Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes), and named Caesarea probably by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjies Dagh (M.
Anak was slain by his victim's soldiers; Gregory was rescued by his Christian nurse, carried to Caesarea in Cappadocia, and brought up a Christian.
The time had now come for Gregory, who was still a layman and father of two sons, to receive ordination; so he went to Caesarea, where Leontius ordained and consecrated him catholicos or vicar-general of Armenia.
Gregory's ordination at Caesarea is historical.
From Alexandria we get Athanasius, Didymus and Cyril; from Cyrene, Synesius; from Antioch, Theodore of Mopsuestia, John Chrysostom and Theodoret; from Palestine, Eusebius of Caesarea and Cyril of Jerusalem; from Cappadocia, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus.
Other apologies are by Aristides (recently recovered in translation), Athenagoras (" elegant "), Eusebius of Caesarea, Cyril of Alexandria; in Latin by Minucius Felix, Tertullian (a masculine spirit and phrase-coiner like T.
His capital was Caesarea Philippi, where Pan had been worshipped from ancient times, and.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
- Meanwhile the procurators who succeeded Felix - Porcius Festus (60-62), Albinus (62-64) and Gessius Florus (64-66) - had in their several ways brought the bulk of the nation into line with the more violent of the Jews of Caesarea.
For the moment the Jews were cowed, and next day they went submissively to greet the troops coming from Caesarea.
Florus withdrew with all his troops, except one cohort, to Caesarea.
bestowed upon him the title of archbishop of Caesarea.
There is no strong reason for holding that the three were written from Caesarea.
Jerome says that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division at Corinth, that he retired into Crete with Zenas, a doctor of the law; and that the schism having been healed by Paul's letter to the Corinthians, Apollos returned to the city, and became its bishop. Less probable traditions assign to him the bishopric of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea.
325 Revision by the Council of Nicaea, (Caesarea).
Andreas of Caesarea mentions Papias as attesting the credibility of Revelation, and cites two of his remarks on Rev. xii.
Commentaries on the book were written by Andreas, archbishop of Caesarea, in the 5th century, and Arethas in the 9th.
It is doubtful, however, if Alcantara marks the site of any Roman town, though archaeologists have sometimes identified it either with Norba Caesarea or with Interamnium.
BASIL,' known as Basil The Great (c. 33 0 -379), bishop of Caesarea, a leading churchman in the 4th century, came of a famous family, which gave a number of distinguished supporters to the Church.
Basil was born about 330 at Caesarea in Cappadocia.
In 370 Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, died, and Basil was chosen to succeed him.
Caesarea was an important diocese, and its bishop was, ex officio, exarch of the great diocese of Pontus.
Three pre-Christian or extra-ecclesiastical usages are recorded by a half-heretical churchman, Marcellus of Ancyra (in Eusebius of Caesarea, Contra Marcellum, i.
He was poisoned at Caesarea, either the wife of Louis or the mother of the king of Jerusalem suggesting the draught.
But the Synoptists, especially Mark, give the slow steps in even the apostles' realization of Jesus' Messianic character; only at Caesarea Philippi Simon alone, for the first time, clearly discerns it, Jesus declaring that His Father has revealed it to Him, and yet Simon is still scandalized at the thought of a suffering Messiah (Mark viii.
Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D.
22, 27 (is at Bethsaida and visits neighbourhood of Caesarea.
But he met with a sharp rebuff, and Bishop Stephen fared no better when, in the middle of the 3rd century, he came into collision with Cyprian of Carthage and Firmilian of Caesarea in the dispute concerning heretical baptism.
CAESAREA PALAESTINA, a town built by Herod about 25-13 B.C., on the sea-coast of Palestine, 30 m.
Caesarea Philippi >>
The first real church history was written by Eusebius of Caesarea in the early part of the 4th century.
The apostle Paul, after being apprehended in Jerusalem, was sent to be judged before Felix at Caesarea, and kept in custody for two years (Acts xxiv.).
On returning to Rome, Felix was accused of having taken advantage of a dispute between the Jews and Syrians of Caesarea to slay and plunder the inhabitants, but through the intercession of his brother, the freedman Pallas, who had great influence with the emperor Nero, he escaped unpunished.
His title Caesariensis points, according to Niebuhr and others, to Caesarea in Mauretania.
One of the distinguished pupils of Photius, Arethas, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (c. 907-932), devoted himself with remarkable energy to collecting and expounding the Greek classics.
Of the many theories as to the address, the most plausible are perhaps those which would apply to a single congregation of Hebrew Christians in Rome, or to a local church or group of local churches in Palestine, perhaps like that of which the centre would be at Caesarea.
The corrections of s e are important, as they are based (according to a note by that scribe, at the end of Esther) on an early copy which had been corrected by, Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen, friend of Eusebius and founder of a library at Caesarea.
The two most probable places seem to be Caesarea and Alexandria.
The case for Caesarea is that the colophon written by K .
at the end of Esther, and also of Ezra, shows that x was then in the library of Caesarea, and that a chapter division in Acts found both in s and B can also be traced to the same library.
This is a fairly strong case, but it falls short of demonstration because it cannot be shown that the MS. corrected by Pamphilus was still at Caesarea when it was used by x, and because it is not certain either that the chapter divisions in Acts were added by the original scribes, or that x and B were at that time in their original home, or that the chapter divisions were necessarily only to be found at Caesarea.
363, and may have been introduced elsewhere, perhaps in Caesarea.
3 (Cambridge, 1895), esp. pp. 34-43 (these more especially for the connexion with Caesarea); A.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
Luke wrote the first edition of the Gospel for Theophilus from Caesarea; this is the Neutral text of the Gospel.
Pentecost of the same year was spent at Jerusalem, and there St Paul was arrested, and kept in prison at Caesarea for two full years, until Festus succeeded Felix as governor (xx.
47, and, secondly, that between their commencement and the end of the two years' imprisonment at Caesarea not less than eleven full years must have elapsed.
And there is no need at all to suppose that all the incidents which the historian masses under his account of Felix were successive: events in Emesa, Chalcis, Caesarea and Jerusalem may easily have been synchronous.
331, the emperor Constantine requested Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, to provide him with fifty copies of the Old and New Testaments for use in the principal churches in Constantinople.
The latter marched into Asia Minor and defeated the Mongols in the bloody battle of Ablastan, the modern Albistan (1277); but, when he advanced farther to Caesarea, Mum ed-din Suleiman retired, hesitating to join him at the very moment of action.
A dove also descended out of a pillar of light on the occasion of the baptism in Jordan of the saintly Basil, bishop of Caesarea; and an eagle lit down upon King Tarquin.
All the great theologians of the 4th and 5th centuries may be quoted as evidence of this: Eusebius of Caesarea (Praep. Ev.
mart.), Basil of Caesarea (Ep. ii.
Caesarea, indeed, as a city of mixed population and lying just outside Judaea proper - a place, moreover, where Timothy might have become known during Paul's two years' detention there - would satisfy many conditions of the problem.
His letter, preserved by the imperial biographer, Eusebius of Caesarea, is a state document inspired by a wisely conciliatory policy; it made out both parties to be equally in the right and in the wrong, at the same time giving them both to understand that such questions, the meaning of which would be grasped only by the few, had better not be brought into public discussion; it was advisable to come to an agreement where the difference of opinion was not fundamental.
Constantine, while strongly disposed at first to enforce the Nicene decrees, was gradually won to a more conciliatory policy by the influence especially of Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his death-bed.
(25 B.C.) made it the capital of the Mauretanian kingdom under the name of Caesarea.
Destroyed by the Vandals, Caesarea regained some of its importance under the Byzantines.
The latter was ordained priest and appointed catholicus or exarch of the church of Great Armenia by Leontius, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia.
Jerusalem was only allowed to rank as a patriarchate in 451, and the seventh canon of Nice subordinated the see to that of Caesarea in Palestine.
None but a scion of a priestly family could become a deacon, elder or bishop. Accordingly the primacy remained in the family of Gregory until about 374, when the king Pap or Bab murdered Nerses, who had been ordained by Eusebius of Caesarea (362-370) and was over-zealous in implanting in Armenia the canons about celibacy, marriage, fasting, hospices and monastic life which Basil had established in Cappadocia.
On the death of Nerses the right of saying grace at the royal meals, which was the essence of the catholicate, was transferred by the king, in despite of the Greeks, to the priestly family of Albianus, and thenceforth no Armenian catholicus went to Caesarea for ordination.
This points to a reconciliation during Paul's last sojourn in Jerusalem or Caesarea.
After the death of Herod, Archelaus became ethnarch of Samaria, Idumea and Judaea, and when he was deposed Judaea was merged in Syria, being governed by a procurator whose headquarters were in Caesarea.
5.2), a high priest who presided during the trial of Paul at Jerusalem and Caesarea (Acts xxiii.
Of these colonies the most important, beginning from the west, were Lixus on the Atlantic, Tingis (Tangier), Rusaddir (Melila, Melilla), Cartenna (Tenes), Iol or Caesarea (Cherchel), Icosium (Algiers), Saldae (Bougie), Igilgili (Jijelli) and Sitifis (Setif).
He afterwards resided at Chalcedon and at Caesarea in Cappadocia, from which he was expelled by the inhabitants for writing against their bishop Basil.
archbishop of Caesarea in partibus and sent to India to report on the establishment of the hierarchy there.
it was given after the recognition of Jesus as Messiah at Caesarea Philippi.
16 sqq.); the Messianic recognition at Caesarea Philippi (Mark vii.
The Confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi.
After this Peter made another journey, visiting especially Lydda, Joppa and Caesarea.
While at Joppa he stayed with Simon the tanner, and thence was summoned to Caesarea to Cornelius the centurion.
The Acts, in describing the visits of Peter to Samaria, Joppa, Lydda and Caesarea, justify the view that his missionary activity began quite early.
evidence of ancient writers really begins, not with Origen,' but with Eusebius of Caesarea, who in his Eccl.
It contained accounts of Peter's teachings and discussions at various points on a route beginning at Caesarea, and extending northwards along the coast-lands of Syria as far as Antioch.
13) - and again some twenty years later, when Origen refers to one of their leaders as having lately arrived at Caesarea (Euseb.
Confirmation of such a date is afforded by the silence of the Syrian Didascalia, itself perhaps dating from about 250, as to any visit of Simon Magus to Caesarea, in contrast to the reference in its later form, the Apostolical Constitutions (c. 350-400), which is plainly coloured (vi.
2 Even Waitz agrees to this, though he argues back to a yet earlier anti-Pauline (rather than anti-Marcionite) form, composed in Caesarea, c. 135.
In the treasury of the cathedral is a magnificent silver monstrance dating from 1553, and an octagonal bowl, the Sacro Catino, brought from Caesarea in 1101, which corresponds to the descriptions given of the Holy Grail, and was long regarded as an emerald of matchless value, but was found when broken at Paris, whither it had been carried by Napoleon I., to be only a remarkable piece of ancient glass.
PROCOPIUS, Byzantine historian, was born at Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the 5th century A.D.
Sebaste (the old Samaria), Caesarea, Antipatris were built by Herod the Great, Tiberias by Herod Antipas (4 B.C. - A.D.
The reign of Bibars was spent largely in successful wars against the Crusaders, from whom he took many cities, notably Safad, Caesarea and Antioch; the Armenians, whose territory he repeatedly invaded, burning their capital Sis; and the Seljukids of Asia Minor.
Under the early Roman empire the place was known as Caesarea, and was the metropolis of Cilicia Secunda.
Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, at the request of Siricius, had two important disputes settled by two councils held in 393 at Caesarea and Contantinople, relating respectively to the sees of Antioch and Bostra.
Soon we begin to hear the names of the pilgrims. In the course of the 3rd century, as Jerome relates, Firmilian, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, travelled to Palestine to view the sacred places (De Vir.
In her expedition to the East, the Paula mentioned above visited, among other places, Sarepta and Caesarea.
Jesus retires northwards to Caesarea Philippi, and appears henceforth to devote Himself entirely to the instruction of his disciples, who needed to be prepared for the fatal issue which could not long be delayed.
Such are the aqueducts, of which remains exist at Jericho, Caesarea and other places east and west of the Jordan; but especially must be mentioned the enormous reservoirs known as Solomon's Pools, in a valley between Jerusalem and Hebron, by which the former city was supplied with water through an elaborate system of conduits.
There must also be mentioned a Bosnian colony established at Caesarea Palestina, and the Circassian settlements placed in certain centres of Eastern Palestine by the Turkish government in order to keep a restraint on the Bedouin: the latter are also found in Galilee.
For these sufficient reasons Antiochus hurried back and defeated Scopas at Paneas, which was known later as Caesarea Philippi (Polyb.
A year later Octavian restored to the Jewish kingdom Jericho, Gadara, Hippos, Samaria, Gaza Anthedon, Joppa and Straton's Tower (Caesarea).
Other towns fell in turn, such as Caesarea, Sebusteh (Samaria), Nablus.
One after another - Caesarea, Safed, Jaffa, Antioch - they fell, leaving at last Acre (Akka) only.
CAESAREA PHILIPPI, the name of a town 95 m.
When Herod the Great received the territory from Augustus, 20 B.C., he erected here a temple in honour of his patron; but the re-foundation of the town is due to his son, Philip the Tetrarch, who here erected a city which he named Caesarea in honour of Tiberius, adding Philippi to immortalize his own name and to distinguish his city from the similarly-named city founded by his father on the sea-coast.
ST SABAS (439-531), a Palestinian monk, born near Caesarea of Cappadocia.
Moawiya himself was not present, as he was conducting an attack (the result of which we do not know) on Caesarea in Cappadocia.
222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine on the ist of October 208.
The principal passes across the range are those over which Roman or Byzantine roads ran: - (i) from Laodicea to Adalia (Attalia), by way of the Khonas pass and the valley of the Istanoz Chai; (2) from Apamea or from Pisidian Antioch to Adalia, by Isbarta and Sagalassus; (3) from Laranda, by Coropissus and the upper valley of the southern Calycadnus, to Germanicopolis and thence to Anemourium or Kelenderis; (4) from Laranda, by the lower Calycadnus, to Claudiopolis and thence to Kelenderis or Seleucia; (5) from Iconium or Caesarea Mazaca, through the Cilician Gates (Gulek Boghaz, 3300 ft.) to Tarsus; (6) from Caesarea to the valley of the Sarus and thence to Flaviopolis on the Cilician Plain; (7) from Caesarea over Anti-Taurus by the Kuru Chai to Cocysus (Geuksun) and thence to Germanicia (Marash).
The principal passes are those followed by the old roads: - (1) from Sebasteia to Tephrike and the upper valley of the western Euphrates; (2) from Sebasteia to Melitene, by way of the pass of Delikli Tash and the basin of the Tokhma Su; (3) from Caesarea to Arabissus, by the Kuru Chai and the valley of Cocysus (Geuksun).
from Kaisarieh (Caesarea) to Karaman.
Such a man as Luke would have rare facilities for collecting Palestinian materials, varying no doubt in accuracy, but all relatively primitive, whether in Antioch or in Caesarea, where he probably resided for some two years in contact with men like Philip the Evangelist (xxi.
In connexion with this may be mentioned Collectio nova patrum et scriptorum graecorum (1706), containing some newly discovered works of Athanasius, Eusebius of Caesarea, and the Topographia christiana of Cosmas Indicopleustes.
It is possible that during these years he paid a visit to Basil at Caesarea.
In Palestine learning flourished at Caesarea, Sepphoris, Tiberias and Usha; Babyldnia had famous schools at Nehardea (from the 2nd century A.D.), Sura, Pumbeditha and elsewhere.
1804) from materials taken from Caesarea Palaestina: his tomb is within.
2c-16, 20 seq., written from Caesarea), to disentangle one or more original notes of Paul from the subsequent additions, but the comparative evenness of the style does not favour such analyses.'
His Exposition of the Lord's Oracles, the prime early authority as to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark (see Gospels), is known only through fragments in later writers, chiefly Eusebius of Caesarea (H.
The imperial diocese of Pontus was governed by the exarch of Caesarea, who ruled over thirteen metropolitans with more than 100 suffragans.
In the earlier period of the church, ecclesiastical followed civil divisions so closely that Jerusalem, in spite of the sacred associations connected with it, was merely an ordinary bishopric dependent on the metropolitan of Caesarea.
EUSEBIUS [OF CAESAREA] (c. 260 - c. 340), ecclesiastical historian, who called himself Eusebius Pamphili, because of his devotion to his friend and teacher Pamphilus, was born probably in Palestine between A.D.
260 and 265, and died as bishop of Caesarea in the year 339 or 340.
We know little of his youth beyond the fact that he became associated at an early day with Pamphilus, presbyter of the Church of Caesarea, and founder of a theological school there (see Hist.
He became bishop of Caesarea between 313 and 315, and remained such until his death.
Acacius, the pupil of Eusebius and his successor in the see of Caesarea, wrote a life of him which is unfortunately lost.
Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
To this tract the name of Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey, was given, as the same name had been given in a patent to Carteret issued in 1650, to " a certain island and adjacent islets" near Virginia, in America, which were never settled - in honour of Carteret, who governed the isle of Jersey in1643-1651and there entertained Prince Charles during his exile from England.
P. Tanner, The Province of New Jersey (New York, 1908), the most thorough study of the period from 1664 to 1738; Samuel Smith's History of the Colony of Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey (Burlington, 1765; 2nd ed., Trenton, 1877), still one of the best accounts of the colonial period, and particularly valuable on account of its copious extracts from the sources, many of which are no longer accessible; see, also, William A.
With Eusebius of Caesarea the apologetic pamphlets of the age of persecutions gave way to a calm review of three centuries of Christian progress.
Her third husband was Polemon, king of Cilicia, but she soon deserted him, and returned to Agrippa, with whom she was living in 60 when Paul appeared before him at Caesarea (Acts xxvi.).
Accordingly the leaders of the council, the most conspicuous of whom were Eusebius of Nicomedia and his namesake of Caesarea, were summoned to Constantinople.
A later series of shekels, belonging to the Roman period, are tetradrachms, "which came from the mints of Caesarea and Antioch and were used as blanks on which to impress Jewish types."
After receiving his early education in his native town, he studied theology at Caesarea and Antioch and philosophy and science at Alexandria.
Among his teachers were Eusebius of Caesarea and Patrophilus of Scythopolis.
ST, OF NYSSA GREGORY (c. 331 - c. 396), one of the four great fathers of the Eastern Church, designated by one of the later ecumenical councils as "a father of fathers," was a younger brother of Basil (the Great), bishop of Caesarea, and was born (probably) at Neocaesarea about A.D.
According to one theory it is the "high mountain" near Caesarea Philippi, which was the scene of the Transfiguration (Mark ix.
Left alone, at the end of the autumn, with an army of some 2000 men, Godfrey was yet able, in the spring of 1 100, probably with the aid of new pilgrims, to exact tribute from towns like Acre, Ascalon, Arsuf and Caesarea.
He established games in honour of the emperor after the ancient Greek model in Caesarea and Jerusalem and revived the splendour of the Olympic games.
He was also a builder of cities, one of which was Caesarea Philippi, and another was Bethsaida, which he called Julias.
In dogmatic he follows Basil of Caesarea and other Greek authors, but nevertheless gives a distinctly Western cast to the speculations of which he treats.
How far the Christian feeling of the 4th and 5th centuries was from being settled in favour of the employment of the fine arts is shown by such a case as that of Eusebius of Caesarea, who, in reply to a request of Constantia, sister of Constantine, for a picture of Christ, wrote that it was unlawful to possess images pretending to represent the Saviour either in his divine or in his human nature, and added that to avoid the reproach of idolatry he had actually taken away from a lady friend the pictures of Paul and of Christ which she had.
martyrology>early martyrologies place her death at Caesarea in Cappadocia during the persecution of Diocletian.
praetorian guard which would best be suited to the situation in Rome rather than Ephesus or Caesarea.
In the New Testament such experiences are recorded in Caesarea (Acts x.
When he had isolated the capital and was preparing to besiege it, the news of Nero's death reached him at Caesarea.
At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the patriarchs still bore the title of " exarch "; it was not till the 7th century that that of " patriarch " was fixed as proper to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, " exarch " being reserved for those of Ephesus and Caesarea, who had fallen to a lower rank.
Eusebius (to whom we owe our full knowledge of his life) collected more than a hundred of Origen's letters, arranged them in books, and deposited them in the library at Caesarea (H.
Andrew's report to his sovereign, whom he rejoined in 1251 at Caesarea in Palestine, appears to have been a mixture of history and fable; the latter affects his narrative of the Mongols' rise to greatness, and the struggles of their leader, evidently Jenghiz Khan, with Prester John; it is still more evident in the position assigned to the Tatar homeland, close to the prison of Gog and Magog.
But Kemal-ud-din's History of Aleppo (composed in the 13th century) contains some details on the history of the First Crusade; and the Vie d'Ousama (the autobiography of a sheik at Caesarea in northern Syria, edited and paraphrased by Derenbourg in the Publications de l'Ecole des langues orientales vivantes) presents the point of view of an Arab whose life covered the first century of the Crusades (1095-1188).
His anti-Arian polemic against Eusebius of Caesarea made him unpopular among his fellow-bishops in the East, and a synod convened at Antioch in 330 passed a sentence of deposition, which was confirmed by the emperor.
He took up the study of civil law, and, with his brother Athenodorus, was on his way to Berytus to complete his training when at Caesarea he met Origen, and became his pupil and then his convert (A.D.
It was before him and his sister Berenice (B.2) that St Paul pleaded his cause at Caesarea (Acts xxvi.).
The Nicene Creed of the liturgies, often called the Constantinopolitan creed, is the old baptismal creed of Jerusalem revised by the insertion of Nicene terms. The idea that the council merely added to the last section has been disproved by Hort's famous dissertation in 1876.3 The text of the creed of the Nicene Council was based on the creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, and a comparison of the four creeds side by side proves to demonstration their distinctness, in spite of the tendency of copyists to confuse and assimilate the forms.4 Creed of Eusebius, A.D.
Bibliography.-In addition to the early Greek writings already named, there are the forty books (some fifteen only extant in their entirety) of universal history compiled (about 8 B.C.) by Diodorus Siculus, and arranged in the form of annals; the Pentabiblos of Julius Africanus (about 220-230 A.D.); the treatise of Censorinus entitled De die natali, written 238 A.D.; the Chronicon, in two books, of Eusebius Pamphili, bishop of Caesarea (about 325 A.D.), distinguished as the first book of a purely chronological character which has come down to us; and three important works forming parts of the Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, namely, the Chronographia of Georgius Syncellus (800 A.D.), the Chronographia of Johannes Malalas (9th century), and the Chronicon Paschale.
For the 3rd, and especially the 4th and following centuries, the writers are much more numerous; for instance, in the East, Origen and his disciples, and later Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Apollinaris, Basil and the two Gregories, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Ephraim the Syrian, Cyril of Alexandria, Pseudo-Dionysius; in the West, Novatian, Cyprian, Commodian, Arnobius, Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, Jerome, Augustine, Prosper, Leo the Great, Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Faustus, Gennadius, Ennodius, Avitus, Caesarius, Fulgentius and many others.
65), burned by the Jews in revenge for the massacre at Caesarea, and again plundered and depopulated by Annius, the general of Vespasian; but, in spite of these disasters, it was still in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Christian era one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Palestine.
Caesariensis to the east of that river, the latter taking its name from the city Caesarea (formerly Iol), which Juba had thus named and adopted as his capital.
by the archdeacon Wibert (1615), Marcellinus and Idatius (1619), Anastasius the librarian (1620), Eusebius of Caesarea (1643), Hincmar (1645), Hrabanus Maurus (1647), Rufinus and Loup de Ferrieres (1650), &c., and above all his edition of the capitularies of Charles the Bald (Karoli Calvi et successorum aliquot Franciae regum capitula, 1623) and of the councils of ancient France (Concilia antiquae Galliae, 1629, 3 vols., new ed.
CAESAREA MAZACA (mod.
On learning of this, the Jews repaired to Caesarea and besought Pilate to remove these offensive images.
At this the Jews flocked to Caesarea, and were only restrained from a second outbreak by the execution of the soldier.
In Caesarea there had been for some time trouble between the Jewish and the Syrian inhabitants.
The result of this decision was that the synagogue at Caesarea was insulted on a Sabbath and the Jews left the city taking their books of the Law with them.
When the news of the troubles at Caesarea reached Jerusalem, it became known also that Florus had seized seventeen talents of the temple treasure (66).
Stung by this insult, he neglected the fire of war which had been lighted at Caesarea, and hastened to Jerusalem.
- Simultaneously with this massacre the citizens of Caesarea slaughtered the Jews who still remained there; and throughout Syria Jews effected - and suffered - reprisals.
Agrippa celebrated the conquest at Caesarea Philippi with festivities which lasted twenty days.
After the Passover he went to Caesarea, where he had games performed in honour of Claudius, and the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon waited on him to sue for peace.
There the bishops of Jerusalem and Caesarea received him in the most friendly manner, and got him to deli;per public lectures in the churches.
He settled in Caesarea, and very shortly he had a flourishing school there, whose reputation rivalled that of Alexandria.
Thus he was for two years together at Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he was overtaken by the Maximinian persecution; here he worked at his recension of the Bible.
The Hexapla was probably never fully written out, but excerpts were made from it by various scholars at Caesarea in the 4th century; and thus large sections of it have been saved.'
The principal apologetic work of Origen is his book Kara KeXuov (eight books), written at Caesarea in the time of Philip the Arabian.
In the 4th century Pamphilus, Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, the Cappadocians, Didymus, and Rufinus were on the side of Origen against the attacks of Methodius and many others.
At Caesarea Philippi dwelt the woman whom the Lord healed of an issue of blood (Matt.
With the hope of acquiring immense booty in the rich church of St Basil in Caesarea, the capital of Cappadocia, he placed himself at the head of the Turkish cavalry, crossed the Euphrates and entered and plundered that city.
The main army turned to the N.E., in the direction of Caesarea (in order to bring itself into touch with the Armenian princes of this district), and then marched southward again to Antioch.
At Marash, half way between Caesarea and Antioch, Baldwin, who had meanwhile wrested Tarsus from Tancred, rejoined the ranks; but he soon left the main body again, and struck eastward towards Edessa, to found a principality there.
was able to take Arsuf and Caesarea in 1101 and Acre in 1104.
In 1265 fell Caesarea and Arsuf; in 1268 Antioch was taken, and the principality of Bohemund and Tancred ceased to exist.
If Ephesians was written by Paul, it was during the period of his imprisonment, either at Caesarea or at Rome (iii.
He first appears (c. 357) as a supporter of Acacius, bishop of Caesarea, the leader of that party in the episcopate which supported the Homoean formula by which the emperor Constantius sought to effect a compromise between the Homoeusians and the Homousians.
Basil of Caesarea, throwing over the cause of Eustathius, championed that of Meletius who, when after the death of Valens he returned in triumph to Antioch, was hailed as the leader of Eastern orthodoxy.
All eyes in the East were now upon him; Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him; and on the 1st of July 69, while he was at Caesarea, he was proclaimed emperor, first by the army in Egypt, and then by his troops in Judaea.
The following towns have over 50,000 inhabitants each: Constantinople, 1,150,000; Smyrna, 250,000; Bagdad, 145,000; Damascus, 145,000; Aleppo, 122,000; Beirut, 118,000; Adrianople, 81,000; Brusa, 76,000; Jerusalem, 56,000; Caesarea Mazaca (Kaisarieh), 72,000; Kerbela, 65,000; Monastir, 53,000; Mosul, 61,000; Mecca, 60,000; Homs, 60,000; Sana, 58,000; Urfa, 55,000; and Marash, 52,000.
ARETHAS (c. 860-940), Byzantine theological writer and scholar, archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, was born at Patrae.
In Diocletian's great reform of the administrative system of the empire, the whole of Roman Africa, with the exception of Mauretania Tingitana (which was attached to the province of Spain), constituted a single diocese subdivided into six provinces: Zeugitana (Carthage), Byzacium (Hadrumetum, now Susa), Numidia Cirtensis (Cirta, Constantine), Tripolitana (Tripolis), Mauretania Sitifensis (Sitifis, Setif), and Mauretania Caesariensis (Caesarea, now Cherchel).
There he took another wife, as the Jewess allotted him by Vespasian after the fall of Caesarea had forsaken him, and returned to attend Titus and to act as intermediary between him and the Jews who still held Jerusalem.
Rome would be a more natural rendezvous for fugitivarii (runaway slaves) than Caesarea (Hilgenfeld and others), and it is probable that Paul wrote this note, with Philippians and Colossians, from the metropolis.
Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 5th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted.
Its importance is largely due to its situation on the great trade-route from Kaisarieh (Caesarea) by Yuzgat and Marzivan to Samsun on the Black Sea.
Paul is a prisoner when he writes, and the place of composition may therefore be Caesarea or Rome (Acts xxviii.
22) suits Rome better than Caesarea, and, while rpaLTCipeov (i.
Now at Caesarea this was out of the question.
The critical outlook of Philippians does not correspond with the position of the apostle at Caesarea, nor can the latter town be said to have been a centre of vigorous Christian propaganda (i.
Caesarea Mazaca >>
His festival (semiduplex) is observed by the Roman Catholic Church on the 17th of November, For the facts of his biography we have an outline of his early years in his eulogy on Origen, and incidental notices in the writings of Eusebius, of Basil of Caesarea and Jerome.
Sometimes he had to yield; as when he had sent the standards, by night, into the Holy City, and was besieged for five days by suppliants who had rushed to Caesarea (Jos.
It was in the East especially that preaching flourished: Eusebius of Caesarea, Eusebius of Emesa, Athanasius, Macarius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ephraem Syrus among the orthodox; and of the Arians, Arius himself and Ulfilas the great Gothic missionary, are all of high quality; but above even these stand out the three Cappadocians,Basil (q.v.) of Caesarea,cultured, devout and practical; his brother Gregory of Nyssa, more inclined to the speculative and metaphysical, and Gregory (q.v.) of Nazianzus, richly endowed with poetic and oratorial gifts, the finest preacher of the three.
Arsuf and Caesarea were captured in 1101; Acre in 1104; Beirut and Sidon in I I Io (the latter with the aid of the Venetians and Norwegians).
Creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, presented to the Nicene Council.
Barns, engaged specially in work upon the history of the creed of Cappadocia, points out the importance of the extraordinary influence of Firmilian of Caesarea in the affairs of the church of Antioch in the early part of the 3rd century.
After the surrender of Jerusalem `Amr began the siege of Caesarea, which, however, was brought to a successful end in September or October 640 by Moawiya, `Amr having obtained Omar's sanction for an expedition against Egypt.
A long line of houses called Caesarea connected it with Ravenna, and in process of time there was such a continuous series of buildings that the three towns seemed like one.
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