Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
Caird (St Andrews: The Evolution of Religion; Glasgow: The Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophies) represent speculative treatment on a basis of Hegelianism.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904), ii.
Caird, &c.), but less churchly than Coleridge (or F.
JOHN CAIRD (1820-1898), Scottish divine and philosopher, was born at Greenock on the 15th of December 1820.
Caird wrote also an excellent study of Spinoza, in which he showed the latent Hegelianism of the great Jewish philosopher.
The letters written by Sir James Caird to The Times during 1850, and republished in 1852 under the title English Agriculture in 1850-1851, give a general review of English agriculture at the time.
EDWARD CAIRD (1835-1908), British philosopher and theologian, brother of John Caird, was born at Greenock on the 22nd of March 1835, and educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxford.
Dr Caird received the honorary degree of D.C.L.
For a criticism of Dr Caird's theology, see A.
John Caird >>
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers, 1904).
ii.; Edward Caird, The Social Philosophy and Religion of Comte (Glasgow, 1885); Hermann Gruber, Aug.
McCheyne and John Caird.
Hence, whatever we begin by saying, we must ultimately say ` mind ' " (Caird, Kant, 1.443) While the form in which these doctrines were stated proved fatal to them in the country of their birth, they took deep root in the next generation in English philosophy.
Caird, Evolution of Religion (1893); J.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); Norman MacColl, Greek Sceptics from Pyrrho to Sextus (1869); Haas, De philosophorum scepticorum successionibus (1875).
Caird, writing in the year 1880, expressed the opinion that arable land in Great Britain would always command a substantial rent of at least 30s.
But freights had come down by 1900 to half the rates predicated by Caird; indeed, during a portion of the interval they ruled very close to zero, as far as steamer freights from America were concerned.
Inferior land bearing less than 42 quarters per acre would not be protected to the same extent, and moreover, seeing that a portion of the British wheat crop has to stand a charge as heavy for land carriage across a county as that borne by foreign wheat across a continent or an ocean, the protection is not nearly so substantial as Caird would make out.
Caird expressed the opinion that the cost of carriage from abroad would always protect the British grower, the average all-rail freight from Chicago to New York was 17.76 cents, while the summer rate (partly by water) was 13.17 cents.
Enough has been said to prove that the advantage of position claimed for the British farmer by Caird was somewhat illusory.
But it is not a Kantian view; and it is necessary to correct two confusions of Kant and Hegel, which have been iYnported with Hegelianism by Green and Caird.
But Caird endeavoured to break down even E.
Accord ing to Caird, Kant " reduces the inaccessible thing in itself (which he at first speaks of as affecting our sensibility) to a noumenon which is projected by reason itself " (Essays, ii.
405); and in the Transcendental Dialectic, which forms the last part of Kant's Kritik, the noumenon becomes the object of an intuitive understanding " whose thought," says Caird, " is one with the existence of the objects it knows" (ibid.
The passage from Kant to Hegel attempted by Green, and the harmony of Kant and Hegel attempted by Green and Caird, are unhistorical, and have caused much confusion of thought.
The success, therefore, of the works of Green and Caird must stand or fall by their Hegelianism, which has indeed secured many adherents, partly metaphysical and partly theological.
His theory of reason brings him into contact with the German idealists: he accepts from Kant the hypothesis of synthesis and a priori categories, from Fichte the hypothesis that will is necessary to reason, from Schelling and Hegel the hypothesis of universal reason, and of an identity between the cosmic reason and the reason of man, in which he agrees also with Green and Caird.
But, in opposition to Wundt and in common with Schuppe, he believes that experience is (1) experience of the individual, and (2) experience of the race, which is but an extension of individual experience, and is variously called, in the course of the discussion, universal, collective, conceptual, rational experience, consciousness in general, absolute consciousness, intelligence, and even, after Caird, " a perfect intelligence."
But perhaps Caird's phrase "a perfect intelligence" has beguiled him into thinking that the one subject of universal experience is not mere mankind, but God Himself.
Mansel and Jowett, Green and Caird, Bradley and Bosanquet arose in quick succession, the predecessors of a generation which aims at a new metaphysics.
One cannot but feel regret at seeing the Reformed Churches blown about by every wind of doctrine, and catching at straws now from Kant, now from Hegel, and now from Lotze, or at home from Green, Caird, Martineau, Balfour and Ward in succession, without ever having considered the basis of their faith; while the Roman Catholics are making every effort to ground a Universal Church on a sane system of metaphysics.
Already in the seventies there was a powerful school of English thinkers under the lead of Edward Caird and T.
Caird, Hegel (1880); A.
11 1915 she sighted Coats Land, and followed new land named the Caird Coast to Luitpold Land.
in the South Shetlands, and a shelter was rigged up of two boats, where 22 of the party were left under the capable leadership of Mr. Frank Wild, while Shackleton and five companions set out in the third boat, the " James Caird," for the almost desperate attempt to reach South Georgia.
In 1898 he became principal of the university in succession to John Caird.
Caird, The Fundamental Ideas of Christianity (1899).
John Caird, professor of divinity and then principal of Glasgow University, wrote An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion, exercised a deep influence as a teacher on Scottish thought, and was the most distinguished British preacher, of the intellectual order, of his day.
Robert Herbert Story (1835-1906), principal after Caird of Glasgow University, stood by the side of Lee and Tulloch in their assembly contendings and was an outspoken defender of the National Church against her spoliators from without.
In the same way Dr Edward Caird $ recognizes three similar stages: (I) objective consciousness, the divine in nature;
- The second group in this division practically corresponds to the second stage recognized by Caird; but it rests upon a somewhat different basis, the conception of revelation addressed to the conscience in the form of religious law.
Caird, The Evolution of Religion (2 vols., 1893); Siebeck, Lehrbuch der Religionsphilosophie (Freiburg i.
Greenock was the birthplace of James Watt, William Spence (1777-1815) and Dr John Caird (1820-1898), principal of Glasgow University, who died in the town and was buried in Greenock cemetery.
Caird, Critical Philosophy of Kant (2 vols., 1889); Chalybaus, Historische Entwickelung der spekulativen Philosophie von Kant bis Hegel (5th ed., 1860); H.
An the puir auld caird, that bi nou wes feelin gey disjaskit in his eild, gledlie gied thaim til him.
caird company has spent the last three years building a unique reputation for supporting new writers and directors from Britain and around the world.
caulked the seams of the Caird.
Caird (Evolution of Religion, 1893) tries to vindicate Christianity as the highest working of nature - true just because evolved from lower religions.
After a period of struggle, the influence of Kant gradually extended, and, as we see in the writings of Coleridge and Carlyle, of Hamilton and Mansel, of Green and Caird, of Laurie, Martineau and others, has secured an authority over English thought almost equal to that of Hume (see Idealism).
But perhaps Caird's phrase " a perfect intelligence " has beguiled him into thinking that the one subject of universal experience is not mere mankind, but God Himself.
This book, Dr Martineau's Study of Spinoza (1882) and Dr John Caird's Spinoza (1888), are all admirable pieces of work, and, as regards the philosophical estimate, complement one another.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904), vol.
Caird (Glasgow: Fundamental Ideas of Christianity, comp. his earlier Introduc. to the Phil.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.