C sentence example

c
  • Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."
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  • A, View of the heart of a dog infested with Filaria immitis Leidy; the right ventricle and base of the pulmonary artery have been opened: a, aorta; b, pulmonary artery; c, vena cava; d, right ventricle; e, appendix of left auricle; f, appendix of right auricle.
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  • Between a shoulder, a, in the iron bolt and a shoulder in the porcelain cup, c, is placed an indiarubber ring, which forms a yielding washer and enables the cup to be screwed firmly to the bolt, while preventing FIG.
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  • The tanks are nearly cylindrical in form and have a truncated cone fixed in the centre, as shown at C, fig.
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  • At small country towns or villages, where the message traffic is light, the Wheatstone " A B C " instrument is used.
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  • In this apparatus electric A B C currents are generated by turning a handle (placed in front of the instrument), which is geared, in the instru ment.
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  • A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
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  • The battery is kept to the line by the bar c, which short-circuits the keys.
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  • When signals are to be sent from either station the operator turns the switch c out of contact with the stop b, and then operates precisely as in open circuit send '" i ing.
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  • After a very short interval of time, the length of which depends on the inductive retardation of the cable, the condensers corresponding to C 1 and C3 at the other end begin to be charged from the cable, and since the charge of C3 passes through the receiving instrument I or G the signal is recorded.
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  • In ordinary hand-sending the Au c curb end of the cable is put to one or the other pole of the ti .
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  • A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
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  • At the receiving station Marconi connected a single voltaic cell B 1 and a sensitive telegraphic relay R in series with his tube of metallic filings C, and interposed certain little coils called choking coils.
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  • It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.
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  • The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
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  • This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.
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  • - A, antenna; P S, jigger or oscillation transformer; C, condenser; 0, Fleming oscillation valve; B, working battery; T, telephone; R, rheostat; E, earth-plate.
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  • On the other hand, they were overcome by the Autariatae, an Illyrian tribe; the date of HO 2 C C =N NC 6 H 4 NH 2 NH.
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  • B, Digestive gland from interior A, B, and C magnified about of pitcher, in pocket-like deI oo diameters.
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  • A, Attractive surface of lid; B, conducting; C, glandular; and D, detentive surface; magnified.
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  • Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.
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  • Professional classes, admini stration, &c 1,304,347 855,217 449,130
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  • The lagoon fisheries are also of great importance, more especially those of Comacchio, the lagoon of Orbetello and the Mare Piccolo at Taranto &c The deep-sea fishing boats in 1902 numbered 1368, with a total tonnage of 16,149; 100 of these were coral-fishing boats and 111 sponge-fishing boats.
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  • There is a tendency towards the fostering of feminine home industrieslace-making, linen-weaving, &c.
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  • The subsequent history is divided into five periods: (C) From 476 to 1796; (D) From 796 to 1814; (E) From 1815 to 1870; (F) From 1870 to 5902; (G) From 1902 to 1910.
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  • The first question abi C W which arose was that of brigandage in thesoutli.
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  • Colonel Stevani with four native battalions to relieve, cnt, C Kassala, then hard pressed by the Mahdists.
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  • The foot by which it is attached often sends out root-like processes - the hydrorhiza (c).
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  • In this manner the food absorbed by one individual contributes to the welfare of the whole colony, and the coenosarc has the 6 C FIG.
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  • A and B modified cats i is seen when the from Hincks; C modified from Forbes's Brit.
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  • A, colony of but grow in all planes Lar;B and C, young and adult medusae.
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  • F, the founder-polyp; I, 2, 3, 4, the succession of polyps budded from the founder-polyp; a', b', c', the succession of polyps budded from 1; a 2, 2 polyps budded from 2; a 3, polyp budded from 3.
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  • - In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
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  • Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.
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  • F, founder-polyp; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, succession of polyps budded from the founder; a, b, c, second series of polyps budded from the founder; a 3, b 3, series budded from 3.
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  • Ea c h cordylus is a tentacle-like structure with an endodermal axis containing an axial cavity which may be continuous with the ring-canal, or may be partially occluded.
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  • (After C. Chun.) A, The epithelium becomes twothe bud forms an entocodon layered.
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  • (c) Tentacles capitate, branched, wholly or in part; type of Cladocoryne.
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  • A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.
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  • (c) Imprisonment, in the bishop's prison, might be in chains, or on bread and water, and temporary or perpetual.
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  • (c) The Provincial Synod consists of a union of three or more presbyteries with the same members.
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  • Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
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  • Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
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  • Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
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  • The seriousness of the damage done is illustrated by the ravages of the larch disease, apple canker, &c.
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  • At the an ~ ~ tenor end are attached - two cilia or flagella In, , C the Vascular Cryptogams -- ~ the structure is much the;il ~.: -; same, but a more or less ~ ~ ~ spherical mass of cyto 4 i~- - ~ plasm remains attached .8 ~ :~ to the posterior spirals, -.
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  • C, Nuclear thread segment ing.
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  • Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.
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  • When distilled over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C 6 H 4) 2 O: and when heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms aurin, C19H1403.
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  • Potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure.
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  • It is a colourless pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 154.3° C. Phenetol, phenyl ethyl ether, C 6 H 5.
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  • O C 2 H 51 a liquid boiling at 172° C., may be obtained by similar methods.
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  • A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.
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  • In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.
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  • (d) Complex Destructive: If A is true, B is true; if C is true, D is true; but B and D are not both true; hence A and C are not both true.
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  • Use hot bottles and stimulants, especially trying to counteract the cardiac depression by atropine, caffeine, strophanthin, &c.
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  • There is trade in walnuts, walnut-oil, silk, cattle, &c.
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  • Trade is carried on in flax, cloth, cereals, oilseeds, &c.
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  • In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
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  • It solidifies at about 0° C, to a mass of long needles, and is very volatile.
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  • From it are made (a) confectio sulphuris; (b) unguentum sulphuris; (c) sulphur praecipitatum, milk of sulphur (U.S.P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiscus sulphuris each lozenge containing 5 grs.
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  • (c) Theodicy - the tradition of Leibnitz is preserved (on libertarian lines) by Martineau (A Study of Religion, 1883).
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  • It is im 1 The materials are in Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem (1831), p. 162, &c.
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  • At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.
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  • - A, Wireworm; B, pupa of Click Beetle; C, adult Click Beetle (A griotes lineatum), b c a FIG.
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  • He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).
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  • In Russia proper less than 2% emigrated from the C villages to the towns during the forty years ending 1897.
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  • ': opal e ° °o T A R ple ' ag a ',ap iJ,wl Karkinit A C K r B L Scale, English Miles D S E A 32 Stavropol P O L A PI A N L A s E Derbent ° I?
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  • Temple C is the earliest of those on the acropolis.
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  • While moving vehicles by capstans, turn tables, props, levers, &c...
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  • At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.
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  • A train from a will contain some wagons for B,, some for C and some for D, as will also the trains from a, b, c and d.
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  • Between A and B, A and C, and A and D, there may be a string of stations, p, q, r, s, &c., all receiving goods from a, b, c and d, and it would manifestly be inconvenient and wasteful of time and trouble if the trains serving those intermediate stations were made up with, say, six wagons from a to p next the engine, five from b to p at the middle, and four from c to p near the end.
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  • Hence at A the trucks from a, b, c and d must not only be sorted according as they have to travel along A B, A C, or A D, but also must be marshalled into trains in the order of the stations along those lines.
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  • Conversely, trains arriving at A from B, C and D must be broken up. and remade in order to distribute their wagons to the different, dock branches.
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  • = RV (2) where T 1, T2, T3, &c. are the torques on the axles whose respective angular velocities are wl,w2, W3, &c.
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  • Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U.
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  • If C is the number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate per hour, the calorific value of which is c B.Th.U.
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  • 164.) Substituting this value of p in (27) I.H.P. _ (c av (29) 550 the form of which indicates that there is a certain piston speed for which the I.H.P. is a maximum.
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  • In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.
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  • It is possible to classify sacrifices according to (a) the occasion of the rite, (b) the end to be achieved, (c) the material object to be affected or (d) the form of the rite.
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  • The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
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  • (c) Human representatives of the corn or vegetation spirits are killed; in these, as in other cases of the sacrifice of the man-god cited by Dr Frazer, the killing of the old god is at the same time the making of a new god.
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  • Their object may be (a) to provide a guide to the other world; (b) to provide the dead with servants or a retinue suitable to his rank; (c) to send messengers to keep the dead informed of the things of this world; (d) to strengthen the dead by the blood or life of a living being, in the same way that food is offered to them or blood rituals enjoined on mourners.
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  • The river furnishes water-power, and among the manufactures of the town are shoes, machinery, cottons, brass, &c.
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  • C(okayne), Complete Peerage, sub "Gloucester."
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  • It is thus highly probable that on the cult of the original Roman goddess was engrafted the Greek C one of Damia, perhaps after the conquest of Tarentum (272 B.C.).
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  • Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c.
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  • The following equations give the result of direct experiment :- C +20 = CO 2+943 oo cal.
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  • Thus if we consider the energyequation C +02 = CO 2+943 00 cal., and replace the symbols by the values of the intrinsic energy, viz.
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  • Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.
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  • For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.
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  • Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.
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  • Many attempts have been made to present a satisfactory sketch of the early history and to do justice to (a) the patriarchal narratives, (b) the exodus from Egypt and the Israelite invasion, and (c) the rise of the monarchy.
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  • This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.
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  • 2 On the place of Palestine in Persian history see Persia: History, ancient, especially § 5 ii.; also Artaxerxes; Cambyses; Cyrus; Darius, &C.
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  • 4 There are three inquiries: (a) the critical value of i Esdras, (b) the character of the different representations of post-exilic internal and external history, and (c) the recovery of the historical facts.
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  • The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.
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  • N N: C C02H (11) N N: C C02H which it is connected by a chain bridge (1855) and two railway bridges.
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  • In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
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  • This c and common cross fertilization is often effected by the gland g.
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  • A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
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  • Apart from European conquests, the internal history of Asia in the last 2000 years is the result of the interaction of four main influences: (a) Chinese, (b) Indian, (c) Mahommedan, (d) Central Asian.
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  • (c) Mahommedanism or Islam is perhaps the greatest transforming force which the world has seen.
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  • At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.
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  • (C. EL.)/n==Authorities== - The modern bibliography of Asia, including the works of travellers and explorers since 1880, is voluminous.
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  • C, Small portion of the nephridium of Glycera siphonostoma, showing the canal cut through, and the solenocytes on the outer surface.
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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."
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  • Amongst these glycerides may be mentioned the following: Tristearin - C 3 H 5 (O C1 8 H350)3.
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  • C 3 H 5 (O C i cH 31 0) 3.
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  • Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.
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  • Triacetin, C 3 H 5 (O C 2 H 3 0) 3, is apparently contained in cod-liver oil.
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  • 633 C), Cyrus is the son of a poor Mardian bandit Atradates (the Mardians are a nomadic Persian tribe, Herod.
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  • For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
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  • An Anomalistic month is the time in which the moon passes from perigee to perigee, &c.
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  • Upon the whole administrative machinery of government, upon criminal law and upon procedure, both criminal and civil, his influence has been most salutary; and the great legal revolution which in 1873 purported c :to accomplish the fusion of law and equity is not obscurely traceable to the same source.
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  • Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.
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  • In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.
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  • Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.
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  • In 1892, at Warwick, the competitions related to ploughs - single furrow (a) for light land, (b) for strong land, (c) for press drill and broad-cast sowing; two-furrow; three-furrow; digging (a) for light land, (b) for heavy land; and one-way ploughs.
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  • Most crops are C FIG.
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  • A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.
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  • His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.
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  • (Lankester.) c, Muscular bundles forming the root of the foot, and adherent to the shell.
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  • The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt.
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  • C, The same, fully everted.
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  • The introvert is not a simple one with complete range both in eversion and introversion, but is arrested in introversion by the fibrous bands at c, and similarly in eversion by the fibrous bands at b.
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  • The heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an anterior and posterior aorta.
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  • C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.
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  • - P l e u r o c e r i d a e.
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  • 34.-Female Janthina, with egg-float (a) attached to the foot; b, egg-capsules; c, ctenidium (gill-plume); d, cephalic tentacles.
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  • C, Diblastula of an Opisthobranch (Polycera) with elongated blastopore oi.
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  • C, Doris (Actinocyclus) tuberculatus (Cuv.), seen from the pedal surface.
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  • (From Keferstein.) a, Shell in A, B, C, shell-sac (closed) in D; b, orifice leading into the subpallial chamber (lung).
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  • (9) Public works, such as paved and stepped roadways, bridges, systems of drainage, &c.
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  • I, C, ca, st) bearing a distinct inner and outer lobe (lacinia and galea, fig.
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  • 1, C, sm, m - jointed on to the submentum, while the galeae, laciniae and palps remain distinct.
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  • In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
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  • Ia, frons; b, clypeus (the pointed labrum beneath it); II, mandible; III, first maxilla; (a, base; b, sheath; c, piercer), III', inner view of sheath; IV, second maxillae forming rostrum (b, mentum; c, ligula).
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  • B, Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of smell in cockchafer; (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within (after Graber).
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  • - a, Bed-bug (Cimex lectularius, Linn.); newly hatched young from beneath; b, from above; d, egg, magnified 25 times; c, foot with claws; e, serrate spine, more highly magnified.
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  • - e,f, Owl moth (Heliothis armigera); a,b, egg, highly magnified; c, larva or caterpillar; d, pupa in earthen cell.
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  • As an extreme contrast to this After Westwood, c am odeif orm type, we take the maggot Modern Classification.
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  • - a, Saw-toothed Grain-Beetle (Silvanus surinamensis); b, pupa; c, larva, magnified 12 times; d, feeler of larva.
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  • Comprises the midges, gnats, crane-flies, gad-flies, &c.
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  • Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).
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  • 3 Though said by its author, Johann Wonnecke von Caub (Latinized as Johannes de Cuba), to have been composed from a study of the 2 This is Sundevall's estimate; Drs Aubert and Wimmer in their excellent edition of the `Io-ropiac 1repi "c;iwv (Leipzig, 1868) limit the number to 126.
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  • The mineral has a very perfect cleavage parallel to the faces c and m, and the cleavage surfaces are perfectly smooth and bright.
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  • 2 and 3 are bounded by the domes d and f and the basal pinacoid c; fig.
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  • In the presence of a dehydrating agent (such as acetic anhydride), it combines with aldehydes to form compounds of the type R CH: C(COOH) 2, or their decomposition products (formed by loss of C02) R CH: CH COOH.
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  • Parker in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Revue numismatique, Asiatic Quarterly, &c. (C. EL.) EPI, the French architectural term for a light finial, generally of metal, but sometimes of terra-cotta, e forming the termination of a spire or the angle of a roof.
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  • His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.
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  • The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain.
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  • He may lease the settled land, or any part of it, for any time not exceeding (a) in the case of a building lease, 99 years; (b) in the case of a mining lease, 60 years, (c) in the case of any other lease, 21 years.
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  • This enactment applies to leases of agricultural subjects, houses, mills, fisheries and whatever is fundo annexum; provided that (a) the lease, when for more than one year, must be in writing, (b) it must be definite as to subject, rent (which may consist of money, grain or services, if the reddendum is not illusory) and term of duration, (c) possession must follow on the lease.
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  • Linnaeus described five or six species, de C an doll e thirteen.
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  • Efforts have been made in the same direction in Egypt, West Africa, &c.
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  • The acid is thus obtained in colourless rhombic prisms of the composition C 6 H 8 0 7 +H 2 0.
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  • At 175° C. it is resolved into water and aconitic acid, C 6 H 6 0 6, a substance found in Equisetum fluviatile, monkshood and other plants.
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  • A higher temperature decomposes this body into carbon dioxide and itaconic acid, C 5 H 6 0 4, which, again, by the expulsion of a molecule of water, yields citraconic anhydride, C 5 H 4 0 3.
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  • Thirteen years later, in 1617, after numerous border fights with the Chinese, Nurhachu drew up a list of ` c seven hates," or indictments, against his southern neighbours, and, not getting the satisfaction he demanded, declared war against them.
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  • As the crusaders advanced to Jerusalem, says Raymund of Agiles (c. xxxiii.), it was their rule that the first-corner had the right to each castle or town, provided that he hoisted his standard and planted a garrison there.
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  • (c) The growth of a legend, or perhaps better, a saga of the First Crusade began, according to von Sybel, even during the Crusade itself.
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  • (3) A succession of oases lying east of the eastern mountain system on the edge of the steppe, and fed by short local streams. Of these the most important are, from north to south, (a) the Saltpan of Jebeil, fed by the North al-Dahab; (b) the oases of Kinnesrin and Aleppo, fed by the North Kuwaik; and (c) that of Sham or Damascus, fed by streams from Hermon, of which the Barada (Abana) and the Awaj (Pharpar) are the chief.
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  • To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.
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  • All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.
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  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
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  • The complete analysis involves an examination of the fatty matter, of the various forms in which the alkalis are present - free and combined glycerin, &c.
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  • Useful combinations are: borax 10%, carbolic acid 5%, ichthyol 5%, sublimed sulphur 10%, thymol 22%, &c.
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  • Since the distance of a body from the observer cannot be observed directly, but only the right ascension and declination, calling these a and 6 we conceive ideal equations of the form a = f (a, b, c, e, f, g, t) and 5=0 (a, b, c, e, f, g, t), the symbols a, b,.
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  • Roman C s ern 3.
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  • Phenylpropiolic acid, C 6 H 5 C:C CO 2 H, formed by the action of alcoholic potash on cinnamic acid dibromide, C 6 H 5 CHBr CHBr CO 2 H, crystallizes in long needles or prisms which melt at 136-137° C. When heated with water to 120° C. it yields phenyl acetylene CsH b C; CH.
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  • Chromic acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid; zinc and acetic acid reduce it to cinnamic acid, C 6 H 5 CH:CH CO 2 H, whilst sodium amalgam reduces it to hydrocinnamic acid, C6H5 CH2 C02H.
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  • See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.
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  • Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.
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  • Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
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  • The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of properties and relative composition became a dominant feature of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c.
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  • It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.
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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
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  • Thus, he interpreted the interaction of benzene and nitric acid as C6H61-HN03 = C 6 H 5 NO 2 +H 2 0, the "residues" of benzene being C 6 H 5 and H, and of nitric acid HO and N02.
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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.
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  • Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.
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  • Henry started with methyl iodide, the formula of which we write in the form CI a H b H c H d.
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  • The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.
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  • This acid with silver nitrite gave nitroacetic acid, which readily gave the second nitromethane, CH a (NO 2) b H c H d, identical with the first nitromethane.
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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.
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  • Thus ethane gives H3C CH2 CH3, propane; ethylene gives H 2 C:CH CH 3, propylene; and acetylene gives HC: C CH 3, allylene.
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  • Compounds containing the group - CH: O are known as aldehydes (q.v.), while the group >C: O (sometimes termed the carbonyl or keto group) characterizes the ketones (q.v.).
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  • A third hydroxyl group may be introduced into the - CH: 0 residue with the formation of the radical - C(OH) :0; this is known as the carboxyl group, and characterizes the organic acids.
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  • By replacing the chlorine in the imido-chloride by an oxyalkyl group we obtain the imido-ethers, R C(OR') :NH; and by an amino group, the amidines, R C(NH 2): NH.
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  • Closely related to the amidoximes are the nitrolic acids, R C(NO 2): NOH.
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  • The following diagrams illustrate these statements: - C ` H C OH HC /CH HC CH HC,/CH 'N/ HC CH CH CH From the benzene nucleus we can derive other aromatic nuclei, graphically represented by fusing two or more hexagons along common sides.
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  • By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of naphthalene, C 1 oH 8; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C18H12, and possibly pyrene, C16H1n; by fusing five, picene, C22 H 14.
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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.
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  • Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.
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  • Such a series of typical compounds are the benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acids), C 6 H 4 (000H) 2.
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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.
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  • The trimolecular polymerization of numerous acetylene compounds-substances containing two trebly linked carbon atoms, -C: C -, to form derivatives of benzene is of considerable interest.
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  • An analogous synthesis is that of dihydro-m-xylene from methyl heptenone,(CH 3) 2 C:CH (CH2)2.CO CH3.
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  • Certain a-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, CH 3 CO CO CH 3, yields p-xyloquinone, C 6 H 2 (CH 3) 2 0 2 (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1411), and acetylpropionyl, CH 3 CO CO C 2 H 5, yields duroquinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3) 4 0 2, Oxymethylene compounds, characterized by the grouping > C:CH(OH), also give benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, CH 3 CO.
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  • More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.
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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
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  • The prism formula also received support from the following data: protocatechuic acid when oxidized by nitrous acid gives carboxytartronic acid, which, on account of its ready decomposition into carbon dioxide and tartronic acid, was considered to be HO C(COOH) 3.
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  • Kekule (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxytartaric acid, HOOC C(OH) 2 C(OH) 2 COOH.
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  • It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
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  • Two acids corresponding to the formula of Kekule and Claus are triphenyl acrylic acid, (C6H5)2C: C([[Cooh) C 6 H]],, and triphenyl acetic acid, (C,H,),C 000H.
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  • Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.
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  • If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3 NH 2 (C 2 H 5) 21 and oxydiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3.
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  • Thus benzene, (CH) gives thiophene, (CH) S, from which it is difficultly distinguished; pyridine, (CH) N, gives thiazole, (CH) N S, which is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, C 11 S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the derivatives.
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  • The transition between the two classes as differentiated above may be illustrated by the following cyclic compounds, each of which contains a ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom: CH CH/ CH CH/ CH CO I CH CO' CH =CH c Tetramethylene But yrolactone.
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  • From the pyrone ring the following series of compounds are derived (for brevity, the hydrogen atoms are not printed): Penthiophene gives, by a similar introduction of nitrogen atoms, penthiazoline, corresponding to meta-oxazine, and para-thiazine, CH 2 CH 2o CH CO „ .„0 C ?
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  • H C corresponding to paroxazine (para-oxazine).
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  • In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.
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  • If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.
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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.
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  • For example, the difference due to an increment of CH 2 is about 56.6, as is shown in the following table: - Since the critical volume of normal pentane C5H12 is 307.2, we have H 2 = C 5 H 12 -5CH 2 =307.2 - 5 X56.6 =24.2, and C=CH2 - H2= 32.4.
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  • If, however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating atoms, the ratio is expressible as C p /C„= (5+a)/(3-Fa), which is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing values of a.
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  • These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination.
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  • Similarly, greater atomic complexity is reflected in a further decrease in the ratio C y /Cy.
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  • The isomeric pentanes also exhibit a similar relationCH 3 (CH 2)4CH3 =38°,(CH3)2CHC2Hb =30°,(CH 3) 4 C =9.5°.
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  • The series H 2 S = - 61°, CH 3 SH = 21 °, (C 11 3) 2 S=41 ° is an example; in the first case, the molecular weight is increased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point being 82°; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence the comparatively slight increase of 20°.
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  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.
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  • A more complex chromophoric group is the triple ethylenic grouping: C > C =, the introduction of which was rendered necessary by the discovery of certain coloured hydrocarbons.
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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.
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  • The overheating curve of rhombic sulphur extends along the curve AC, where C is the melting-point of monoclinic sulphur.
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  • From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.
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  • The equivalent volumes and topic parameters are tabulated: From these figures it is obvious that the first three compounds form a morphotropic series; the equivalent volumes exhibit a regular progression; the values of x and t,t, corresponding to the a axes, are regularly increased, while the value of w, corresponding to the c axis, remains practically unchanged.
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  • B, A section through the same; a, the invaginated proboscis; b, proboscis sheath; c, beginning of the neck; d, lemniscus.
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  • (c) The conception of the Church as the body of Christ is new.
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  • (c) The epistle shows the same panoramic, pictorial, dramatic conception of Christian truth which is everywhere characteristic of Paul.
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  • 'Bell, ' Ber., 1880, 13, p. 877); by distilling calcium pyroglutaminate: HO 2 C' CH(NH 2)'CH 2 'CH 2 'CO 2 H = C 4 H 4 NH+ C02+2H20 (L.
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  • Zinc dust and hydrochloric acid reduce pyrrol to pyrrolin (dihydropyrrol), C 4 H 6 NH, a liquid which boils at 90° C. (748 mm.); it is soluble in water and has strongly basic properties and an alkaline reaction.
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  • Hydriodic acid at high temperature reduces pyrrol to pyrrolidine (tetra-hydropyrrol), C 4 H 8 NH.
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  • Reduction of this ester leads to the formation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, and dimethyl pyrrol dicarboxylic ester, C(CH3): C C02R HN< C(CO 2 R) :C CH3.
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  • Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.
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