged to excess, mostly by women.
For nine days and nights Cairo has more the aspect of a fair than of a city keeping a religious festival.
The real rise begins at Cairo about the summer solstice, or a few days later, and early in July a crier in each district of the city begins to go his daily rounds, announcing, in a quaint chant, the increase of water in the nilometer of the island of Roda.
On the following day the dam which closed the canal of Cairo was cut with much ceremony.
The governor of Cairo attended the ceremony, with the cadi and, others, and gave the signal for the cutting of the dam.
The period of the hot winds, called the khamsin, that is, the fifties, is calculated from the day after the Coptic Easter, and terminates on the day of Pentecost, and the Moslems observe the Wednesday preceding this period, called Jobs Wednesday, as well as its first day, when many go into the country from Cairo, to smell the air.
For statistical information consult the reports on the censuses of 1897 and 1907, published by the Ministry of the Interior, Cairo, in 1898 and 1909.
Compte gniral de la4ministration des finances, issued yearly at Cairo.
Every man who could not purchase exemption, with the exception of those living in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez, on becoming 19 years old was liable nominally to 12 years service; but many men were kept for 30 or 40 years, in spite of constant appeals.
The earlier merciless practice had been in theory abolished by a decree based on the German system, published in 1880; but owing to defective organization, and internal disturbances induced by Khedive Ismails follies, the law had not been applied, and the 6000 recruits collected at Cairo in January 1883 represented the biggest and strongest peasants who could not purchase exemption by bribing the officials concerned.
As an experiment the police is now a voluntary service, except in Alexandria and Cairo, for which cities peasants are conscripted for the police under army conditions.
The recruits who draw unlucky numbers at 19 years of age are seldom called up till they are 23, when they are summoned by name and escorted by a policeman to Cairo.
While the patient fellah, resigned to the decrees Of the Almighty, saw the ruling Egyptian class hurry away from Cairo, he saw also those of his comrades who were stricken tenderly nursed, soothed in deaths struggles, and in many cases actually washed, laid out and interred by their new self-sacrificing and determined masters.
After the reconquest of the Sudan one-fourth of the cadets in the military school of Cairo were Sudanese.
The museum, no lc5nger the property of an individual, was ren~oved in 1889 from the small building at Bulak to a disused palace at Giza, and since 1902 has been established at Kasr-en-Nil, Cairo, in a special building, of ample size and safe from fire and flood.
Starting from Cairo and going southward we have first the great pyramid-field, with the necropolis of Memphis as its centre; stretching from Abfl Rosh on the north to Lisht on the south, it is followed by the pyramid group of Dahshur, the more isolated pyramids of Medum and Illahun, and that of Hawgra in the Fayum.
By far the largest collection in the world is that at Cairo.
For Elliott Smiths results see The Cairo Scientific Journal, No.
The ritual observed during the process of embalmment is preserved in late papyri in Paris and Cairo published by Maspero.
at Turin or Mutnefert at Cairo.
And the feeling of the age finds greater scope in private statues, many of which have a personal fascination about them, as in the seated figures at Cairo and Florence, and the freer work in wood, of which the ebony negress (Plate IV.
The quartzite work from Jebel Ahmar near Cairo stands next, as often very fine design is found in this hard material.
One painted tomb was found at Nekhen (Hieraconpolis), now in the Cairo Museum; the brick walls were color-washed and covered with irregular groups of men, animals and ships, painted with red, black and green.
there are temple foundations at Abydos (q.v.), and a few blocks on other sites; of Neuserre (Raenuser) there is a sun temple at Abusir; and of several kings there were tablets in Sinai, now inthe Cairo Museum.
The mummies from the despoiled tombs of the kings were the object of much anxious care to the kings of this dynasty; after being removed from one tomb to another, they were finally deposited in a shaft near the temple of Deir el Bahri, where they remained for nearly three thousand years, until the demand for antiquities at last brought the plunderer once more to their hiding-place; eventually they were all secured for the Cairo museum, where they may now be seen.
The interval was spent by him in founding the city Fostat (Fustat), near the modern Cairo, and called after the camp (Fossatum) occupied by him while besieging Babylon.; and in reducing those coast towns that still offered resistance.
In 969 the country was conquered by Jauhar for the Fatimite caliph Moizz, who transferred his capital from Mahdia in the Maghrib to Cairo.
The Ayyubites were followed by the Mameluke dynasties, usually classified as Bal~ri from 1252-1382, and Burji from 1382-1517; these sovereigns were nominally under the suzerainty of Abbasid caliphs, who were in reality instruments of the Mameluke sultans, and resided at Cairo.
of modern Cairo, to house it.
(4) The Fatimiie period begins with the taking of Fostat by Jauhar, who immediately began the building of a new city, al-Kahira or Cairo, to furnish quarters for the army which he had brought.
A more reputable expedient with the same end in view was the construction of a great library in Cairo, with ample provision for students; this was mpdelled on a similar institution at Bagdad.
Hamdgn got possession of Cairo, and at the end of 1068 plundered the caliphs palace; the valuable library which had been begun by IJakim was pillaged, and an accidental fire caused great destruction.
Mostan~ir then summoned to his aid Badr a1-Jam~li, an Armenian who had displayed competence in various posts which he had held in Syria, and this person early in 1074 arrived in Cairo accompanied by a bodyguard of Armenians; he contrived to massacre the chiefs of the party at the time in possession of power, and with the title AmIr al-Juyush (prince of the armies) was given by Mostan~ir complete control of affairs.
He rebuilt the walls of Cairo, of more durable material than that which had been employed by Jauhara measure rendered necessary partly by the growth of the metropolis, but also by the repeated sieges which it had undergone since the commencement of Ftimite rule.
In August I121 al-Aflal was assassinated in a street of Cairo, it is said, with the connivance of the caliph, who immediately began the plunder of his house, where fabulous treasures were said to be amassed.
Ruzzik, prefect of ljshmunain, at whose arrival in Cairo the troops deserted Abbgs, who was compelled to flee into Syria, taking his son and Usmah with him.
Abbs was killed by the Franks near Ascalon, his son sent in a cage to Cairo where he was executed, while lJsmah escaped to Damascus, The infant Fgiz, who had been permanently incapacitated by the scenes of violence which accompanied his accession, died in i16o.
Mujir, brought a force to Cairo, before which Ruzzik fled, to be shortly afterwards captured and beheaded.
S~iwars entry into Cairo was at the beginning of 1163; after nine months he was compelled to flee before another adventurer, an officer in the army named ~irgMm.
Shawars flight was directed to Damascus, where he was favorably received by the prince Nureddin, who sent with him to Cairo a force of Kurds under Asad al-din Shirguh.
Saladin was soon besieged by the allies in Alexandria; but after seventy-five days the siege was raised, Shirguh having made a threatening movement on Cairo, where a Frankish garrison had been admitted by Shgwar.
Terms were then made by which both Syrians and Franks were to quit Egypt, though the garrison of Cairo remained; the hostile attitude of the Moslem population to this garrison led to another invasion at the beginning of 1168 by King Amalric, who after taking Bilbeis advanced to Cairo.
Reaching Cairo on the 6th of January 1169, he was soon able to get possession of Shawars person, and after the prefects execution, which happened some ten days later, he was appointed vizier by the caliph.
During the whole of it Damascus rather more than Cairo counted as the metropolis of the empire.
Though he did not build a new metropolis he fortified Cairo with the addition of a citadel, and had plans made for a new wall to enclose both it and the double city; this latter plan was never completed, but the former was executed after his death, and from this time till the French occupation of Egypt the citadel of Cairo was the political centre of the country.
entered Cairo as sultan, and imprisoned his brother in the citadel, where he died in 1248.
He made large purchases of slaves (Mamelukes) for his army, and when the inhabitants of Cairo complained of their lawlessness, he built barracks for them on the island of Roda (Raula), whence they were called Bahri or Nile Mamelukes, which became the name of the first dynasty that originated from them.
Bibars recognized the claim of a certain Abul-Qasim Abmed to be the son of Zahir, the 35th Abbasid caliph, and installed him as Commander of the Faithful at Cairo with the title al-Mostansir billh.
This did not prevent Bibars from maintaining his policy of appointing an Abbasid for the~ purpose of conferring legitimacy on himself; but he encouraged no further attempts at re-establishing the Abbasids at Bagdad, and his principle, adopted by successive sultans, was that the caliph should not leave Cairo except when accompanying the sultan on an expedition.
Under Kalan we first hear of the Burjite Mamelukes, who owe their name to the citadel (Burj) of Cairo, where 37C0 of the whole number of 12,000 Mamelukes maintained by this sovereign were quartered.
After his murder the deposed sultan Malik al-Nglir, who had been living in retirement at Kerak, was recalled by the army and reinstated as sultan in Cairo (February 7th, 1299), though still only fourteen years of age, so that public affairs were administered not by him, but by Salr the viceroy, and Bibars Jashengir, prefect of the palace.
The amirs Salr and Bibars having usurped the whole of the sultans authority, he, after some futile attempts to free himself of them, under the pretext of pilgrimage to Mecca, retired in March 1309 to Kerak, whence he sent his abdication to Cairo; in consequence of which, on the 5th of April 1309, Bibars Jashengir was proclaimed sultan, with the title Malik al-Mozajar.
Before the year was out the new sultan had been rendered unpopular by the occurrence of a famine, and Malik al-Na~ir was easily able to induce the Syrian amirs to return to his allegiance, in consequence of which Bibars in his turn abdicated, and Malik al-Ng~ir re-entered Cairo as sovereign on the 5th of March 1310.
He appears to have done his utmost to protect his Christian subjects, incurring thereby the reproaches of the more fanatical Moslems, especially in the year 1320 when owing to incendiarism in Cairo there was danger of a general massacre of the Christian population.
His taste for building and street improvement led to the beautifying of Cairo, and his example was followed by the governors of other great cities in the empire, notably Aleppo and Damascus.
This persons authority was, however, soon overthrown by a party formed by the Syrian prefects, and on the 11th of January Malik al-N~ir A~zmad, an elder son of the former sultan of the same title, was installed in his place, though he did not actually arrive in Cairo till the 6th of November, being unwilling to leave Kerak, where he had been living in retirement.
After a brief sojourn in Cairo he speedily returned thither, thereby forfeiting his throne, which was conferred by the amirs on his brother Ismail al-Malik alSalili (June 27th, 1342).
haul was restored, when on the 1st of June 1389 Cairo was taken by Yelbogha, governor of Damascus, and Barkuk expelled; I~Ijji reigned at first under the guardianship of Yelbogha, who was then overthrown by Mintash; Barkak, who had been relegated to Kerak, succeeded in again.
of the sultan IJajji, and on the 21st of January he was again proclaimed sultan in Cairo.
in Cairo caused him to retire and leave the place to its fate.
An expedition sent in the following year (5426) succeeded in taking captive the king of Cyprus, who was brought to Cairo and presently released for a ransom of 200,000 dinars, on condition of acknowledging the suzerainty of the Egyptian sultan and paying him an annual tribute.
In Cairo, when the news of the defeat and death of the Egyptian sultan.
On the 20th of January 1517 Cairo was taken by the Ottomans, and Selim shortly after declared sultan of Egypt.
The soldiers went so far as to choose a sultan, and to divide provisionally the regions of Cairo between.
They were defeated by the governor Mahommed Pasha, who on the 5th of February 1610 entered Cairo in triumph, executed the ringleaders, and banished many others to Yemen.
Meanwhile All Pasha had arrived at Alexandria, and was met by a deputation from Cairo telling him that he was not wanted.
In 1707 the Sheik al-Bamad, Qgsim Iywa.z, is found at the head of one of two Mameluke factions, the Qasimites and the Fiqarites, between whom the seeds of enmity were sown by the pasha of the time, with the result that a fight took place between the factions outside Cairo, lasting eighty days.
He thereby excited the suspicions of the Sheik al-Balad Khalil Bey, who organized an attack upon him in the streets of Cairo, in consequence of which he fled to Upper Egypt.
Here he met one Salib Bey, who had injuries to avenge on Khalil Bey, and the two organized a force with which they returned to Cairo and defeated KhalII, who was forced to fly to Iaifla, where for a time he concealed himself; eventually, however, he was discovered, sent to Alexandria and finally strangled.
In 1766, after the death of his supporter the grand vizier Raghib Pasha, he was again compelled to fly from Egypt to Yemen, but in the following year he was told that his party at Cairo was strong enough to permit of his return.
Having collected some additional troops from the Bedouins, he marched on Cairo.
Air Bey intended at first to defend himself so long as possible in the citadel at Cairo; but receiving information to the effect that his friend ~hir of Acre was still willing to give him refuge, he left Cairo for Syria (8th of April 1772), one day before the entrance of Abul-Dhahab.
On the 1st of February 1773 he received information from Cairo that Abul-Dhahab had made himself Sheik al-Balad, and in that capacity was practising unheard-of extortions, which were making Egypt with one voice call for the return of All Bey.
The result was a complete defeat for his army, after which he declined to leave his tent; he was captured after a brave resistance, and taken to Cairo, where he died seven days later.
He shortly afterwards received permission from the Porte to invade Syria, with the view of punishing All Beys supporter ~ahir, and left as his deputies in Cairo Ismgil Bey and Ibrahim Bey, who, by deserting All at the battle of Salihia, had brought about his downfall.
On the 1st of August 1782 the Turkish commander entered Cairo, and, after some violent measures had been taken for the restoration of order, Ismail Bey was again.
In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.
So long as the centre of the Islamic world was not in Egypt, the best talent was attracted elsewhere; but after the fall of Bagdad, Cairo became the chief seat of Islamic learning, and this rank, chiefly owing to the university of Azhar, it has ever since continued to maintain.
649; his son Jafar (history of Cairo), d.
A municipal council was established in Cairo, consisting of persons taken from the, ranks of the sheiks, the Mamelukes and the French; and presently delegates from Alexandria and other important towns were added.
Cairo on the 22nd of October 1798, of which the headquarters were in the Moslem university of Azhar.
On this occasion the French general Dupuy, lieutenant-governor of Cairo, was killed.
In consequence of despatches which reached Bonaparte on the 3rd of January 1799, announcing the intention of the Porte to invade the country with the object of recovering it by force, Bonaparte resolved on his Syrian expedition, and appointed governors for Cairo, Alexandria, and Upper Egypt, to govern during his absence.
Cairo, but this Bonaparte arrived in time to defeat, and in the last week of July he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Turkish army that had landed at Aboukir, aided by the British fleet commanded by Sir Sidney Smith.
Shortly after his victory Bonaparte left Egypt, having appointed Klber to govern in his absence, which he informed the sheiks of Cairo was not to last more than three months.
The Turkish troops advanced to Bilbeis, where they were received by the sheiks from, Cairo, and the Mamelukes also returned to that city from their hiding-places.
His departure with most of the army to attack the Turks at Mataria led to riots in Cairo, in the course of which many Christians were slaughtered; but the national party were unable to get possession of the citadel, and Klber, having defeated the Turks, was soon able to return to the capital.
On the 14th of April he bombarded Bulak, and proceeded to bombard Cairo itself, which was taken the following night.
Belhiard, who had been left in charge at Cairo, was assailed on two sides by the British forces under General John Hely Hutchinson (afterwards 2nd earl of Donoughmore), and the Turkish under Ytisuf Pasha; after negotiations Belhiard agreed to evacuate Cairo and to sail with his 13,734 troops to France.
At the same time Ysuf Pasha arrested all the beys in Cairo, but was shortly compelled by the British to release them.
The citizens of Cairo, accustomed to such occurrences, immediately closed their shops, and every man who possessed any weapon armed himself.
After much loss on both sides, he was taken prisoner and brought to Cairo; but he was treated with respect.
Al-BardIsi and Mehemet Ali therefore returned to Cairo.
Meanwhile,, All Pasha, who had been behaving with violence towards the Franks in Alexandria, received a halt-isherif from the sultan, which he sent by his secretary to Cairo.
Deceptive answers were returned to these, and Au was induced by them to advance The Maine- towards Cairo at the head of 3000 men.
While the guns of the citadel, those at Old Cairo, and even those of the palace of al-Bardisi, were thrice fired in honor of al-AlfI, preparations were immediately begun to oppose him.
His partisans were collected opposite Cairo, and al-AlfI the Less held Giza; but treachery was among them; Husain Bey (a relative of al-Alfi)
In the meanwhile al-Alfi the Great embarked at Rosetta, and not apprehending opposition, was on his way to Cairo, when a little south of the town of Manfif he encountered a party of Albanians, and with difficulty made his escape.
order to satisfy the demands of the Albanians for their pay, gave orders to levy heavy contributions from the citizens of Cairo; and this new oppression.
For one day and a half he enjoyed the title; the friends of the late Thir Pasha then accomplished his second degradation,i and Cairo was again the scene of terrible enormities, the Albanians revelling in the houses of the Mameluk chiefs, whose hareems met with no mercy at their hands.
The Albanians now invited Ahmed Pasha Khorshid to assume the reins of government, and he without delay proceeded from Alexandria to Cairo.
The forces of the partisans of al-BardisI were rava ~ing the country a few miles south of the capital and intercepting the supplies of corn by the river; a little later they passed to the north of Cairo and successively took Bilbeis and Kalyub, plundering the villages, detroying the crops, and slaughtering the herds of the inhabitants.
Cairo was itself in a state of tumult, suffering severely from a scarcity of grain, and the heavy exactions of the pasha to meet the demands of his turbulent troops, at that time augmented by a Turkish detachment.
Al-BardIsi passed to the south of Cairo, and the Mamelukes gradually retreated towards Upper Egypt.
At this period another calamity befell Egypt; about 3000 DelIs (Kurdish troops) arrived in Cairo from Syria.
Cairo was ripe for revolt; the pasha was hated for his tyranny and extortion, and execrated for the deeds of his troops, especially those of the Delis: the sheiks enjoined the people to close their shops, and the soldiers clamoured for pay.
Mehemet Alis great strength lay in the devotion of the citizens of Cairo, who looked on him as a deliverer from their afflictions; and great numbers armed themselves, advising constantly with Mehemet Ali, having the sayyid Omar and the sheiks at their head, and guarding the town at night.
The ensuing night in Cairo presented a curious spectacle; many of the inhabitants, believing that this envoy would put an end to their miseries, fired off their weapons as they paraded the streets with bands of music. The silhdgr, imagining the noise to be a fray, marched in.
While these scenes were being enacted, al-Alfi was besieging Damanhur, and the other beys were returning towards Cairo, Khorshid laving called them to his assistance: but Mehemet Ali forced them to recreat.
Mehemet Ali now possessed the title of Governor of Egypt, but beyond the walls of Cairo his authority was everywhere disputed by the beys, who were joined by the army of the silhdr of Khorshid; and many Albanians deserted from his ranks.
An attempt was made to ensnare certain of the beys, who were encamped north of Cairo.
On the 17th of August 1805 the dam of the canal of Cairo was to be cut, and some chiefs of Mehemet Alis party wrote, informing them that he would go forth early on that morning with most of his troops to witness the ceremony, inviting them to enter and seize the city, and, to deceive them, stipulating for a certain sum of money as a reward.
The heads of the slain were fixed on stakes on each side of the road crossing the Ezbekia in Cairo.
expelling the invaders; and this proposal being agreed to, both armies marched towards Cairo on opposite sides of the river.
Some hundreds of British heads were now eposed on stakes in Cairo, and the prisoners were marched between these mutilated remains of their countrymen.
Many of them took up their abode in Cairo, but tranquillity was not secured; several times they met the pashas forces in battle and once gained a signal victory.
Early in the year I 811, the preparations for an expedition against the Wahhbis in Arabia being complete, all the Mameluke beys then in Cairo were invited to the ceremony of investing Mehemet Alis favorite son, TUslin, with a pelisse and the command of the army.
This massacre was the signal for an indiscriminate slaughter of the Mamelukes throughout Egypt, orders to this effect being transmitted to every governor; and in Cairo itself the houses of the beys were given over to the soldiery.
As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.
Hearing of the escape of Napoleon from Elbaand fearing danger to Egypt from the plans of France or Great BritainMehemet Ali returned to Cairo by way of Kosseir and Kena.
During Mehemet Alis absence in Arabia his representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation, begun in 1808, of almost all the lands be]onging to private individuals, who were forced to accept instead inadequate pensions.
The attempt which in this year (1815) the pasha made to reorganize his troops on European lines led, however, to a formidable mutiny in Cairo.
At the close of the year 1819, Ibrahim returned to Cairo, having subdued all present opposition in Arabia.
The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, then the youngest son of Mehemet Ali; they consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, Turks and Arabs, and left Cairo in July 1820.
The effectiveness of the new force was first tried in the suppression of a revolt of the Albanians in Cairo (1823) by six disciplined Sudanese regiments; after which Mehemet Ali was no more troubled with military emeutes.
Mehemet Ali, who had been granted the honorary rank of grand vizier in 1842, paid a visit to Stamboul in 1846, where he became reconciled to his old enemy Khosrev Pasha, whom he had not seen since he spared his life at Cairo in 1803.
polies, and during his reign the railway from Alexandria to Cairo was begun at the instigation of the British government.
Even here (Cairo) the beating for the years taxes is awful.
Professing to be quite satisfied with this arrangement, he pompously announced that Egypt was no longer in Africa, but a part of Europe; but before seven months had passed he found his constitutional position intolerable, got rid of his irksome cabinet by means of a secretly-organized military riot in Cairo, and reverted to his old autocratic methods of government.
The khedive, who had taken refuge in Alexandria, returned to Cairo, and a ministry was formed under Sherif Pasha, with Riaz Pasha as one of its leading members.
His method may be illustrated by, an old story long current in Cairo.
On the advice of Lord Northbrook, who was sent out to Cairo in September 1884 to examine the financial situation, certain revenues which should have been paid into the Caisse for the benefit of the bondholders were paid into the treasury for the ordinary needs of the administration.
Technically, therefore, the preliminary convention still remains in force, and in reality the Ottoman commissioner continued to reside in Cairo till the close of 1908.
It put a period to a question which had long embittered the relations between England and France, and locally it caused the cessation of the systematic opposition of the French agents in Cairo to everything tending to strengthen the British positionhowever beneficial to Egypt the particular scheme opposed might be.
The pan-Islamic press, allowed full licence by the Cairo authorities, spread abroad rumours that the Egyptian government intended to construct fortifications in the Sinai peninsula with the design of menacing the railway, under construction by Turkey, from Damascus to Mecca.
While mounted infantry of the British army were marching from Cairo to Alexandria, five officers went (on the i3th of D June) to the village of Denshawai to shoot pigeons~
Lord Cromer was succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst, who had served in Egypt eighteen years under him, and was at the time of his appointment to Cairo an assistant under secretary of state for foreign affairs.
in February 1879 a slight outbreak of discharged officers and soldiers occurred at Cairo, which led to the despatch of British and French ships to Alexandria.
On the 1st of February 1881 a more serious disturbance arose at Cairo from the attempt to try three colonels, Ahmed Arabi, All Fehmy, and Abd-el-Al, who had been arrested as the ringleaders of the military party.
The plan of operations contemplated the seizure of Ismaiia as the base for an advance on Cairo, Alexandria and its suburbs to be held defensively, and the Egyptian forces in the neighborhood to be occupied by demonstrations.
An immediate pursuit was ordered, and the Indian contingent, under Major-General Macpherson, reached Zagazig, while the cavalry, under Major-General Drury Lowe, occupied Belbeis and pushed on to Cairo, 65 m.
On the evening of the 14th the 10,000 troops occupying Abbasia barracks, and 5000 in the citadel of Cairo, surrendered.
The prompt following up of the victory at Tell-el-Kebir saved Cairo from the fate of Alexandria and brought the rebellion to an end.
On the 25th the khedive entered Cairo, where a review of the British troops was held on the 3oth.
In twenty-five days, from the landing at Ismailia to the occupation of Cairo, the rebellion was completely suppressed, and the operations were thus signally successful.
Lord Dufferin who had been sent to The Sudan Cairo to draw up a project of constitutional reforms, question.
In August 1879 he returned to Cairo, and was succeeded by Raouf Pasha.
Abd-el-Kader, who had succeeded Raouf, telegraphed to Cairo for 10,000 additional troops, and pointed out that if they were not sent at once four times this number would be required to re-establish the authority of the government in the Sudan.
Sinister rumours having reached Cairo, Sir E.
A telegram from General Gordon, received at Cairo on the x9th of April, stated that We have provisions for five months and are hemmed in...
the Cairo emplo yes and the garrison to Berber with Lieutenant-Colonel J.
from Cairo along a river strewn.
The question of routes continued to be the subject of animated discussion, and on the 29th of July a committee of three officers who had served in the Red River expedition reported: We believe that a brigade can easily be.conveyed in small boats from Cairo to Dongola in the time stated by Lord Wolseley; and, further, that should it be necessary to send a still larger force by water to Kbartum, that operation will present no insuperable difficulties.
On the 9th of September Lord Wolseley arrived at Cairo, and the plan of operations was somewhat modified.
On the 3oth of March Lord Wolsclcy quitted the army and proceeded to Cairo.
In December the sirdar arrived with reinforcements from Cairo, and on the 20th sallied out and attacked the dervishes in their trenches at Gemaiza, clearing the whole line and inflicting considerable loss on the enemy, who retired towards Handub, and the country was again fairly quiet for a time.
On the 26th of February 1886 Emjn received despatches from Cairo via Zanzibar, from which he learned all that had occurred during the previous three years, and that he might take any step he liked, should he decide to leave the country.
The 1st battalion of the North Staffordshire regiment moved up from Cairo to join the Egyptian army.
The North Staffordshire returned to Cairo.
He at once ordered a concentration of Egyptian troops Sudant towards Berber, and telegraphed to Cairo for a British ampa ~ brigade.
The British troops were quickly sent down stream to Cairo, and the sirdar, shortly afterwards created Lord Kitchener of Khartum, was free to turn his attention to the reduction of the country to some sort of order.
In the years1872-1878the Afghan Jamal ud-Din, a professor in the Azhar mosque at Cairo, attempted to read Avicenna with his scholars, and to exercise them in things that went beyond theology, bringing, for example, a globe into the mosque to explain the form of the earth.
The brilliant days are past when the universities of Damascus, Bagdad, Nishapur, Cairo, Kairawan, Seville, Cordova, were thronged by thousands of students of theology, when a professor had often hundreds or even, like Bukhari, thousands of hearers, and when vast estates in the hands of the clergy fed both masters and scholars.
Of the great universities but one survives - the Azhar mosque at Cairo - where thousands of students still gather to follow a course of study which gives an accurate picture of the Mahommedan ideal of theological education.
(1517) the Ottoman Selim, who destroyed the Mameluke power, constrained the 'Abbasid Motawakkil III., who lived in Cairo, to make over to him his nominal caliphate.
The student who has passed his examinations at Constantinople or Cairo may take up the purely religious office of imam (president in worship) or khatib (preacher) at a mosque.
4 In Egypt before the time of Said Pasha (1854-1863) the local judges were appointed by the chief cadi of Cairo, who is sent from Constantinople.
The grand mufti of Constantinople is, as we have seen, nominated by the sultan, but his hold on the people makes him quite an independent power in the state; in Cairo he is not even nominated by the government, but each school of law chooses its own sheikh, who is also mufti, and the IIanifite is head mufti because his school is official in the Turkish Empire.
The Fayum also possesses an excellent breed of sheep. Lake Kerun abounds in fish, notably the bulli (Nile carp), of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo.
Beadnell (Cairo, 1905).
in Cairo, at the S.
or 136° F., but at Cairo they have ranged only from - 16° F.
At Cairo the prevailing winds are southerly during all months except February, and as far north as Springfield they are southerly from April to January; but throughout the N.
From 1916-7 she was attached to the Admiralty Intelligence Office in Cairo.
He then retook Cairo, which had revolted from the French.
Shortly after these victories he was assassinated at Cairo by a fanatic on the 14th of June 1800, the same day on which his friend and comrade Desaix fell at Marengo.
(London, 1907); Geological and Topographical Report on Kharga Oasis (1899), on Farafra Oasis (1899), on Dakhla Oasis (1900), on Baharia Oasis (1903), all issued by the Public Works Department, Cairo.
of Cairo, Ill.
1565) manual of Sufic dogma (Yawagit) published several times in Cairo.
Bulaq, 1837) and with the Commentary (Cairo, 1891) of Qashani (d.
Then another descendant of the Abbasids, who also had found an asylum in Egypt, was proclaimed caliph at Cairo under the name of al-Hakim bi amri'llah (" he who decides according to the orders of God").
He died at Cairo, a pensionary of the Ottoman government, in 1538.
In Egypt not only are there serpents of the houses, but each quarter in Cairo had a serpent-guardian (Lane).
In 1803 he cast in his lot with the former; in 1804 he turned against them and proclaimed his loyalty to the sultan; in 1805 the sheiks of Cairo, in the hope of putting a stop to the intolerable anarchy, elected him pasha, and a year later an imperial firman confirmed their choice.
The disastrous British expedition of 1807 followed; and while at Constantinople the prestige of the sultan was being undermined by the series of revolutions which in 1808 brought Mahmud to the throne, that of Mehemet Ali was enhanced by the exhibition at Cairo of British prisoners and an avenue of stakes decorated with the heads of British slain.
After some stay at Cairo, then probably the greatest city in the world (excluding China), and an unsuccessful attempt to reach Mecca from Aidhab on the west coast of the Red Sea, he visited Palestine, Aleppo and Damascus.
Revisiting Jerusalem and Cairo he made the haj a fourth time, and finally reappeared at Fez (visiting Sardinia en route) on the 8th of November 1349, after twenty-four years' absence.
The patriarch, who was given two suffragan bishops, has his seat at Cairo.
An oppressive exaction was imposed by a local pasha, and in order to win the succour of Raphael Halebi, Sabbatai repaired to Cairo, being on his route at Hebron hailed as Messiah.
At Cairo Sabbatai married.
Another railway, part of the Cape to Cairo connexion, runs north-west from Bulawayo, Grossing the Zambezi just below the Victoria Falls.
of Cairo by rail and steamer.
It was even suggested that the titular Abbasid caliphs (who retained an empty title in Cairo under Mameluke protection, should be reinstated at Bagdad, but this proposal was not carried into effect.
After a visit home in 1875 he went to Cairo, and then to Khartum, in the hope of an opportunity for travelling in the interior of Africa.
The city of Delhi is situated in 28° 38' N., 77° 13' E., very nearly due north of Cape Comorin, and practically in a latitudinal line with the more ancient cities of Cairo and Canton.
de Goeje as Liber expugnationis regionum (Leiden, 1870; Cairo, 1901).
Gautier (Geneva, 1878); the great work, Ihya ul-` Ulum (" Revival of the sciences") (Bulaq, 1872; Cairo, 1889); see a commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols.