The president of the Republic has a military household, and the minister a cabinet, both of which are occupied chiefly with questions of promotion, patronage and decorations.
Fly down on Friday and we can put this whole thing in a file cabinet by the weekend.
She closed the cabinet door, troubled.
Then came the scandal of the decorations in which President Grevy's son-in-law Daniel Wilson figured, and the Rouvier cabinet fell in the attempt to screen the president.
She pointed to the cabinet near the sink.
She opened one cabinet, not surprised to see white bone china.
Baby Claire was often in evidence in our work place, sleeping on mother's arm or in her file cabinet remodeled crib, or supping on Martha's breast.
He tilted his head towards one cabinet in response.
Again, in 1902, he became minister of finance, after nearly ten years in exclusion from office, in the Radical cabinet of M.
Pushing the cabinet closed, she jumped to find the stranger so close.
She wrenched open the medicine cabinet for the most powerful of the drugs Dr. Mallard prescribed for her and slammed the cabinet shut.
He found a fifth of whiskey setting on the counter and opened half the cabinet doors before finding a glass.
Gerald got a couple of plates from the cabinet and two knives.
She went to a cabinet and returned with a metal tray and a knife.
"We must distinguish between the Vienna cabinet and the Emperor of Austria," said Mortemart.
She made a job of searching through the cabinet for the cat food and avoided his gaze as she handed him the box.
In the house, she removed her camping cookware from the cabinet and started scraping together some semblance of a meal.
She shut the cabinet door and hung the towel over the oven door handle to dry.
As she closed the cabinet door under the sink and straightened, gentle hands found her waist.
He moved away, and she released her breath, resting her head against the cabinet in relief.
"The Berlin cabinet cannot express a feeling of alliance," began Hippolyte gazing round with importance at the others, "without expressing... as in its last note... you understand...
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
The pilot light had gone out on the stove, so she took a match from the box in the cabinet and lit one of the candles.
His mother unlocked her cabinet and took the precious volume from its place of safe keeping.
She shrugged and turned to the cabinet, removing some paper plates.
The Emperor of Austria can never have thought of such a thing, it is only the cabinet that says it.
She bit back an order to leave her stuff alone but stopped herself, watching him go through her medicine cabinet for any additional drugs.
A matching china cabinet held fine china, crystal and silverware.
He detailed the man's selection of clothes and the contents of his medicine cabinet as he shaved.
She pursed her lips in a pout, and then jumped up to a music cabinet and opened a drawer.
He reappeared for a few months after General Pavia's coup d'Nat in January 1874, to join a coalition cabinet formed by Marshal Serrano, with Sagasta and Ulloa.
Carmen took a plate from the cabinet and put a spoonful of eggs in it.
In the Goblet ministry of1886-1887he was minister of public instruction, and in the Bourgeois cabinet of1895-1896he held the portfolio for foreign affairs.
At Greenwich an annual banquet of cabinet ministers, known as the whitebait dinner, formerly took place.
I nodded and grabbed five plates out of the cabinet and put them on the table.
It didn't take long for him to get home, and when he came in from the garage, he went directly to his gun cabinet and took out a rifle.
On the 15th of December, when Schmerling and the Austrian members had left the cabinet, Gagern became head of the imperial ministry, and on the 18th he introduced a programme (known as the Gagernsche Programm) according to which Austria was to be excluded from the new federal state, but bound to it by a treaty of union.
To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Wurttemberg museum of antiquities.
At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, and the imposition of an income-tax.
That is the actual phrase used by the Vienna cabinet, said the Danish charge d'affaires.
The museum of art comprises a picture gallery, a collection of casts of Thorvaldsen's works and a cabinet of engravings.
His relations with Cornelius Herz and the baron de Reinach compelled his retirement, however, from the Ribot cabinet at the time of the Panama scandals in December 1892.
Clemenceau to discredit the ministry, which gave place to a cabinet under the direction of M.
As she put the clean dishes from the dishwasher into the cabinet, she considered the situation.
At a cabinet meeting on June 5th it is said that M.
She left the bowl on the cabinet and settled into the chair, treating Alex to a wry smile.
Tucking it under her coat, she limped to the cabinet and drug out a few towels.
He then joined Gambetta's cabinet as minister of commerce and the colonies, and in the 1883-85 cabinet of Jules Ferry he held the same office.
He joined O'Donnell and Espartero in 1854 against a revolutionary cabinet, and shortly afterwards turned against O'Donnell to assist the Democrats and Progressists under Prim, Rivero, Castelar, and Sagasta in the unsuccessful movements of 1866, and was obliged to go abroad.
She opened the antique music cabinet Jackson had purchased for her, and brought a piece to him.
I'll get it, Dan said, crossing to the kitchen, where one whole cabinet was filled with medical supplies.
In this cabinet he at first held the ministry of finance.
In his initial declaration to the chamber the new premier had declared his intention of continuing the policy of the late cabinet, pledging the new ministry to a policy of conciliation, to the consideration of old age pensions, an income-tax, separation of Church and State.
Eluding the surveillance of the Italian cruisers, he returned to Florence, and, with the complicity of the second Rattazzi cabinet, entered Roman territory at Passo Corese on the 23rd of October.
An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.
Only baby Claire who slept soundly in her file cabinet crib was truly content.
She watched him for a moment then crossed to the nearest cabinet.
Dan exclaimed happily, pulling chocolate out of the cabinet.
With meticulous care, Justin dried it and stored it in the cabinet.
The letter from the auto insurance company lay abandoned on the kitchen cabinet.
Her knees buckled and hit the cabinet.
He tucked the pan into the cabinet.
And no dust, even in the cabinet.
Dusty shouted as a chunk of stone crushed a stainless steel cabinet.
He paused in the dining room doorway, watching as Carmen stretched to put a glass in the cabinet.
At last he moved around the desk to a dark corner and withdrew a crystal carafe from a locked cabinet.
Brady recognized him—he was another high-ranking politician in the President's cabinet.
The head of the cabinet prepares for the consideration of the minister all the business of the navy, especially questions of general importance.
He became by a singular arrangement, only repeated in the case of Lord Ellenborough, a member of the cabinet, and remained in that position through various changes of administration for nearly fifteen years, and, although he persistently refused the chancellorship, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords while the Great Seal was in commission.
The country is rich in hard woods, suitable for cabinet work and certain building purposes.
In marked contrast to his predecessor, he left administrative responsibility to the members of his Cabinet.
Meaning in general the "king's court," it is difficult to define the curia regis with precision, but it is important and interesting because it is the germ from which the higher courts of law, the privy council and the cabinet, have sprung.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
In 1783, although he declined to re-enter the cabinet, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords.
The cabinet noir has now disappeared, but the right to open letters in cases of emergency appears still to be retained by the French government; and a similar right is occasionally exercised in England under the direction of a secretary of state, and, indeed, in all civilized countries.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
Ultimately he rose to high rank in the newly organized imperial government, but in 1873 he retired from the cabinet by way of protest against its decision not to take armed action against Korea.
The Turkestan Committee elects a small council, forming a kind of cabinet and having control of the different branches of the administration.
In 1806 he was appointed secretary and archivist to the cabinet particulier of the emperor, whom he attended on his campaigns and journeys.
He was created a baron of the empire in 1809, and, on the fall of Napoleon, was first secretary of the cabinet and confidential secretary.
Immediately after the overthrow of Charles X., King Louis Philippe appointed Fain first secretary of his cabinet (August 1830).
Seward himself, apparently sharing these views, although not out of vanity, at first possessed an unbounded confidence in his ability to influence the president and his cabinet.
Finding himself overruled by the war party in the cabinet, on the 1st of April 1861, Seward suggested a war of all America against most of Europe, with himself as the director of the enterprise.
Seward gradually regained his health, and remained in the cabinet of President Johnson until the expiration of his term in 1869.
Upon Andrew Jackson's election to the presidency, the Telegraph became the principal mouthpiece of the administration, and received printing patronage estimated in value at $50,000 a year, while Green became one of the coterie of unofficial advisers of Jackson known as the "Kitchen Cabinet."
(cabinet ed., 5 vols., London, 1892).
Immured in his castle at Pavia, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical economy, he organized the mercenary troops who eagerly took service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy with conquest.
The Mamiani ministry having failed to achieve anything, Pius summoned Pellegrino Rossi, a learned lawyer who had long been exiled in France, to form a cabinet.
He ended by dominating the cabinet, but owing to his having negotiated a union of the Right Centre and the Left Centre (the Con nubio) in the conviction that the country needed the moderate elements of both parties, he quarrelled with DAzeglio (who, as an uncompromising conservative, failed to see the value of such a move) and resigned.
The Ricasoli cabinet fell over the law against the religious houses, and was succeeded R ~ ~ by that of Rattazzi, who with the support of the Left ~flinistiy.
As finance minister in the Rattazzi cabinet of that year he had been confronted with a public debt of nearly 120,000,000, and with an immediate deficit of nearly 18,000,000.
In 1864, as minister in the La Marmora cabinet, he had again to face an excess of expenditure over income amounting to more that 14,600,000.
Ferrara, successor of Scialoja, met a like fate; but Count Cambray-Digny, finance minister in the Menabrea cabinet of 1868-1869, driven to find means to cover a deficit aggravated by the interest on the Venetian debt, succeeded, with Sellas help, in forcing a Grist Tax Bill through parliament, though in a form of which Sella could not entirely approve.
In the spring of 1873 it became evident that the days of the Lanza-Sella cabinet were numbered.
Sella, the real head of the Lanza cabinet, was worn out by four years continuous work and disheartened by the perfidious misrepresentation in which Italian politicians, particularly those of the Left, have ever excelled.
Practically, therefore, the Right, of which the Minghetti cabinet was the last representative administration, left Italian finance with a surplus of 80,000.
More noteworthy than its management of internal affairs were the efforts of the Minghetti cabinet to strengthen and consolidate national defence.
At the same time the cabinet, as a whole, brought in a Clerical Abuses Bill, threatening with severe punishment priests guilty of disturbing the peace of families, of opposing the laws of the state, or of fomenting disorder.
The first general election under the Left (November 1876) had yielded the cabinet the overwhelming majority of 421 Ministerialists against 87 Conservatives, but the very size of the majority rendered it unmanageable.
Successes achieved in those provinces failed, however, to save Nicotera from the wrath of the Chamber, and on the 14th of December 1877 a cabinet crisis arose over a question concerning the secrecy of telegraphic correspondence.
Even the coup detat of the 16th of May 1877 (when Macmahon dismissed the Jules Simon cabinet for opposing the Clerical petition) hardly availed to change the attitude of Depretis.
The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet (December 1877) placed at the ministry of the interior a strong hand and sure eye at a moment when they were about to become im- CHspi.
The Depretis-Crispi cabinet did not long survive the opening of the new reign.
Though the cabinet had no stable majority, it induced the Chamber to sanction a commercial treaty which had been negotiated with France and a general autonomous customs tariff.
These events disposed both Bonaparte and the British cabinet towards peace.
On the 4th of April the Addington cabinet made proposals with a view to compensation.
Sicily he was determined to have, and that too despite of all the efforts of the Fox-Grenville cabinet to satisfy him in every other direction.
The tsar indignantly repudiated a treaty which his envoy, Oubril, had been tricked into signing at Paris; and the Fox-Grenville cabinet (as also its successor) refused to bargain away Sicily.
He was transferred to the sinecure office of the Duchy of Lancaster, but held it only till Nov., when, on the appointment of a small war committee of the Cabinet from which he was excluded, he resigned, being unwilling to accept a position of general responsibility for war policy if he had no effective control.
The fall of Cairoli, and the formation of a second Depretis cabinet in 1878, brought no substantial change in the attitude of the government towards Irredentism, nor was the position improved by the return of Cairoli to power in the following July.
On 12th July Cairoli formed a new administration, only to resign on 24th November, and to reconstruct his cabinet with the help of Depretis.
Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
Depretis then succeeded in recomposing the Cairoli cabinet without Cairoli, Mancini being placed at the foreign office.
A vote of the Italian Chamber on the 4th of February 1887, in connection with the disaster to Italian troops at Dogali, in Abyssinia, brought about the resignation of the Depretis-Robilant cabinet.
No concession could be denied to deputies, or groups of deputiec, whose support was indispensable to the life of the cabinet, nor, under such conditions, was it possible to place any effective check upon administrative abuses in which politicians or their electors were interested.
This process of transformation was not exclusively the work of Depretis, but had been initiated as early as 1873, when a portion of the Right under Minghetti had, by joining the Left, overturned the Lanza-Sella cabinet.
In May 1883 this procesl received official recognition by the elimination of the Radical~ Zanardelli and Baccarini from the Depretis cabinet, while ir the course of 1884 a Conservative, Signor Biancheri, was elected to the presidency of the Chamber, and another Conservative, General Ricotti, appointed to the War Office.
commerce at Genoa had urged the Lanza cabinet to establish a commercial depot on the Red Sea.
The resignation of the Gladstone-Granville cabinet further precluded the projected Italian occupation of Suakin, and the Italians, wisely refraining from an independent attempt to succour Kassala, then besieged by the Mahdists, bent their efforts to the increase of their zone of occupation around Massawa.
In Italy the disaster of Dogali produced consternation, and caused the fall of the Depretis-Robilant cabinet.
The entry of Crispi into the Depretis cabinet as minister of the interior (4th April 1887) introduced into the government an element of vigour which had Cabinet, long been lacking.
Crispi, burdened by the premiership and by the two most important portfolios in the cabinet, was, however, unable to exercise efficient control over all departments of state.
The general election of 1890 gave the cabinet an almost unwieldy majority, comprising four-fifths of the Chamber.
The rebuke infuriated the Conservative deputies, who, protesting against Crispis words in the name of the sacred memories of their party, precipitated a division and placed the cabinet in a minority.
A few days later he was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di Rudini, leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with Nicotera and a part of the Left.
Shortly before the fall of the Depretis-Robilant cabinet Count Robilant had announced the intention of Italy to denounce the commercial treaties with France and Austria, which would lapse en the 31st of December 1887, and had intimated his readiness to negotiate new treaties.
On the 24th of June 1887, in view of a possible rupttire of commercial relations with France, the Depretis-Crispi cabinet introduced a new general tariff.
How great had been Crispis power was seen by contrast with the policy of the Rudini cabinet which succeeded him in February 1891.
On the I4th of April 1892 dissensions between ministers concerning the financial programme led to a cabinet crisis, and though Rudini succeeded in reconstructing his administration, he was defeated in the Chamber on the 5th of May and obliged to resign.
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
The report, however, sealed the fate of the Giolitti cabinet, and on the 24th of November it resigned amid general execration.
Baron Sidney Sonnino, minister of finance in the Crispi cabinet, found a prospective deficit of 7,080,000, and in spite of economies was obliged to face an actual deficit of more than 6,ooo,000.
These proposals met with opposition so fierce as to cause a cabinet crisis, but Sonnino who resigned office as minister of finance~
When the Crispi cabinet fell in March 1896 Sonnino had the satisfaction of seeing revenue increased by ~3, 400,000, expenditure diminished by 2,800,000, the gold premium reduced from 16 to 5%, consolidated stock at 95 instead of 72, and, notwithstanding the expenditure necessitated by the Abyssinian War, financial equilibrium practically restored.
Whether he or the Crispi cabinet had any inklinf of the enterprise to which they were committed by the occupa tion of Tigr is more than.
The home administration of the Rudini cabinet compared unfavourably with that of foreign affairs.
when Zanardelli entered the cabinet, it was reconstructed for a third time at the end of May 1898 upon the question.
The Pelloux cabinet possessed no clear programme except in regard to the Public Safety Bill, which it had taken over from its predecessor.
The general election of June 1900 not only failed to reinforce the cabinet, but largely increased the strength of the extreme parties (Radicals, Republicans and Socialists), who in the new Chamber numbered nearly 100 out of a total of 508.
Shortly afterwards his term of office was brought to a close by the failure of an attempt to secure for Italy a coaling station at Sanmen and a sphere of influence in China; but his policy of active participation in Chinese affairs was continued in a modified form by his successor, the Marquis Visconti Venosta, who, entering the reconstructed Pelloux cabinet in May 1899, retained the portfolio of foreign affairs in the ensuing Saracco administration, and secured the despatch of an Italian expedition, 2000 strong, to aid in repressing the Chinese outbreak and in protecting Italian interests in the Far East (July 1900).
Upon the fall of the Saracco cabinet (9th February 1901) Visconti Venosta was succeeded at the foreign office by Signor Prinetti, a Lombard manufacturer of strong temperament, but without previous diplomatic experience.
The Saracco administration, formed after the obstructionist crisis of 1899190o as a cabinet of transition and pacification, was ganar- overthrown in February 1901 in consequence of its dciii-.
thoiitti It was succeeded by a Zanardelli cabinet, in which the cabinet, portfolio of the interior was allotted to Giolitti.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
In spite of its majority the Giolitt cabinet, realizing that it had lost its hold over the country resigned in March 1905.
Even this cabinet was still-born, and a hostile vote in the Chamber on the 3oth of January 1906 brought about its fall.
For this unfortunate combination Signor Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support among men who had professed hostility to the existing order of things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme Left and make the public realize that the reddest of Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments.
In November Signor Gianturco died, and Signor Pietro Bertolini took his place as minister of public works; the latter proved perhaps the ablest member of the cabinet, but the acceptance of office under Giolitti of a man who had been one of the most trusted and valuable lieutenants of Signor Sonnino marked a further step in the dgringolade of that statesmans party, and was attributed to the fact that Signor Bertolini resented not having had a place in the late Sonnino ministry.
On the 23rd of February 1820, at a time of great distress and during the unrest caused by the death of George III., the cabinet ministers had arranged to dine at the earl of Harrowby's house in Grosvenor Square.
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
In 1884 he pleaded eloquently in the House of Magnates for the establishment of civil marriage, and in 1888 was Minister of Education in the Cabinet of Koloman Tisza.
He refused the naval portfolio in Jefferson's cabinet.
He was under-secretary for home affairs in the Floquet ministry of 1888, and resigned with it in 1889, being then returned to the chamber for Reims. In the Tirard ministry, which succeeded, he was minister of the interior, and subsequently, on the 18th of March 1890, minister of public instruction in the cabinet of M.
Loubet's cabinet in 1892, and was minister of justice under M.
In November 1895 he himself formed a cabinet of a pronouncedly radical type, the main interest of which was attached to its fall, as the result of a constitutional crisis arising from the persistent refusal of the senate to vote supply.
As minister of public instruction in the Brisson cabinet of 1898 he organized courses for adults in primary education.
In 1905 he replaced the duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier as senator for the department of Marne, and in May 1906 became minister of foreign affairs in the Sarrien cabinet.
He supported Harrison in the presidential campaign of 5840, and when the cabinet was reconstructed by Tyler in 1841, Legate was appointed attorneygeneral of the United States.
When Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet was formed in December 1905 he became foreign minister, and he retained this office when in April 1908 Mr Asquith became prime minister.
His elder daughter married a cabinet minister, but, as he was not a noble, this did not confer on her the right to go to court.
Stamboloff, pursued systematically an anti-Russian policy, but the cabinet of St Petersburg confined itself officially to breaking off diplomatic relations and making diplomatic protests, and unofficially to giving tacit encouragement to revolutionary agitation.
With this view, the cabinet of St Petersburg, at the close of the Chino-Japanese War in 18 9 5, objected to all annexations by Japan in that quarter, and insisted on having the treaty of Shimonoseki modified accordingly.
Convinced that the onward march of the Colossus could not be permanently arrested by mere diplomatic conventions, the cabinet of Tokio suddenly broke off diplomatic relations and commenced hostilities (February 8, 1 9 04).
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
Garfield as president, and was offered by him a place in his cabinet; but this he declined, having been elected a member of the United States Senate, in which he took his seat on the 4th of March 1881.
In July 1896 he resumed the portfolio of war in the Rudini cabinet, and was appointed senator.
Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the interior.
He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative.
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promulgated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, and to resign office after the general election in June.
In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king of Bavaria the civil order of merit.
He served as judge of the Superior Court (1865-72), as secretary of war (1876) and as attorneygeneral of the United States (1876-77) in President Grant's cabinet; and as minister to Austria-Hungary (1882-84) and to Russia (1884-85) .
Yielding, however, to the urgent request of the president and his cabinet, he accepted and served from the 13th of March 1900 to the 1st of February 1904.
From 1 794 until his death he declined in succession the following offices: United States senator (1794), secretary of state in Washington's cabinet (1795), chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1795), governor of Virginia (1796), to which office he had been elected by the Assembly, and envoy to France (1799).
He was secretary of the navy in President Tyler's cabinet (1844-1845), and was attorney-general (1845-1846) and secretary of the navy (1846-1849), succeeding George Bancroft, under President Polk.
66-68 (Cabinet edition, 5 vols., London, 1892).
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
After the modification of the Pelloux cabinet (May 1899) he became leader of the ministerial majority, and bore the brunt of the struggle against Socialist obstruction in connexion with the Public Safety Bill.
Upon the formation of the Zanardelli cabinet (Feb.
The bill presented by his Cabinet on this subject, vas open to much criticism, having been designed to conciliate conflicting political interests rather than to solve the actual problem.
The vigorous attacks of the Opposition, led by Baron Sonnino, induced Giolitti to adjourn the debate until the autumn, when, the Cabinet having been defeated on a point of procedure, he resigned (Dec. 2).
The chief event of his fourth Cabinet was the Libyan War.
When peace was concluded fresh elections were held on the new franchise law introduced by the Cabinet, which raised the electorate from 3,000,000 to 8,000,000 votes (Oct.
When the World War broke out his attitude was favourable to the absolute neutrality of Italy, believing that his country's interests lay in not siding with either group of belligerents, and on the eve of Italian intervention he made an attempt, by using his personal hold over the Parliamentary majority, to upset the Salandra Cabinet, but it was frustrated by an uprising of public opinion in favour of war.
After the Armistice the unsatisfactory consequences of the peace negotiations, the heavy burden of suffering and loss caused by the war, and, above all, the intolerable internal policy of the Nitti Cabinet, brought about the return of Giolitti to the sphere of practical politics once more.
He succeeded in forming a Cabinet which comprised a number of non-Giolittians of all parties, but only a few of his own "old guard," so that he won the support of a considerable part of the Chamber, although the Socialists and the Popolari (Catholics) rendered his hold somewhat precarious.
But he resigned with his Cabinet at the end of June, being succeeded as Premier by Signor Bonomi.
A fair proportion of Jews have been elected to the House of Commons, and Mr Herbert Samuel rose to cabinet rank in 1909.
Straus) has been a member of the cabinet.
A triennial parliament, a cabinet, a privy council, and an elaborate judicial system were established, and the cumbrous machinery was placed in the hands of a " prime minister," a retired Wesleyan missionary, Mr Shirley Baker.
On the 15th of May 1870 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in the 0111vier cabinet, and was thus largely, though not entirely, responsible for the bungling of the negotiations between France and Prussia arising out of the candidature of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern for the throne of Spain, which led to the disastrous war of 1870-71.
The famous declaration read by Gramont in the Chamber on the 6th of July, the "threat with the hand on the sword-hilt," as Bismarck called it, was the joint work of the whole cabinet; the original draft presented by Gramont was judged to be too "elliptical" in its conclusion and not sufficiently vigorous; the reference to a revival of the empire of Charles V.
The high commissioner is aided in the administration by a cabinet of three members, styled " councillors " (utµ ovXoe), who superintend the departments of justice, finance, education, public security and the interior.
The cabinet of Athens, however, declined to recall the expeditionary force, which remained in the interior till the 9th of May, when, after the Greek reverses in Thessaly and Epirus, an order was given for its return.
The natural products include fine cabinet and construction woods, rubber, fruit, palm oil and fibres.
When Mr. Asquith formed the first Coalition Ministry in 1915, he included Mr. Henderson in the Cabinet as President of the Board of Education, and also adviser of the Government on Labour questions arising out of the World War.
He followed up this action by strongly urging the Labour party to rally in Dec. 1916 to Mr. Lloyd George, and by accepting himself the position of an original member of the War Cabinet of four without portfolio.
He returned with these ideas to England, and, being still secretary of the Labour party as well as a member of the War Cabinet, used his influence as secretary to promote British Labour participation in the Conference.
In March he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of Commerce, stipulating that he be allowed to carry out his European relief work, already begun.
districts, as well as the greater part of the Sierra Alta, are destitute of large trees; but the coast-lands on both sides towards Tabasco and British Honduras enjoy a sufficient rainfall to support forests containing the mahogany tree, several valuable cabinet woods, vanilla, logwood and other dye-woods.
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
In 1921 he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of War.
In 1861 he was a member of the Texas secession convention, served in the Confederate provisional Congress, and on the 6th of March was appointed postmaster-general in President Davis's cabinet.
In January 1768, offended by the growing influence of the Bedford faction which joined the government, Conway resigned the seals of office, though he was persuaded by the king to remain a member of the cabinet and "Minister of the House of Commons."
When, however, Lord North became premier in 1770, Conway resigned from the cabinet and was appointed to the command of the royal regiment of horse guards; and in 1772 he became governor of Jersey, the island being twice invaded by the French during his tenure of command.
In the Rockingham government that followed General Conway became commander-in-chief with a seat in the cabinet; and he retained office under Shelburne when Rockingham died a few months later.
Subsequently from March 1849 to July 1850 he was a member of President Taylor's cabinet as the first secretary of the newly established department of the interior.
He kept in touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as 'chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.
In 1845 he supported Peel when in a divided cabinet he proposed to suspend the duty on foreign corn, and left office with that minister in July 1846.
Although united on free trade and in general on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign policy.
The first year of office passed off successfully, and it was owing to the steady support of the prime minister that Gladstone's great budget of 1853 was accepted by the cabinet.
Rightly or wrongly, however, he held that Russell was indispensable to the cabinet, and that a resignation would precipitate war.
The Government, however, soon realized that his help was essential in the critical state of the country, and he became Minister of Public Works in Todorov's Cabinet.
In April 1920 the Cabinet was reconstructed, Stamboliiski remaining as Premier, Minister for War and of Foreign Affairs in a Cabinet composed entirely of his own followers.
John Tyler, who succeeded to the presidency, was soon "read out of his party," and all his cabinet except Webster resigned.
Immediately after the treaty had been concluded the Whigs insisted that Webster should leave the cabinet.
In July 1859 Webster again became secretary of state, in the cabinet of President Fillmore.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
When in October 1761 Pitt, who had information of the signing of the "Family Compact" wished to declare war on Spain, and declared his intention to resign unless his advice was accepted, Granville replied that "the opinion of the majority (of the Cabinet) must decide."
1908, for instance, he rebuked Lord Cromer for uttering grave words of warning, and ridiculed the bare possibility of an Anglo-German conflict in arms. Early in 1909 he had assisted Mr. Lloyd George in the Cabinet in his unsuccessful endeavour to cut down Mr.
Moreover, factional strife broke out within the party itself; Adams and Hamilton became alienated, and members of Adams's own cabinet virtually looked to Hamilton rather than to the president as their political chief.
The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton's adherents in the cabinet.
Above the senate and the Ten came the Collegio or cabinet, the administrative branch of the constitution.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
The promise frequently made by Republican campaign leaders that Mr. Harding would surround himself with advisers of capacity and experience, seemed to be fulfilled by his choice of Cabinet members.
He was a member of the lower house of the Ohio legislature in 1821, 1822 and 1829, and of the national House of Representatives from 1831 to 1840; was governor of Ohio in 1840-1842; served in the United States Senate from 1845 to 1850; was secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of President Fillmore in 1850-1853; was again a member of the national House of Representatives from 1859 to 1861; and from 1861 to 1864 was minister of the United States to Mexico - a position of peculiar difficulty at that time.
When, after this contest, Jefferson became president (1801), there were two men whose commanding abilities marked them for the first places in the cabinet.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
For his administration in the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet see A.
Bibb (1772-1859), secretary of the treasury (1844-1845) in President Tyler's cabinet; William B.
1855), a prominent political leader, secretary of the interior in President Cleveland's cabinet in 1893-1896, and later governor of Georgia, was long the proprietor; and the Georgian (evening), founded in 1906 as a Prohibition organ.
His interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot.
In 1886 he was made under secretary for foreign affairs; in 1892 he joined the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; in 1894 he was president of the Board of Trade, and acted as chairman of the royal commission on secondary education; and in Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet (1905) he was made chief secretary for Ireland; but in February 1907 he was appointed British ambassador at Washington, and took leave of party politics, his last political act being a speech outlining what was then the government scheme for university reform in Dublin - a scheme which was promptly discarded by his successor Mr Birrell.
He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
He held the same portfolio in the first Freycinet ministry (1879-1880) and in the Jules Ferry cabinet (1880-1881).
He was minister of commerce in Freycinet's second cabinet (1882), of finance under E.
Rouvier in the Ribot cabinet (1892-1893) as minister of finance, and died in Paris on the 4th of November 1893.
He was treasurer of the Republican national committee from 1892 to 1904, and was secretary of the interior in President McKinley's cabinet from 1897 to 1899.
In 1894 he obtained cabinet rank as minister of marine in the administration of M.
The British government (the Asquith cabinet) came to the conclusion that another expedition against the mullah would be useless; that they must either build a railway, make roads and effectively occupy the whole of the protectorate, or else abandon the interior completely.
The capital of the province is Edmonton, and here reside the lieutenant-governor and cabinet.
About the same time he wrote for the Cabinet Cyclopaedia a "History of England from the Earliest Times to the Final Establishment of the Reformation."
If the plants are subjected to some process, before mounting, by which injurious organisms are destroyed, such as exposure in a closed chamber to vapour of carbon bisulphide for some hours, the presence of pieces of camphor or naphthalene in the cabinet will be found a sufficient preservative.
There are at least forty choice cabinet and building woods.
The president of the Republic, who is elected for four years by an electoral college, and cannot hold office for more than two successive terms, has a cabinet whose members he may appoint and remove freely, their number being determined by law.
The senate is the court of trial for the president, officers of the cabinet, and provincial governors when accused of political offences.
The house of representatives, whose members are chosen directly by the citizens for four years, one-half retiring every two years, has the special power of impeaching the president and cabinet officers.
In temporal matters the sultan is a constitutional monarch, advised by a cabinet formed of executive ministers who are the heads of the various departments of state, and who are responsible to the elected Turkish parliament.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
Then, from 1891 to 1903, by what was practically a new charter, that which is known as the "federal plan" of government was tried; this centred power in the mayor by making him almost the only elective officer, by giving to him the appointment of his cabinet of directors - one for the head of each of the six municipal departments - and to each director the appointment of his subordinates.
After abolishing the cabinet council system in favour during the rule of the two Annes, and reconstituting the senate as it had been under Peter the Great, - with the chiefs of the departments of state, all of them now Russians again, as ex-officio members under the presidency of the sovereign, - the first care of the new empress was to compose her quarrel with Sweden.
Out of the total area of over 3,000,000,000 acres of land in Siberia, close upon 96% belong to the state, while the cabinet of the reigning emperor owns 114,700,000 acres (112,300,000 in the Altai and 2,400,000 in Nerchinsk) or nearly 4%.
Similar Materials for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the emperor, and for Irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc., Irkutsk, 1889-1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), summed up in Transbaikalia, by N.
He was a member of all the bodies formed to promote the Federation of Australia as well as of the delegation which proceeded to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill in 1 9 o° and, as Attorney-General, he was included in Sir Edmund Barton's first Federal " Cabinet of the Captains " (1901-3), succeeding him as Premier of Australia.
He had already, in 1808, removed from Kinderhook to Hudson, and in 1816 he took up his residence in Albany, where he continued to reside until he entered Jackson's cabinet in 1829.
But on the 5th of March he was appointed by President Jackson secretary of state, an office which probably had been assured to him before the election, and he resigned the governorship. As secretary of state he took care to keep on good terms with the "kitchen cabinet," the group of politicians who acted as Jackson's advisers, and won the lasting regard of Jackson by his courtesies to Mrs John H.
Eaton, wife of the secretary of war, with whom the wives of the cabinet officers had refused to associate.
He announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor," took over all but one of Jackson's cabinet, and met with statesmanlike firmness the commercial crisis of 1837, already prepared for before he took office.
Meierovich received from the British Cabinet a favourable reply to his appeal of Oct.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
The question of the rights of the national minorities and the enforcement of the Land Act were among the problems of the day that led on June 3 1921 to the fall of the Cabinet of Ulmanis.
A supporter of Cavour until the latter's death he joined the party of Rattazzi and became under-secretary of state for public works in the Rattazzi cabinet of 1862.
In November 1898 he was elected president of the senate, and in June 1900 succeeded in forming a "Cabinet of pacification" after the Obstructionist crisis which had caused the downfall of General Pelloux.
After his fall he resumed his functions as president of the senate; but on the advent of the third Giolitti cabinet, he was not reappointed to that position.
He resigned the premiership on the 27th of April 1909, but was not finally relieved of his office until the formation of the KhuenHedervary cabinet on the 17th of January 1910.
The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
The export of cabinet woods is not large, considering the forest area of Brazil and the variety and quality of the woods.
The supreme powers of the nation are vested in three partially independent branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - represented by the president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a supreme tribunal.
The president is advised and assisted by a cabinet of six ministers, viz.
His speech in 1835 in support of the motion for inquiry into the Irish Church temporalities with a view to their partial appropriation for national purposes (for disestablishment was not then dreamed of as possible) contains much terse argument, and no doubt contributed to the fall of Peel and the formation of the Melbourne cabinet.
In 1853 he accepted the position of secretary of war in the cabinet of President Pierce, and for four years performed the duties of the office with great distinction and with lasting benefit to the nation.
At the end of his service in the cabinet, he was returned to the Senate.
The action of the British cabinet caused both astonishment and indignation throughout South Africa and in the other selfgoverning states of the empire.
In August 1903 the Hime ministry resigned and was succeeded by a cabinet under the premiership of Mr (afterwards Sir) George Sutton, the founder of the wattle industry in Natal and one of the pioneers in the coal-mining industry.
In a frank, cordial letter which was delivered to Cobden on his landing in Liverpool, Lord Palmerston offered him the presidency of the Board of Trade, with a seat in the Cabinet.
These views met with some degree of consideration at Vienna, and Palacky was even offered a portfolio in the Pillersdorf cabinet.
The executive power is vested in a responsible cabinet, consisting of ten ministers, namely, the president of the council, the minister of the interior, of national defence, of education and public worship, of finance, The franchise is " probably the most illiberal in Europe."
In the Hungarian diet, which met on the 2nd of July, the influence of the conservative cabinet was wholly overshadowed by that of Kossuth, whose inflammatory orations - directed against the disruptive designs of the Sla y s and the treachery of the Austrian government - precipitated the crisis.
These benefits the nation owed for the most part to Gabor Baross, Hungary's greatest finance minister, who entered the cabinet in 1886 and greatly strengthened it.
extra-parliamentary ministry, and on the 21st of June Baron Fejervary, an officer in the royal bodyguard, was nominated minister president with a cabinet consisting of little- Fejervary known permanent officials.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
Y, 9 P ?, PP ment of a Coalition cabinet 2 under Dr Sandor Wekerle was announced, the world was taken completely by surprise.
2 The cabinet consisted of Dr Wekerle (premier and finance), Ferencz Kossuth (commerce), Count Gyula Andrassy (interior), 'Count Albert Apponyi (education), Davanyi (agriculture), Polonyi ((justice) and Count Aladar Zichy (court).
In these circumstances the king sent for Dr Laszlo Lukacs, once finance - minister in the Fejervary cabinet, whose task was, acting as a.
The matter was urgent; for parliament was to meet on the 28th, and it was important that a new cabinet, acceptable to it, should be appointed before that date, or that the Houses should be prorogued pending such appointment; otherwise the delegations would be postponed and no credits would be voted for the cost of the new Austro-Hungarian " Dreadnoughts " and of the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.
After much negotiation a new cabinet was finally constituted on the 17th of January 1910.
But Pasic, free from the restraints of a coalition and from all parliamentary control, had reverted to his original pan-Serb standpoint, and steadily declined to reconstruct his Cabinet on a wider Yugoslav basis.
Trumbic on his part could not enter a purely Serbian Cabinet without prejudicing that freedom of choice of his compatriots in the Dual Monarchy, upon which the moral case of the Yugosla y s depended.
The repeated efforts made by Pasic to avert so distasteful a decision were held to disqualify him from the leadership of the new united Cabinet, but in order to secure his renunciation it was found necessary to exclude the other party chiefs.
The first Yugoslav Cabinet was constituted ?tinder Protic as Premier and Father Korosec as vice-Premier: Trumbic became foreign minister, and the other portfolios were diyided more or less equally between Serbia and the new territories.
By the close of the year the situation had become so envenomed that Bissolati, the foremost Italian advocate of conciliation, found it necessary to withdraw from the Orlando Cabinet, and on Jan.
12, the very day on which American and British police were to be installed, D'Annunzio and his Arditi occupied the town, with the open connivance of the Italian naval and military authorities though to the embarrassment of the Roman Cabinet.
At last on April 25 Trumbic, having obtained the special sanction of the Belgrade Cabinet, informed Nitti of his readiness to negotiate, and a meeting between the two statesmen did actually take place at.Pallanza on May in: the commercial experts had already reached agreement.
But the prospect of a settlement roused the Italian Nationalists to a final effort: the Nitti Cabinet fell, and D'Annunzio, repeating his defiance of Europe, attempted a further raid upon Dalmatia.
Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.
In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save the bank of Naples from failure.
He was again minister of the treasury from November 1903 to March 1905 in Giolitti's second administration, and for the third time from February to May 1906, under Sonnino's premiership. During the latter term of office he achieved the conversion of the Italian 5% debt (reduced to 4% by the tax) to 31% to be eventually lowered to 32%, an operation which other ministers had attempted without success; although the actual conversion was not completed until after the fall of the cabinet of which he formed part the merit is entirely his.
In 1878 Lord Carnarvon resigned, and there were other evidences of dissension in the British cabinet.
Sir Michael, however, in a despatch dated September the 16th 1878, reiterated the intention of the British cabinet to grant the state " to the utmost practicable extent, its individuality and powers of self-government under the sovereignty of the queen."
Negotiations had been opened with the Boers before the attack on Majuba and the British cabinet refused to allow that disaster to influence their action.
In later years, when the Boers desired to regard the whole of this convention (and not merely the articles) as cancelled by the London Convention of 1884, and with it the suzerainty, which was only mentioned in the preamble, Mr Chamberlain, a member of the cabinet of 1880-1885, pointed out that if the preamble to this instrument were considered cancelled, so also would be the grant of self-government.
Sir Alfred Milner urged the home government strongly to insist upon a minimum of reform, and primarily the five years' franchise; and Mr Chamberlain, backed by the cabinet, adopted the policy of the high commissioner.
Certain departmental details were despatched to South Africa to form a working nucleus for military bases, and early in September the cabinet sanctioned the despatch to Natal from India of a mixed force, 5600 strong, while two battalions were ordered to South Africa from the Mediterranean.
He lost heart, and actually suggested to White the surrender of Ladysmith, believing this to be inevitable and desiring to cover White's responsibility in that event with his own authority; but White replied that he did not propose to surrender, and the cabinet at home, aware of Buller's despondency, appointed Field Marshal Lord Roberts to the supreme command, with MajorGeneral Lord Kitchener as his chief of staff.
(See further, South Africa: History, § D.) Sir Richard Solomon, 3 it was thought, might have formed a coalition cabinet, but he was among the defeated candidates.
These were all men of progressive, in some respects democratic, views, and in thus forming his cabinet General Botha showed his determination not to be dominated by the " back veld " Boers.
Though an ardent supporter of the historic Right, and, as such, entrusted by the Lanza cabinet with the defence of the law of guarantees in 1870, he was no respecter of persons, his caustic tongue sparing neither friend nor foe.
In Gambetta's cabinet (1881-1882) he was minister of the fine arts, and in the Chamber of Deputies he was regularly commissioned to draw up the budget for the fine arts, after the separate department had ceased to exist.
The whole of the information is easily contained in one cabinet of very ordinary dimensions, and most ingeniously contrived so as to make the most of the space and facilitate the search.
The executive power is vested by the constitution in a presi dent, two vice-presidents and a cabinet of ministers.
In 1866 he refused to enter the Ricasoli cabinet; in 1867 he worked to impede the Garibaldian invasion of the papal states, foreseeing the French occupation of Rome and the disaster of Mentana.
On the outbreak of the Franco-German War he worked energetically to impede the projected alliance with France, and to drive the Lanza cabinet to Rome.
In December 1877 he replaced Nicotera as minister of the interior in the Depretis cabinet, his short term of office (70 days) being signalized by a series of important events.
For nine years Crispi remained politically under a cloud, but in 1887 returned to office as minister of the interior in the Depretis cabinet, succeeding to the premiership upon the death of Depretis (July 29, 1887).
In December 1893 the impotence of the Giolitti cabinet to restore public order, then menaced by disturbances in Sicily and in Lunigiana, gave rise to a general demand that Crispi should return to power.
The ensuing Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti's campaign, and at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the chamber for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement.
Upon the fall of his cabinet Antonelli created for himself the governorship of the sacred palaces in order to retain constant access to and influence over the pope.
In May 1852 he became minister of finance in the reconstructed d'Azeglio cabinet, and later minister of education in that of Cavour.
On the 4th of December 1905 the Unionist government resigned, and the king sent for Sir Henry CampbellBannerman, who in a few days formed his cabinet.
But if Lord Rosebery once more separated himself from the official Liberals, his principal henchmen in the Liberal League were included in the cabinet, Mr Asquith becoming chancellor of the exchequer, Sir Edward Grey foreign secretary, and Mr Haldane war minister.
Harcourt (first commissioner of works), and Captain John Sinclair (secretary for Scotland) completed the ministry, a place of prominence outside the cabinet being found for Mr Winston Churchill as under-secretary for the colonies.
McKenna was brought into the cabinet as education minister.
The British Cabinet thereupon despatched Lord Kitchener to the Aegean to investigate and to report.
He studied law, became a judge in the tribunal of the Seine in 1806, was attached to the cabinet of Louis Bonaparte in 1807, and was counsel to the court of appeal at Paris in 1811.
The cabinet, in which Baron Louis was minister of finance, and Marshal Gouvion Saint Cyr remained minister' of war, was entirely Liberal; and its first act was to suppress the ministry of police, as Decazes held that it was incompatible with the regime of liberty.
Previously to their holding office, Daniel Manning (1831-1887), secretary of the treasury in President Cleveland's cabinet, was president of the Argus company, and Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905), secretary of war during President Cleveland's second administration, was managing editor of the newspaper.
He early distinguished himself as professor of mathematical and mechanical philosophy in the college of Ragusa; but after residing there for several years he returned to his native city, where he became a professor in the Collegio Nazareno, and began to form the fine mineralogical cabinet in that institution.
His SOn, Georges Charles Paul, born in 1855, was in his father's department from 1879 till 1885, deputy from 1885, five times president of the Budget Commission, minister of finance (1895-1898) and vice-president of the chamber (1898-1902), and again finance minister in the Briand Cabinet, 1909.
In 1881 the king refused to sanction the law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of eighteen months, and upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a cabinet.
The timber is specially valued for furniture and cabinet work and for gunstocks, the beauty of its markings rendering it desirable for the first-named purpose, while its strength and elasticity fit it for the second.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British cabinet ministers.
He joined Mr. Watson's Labour Cabinet of 1904 as Minister for Trade and Customs, and when Mr. Watson in 1907 resigned his leadership of the Labour party Mr. Fisher succeeded him.
In 1835 Lord Gosford, the new governor of Lower Canada, was instructed by the cabinet in London to inquire into the alleged grievances of the French Canadians.
Cabinet woods, fruit, tobacco, sugar, wax, honey and cattle products are the leading exports.
Sherman published Recollections of Forty Years in the House, Senate and Cabinet: an Autobiography (Chicago and New York, 1895).
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
The executive branch consists of a president and two vicepresidents elected for terms of four years, a cabinet of six ministers of state appointed by the president, and various subordinate officials who are under the direct orders of the president.
The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento).
No member of the executive branch of the government (president, cabinet minister, prefect, sub-prefect, or governor) can be elected to either chamber, nor can any judge or " fiscal " of the supreme court, nor any member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy from his diocese, province or parish, nor any judge or " fiscal " of superior and first-instance courts from their judicial districts, nor any military officer from the district where he holds a military appointment at the time of election.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
To tie the president's hands Congress had passed the Tenure of Office Act, forbidding the president to remove any cabinet officer without the consent of the Senate; but in August 1867 President Johnson suspended Secretary Stanton and appointed Grant secretary of war ad interim until the pleasure of the Senate should be ascertained.
In 1843 Gladstone, succeeding Lord Ripon as president of the Board of Trade, became a member of the cabinet at the age of thirty-three.
He has recorded the fact that " the very first opinion which he ever was called upon to give in cabinet " was an opinion in favour of withdrawing the bill providing education for children in factories, to which vehement opposition was offered by the Dissenters, on the ground that it was too favourable to the Established Church.
He was supported by only three members of the cabinet, and resigned on the 5th of December.
During Lord Palmerston's last administration, which lasted from 1859 to 1865, Gladstone was by far the most brilliant and most conspicuous figure in the cabinet.
Meanwhile two members of his cabinet, feeling themselves unable to support these measures, resigned.
Stadel in 1816, contains a picture gallery and a cabinet of engravings extremely rich in works of German art.
He was postmaster-general in President Grover Cleveland's cabinet from March 1885 until January 1888, and was then secretary of the interior until March 1889.
The reports which he drew up upon educational questions drew attention to him, and on the 3rd of November 1895 he entered the Bourgeois cabinet as minister of public instruction, resigning with his colleagues on the 21st of April following.
He actively supported the Waldeck-Rousseau ministry, and upon its retirement in 1903 he was himself charged with the formation of a cabinet.
Later magazines were L'Echo du cabinet du lecture paroissial (Montreal, 18 59), 15 vols.; Le Foyer canadien (Quebec, 1863-1866), one of the most interesting French-Canadian reviews; La Revue canadienne, which was started at Montreal in 1864, and contained the best writings of contemporary French-Canadian litterateurs; La Revue de Montreal (1877-1881), edited by the abbe T.
The prototype of the historico-literary periodical may be discovered in La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe (1704-1706), familiarly known as Journal de Verdun, and carried on under various titles down to 1794.
The result was the formation of a cabinet belonging, in Fox's own words, partly to the king and partly to the country - that is to say, partly of Whigs who wished to restrain the king, and partly of the king's friends, represented by Lord Shelburne, whose real function was to baffle the Whigs.
The old division of duties by which the southern secretary had the correspondence with the colonies and the western powers of Europe, and the northern secretary with the others, had been abolished on the formation of the Rockingham cabinet.
The fall of Pitt's first ministry and the formation of the Addington cabinet, the peace of'Amiens, and the establishment of Napoleon as first consul with all the powers of a military despot, seemed to offer Fox a chance of resuming power in public life.
The main cause of the humiliations William suffered from parliament lay in his incapacity to understand the party or cabinet system.
On the death of Fox he joined (1806) the Grenville ministry as president of the board of control, with a seat in the cabinet, and thus brought himself once more into line with the Whigs.
In Canning's ministry he was master of the mint, and when Lord Goderich succeeded to the lead Tierney was admitted to the cabinet; but he was already suffering from ill-health and died suddenly at Savile Row, London, on the 25th of January 1830.
Slezevicius, widening the Cabinet on coalition lines.
16-23 1919 it recognized the Council of State (" Taryba ") and the Slezevicius Cabinet as the regular Government of Lithuania, which had the confidence of the country.
The President of the State, the National Council and the Cabinet resigned, and, all power passing to the assembly, the provisional Government gave way to the permanent Government.
The Government which took office in June 1920 was a coalition Cabinet of the Christian Democrat and Popular Socialist parties plus three ministers who did not belong to any party.
Thomas Ewing, a close friend of the father, sometime a senator of the United States and a member of the national cabinet.
The duc de Richelieu was compelled to admit to the cabinet two of the chiefs of the Left, Villele and Corbiere.
Villele resigned within a year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was minister of finance.
Thence he was promoted, in the summer of 1916, to the headship of the office of Munitions and a seat on the War Committee of the Cabinet, on Mr. Lloyd George's succession to the Secretaryship of State for War.
In the case of important despatches and correspondence, these, with the drafts of answers, are sent first to the permanent under-secretary, then to the prime minister, then to the sovereign and, lastly, are circulated among the members of the cabinet.
PAUL DOUMER (1857-), French politician, was born at Aurillac. He studied law and made his debut in politics as chef de cabinet to Floquet, when president of the chamber in 1885.
As minister of finance in the Bourgeois cabinet (from the 3rd of November 1895 to the 21st of April 1896) he tried without success to introduce an income-tax.
The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
But his chief claim to political remembrance is based on his tenure, from 1900 to 1905 (after 1902 as a Cabinet minister), of the office of Chief Secretary for Ireland.
In the same building is the museum, which contains a picture gallery, a numismatic cabinet, and a collection of specimens of natural history.
Holguin has trade in cabinet woods, tobacco, Indian corn and cattle products, which it exports through its port Gibara, about 25 m.
The government of Bangkok is entrusted to the minister of the capital, a member of the cabinet.
In1889-1890he was commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic. From 1897 to 1899 he was secretary of war in President McKinley's cabinet.
1911, as Minister for the Navy, a post which he retained when Caillaux succeeded Monis, and in the Poincare Cabinet which was formed on Jan.
20 1913, and became once more Minister for Foreign Affairs in the reconstructed Viviani Cabinet on Aug.
He resigned from the Cabinet on Oct.
In 1855 he was nominated senator, lieutenant-general in 1856, ambassador at Constantinople in 1859, and minister for foreign affairs in the Rattazzi cabinet two years later.
The maple, walnut, oak, ash, beech, elm, gum, sycamore, hickory and poplar, found on the southern slope of the Osage highlands, on the uplands about the source of the highlands and in the central portions of the Red river valley, are valuable for cabinet woods.
Elected member of parliament for Faenza, he was again appointed secretary to the ministry of the interior in the Mamiani cabinet, and later director-general of the public health department.
In 1851 he was appointed minister of public instruction in the D'Azeglio cabinet, an office which he held till May 1852.
During the last three years of the war Espartero, who had been elected a deputy, exercised from his distant headquarters such influence over Madrid politics that he twice hastened the fall of the cabinet, and obtained office for his own friends.
In 1868 he was created vice-admiral of the Italian navy, but, two years later, left Italy to ascend the Spanish throne, his reluctance to accept the invitation of the Cortes having been overridden by the Italian cabinet.
de Gaulle for the Societe de l'histoire de France (6 vols., 1847-1851); and Paulin Paris, "Nouvelles recherches sur les mceurs de la reine Blanche et de Thibaud," in Cabinet historique (1858).
In 1896 he joined the Matsukata cabinet, and resigned in the following year in consequence of intrigues which produced an estrangement between him and the prime minister.
But dissensions having arisen in the cabinet, he resigned a few months later, and retired into private life, cultivating his beautiful garden at Waseda near T6kyo.
On the resignation of Giolitti in March 1905 Tittoni became interim premier for a few days and remained in the Fortis Cabinet as Foreign Minister.
A few months later he was appointed ambassador in London (March 1906), but in May, on the fall of the Sonnino Cabinet and the return of Giolitti to power, he was again summoned to the Consulta.
On the fall of the Orlando Cabinet in June 1919, the new Premier Nitti chose Tittoni as Foreign Minister and first delegate at the Peace Conference, but the severe strain of the work told on his health and he was forced to resign in November.
He was appointed a privy councillor, groom of the stole and first gentleman of the bedchamber, and though merely an irresponsible confidant, without a seat in parliament or in the cabinet, he was in reality prime minister, and the only person trusted with the king's wishes and confidence.
Hall (1810-1874), later a member of Congress and postmaster-general in his cabinet.
The cabinet which he called around him contained Daniel Webster, Thomas Corwin and John J.
It contains the executive offices of the government and those of five cabinet ministers (interior, foreign affairs, treasury, war and justice), the senate chamber, the general archives, national museum, observatory and meteorological bureau.
This work was a commission from Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, and was originally intended to have been condensed into two or three duodecimo volumes.
In 1859, however, he was recalled to Berlin as assistant in the ministry of state in the Auerswald cabinet, and in 1861 was appointed councillor to the crown prince.
1778), a wealthy merchant, for the study of theology, natural science and art, and has lecture-theatres, a large library, and a museum containing a physical and a geological cabinet, as well as a collection of paintings, including many modern pictures, and a valuable collection of drawings and engravings by old masters.
in 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.
Before the census law was passed, a census board, consisting of three members of the president's cabinet, was appointed to draft plans for the inquiry, and the essential features of its report prepared after consultation with a number of leading statisticians were embodied in the law.
1906 and in the subsequent Clemenceau Cabinet until July 1909); Minister of Justice from July 1909 until March 1913; prime minister from May 22 to Dec. 2 1913; Minister of State in the Painleve Ministry during the World War, subsequently succeeding Ribot as Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister of War Jan.
His extraordinary aptitude for work secured for him the position of chef de cabinet under Paul Bert, the minister of education, in 1881.
He was several times minister, and became minister of finance in the cabinet of Casimir-Perier (from the 3rd of November 1893 to the 22nd of May 1894).
As deputy he chiefly acquired prominence by attacks on Magliani, treasury minister in the Depretis cabinet, and on the 9th of March 1889 was himself selected as treasury minister by Crispi.
On the fall of the Rudini cabinet in May 1892, Giolitti, with the help of a court clique, succeeded to the premiership. His term of office was marked by misfortune and misgovernment.
Thus he gained their favour, and on the fall of the Pelloux cabinet he became minister of the Interior in Zanardelli's administration, of which he was the real head.
The split broke up the rule of the "regency," Marcy accepting the " Hunker " support and a seat in Polk's cabinet, while Wright, Butler and Van Buren joined the " Barnburners," a step preliminary to Van Buren's acceptance of the " Free Soil " nomination for president in the campaign of 1848.
Abdulla Pasha was superseded, and the defence of the capital entrusted to Nazim Pasha, at the time Minister of War in the Turkish Cabinet.
On Ballance's sudden death in April 1893 his place was taken by Richard Seddon, minister of mines in the Ballance cabinet, whose first task was to pass the electoral bill of his predecessor, which granted the franchise to all adult women.
In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in the Cabinet of President Harding.
The people of Nova Scotia in particular, dissatisfied with the way in which their province had been drawn into the Union, maintained a fierce opposition to the Ottawa government, until their leader, Joseph Howe, fearing an armed rising, came to an agreement with Macdonald and accepted a seat in his cabinet.
Charges of bribery against the government in connexion with the contract for the building of this line led to the resignation of the cabinet in 1874, and for four years Sir John was in opposition.
Upon his return he preached a characteristic sermon entitled The United States of America compared with some European Countries, particularly England (published 1826), in which, although there was some praise for the English church, he so boldly criticized the establishment, state patronage, cabinet appointment of bishops, lax discipline, and the low requirements of theological education, as to rouse much hostility in England, where he had been highly praised for two volumes of Sermons on the Principal Events and Truths of Redemption (1824).
Cabinet (1,020,960 acres), Custer (590,720 acres), Deerlodge (I, 080,220 acres), Flathead (2,092,785 acres), Gallatin (907,160 acres), Helena (930,180 acres), Jefferson (1, 2 55,3 20 acres), Kootenai (1,661,260 acres), Lewis and Clark (844,136 acres), Lolo (1,211,680 acres), Madison (1,102,860 acres), Missoula (1,237,509 acres) and Sioux (145,253 acres in Montana; 104,400 acres in SouthDakota).
The nomination and election of President Taft, who had been a member of Mr Roosevelt's cabinet, was very largely due to the latter's great influence in the party.
He established the Federal Department of Commerce and Labor, the secretary of which has a seat in the cabinet, and in which there exists a bureau of corporations possessing the specific function of inspecting and supervising interstate corporations - an entirely new feature in American government.
In the cabinet of curiosities there is a complete collection of clocks and watches from the earliest to the present time.