How to use Cah in a sentence
The acid renders it available as a manure by converting the calcium phosphate, Ca 3 P 2 O 8, that it contains into the soluble monocalcium salt, CaH 4 P 2 O 8, or "superphosphate."
As previously described, CAH embryos are exposed to excess androgens from the first few weeks, right through until birth.
Both sleep-disordered breathing and CAH can be reversed and symptoms improved with the initiation of ventilatory assistance.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the hormones cortisol and aldosterone and an over-production of the hormone androgen.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in which 21-hydroxylase, the enzyme that produces two important adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and aldosterone, is deficient.Advertisement
Females with CAH are born with an enlarged clitoris and normal internal reproductive tract structures.
In its most severe form, called salt-wasting (or salt-losing) CAH, where there is a total or near total deficiency of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, a life-threatening adrenal crisis can occur if the disorder is untreated.
There is also a milder form of CAH in which children have partial 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiencies (simple virilizing form).
Another type of CAH is characterized by only a slight deficiency in production of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme (nonclassic or late-onset form), in which symptoms occurs later in childhood or during young adolescence.
Females with severe CAH may be mistaken for males at birth.Advertisement
If not treated, this form of CAH can result in death within one to six weeks after birth.
In the mild form of CAH, which occurs in late childhood or early adulthood, symptoms include premature development of pubic hair, irregular menstrual periods, unwanted body hair, or severe acne.
Many cases of CAH will be detected at birth, but in milder cases, symptoms may not develop until later, at which time medical care should be obtained.
For children with more severe cases of CAH, regular medical care is necessary to achieve desired treatment results.
A number of states in the United States perform a hormonal test (a heel prick blood test) for CAH and other inherited diseases within a few days of birth.Advertisement
For some forms of CAH, prenatal diagnosis is possible through chronic villus sampling in the first trimester and by measuring certain hormones in the amniotic fluid during the second trimester.
The goal of treatment for CAH is to return the androgen levels to normal.
Treatment results must be monitored carefully, because of large individual variations in enzyme deficiency in children with CAH.
For children with salt-wasting CAH, fludrocortisone (Florinef), which acts like aldosterone (the missing hormone), is also prescribed.
Serum electrolytes must be checked frequently, especially for children with salt-wasting CAH, to assure that normal levels of sodium and potassium are maintained.Advertisement
Children with CAH should see a pediatric endocrinologist frequently.
If they require medical treatment, CAH children with the milder form of the disorder are usually effectively treated with hydrocortisone or prednisone.
Females with CAH who have masculine external genitalia require surgery to reconstruct the clitoris and/or vagina.
Adrenalectomy, a surgical procedure to remove the adrenal glands, is a more radical treatment for CAH.
In the early 2000s, it is recommended for CAH children with little or no enzyme activity and can be accomplished by laparoscopy.Advertisement
Adrenalectomy is followed by hormone therapy, but in lower doses than CAH patients not treated surgically receive.
Prenatal therapy, in which a pregnant woman at risk for a second CAH child is given dexamethasone to decrease secretion of androgens by the adrenal glands of the female fetus, has been in use since 1994.
This means that a number of fetuses are exposed to unnecessary steroid treatment in order to prevent the development of male-like genitals in female fetuses with CAH.
Parents with a family history of CAH or who have a child with CAH should seek genetic counseling.
Genetic testing during pregnancy can provide information on the risk of having a child with CAH.
When taking a child with CAH for emergency care, parents are advised to refer to the condition by its full name rather than CAH.
The parents should inform medical personnel if the child has salt-wasting CAH.
It is also recommended that parents have a letter or information prepared concerning CAH and care needed so that this can be given to a new doctors who may treat the child.
Parents should be sensitive to the psychological aspects of the disease and obtain counseling for children with CAH.