Refounded by the Byzantines in the 6th century, the city disappeared from history at the time of the Arab conquest of the country in the 7th century.
This latter change in itself made pilgrimages from the West increasingly difficult: the Byzantines, especially after the schism of 1054, did not seek to smooth the way of the pilgrim, and Victor II.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
Later, all that we understand by Syria came to be so known officially to the Romans and Byzantines; but the only province called simply Syria, without qualification, remained in the Orontes valley.
Gregorovius, Athena's (Leipzig, 1892); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (Paris, 1906), pp. 25-49; also Theodosius.
At this time the Visigoths who settled in Spain early in the 5th century were menaced by two powerful enemies, the Suevi who had a small kingdom in the north-west of the peninsula, and the Byzantines who had answered Athanagild's appeal for help by taking possession of a stretch of country in the south-east.
He turned first against the Byzantines, who were defeated several times; he took Cordova and chastised the Suevi; and then by stern measures he destroyed the power of those unruly and rebellious chieftains who had reduced former kings to the position of ciphers.
Allying himself with the Byzantines and other enemies of the Visigoths, and supported by most of the orthodox Christians he headed a formidable insurrection.
Avlona played an important part in the wars between the Normans and the Byzantines, during the iith and 1 2th centuries.
He took Aidos, Nicomedia, Hereke, and, after a siege, Nicaea; Tarakli and Gemlik fell to his arms, and soon the whole of the shore of the Marmora up to Kartal was conquered, and the Byzantines retained on the continent of Asia Minor only Ala Shehr and Biga.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
the Byzantines) erred in confusing these two first principles.
This Christian kingdom - situated in the midst of Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the crusaders, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy - had a stormy existence of about 300 years.
(1100-1123), in alliance with the Christian princes of Syria, waged successful war against Byzantines and Seljuks.
The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (io16).
And even during the first years of the harsh Lombard rule the need recognized by these oppressors of defending the Italian coast from the attacks of the Byzantines was favourable to the development of the Pisan navy.
As a memorial of the miraculous interference, the Byzantines erected an altar to Torch-bearing Hecate, and stamped a crescent on their coins, a device which is retained by the Turks to this day.
The losses which they sustained by land roused the Byzantines to indemnify themselves on the vessels which still crowded the harbour, and the merchantmen which cleared the straits; but this had the effect of provoking a war with the neighbouring naval powers.
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
The restoration effected by the Byzantines was partial and shortlived.
It took the place of Laodicea when that town was deserted during the wars between the Byzantines and Seljuk Turks, probably between 1158 and 1174.
The district passed from the Byzantines to the Seljuks after the defeat of Romanus, 1071, and from the latter to the Mongols in 1243.
The walls of the Roman city, restored probably by the Byzantines, have been incorporated in the French walls, which are pierced by four gates.
The Phoenicians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Byzantines, the Arabs, the Turks and the French, all came from the east or from the north.
Of the Byzantines, the most worthy of mention XVII.
and Silvester II., in urging certain territorial claims. But not till 1050 was it made the basis of the larger papal claims, when another Frankish pope, Leo IX., used it in his controversy with the Byzantines.
He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between 756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of Rome and the holy images.
pp. 53, 128 (1877); P. Adam, Princesses byzantines (1893); Sir Walter Scott, Count Robert of Paris; L.
Agnes de France (1907); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (1906).
Destroyed by the Vandals, Caesarea regained some of its importance under the Byzantines.
It was held by Vandals, Byzantines and Arabs, and when Mulai Idris passed from Tlemcen to Fez in 788, Tangier was "the oldest and most beautiful city" of the Maghrib.
(" The Romans are overcome in the nearest neighbouring land ") refers to the defeat of the Byzantines by the Persians, not far from Damascus, about the spring of 614, it would follow that the third group, to which this passage belongs, covers the greater part of the Meccan period.
Moizz also found time to take some active measures against the Byzantines, with whom his generals fought in Syria with varying fortune.
He then tried to gain possession of Aleppo, as the key to Irk, but this was prevented by the intervention of the Byzantines.
The latter retreated to the Yarmuk River, where the Byzantines met them.
It was overrun by Slavic hordes, who have left their traces in many village names, and was one of the chief battlefields of the various powers - Byzantines, Franks, Venetians and Turks - who struggled for the possession of the Morea.
(3) The White Huns (AEwcoi Oiivvoc or Ephthalites), who troubled the Persian empire from about 420 to 557 and were known to the Byzantines.
The war against the Byzantines was continued with energy during the whole of Hisham's reign.
While Mansur was thus losing Africa and Spain, he was trying to redeem the losses the empire had sustained on the northern frontier by the Byzantines.
The Moslems then made a raid by the pass of Iladath (Adata) and invaded the land of the Byzantines.
During the reign of Mansur the annual raids against the Byzantines had taken place almost without intermission, but the only feat of importance had been the conquest of Laodicea, called "the burnt" () KaTaxeKav,avn), by Ma`yuf b.
In that same year, 852-853, the Byzantines made a descent on Egypt with 300 vessels.
The chief punishment, however, the burning of the fleet, was a very impolitic measure, as it strengthened the hands of the Byzantines.
The war with the Byzantines was conducted with great energy during the reign of Moktafi.
During the troubles of the Caliphate the Byzantines had made great advances; they had even taken Malatia and Samosata (Samsat).
As the result of anarchy in the army, the Byzantines lost their last possessions in Italy (r071), and were forced to cede a large strip of Asia Minor which they were unable to defend against the Seljuk Turks (1074).
830 the Caliph Ma'mun, while marching against the Byzantines, received a deputation of the inhabitants of Ilarran.
In the West the Church History of that author had already been continued by Rufinus and his Chronicle by Jerome, and the work of Rufinus was certainly known to the Byzantines.
The Byzantines had to pay them a yearly tribute of 80 talents, until on the death of the Gallic king Cavarus (some time after 220 B.C.) they were annihilated by the Thracians.
The place, re-fortified by the Byzantines, and still retaining its name as Bergama, passed into Moslem hands early in the 14th century.
In 971 Sviatoslav, after a three months' heroic defence, surrendered the town to the Byzantines, who had meanwhile become his enemies.
The grateful Byzantines erected a statue to "torch-bearing" Hecate, and adopted the lunar crescent as the badge of the city.
Pears, Fall of Constantinople (1885), The Destruction of the Greek Empire (1903); Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Salzenberg, Altchristliche Baudenkmale von Konstantinopel; Lethaby and Swainson, The Church of Sancta Sophia; Pulgher, Les Anciennes Eglises byzantines de Constantinople; Labarte, Le Palais imperial de Constantinople et ses abords.
From his own younger contemporaries, Aristotle and Theophrastus, who founded their theory of rhetoric in large part on his practice, down to the latest Byzantines, the consent of theorists, orators, antiquarians, anthologists, lexicographers, offered the same unvarying homage to Demosthenes.
Frankish predominance was long commemorated by the name Francochorion, given by the Byzantines to Syrmia; it is still commemorated by the name Fruska Gora,.
This passed shortly afterwards into the hands of the Byzantines, who retained it until the Turks under Mahommed H.
In 63 2 the victories of Heraclius restored Armenia to the Byzantines; but the war that followed the Arab invasion, 636, left the country in the hands of the caliphs, who set over it Arab and Armenian governors (ostikans).
From 984 to 1085 the country from Diarbekr to Melasgerd was ruled under the suzerainty first of Arabs then of Byzantines and Seljuks, by the Mervanid dynasty of Kurds, called princes of Abahuni ('Airaxouvi - js).
This Christian kingdom in the midst of Moslem states, hostile to the Byzantines, giving valuable support to the leaders of the crusades, and trading with the great commercial cities of Italy, had a stormy existence of about 300 years.
On his northern frontier he began a war against the Bulgarians, to whom the Byzantines had of late been paying tribute (967), and by instigating an attack from the Russians distracted their attention effectively.
Alternately captured by Byzantines and Goths, it was rigorously besieged by the latter in A.D.
They were, however, compelled to retreat before the reinforcements sent by Belisarius and Narses; thus the Byzantines, after various vicissitudes, became masters of the town, appointed a duke as its governor, and included it in the exarchate of Ravenna.
tribesmantribes refused payment for the Byzantines allegedly joined Arab tribesmen.
They agreed with Byzantines in observing Lent, Christmas and Epiphany, but differed from them in the observance of all other feasts and fasts.
Of these later Byzantines the first in order of date is the monk Planudes (d.
The representative of the other branch, Saif addaula, the prince of Haleb (Aleppo), conducted the war against the Byzantines with great valour till his death in 356 (A.D.
It should be noted that the Byzantines were among the most civilized people in all the world at that time.
Desert tribes refused payment for the Byzantines allegedly joined Arab tribesmen.
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