How to use C in a sentence

c
  • Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."

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  • The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.

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  • It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.

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  • A, Attractive surface of lid; B, conducting; C, glandular; and D, detentive surface; magnified.

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  • Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.

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  • This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.

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  • On the other hand, they were overcome by the Autariatae, an Illyrian tribe; the date of HO 2 C C =N NC 6 H 4 NH 2 NH.

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  • B, Digestive gland from interior A, B, and C magnified about of pitcher, in pocket-like deI oo diameters.

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  • Professional classes, admini stration, &c 1,304,347 855,217 449,130

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  • The lagoon fisheries are also of great importance, more especially those of Comacchio, the lagoon of Orbetello and the Mare Piccolo at Taranto &c The deep-sea fishing boats in 1902 numbered 1368, with a total tonnage of 16,149; 100 of these were coral-fishing boats and 111 sponge-fishing boats.

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  • There is a tendency towards the fostering of feminine home industrieslace-making, linen-weaving, &c.

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  • The first question abi C W which arose was that of brigandage in thesoutli.

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  • Colonel Stevani with four native battalions to relieve, cnt, C Kassala, then hard pressed by the Mahdists.

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  • The foot by which it is attached often sends out root-like processes - the hydrorhiza (c).

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  • In this manner the food absorbed by one individual contributes to the welfare of the whole colony, and the coenosarc has the 6 C FIG.

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  • A and B modified cats i is seen when the from Hincks; C modified from Forbes's Brit.

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  • A, colony of but grow in all planes Lar;B and C, young and adult medusae.

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  • F, the founder-polyp; I, 2, 3, 4, the succession of polyps budded from the founder-polyp; a', b', c', the succession of polyps budded from 1; a 2, 2 polyps budded from 2; a 3, polyp budded from 3.

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  • Polyp 7 has proof sense, 1 o c oduced as its first bud, 8; as its second bud, a7, motion and nutriwhich starts a uniserial pinnule; and as a third t i on, until its bud I', which starts a biserial branch (I I'-VI') medusoid nature that repeats the structure of the main stem and and organization gives off pinnules.

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  • F, founder-polyp; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, succession of polyps budded from the founder; a, b, c, second series of polyps budded from the founder; a 3, b 3, series budded from 3.

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  • Ea c h cordylus is a tentacle-like structure with an endodermal axis containing an axial cavity which may be continuous with the ring-canal, or may be partially occluded.

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  • A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.

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  • Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.

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  • Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.

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  • Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.

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  • The seriousness of the damage done is illustrated by the ravages of the larch disease, apple canker, &c.

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  • C, Nuclear thread segment ing.

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  • Moreover, had the evolution of plants proceeded along the line of adaptation, the vegetable kingdom could not be subdivided, as it is, into the morphological groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogamia, but only into physiological groups, Xerophyta, Hygrophyta, Tropophyta, &c.

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  • Potassium phenolate, C 6 H 5 OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure.

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  • A thiophenol, C 6 H 5 SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate.

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  • In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.

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  • Use hot bottles and stimulants, especially trying to counteract the cardiac depression by atropine, caffeine, strophanthin, &c.

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  • There is trade in walnuts, walnut-oil, silk, cattle, &c.

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  • Trade is carried on in flax, cloth, cereals, oilseeds, &c.

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  • In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.

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  • From it are made (a) confectio sulphuris; (b) unguentum sulphuris; (c) sulphur praecipitatum, milk of sulphur (U.S.P.) which has a sub-preparation trochiscus sulphuris each lozenge containing 5 grs.

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  • It is im 1 The materials are in Baur, Das manichaische Religionssystem (1831), p. 162, &c.

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  • At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.

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  • He advocated (a) alliances with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (b) ascendancy in the Aegean (Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route (Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley (Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon).

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  • In Russia proper less than 2% emigrated from the C villages to the towns during the forty years ending 1897.

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  • Temple C is the earliest of those on the acropolis.

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  • While moving vehicles by capstans, turn tables, props, levers, &c...

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  • At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.

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  • A train from a will contain some wagons for B,, some for C and some for D, as will also the trains from a, b, c and d.

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  • Between A and B, A and C, and A and D, there may be a string of stations, p, q, r, s, &c., all receiving goods from a, b, c and d, and it would manifestly be inconvenient and wasteful of time and trouble if the trains serving those intermediate stations were made up with, say, six wagons from a to p next the engine, five from b to p at the middle, and four from c to p near the end.

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  • Hence at A the trucks from a, b, c and d must not only be sorted according as they have to travel along A B, A C, or A D, but also must be marshalled into trains in the order of the stations along those lines.

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  • Conversely, trains arriving at A from B, C and D must be broken up. and remade in order to distribute their wagons to the different, dock branches.

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  • Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U.

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  • If C is the number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate per hour, the calorific value of which is c B.Th.U.

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  • In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.

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  • It is possible to classify sacrifices according to (a) the occasion of the rite, (b) the end to be achieved, (c) the material object to be affected or (d) the form of the rite.

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  • Their object may be (a) to provide a guide to the other world; (b) to provide the dead with servants or a retinue suitable to his rank; (c) to send messengers to keep the dead informed of the things of this world; (d) to strengthen the dead by the blood or life of a living being, in the same way that food is offered to them or blood rituals enjoined on mourners.

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  • The river furnishes water-power, and among the manufactures of the town are shoes, machinery, cottons, brass, &c.

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  • C(okayne), Complete Peerage, sub "Gloucester."

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  • It is thus highly probable that on the cult of the original Roman goddess was engrafted the Greek C one of Damia, perhaps after the conquest of Tarentum (272 B.C.).

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  • Profane cursing and swearing is made punishable by the Profane Oaths Act 1745, which directs the offender to be brought before a justice of the peace, and fined five shillings, two shillings or one shilling, according as he is a gentleman, below the rank of gentleman, or a common labourer, soldier, &c.

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  • Thus if we consider the energyequation C +02 = CO 2+943 00 cal., and replace the symbols by the values of the intrinsic energy, viz.

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  • Amongst endothermic compounds may be noted hydriodic acid, HI, acetylene, C 2 H 2, nitrous oxide, N 2 O, nitric oxide, NO, azoimide, N 3 H, nitrogen trichloride, NC1 3.

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  • For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.

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  • Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.

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  • Many attempts have been made to present a satisfactory sketch of the early history and to do justice to (a) the patriarchal narratives, (b) the exodus from Egypt and the Israelite invasion, and (c) the rise of the monarchy.

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  • This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.

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  • The c nquest of the peninsula was undertaken in 1527 by Francisco de Montejo, who en-, countered a more vigorous opposition than Cortes had on the high plateau of Anahuac. In 1549 Montejo had succeeded in establishing Spanish rule over barely one-half of the peninsula, and it was never extended further.

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  • In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?

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  • This c and common cross fertilization is often effected by the gland g.

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  • A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.

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  • At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.

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  • C, Small portion of the nephridium of Glycera siphonostoma, showing the canal cut through, and the solenocytes on the outer surface.

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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

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  • Thus in cows' butter, tributyrin, C 3 H 5 (O C 4 H 7 0) 3, and the analogous glycerides of other readily volatile acids closely resembling butyric acid, are present in small quantity; the production of these acids on saponification and distillation with dilute sulphuric acid is utilized as a test of a purity of butter as sold.

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  • Triacetin, C 3 H 5 (O C 2 H 3 0) 3, is apparently contained in cod-liver oil.

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  • For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.

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  • An Anomalistic month is the time in which the moon passes from perigee to perigee, &c.

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  • Pear trees may 2, Section of leaf surface showing the also be attacked by a great spores or conidia, c, borne on long variety of insect pests.

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  • In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.

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  • Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.

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  • In 1892, at Warwick, the competitions related to ploughs - single furrow (a) for light land, (b) for strong land, (c) for press drill and broad-cast sowing; two-furrow; three-furrow; digging (a) for light land, (b) for heavy land; and one-way ploughs.

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  • Most crops are C FIG.

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  • A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.

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  • His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.

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  • The muscular columns (c) attaching the foot to the shell form a ring incomplete in front, external to which is the free mantleskirt.

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  • C, The same, fully everted.

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  • The introvert is not a simple one with complete range both in eversion and introversion, but is arrested in introversion by the fibrous bands at c, and similarly in eversion by the fibrous bands at b.

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  • The heart c lying in the pericardium is seen in close proximity to the renal organ, and consists of a single auricle receiving blood from the gill, and of a single ventricle which pumps it through the body by an anterior and posterior aorta.

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  • C, Side view of the trochosphere with commencing formation of the foot.

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  • C, Diblastula of an Opisthobranch (Polycera) with elongated blastopore oi.

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  • C, Doris (Actinocyclus) tuberculatus (Cuv.), seen from the pedal surface.

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  • I, C, ca, st) bearing a distinct inner and outer lobe (lacinia and galea, fig.

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  • In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.

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  • Ia, frons; b, clypeus (the pointed labrum beneath it); II, mandible; III, first maxilla; (a, base; b, sheath; c, piercer), III', inner view of sheath; IV, second maxillae forming rostrum (b, mentum; c, ligula).

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  • B, Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of smell in cockchafer; (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within (after Graber).

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  • As an extreme contrast to this After Westwood, c am odeif orm type, we take the maggot Modern Classification.

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  • Comprises the midges, gnats, crane-flies, gad-flies, &c.

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  • Further references will be found appended to the special articles on the orders (Aptera, Coleoptera, &C).

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  • The mineral has a very perfect cleavage parallel to the faces c and m, and the cleavage surfaces are perfectly smooth and bright.

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  • Parker in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Revue numismatique, Asiatic Quarterly, &c. (C. EL.) EPI, the French architectural term for a light finial, generally of metal, but sometimes of terra-cotta, e forming the termination of a spire or the angle of a roof.

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  • His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.

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  • The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain.

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  • He may lease the settled land, or any part of it, for any time not exceeding (a) in the case of a building lease, 99 years; (b) in the case of a mining lease, 60 years, (c) in the case of any other lease, 21 years.

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  • This enactment applies to leases of agricultural subjects, houses, mills, fisheries and whatever is fundo annexum; provided that (a) the lease, when for more than one year, must be in writing, (b) it must be definite as to subject, rent (which may consist of money, grain or services, if the reddendum is not illusory) and term of duration, (c) possession must follow on the lease.

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  • Linnaeus described five or six species, de C an doll e thirteen.

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  • Efforts have been made in the same direction in Egypt, West Africa, &c.

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  • The acid is thus obtained in colourless rhombic prisms of the composition C 6 H 8 0 7 +H 2 0.

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  • A higher temperature decomposes this body into carbon dioxide and itaconic acid, C 5 H 6 0 4, which, again, by the expulsion of a molecule of water, yields citraconic anhydride, C 5 H 4 0 3.

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  • Thirteen years later, in 1617, after numerous border fights with the Chinese, Nurhachu drew up a list of ` c seven hates," or indictments, against his southern neighbours, and, not getting the satisfaction he demanded, declared war against them.

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  • As the crusaders advanced to Jerusalem, says Raymund of Agiles (c. xxxiii.), it was their rule that the first-corner had the right to each castle or town, provided that he hoisted his standard and planted a garrison there.

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  • To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.

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  • These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.

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  • The complete analysis involves an examination of the fatty matter, of the various forms in which the alkalis are present - free and combined glycerin, &c.

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  • Since the distance of a body from the observer cannot be observed directly, but only the right ascension and declination, calling these a and 6 we conceive ideal equations of the form a = f (a, b, c, e, f, g, t) and 5=0 (a, b, c, e, f, g, t), the symbols a, b,.

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  • Roman C s ern 3.

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  • See further the articles on Xenophanes; Parmenides; Zeno (of Elea); Melissus, with the works there quoted; also the histories of philosophy by Zeller, Gomperz, Windelband, &c.

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  • Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.

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  • Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.

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  • The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of properties and relative composition became a dominant feature of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c.

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  • It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.

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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.

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  • Thus, he interpreted the interaction of benzene and nitric acid as C6H61-HN03 = C 6 H 5 NO 2 +H 2 0, the "residues" of benzene being C 6 H 5 and H, and of nitric acid HO and N02.

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  • By his own investigations and those of Sir Edward Frankland it was proved that the radical methyl existed in acetic acid; and by the electrolysis of sodium acetate, Kolbe concluded that he had isolated this radical; in this, however, he was wrong, for he really obtained ethane, C 2 H 6, and not methyl, CH 3.

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  • Thus the radical of acetic acid, acetyl,' was C 2 H 3 C 2.

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  • Henry started with methyl iodide, the formula of which we write in the form CI a H b H c H d.

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  • The same methyl iodide gave with potassium cyanide, acetonitril, which was hydrolysed to acetic acid; this must be C(Coch) a H b H c H d.

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  • This acid with silver nitrite gave nitroacetic acid, which readily gave the second nitromethane, CH a (NO 2) b H c H d, identical with the first nitromethane.

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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.

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  • By fusing two nuclei we obtain the formula of naphthalene, C 1 oH 8; by fusing three, the hydrocarbons anthracene and phenanthrene, C14H10; by fusing four, chrysene, C18H12, and possibly pyrene, C16H1n; by fusing five, picene, C22 H 14.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • Thus in the tri-substitution derivatives six isomers, and no more, are possible when two of the substituents are alike; for instance, six diaminobenzoic acids, C 6 H 3 (NH 2) 2 000H, are known; when all are unlike ten isomers are possible; thus, ten oxytoluic acids, C 6 H 3 -CH 3.

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  • Such a series of typical compounds are the benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acids), C 6 H 4 (000H) 2.

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  • Long-continued treatment with halogens may, in some cases, result in the formation of aromatic compounds; thus perchlorbenzene, C 6 C1 6, frequently appears as a product of exhaustive chlorination, while hexyl iodide, C 6 H 13 I, yields perchlorand perbrom-benzene quite readily.

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  • More important are Kekule's observations that nitrous acid oxidizes pyrocatechol or [I.2]-dioxybenzene, and protocatechuic acid or [3.4]- dioxybenzoic acid to dioxytartaric acid, (C(OH) 2 COOH) 2 (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230); and 0.

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  • Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.

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  • Kekule (Ann., 1883, 221, p. 230), however, reinvestigated this acid; he showed that it was dibasic and not tribasic; that it gave tartaric acid on reduction; and, finally, that it was dioxytartaric acid, HOOC C(OH) 2 C(OH) 2 COOH.

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  • It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.

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  • Here we shall only discuss the structure of these compounds in the light of the modern benzene theories; reference should be made to the articles Naphthalene, Anthracene and Phenanthrene for syntheses, decompositions, &c.

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  • If a-naphthylamine and a-naphthol be reduced, the hydrogen atoms attach themselves to the non-substituted half of the molecule, and the compounds so obtained resemble aminodiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3 NH 2 (C 2 H 5) 21 and oxydiethylbenzene, C 6 H 3.

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  • Thus benzene, (CH) gives thiophene, (CH) S, from which it is difficultly distinguished; pyridine, (CH) N, gives thiazole, (CH) N S, which is a very similar substance; naphthalene gives thionaphthen, C 11 S, with which it shows great analogies, especially in the derivatives.

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  • H C corresponding to paroxazine (para-oxazine).

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  • If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.

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  • The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • If, however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating atoms, the ratio is expressible as C p /C„= (5+a)/(3-Fa), which is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing values of a.

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  • These relations may be readily tested, for the ratio C p /C„ is capable of easy experimental determination.

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  • Similarly, greater atomic complexity is reflected in a further decrease in the ratio C y /Cy.

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  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.

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  • To reduce these figures to a common standard, so that the volumes shall contain equal numbers of molecules, the notion of molecular volumes is introduced, the arbitrary values of the crystallographic axes (a, b, c) being replaced by the topic parameters' (x, ?i, w), which are such that, combined with the axial angles, they enclose volumes which contain equal numbers of molecules.

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  • The overheating curve of rhombic sulphur extends along the curve AC, where C is the melting-point of monoclinic sulphur.

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  • From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.

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  • B, A section through the same; a, the invaginated proboscis; b, proboscis sheath; c, beginning of the neck; d, lemniscus.

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  • Hydriodic acid at high temperature reduces pyrrol to pyrrolidine (tetra-hydropyrrol), C 4 H 8 NH.

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  • Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.

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  • When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.

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  • Thus in Lithospermum the nutlets are hard like a stone, in Myosotis usually polished, in Cynoglossum covered with bristles, &c.

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  • I I KaTOLKb7ETE E7r ' i%7rt&c t' E f loL »' ye shall dwell securely with me "; for here ir' iXxiSc, as several times in the Septuagint, is a wrong rendering of ni '.

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  • Climate (C), that of Fort Chipewyan, having a mean winter temperature of.

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  • District (C) is the fur-trader's ?

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  • The earliest literary papyrus is that known, from the name of its former owner, as the Prisse papyrus, and now preserved at Paris, containing a work composed in the reign of a king of the fifth dynasty, and computed to be itself of the age of upwards of 2500 years B,C. The papyri discovered in Egypt have often been found in tombs, and in the hands, or swathed with the bodies, of mummies.

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  • The game-pies and other delicacies of Chartres are well known, and the industries also include flour-milling, brewing, distilling, iron-founding, leather manufacture, dyeing, and the manufacture of stained glass, billiard requisites, hosiery, &c.

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  • The cheek-teeth (premolars and molars) form a A B C FIG.

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  • The dentition is i, c 1, p 4, m L total 42.

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  • Consult the Boletin above mentioned, publications of the Estacion Central Agronomica, and current statistical serial reports of the treasury department (Hacienda) on natural resources, live-stock interests, the sugar industry (annual), &c.

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  • By the direct action of hydroxylamine on a methyl alcohol solution of mesityl oxide in the presence of sodium methylate a hydr oxylamino - ketone, diacetone hydroxylamine, (CH 3) 2 C(Nhoh) CH20OCH3,is formed.

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  • Soc., 188 9, 55, p. 760), or when benzsulphohydroxamic acid, C 6 H 5 SO 2 NH OH, is treated in the same manner (0.

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  • These magnates played a considerable part in the politics of south-eastern Europe; see especially their correspondence with the Venetian Republic, given by Shafarik, Acta archivi Veneti, &c.

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  • For superior education there is (1) the university of Constantinople, with its four faculties of letters, science, law and medicine; and (2) special schools, including (a) the normal school for training teachers, (b) the civil imperial school, (c) the school of the fine arts and (d) the imperial schools of medicine.

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  • The artillery is divided into (a) field artillery, horse artillery, mountain artillery and howitzer regiments; (b) fortress artillery; (c) artillery depots.

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  • In this manner an annuity of £T159,500 was set free, of which £Ti i,000 per annum was allotted as " extraordinary sinking fund " to series A and £T49,500 per annum each to series B, C and D; the lottery bonds were originally excluded from this arrangement, and special compensation was granted to these later.

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  • Series B, C and D (series A having already been completely redeemed by the action of the sinking fund) were replaced by the creation of new 4% bonds to a nominal amount of £T32,738,772, with a sinking fund of 0.45% per annum, bearing identical rights and privileges, and ranking immediately after, the priority bonds.

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  • The rates at which the series were respectively exchanged against the new unified bonds were £loo series B against £70 unified, £loo series C against £42 unified and £too series C against £37, 10s.

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  • But the idea of liberation continued to grow, and about 1780 the Society of Friends (`ETaepia Twv 4 c uK'v) was founded at Bucharest by the fervent patriot and poet, Constantinos Rhigas (q.v.).

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  • By Eusebius and Photius he is called Titus Flavius Clemens, and " c the Alexandrian " is added to his name.

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  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.

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  • See French Revolution; Girondists; Mountain; D Anton; Robespierre; Marat, &C.

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  • All the latter, therefore, which are between the old wood a and the blossoms c in fig.

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  • Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the Sources of the St Peter (Minnesota) River, Lake Winnepeek, Lake of the Woods, &c....

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  • This last substance may be reduced to mesoporphyrin, C34H3804N4, which by further reduction gives haemopyrrol, C 8 11 13 N, possibly methyl-propyl-pyrrol or butyl-pyrrol.

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  • Jahn, 2 the processes at the anode can be represented by the equations 2CH 3 000+H 2 0 =2CH3 000H+0 2 C H 3.

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  • When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.

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  • The logarithmic formulae for these concentration cells indicate that theoretically their electromotive force can be increased to any extent by diminishing without limit the concentration of the more dilute solution, log c i /c 2 then becoming very great.

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  • It will deal briefly (I) with the general idea and the historical evolution of ecclesiastical vestments, (2) with the vestments as at present worn (a) in the Roman Catholic Church, (b) in the Oriental Churches, (c) in the Reformed Churches, (d) in the Anglican Church.

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  • An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).

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  • The kalimaukion is also worn by the other clergy in ordinary life, and with their vestments at processions, &c.

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  • These formulae are supported by many considerations, especially by the selective CH 2 OH CH20H CH OH CH OH C C H O

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  • When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.

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  • If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.

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  • Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.

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  • Pro-deltidium attached A B C FIG.

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  • A, Larva which has just left brood-pouch; B, longitudinal section through a somewhat later stage; C, the fully formed embryo just before fixing - the neo-embryo of Beecher.

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  • B, C, D, Stages showing the turning forward of the second or mantle segment.

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  • The declaration is to the effect that the clergyman has not received the presentation in consideration of any sum of money, reward, gift, profit or benefit directly or indirectly given or promised by him or any one for him to any one; that he has not made any promise of resignation other than that allowed by the Clerical Resignation Bonds Act 1828; that he has not for any money or benefit procured the avoidance of the benefice; and that he has not been party to any agreement invalidated by sec. 3 sub-sec. 3 of the act which invalidates any agreement for the exercise of a right of patronage in favour or on the nomination of any particular person, and any agreement on the transfer of a right of patronage (a) for the retransfer of the right, or (b) for postponing payment of any part of the consideration for the transfer until a vacancy or for more than three months, or (c) for payment of interest until a vacancy or for more than three months, or (d) for any payment in respect of the date at which a vacancy occurs, or (e) for the resignation of a benefice in favour of any person.

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  • It is decomposed, on dry distillation, into carbon dioxide and pyromellitic acid, C i oH 6 0 8 i when distilled with lime it gives carbon dioxide and benzene.

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  • In the theory of surfaces we transform from one set of three rectangular axes to another by the substitutions 'X=' by+ cz, Y = a'x + b'y + c'z, Z =a"x+b"y-l-c"z, where X 2+Y2+Z2 = x2+ y2+z2.

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  • Further we find x=aX+a'Y+a"Z, y=bX z= cX+c'Y+ c"Z, and the problem is to express the nine coefficients in terms of three independent quantities.

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  • Such an expression as a l b 2 -a 2 b i, which is aa 2 ab 2 aa x 2 2 ax1' is usually written (ab) for brevity; in the same notation the determinant, whose rows are a l, a 2, a3; b2, b 2, b 3; c 1, c 2, c 3 respectively, is written (abc) and so on.

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  • If we have a symbolic product, which contains the symbol a only in determinant factors such as (ab), we may write x 2, -x 1 for a 1, a 2, and thus obtain a product in which (ab) is replaced by b x, (ac) by c x and so on.

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  • From (ac) 2 (bd) 2 (ad)(bc) we obtain (bd) 2 (bc) cyd x +(ac) 2 (ad) c xdx - (bd) 2 (ad)axb x - (ac)2(bc)axbx =4(bd) 2 (bc)c 2.

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  • Further, in the case of invariants, we write A= (1, i') 2 and take three new forms B = (i, T) 2; C = (r, r`) 2; R = (/y).

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  • On this principle the covariant j is expressible in the form R 2 j =5 3 + BS 2 a+4ACSa 2 + C(3AB -4C)a3 when S, a are the above defined linear forms.

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  • When C vanishes j has the form j = pxg x, and (f,j) 3 = (ap) 2 (aq)ax = o.

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  • Remark.-The invariant C is a numerical multiple of the resultant of the covariants i and j, and if C = o, p is the common factor of i and j.

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  • The discriminant is the resultant of ax and ax and of degree 8 in the coefficients; since it is a rational and integral function of the fundamental invariants it is expressible as a linear function of A 2 and B; it is independent of C, and is therefore unaltered when C vanishes; we may therefore take f in the canonical form 6R 4 f = BS5+5BS4p-4A2p5.

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  • Ternary and Higher Forms.-The ternary form of order n is represented symbolically by (aixl+a2x2+a3x3)' =a'; and, as usual, b, c, d,...

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  • We can see that (abc)a x b x c x is not a covariant, because it vanishes identically, the interchange of a and b changing its sign instead of leaving it unchanged; but (abc) 2 is an invariant.

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  • When a z and the invariants B and C all vanish, either A or j must vanish; in the former case j is a perfect cube, its Hessian vanishing, and further f contains j as a factor; in the latter case, if p x, ax be the linear factors of i, f can be expressed as (pa) 5 f =cip2+c2ay; if both A and j vanish i also vanishes identically, and so also does f.

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  • If now the nti c denote a given pencil of lines, an invariant is the criterion of the pencil possessing some particular property which is independent alike of the axes and of the multiples, and a covariant expresses that the pencil of lines which it denotes is a fixed pencil whatever be the axes or the multiples.

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  • The general form of covariant is therefore (ab) h i (ac) h2 c) (b h3 a i bb2c'e3...abia?2b?3...

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  • The "browse," after removal of the "grey" slag, is reintroduced, ore added, and, after a quarter of an hour's heating, the mass again placed on the work-stone, &c.

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  • Here compounds of divalent lead have not yet been obtained; by acting with zinc ethide on lead chloride, lead tetraethide, Pb(C 2 IH Q) 4, is obtained, with the separation of metallic lead.

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  • It would be impossible to enumerate here all the monographs describing, for example, the ruins of Carthage, those of the temple of the waters at Mount Zaghuan, the amphitheatre of El Jem (Thysdrus), the temple of Saturn, the royal tomb and the theatre of Dugga (Thugga), the bridge of Chemtu (Simitthu), the ruins and cemeteries of Tebursuk and Medeina (Althiburus), the rich villa of the Laberii at Wadna (Uthina), the sanctuary of Saturn Balcaranensis on the hill called Bu-KornaIn, the ruins of the district of Enfida (Aphrodisium, Uppenna, Segermes), those of Leptis minor (Lemta), of Thenae (near Sfax), those of the island of Meninx (Jerba), of the peninsula of Zarzis, of Mactar, Sbeitla (Sufetula), Gigthis (Bu-Grara), Gafsa (Capsa), Kef (Sicca Veneria), Bulla Regia, &c.

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  • Thus if the magnet is suspended horizontally by a fine wire, which, when the magnetic axis points north and south, is free from torsion, and if 0 is the angle through which the upper end of the wire must be twisted to make the magnet point east and west, then MH = CB, or M = C6/H, where C is the torsional couple for r 0.

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  • C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

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  • If the operation is again reversed, the upward course will be nearly, but not exactly, of the form shown by the line d c a, fig.

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  • The closed figure a c d e a is variously called a hysteresis curve or diagram or loop. The area f HdB enclosed by it represents the work done in carrying a cubic centimetre of the iron through the corresponding magnetic cycle; expressed in ergs this work is I HdB.

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  • The current passes through the rocking key K, which, when thrown over to the right, places a in contact with c and b with d, and when thrown over to the left, places a in contact with e and b with f.

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  • By means of the three-way switch C the battery current may be sent either into the primary of E, for the purpose of calibrating the galvanometer, or into the magnetizing coil of the ring under test.

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  • In a similar manner, by giving different values to the resistance 4 F R, any desired number of points R= between a and c in the curve can FIG.

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  • In this way points can be found lying anywhere between c and d of fig.

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  • The test bar C C, which slides through holes bored in the yoke, is divided near the middle into two parts, the ends which come into contact being faced true and square.

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  • The yoke has two projecting pieces C, C' at unequal distances from the knife-edges, and separated from the blocks B, B' by narrow air-gaps.

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  • Let each of the effects A, B, C, D and E be called positive when it is such as is exhibited by moderately magnetized iron, and negative when its sense is opposite.

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  • The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.

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  • C IX It is important to note that the series of lamellae of the lung-book and the gill-book ?_.

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  • C, Section through the fully formed eye.

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  • C, Transverse section of the The eggs of Limulus are fertilized in the sea after they have been laid.

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  • A, Youngest stage with no mesosomatic somites; B and C, stages with two mesosomatic somites between the prosomatic and telsonic carapaces; D, adult condition, still with only two free mesosomatic somites.

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  • The segmentation of the prosoma and the form of the appendages bear a homoplastic similarity to the head, pro-, meso-, and meta-thorax of a Hexapod with mandibles, maxillary palps and three pairs of walking legs; while the opistho io i e d c b o a S' S" 2 I VT V S IV III II I Opisthosoma Prosoma FIG.

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  • The 1st pair of appendages both in this and in C are retracted.

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  • I c -14 of that book.

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  • The Coptic version (C. Schmidt, Acta Pauli, pp. 74-82), which is here imperfect, is clearly from a Greek original, while the Latin and Armenian are from the Syriac. (c) The Acts of Paul and Thecla.

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  • It is also produced by the action of sodium on a mixture of epichlorhydrin and methyl iodide, C 3 H S OC1+CH 3 I+2Na= C 3 H 4 0+NaI+NaC1+CH 4.

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  • Metacrolein, (C 3 H 4 0) 3, is a polymer of acrolein.

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  • By passing acrolein vapour into ammonia, acrolein ammonia, C 6 H 9 NO, is obtained.

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  • With ammonia, benzaldehyde does not form an aldehyde ammonia, but condenses to hydrobenzamide, (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2, with elimination of water.

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  • It is the distributing centre for the surrounding district, and exports railway carriages, engines, boilers, stoves, &c.

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  • The largest of the Amazon species are the jacare-assu (Caiman niger), jacare (C. fissipes) and jacaretinga (C, sclerops).

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  • Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.

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  • Among these are flour mills, factories for the cutting of wire nails and making hollow ware from sheet iron, and factories for the manufacture of umbrellas, boots and shoes, &c.

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  • During the rule of the nobles and the mixed rule of nobles and popolani the commune of Siena was enlarged by fortunate acquisitions of neighbouring lands and by the submission of feudal lords, such as the Scialenghi, Aldobrandeschi, Pannocchieschi, Visconti di Campiglia, &c.

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  • There is trade in agricultural produce, wine, metals, &c. The canal from the Rhone to the Rhine passes under the citadel by way of a tunnel, and the port of Besancon has considerable trade in coal, sand, &c.

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  • It has been ascribed to a fly, to the water and to other causes; but it is not peculiar to Aleppo, being rife also at Aintab, Bagdad, &c.

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  • Phenylnitromethane, C 6 H 5 CH 2 NO 2, isomeric with the nitrotoluenes, is prepared by the action of benzyl chloride on silver nitrite.

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  • A nitrosooctane (CH 3) 2 C(NO) [CH 2] 2 CH(CH 3) 2, has been obtained by 0.

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  • C or cz is pronounced as English ts; cs as English ch; ds as English j; zs as French j; gy as dy.

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  • Amongst the ablest and most zealous students of the history of philosophy are Bernhard Alexander, under whose editorship, aided by Joseph Banoczi, a series of the works of the world's great thinkers has appeared; Andrew Domanovszky, author of an elaborate History of Philosophy; Julius Gyomlai, translator of Plato; Eugen Peterfy, likewise translator of philosophical works, &c.

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  • In the case of addition, for instance, suppose that we are satisfied that in a+b+c+d+e we may take any two, as b and c, together (association) and interchange them (commutation).

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  • We thus express P=Q in the form of a continued fraction, k+ + I, which is usually written,for conciseness, k+ s + t + &c., s t+&c.

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  • If a of the stock are of one type, b of another, c of another,.

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  • Suppose that there are a number of arrangements of r terms or elements, the first of which a is always either A or not-A, the second b is B or not-B, the third c is C or not-C, and so on.

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  • Then, since nr rl is also a rational integral function of n of degree r, we can find a coefficient c r, not containing n, and such as to make N-c r nr ri contain no power of n higher than n r - 1.

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  • Thus a(b+c) and (b+c)a give the same result, though it may be written in various ways, such as abdac, ca+ab, &c. In the same way the associative law is that A(BC) and (AB)C give the same formal result.

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  • We cannot, for instance, say that the fraction C _2 I is arithmetically equal to x+I when x= I, as well as for other values of x; but we can say that the limit of the ratio of x 2 - I to x - I when x becomes indefinitely nearly equal to I is the same as the limit of x+ On the other hand, if f(y) has a definite and finite value for y = x, it must not be supposed that this is necessarily the same as the limit which f (y) approaches when y approaches the value x, though this is the case with the functions with which we are usually concerned.

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  • They are (a+b)-?-c=a+(b+c) (A) (aXb)Xc=aX(bXc) (A') a+b=b+a (c) aXb=bXa (c') a(b c) =ab-Fac (D) (a - b)+b=a (I) (a=b)Xb=a (I') These formulae express the associative and commutative laws of the operations + and X, the distributive law of X, and the definitions of the inverse symbols - and =, which are assumed to be unambiguous.

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  • It can be proved by geometry that (aA-H3B) +yC = aA+(aB+- y C) = (a + 1 3+ 7) P, where P is in fact the centroid of masses a, 13, y placed at A, B, C respectively.

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  • From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.

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  • In the course of reducing such expressions as (AB)C, (AB){C(DE)} and the like, where a chain of multiplications has to be performed in a certain order, the multiplications may be all progressive, or all regressive, or partly, one, partly the other.

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  • These may be compared and contrasted with such quaternion formulae as S(VabVcd) =SadSbc-SacSbd dSabc = aSbcd - bScda+cSadb where a, b, c, d denote arbitrary vectors.

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  • Study), and B I c (G.

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  • In this they were completely successful, for they obtained general solutions for the equations ax by = c, xy = ax+by+c (since rediscovered by Leonhard Euler) and cy 2 = ax e + b.

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  • The more important wild animals are a large wild sheep (Ovis poli), foxes, wolves, jackals, bears, boars, deer and leopards; amongst birds, there are partridges, pheasants, ravens, jays, sparrows, larks, a famous breed of hawks, &c.

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  • Against Bulgaria the Yugoslav delegation claimed considerable frontier rectifications - (a) the Strumnica salient, which threatened the Vardar railway from the east, (b) the district of Kochana (Tocana) and the Bregalnitsa (Bregalnica), (c) a strip of territory running parallel with the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier the whole way from Zajecar to Kyustendil, and (d) the town of Vidin on the Danube and the salient between it and the Timok.

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  • Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.

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  • Pre-Darwinian zoologists had been aware of the class of facts thus interpreted by Fritz Muller, but the authoritative view on the subject had been that there is a parallelism between (a) the series of forms which occur in individual development, (b) the series of existing forms from lower to higher, and (c) the series of forms which succeed 'one another in the strata of the earth's crust, whilst an explanation of this parallelism was either not attempted, or was illusively offered in the shape of a doctrine of harmony of plan in creation.

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  • Since the maxima occur when u = (m +1)7r it nearly, the successive values are not very different from 4 4 4 &c The application of these results to (3) shows that the field is brightest at the centre =o, =0, viz.

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  • When, as in the application to rectangular or circular apertures, the form is symmetrical with respect to the axes both of x and y, S = o, and C reduces to C = ff cos px cos gy dx dy,.

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  • It is thus sufficient to determine the intensity along the axis of p. Putting q = o, we get C = ffcos pxdxdy=2f+Rcos 'px 1/ (R2 - x2)dx, R being the radius of the aperture.

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  • The value of C for an annular aperture of radius r and width dr is thus dC =271-Jo(Pp)pdp, (12).

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  • The greatest brightness is at the centre, where dC = 27rp d p, C = 7rR2.

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  • By separation of real and imaginary parts, C =M cos 27rv 2 +N sin 27rv2 1 S =M sin 27rv 2 - N cos 27rv2 where 35+357.9 N _ 7rv 3 7r 3 v 7 + 1.3 1.3.5.7 1.3.5.7.9.11 These series are convergent for all values of v, but are practically useful only when v is small .

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  • Comparing the expressions for C, S in terms of M, N, and in terms of G, H, we find that G = z (cos u+sin u)-M, H = z (cos u-sin u) +N.

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  • Eight of them, it is true, fell into disuse; but the medieval Ionian and Hypo-ionian modes are absolutely identical with the modern natural scale of C; and the Aeolian and Hypoaeolian modes differ from our minor scale, not in constitution, but in treatment only.

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  • It was first prepared by C. Scheele and is formed when urea HO C N is treated with water.

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  • Moreover, it is very doubtful whether the word r y ?c can be translated " Director."

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  • He was the author of The Transvaal from Within; Jock of the Bushveld, &c.

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  • Alcoholic potash decomposes it into piperidine, C5H,1N, and piperic acid, C 12 H 10 O 4.

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  • It also manufactures agricultural implements, furniture, paper, tobacco, &c.

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  • In the great 14th century "Manesse" MS. (c) collection of medieval German lyrics, preserved at Heidelberg, there are two songs written by Conradin, and his fate has formed the subject of several dramas.

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  • The oldest and perhaps most reasonable idea represents guncotton as cellulose trinitrate, but this has been much disputed, and various formulae, some based on cellulose as C, 2 H200 10, others on a still more complex molecule, have been proposed.

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  • If guncotton be correctly represented by the formula C 6 H 7 0 2 (NO 3) 3, it should contain a little more than 14% of nitrogen.

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  • Its ethyl ester reacts with hydrazine to form hippuryl hydrazine, C,H 5 CO NH CH 2 CO NH NH 2, which was used by Curtius for the preparation of azoimide.

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  • The origin of the corpuscles, previously a matter of so much difference of opinion, is now pretty fairly set at rest, and has proved the key to the interpretation of the pathology of many diseases of the blood, such as the different forms of anaemia, of leucocythaemia, &c.

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  • The effect of overwork upon an organ or tissue varies in accordance with (a) the particular organ or tissue concerned, (b) the amount of nourishment conveyed to it, and (c) the power of assimilation possessed by its cells.

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  • In the wasting of the thyroid gland in myxoedema, or when the gland is completely removed by operation, myxomatous areas are found in the subcutaneous tissue of the skin, nerve-sheaths, &c.

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  • Many workers following certain occupations show pigmented scars due to the penetration of carbon and other pigments from superficial wounds caused by gunpowder, explosions, &c.

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  • Some solutions of nitroglycerin (in ether, acetone, &c.) burn quietly, and the same is the case when it is held in solution or suspension in a colloid substance, as gelatinized guncotton, &c.

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  • The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.

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  • At Gresham College, Basinghall Street, City, founded in 1 597 by Sir Thomas Gresham, and moved to its present site in 1843, lectures are given in the principal branches of science, law, divinity, medicine, &c.

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  • The vestries and district boards became the authorities for local drainage, paving, lighting, repairing and maintaining streets, and for the removal of nuisances, &c.

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  • The cartesian equation referred to the axis and directrix is y=c cosh (x/c) or y = Zc(e x / c +e x / c); other forms are s = c sinh (x/c) and y 2 =c 2 -1-s 2, being the arc measured from the vertex; the intrinsic equation is s = c tan The radius of curvature and normal are each equal to c sec t '.

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  • It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.

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  • In this table n is the refractive index of the glass for sodium light (the D line of the solar spectrum), while the letters C, F and G' refer to lines in the hydrogen spectrum by which dispersion is now generally specified.

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  • Silicobenzoic acid, C 6 H 5 S10.0H, results from the action of dilute aqueous ammonia on phenyl silicon chloride (obtained from mercury diphenyl and silicon tetrachloride).

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  • A group (C) may be formed of mercury, silver, gold and platinum, which are not touched by either aqueous acid in any circumstances.

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  • Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.

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  • Suppose P tons is moved c ft.

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  • Then 4, =o over the cylinder r = a, which may be considered a fixed post; and a stream line past it along which 4, = Uc, a constant, is the curve (r - ¢2) sin 0=c, (x2 + y2) (y - c) - a 2 y = o, (3) a cubic curve (C3).

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  • The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.

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  • A relative stream line, along which 1/,' = Uc, is the quartic curve y-c=?![2a(r-x)], x = 4a2y2-(y g)4, r- 4a2y2 +(y c) 4, 7) 4 a (y-c) 4a(y and in the absolute space curve given by 1', dy= (y- c)2, x= 2ac_ 2a log (y -c) (8) 2ay y - c 34.

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  • As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.

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  • The stream lines xBAJ, xA'J' are given by = 0, m; so that if c denotes the ultimate breadth JJ' of the jet, where the velocity may be supposed uniform and equal to the skin velocity Q, m=Qc, c=m/Q.

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  • When the liquid is bounded externally by the fixed ellipsoid A = A I, a slight extension will give the velocity function 4 of the liquid in the interspace as the ellipsoid A=o is passing with velocity U through the confocal position; 4 must now take the formx(1'+N), and will satisfy the conditions in the shape CM abcdX ¢ = Ux - Ux a b x 2+X)P Bo+CoB I - C 1 (A 1 abcdX, I a1b1cl - J o (a2+ A)P and any'confocal ellipsoid defined by A, internal or external to A=A 1, may be supposed to swim with the liquid for an instant, without distortion or rotation, with velocity along Ox BA+CA-B 1 -C1 W'.

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  • C - a 2 - 2 b2 +A, = and then as above in § 31, with a= c ch a, b=c sh a, a =-1 (a 2 +X) =c ch al, b1= c sh a (13) the ratio in (II) agrees with § 31 (6).

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  • An oblate flattened body, like a disk or plate, has c 2 -c 1 negative, so that the medium steers the body axially; this may be verified by a plate dropped in water, and a leaf or disk or rocket-stick or piece of paper falling in air.

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  • An elongated body like a ship has c 2 -c 1 positive, and the couple N tends to disturb the axial movement and makes it unstable, so that a steamer requires to be steered by constant attention at the helm.

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  • The effective angular inertia of the body in the medium is now required; denote it by C 1 about the axis of the figure, and by C2 about a diameter of the mean section.

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  • A rotation about the axis of a figure of revolution does not set the medium in motion, so that C 1 is.

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  • Chaplains are also appointed under the foreign office to embassies, legations, consulates, &c.

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  • There C are no important industries, except a few flour-mills, some glass works, iron foundries, a motor car factory, straw hat factories, and power-houses supplying electricity for lighting and for the numerous tramcars.

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  • A and B, mycelium (m), the mix t ure over the affe c ted with haustoria (h).

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  • The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.

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  • The starting point was ordinary(d)mannite (mannitol),C 6 H 14 0 61 a naturally occurring hexahydric alcohol, which only differed from a-acritol, the alcohol obtained by reducing a-acrose, with regard to optical activity.

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  • Outline of the ventral surface to show the external apertures and nervous system; a, rosette-organ; b, uterine pore; c, terminal sucker; e, vaginal pore; g, male gonopore; n, o, p, nervous system.

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  • C, portion of a proboscis showing the two forms of hooks; highly magnified.

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  • The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..

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  • C, invaginated head of Cysticercus cellulosae, showing the bent neck and receptacle r; X 30.

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  • In the United States, Belgian furnaces of type (a) are built to contain 864 retorts; of type (b), to contain 300 to 400 retorts; and of type (c), preferably about 600 retorts.

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  • This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.

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  • It is a monacid base; the hydrochloride, C 20 H 17 N0 4 HC1, is insoluble in cold alcohol, ether and chloroform, and soluble in 500 parts of water; the acid sulphate, C 20 H 17 N0 4 H 2 SO 4, dissolves in about loo parts of water.

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  • It is the plural form of Targi," a raider."The Tawareq call themselves by some variant of the root MasheqTamasheq, Imoshagh, &c.

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  • Coarser straw hats are made at other places, as well as hammocks, baskets, &c.

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  • The neck of the retort, or side tube of the flask, is connected to the condenser c by an ordinary or rubber cork, according to the nature of the substance distilled; ordinary corks soaked in paraffin wax are very effective when ordinary or rubber corks cannot be used.

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  • A, Fasciola hepatica, from the ventral surface (X 2); the alimentary and nervous systems only shown on the left side of the figure, the excretory only on the right; a, right main branch of the intestine; c, a diverticulum; g, lateral ganglion; n, lateral nerve; o, mouth; p, pharynx; s, ventral sucker; cs, cirrus sac; d, left anterior dorsal excretory vessel; m, main vessel; v, left anterior ventral trunk; x, excretory pore.

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  • A, Dorsal view showing the nervous system and digestive system; a, mouth; b, pharynx; c, d, e, gut; E, post-genital union of two limbs of gut; f, excretory pore; g, vaginal pore; h, j, k, brain and nerves; 1, dorsal nerves; m, ventral nerves; n, adoral sucker; o, posterior sucker; p, hooks on posterior sucker; r, vitello-intestinal duct.

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  • C, A young redia, the digestive tract shaded.

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  • Hosmer's Appeal to Arms and Outcome of the Civil War (New York, 1907); John Eaton's Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen (New York, 1907), and various works mentioned in the articles American Civil War, Wilderness Campaign, &C.

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  • It had come to fill only part of its ancient circuit, but of recent years it has revived considerably, and, since the railway reached it, has acquired a semi-European quarter, with a German hotel, cafes and Greek shops, &c.

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  • But the bundant steam given off by the volcano seems to have con- c ensed into copious rain, which, mixing with the light volcanic V

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  • From this form the transition is simple to the rounded C, which is generally found in the same localities as the pointed form, but is more widely spread, occurring in Arcadia and on Chalcidian vases of the 6th century B.e., in Rhodes and Megara with their colonies in Sicily.

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  • A further peculiarity of the use of C in Latin is in the abbreviation for the district Subura in Roma and its adjective Suburanus, which appears as SVC. Here C no doubt represents G, but there is no interchange between g and b in Latin.

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  • As the district was full of traders, Subura may very well be an imported word, but the form with C must either go back to a period before the disappearance of g before v or must come from some other Italic dialect.

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  • The symbol G was a new coinage in the 3rd century B.C. The pronunciation of C throughout the period of classical Latin was that of an unvoiced guttural stop (k).

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  • In Latin there is no evidence for the interchange of c with a sibilant earlier than the 6th century A.D.

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  • In Anglo-Saxon c was adopted to represent the hard stop. After the Norman conquest many English words were re-spelt under Norman influence.

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