In 456 it was seized by Genseric. It was retaken Byzantine period.
The Byzantine army captured fifteen thousand prisoners.
in 987; between 1018 and 1186, under Byzantine rule, it served as a frontier fortress.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
It is certainly derived, through Rossiya, from Slavonic Rus or Ros (Byzantine `Pws or `Pc o-oc), a name first given to the Scandinavians who founded a principality on the Dnieper in the 9th century; and afterwards extended to the collection of Russian states of which this principality formed the nucleus.
The whole is still enclosed by the Byzantine walls, which follow the line of the cliffs and are carried along the sea-face; and the upper part of the level, which is separated from the lower by an inner cross wall, forms the castle; while at the highest point, where a sort of neck is formed between the two valleys, is the keep which crowns the whole.
This is confirmed by the employment in Byzantine Greek of the term thTros or ioirra to designate domesticated cats brought from Egypt.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
(married to Theophano of the imperial Byzantine house) and his grandson, Otto III., who descended into Italy in 996, found that the affairs of Rome and of the southern provinces were more than even their imperial powers could cope with.
In 551 it was taken by Totila, but reconquered after his death by Narses for the Byzantine Empire.
Odoacer, a chief of the Herulians, deposed Romulus, the last Augustus of the West, and placed the peninsula beneath the titular sway of the Byzantine emperors.
P. Pullan, Byzantine Architecture (London, 1864); G.
the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
The pulpit appears to be of Byzantine origin (Rivoira).
The capitals are, in the lower order, the characteristic funnel-shaped rectangular Byzantine capitals, some of them with open work, bearing cushions; this is a type probably derived from the cushion itself, and developed in the East about the second half of the 5th century.
It has twenty-four columns of Carystian (cipollino) marble, with capitals probably of Byzantine work with swelling acanthus leaves; but the rest of the church is due to native architects.
as a refuge from the malaria, which prevailed at Classe itself, with fine 17th-century cloisters, contains the important museum, which has Roman and Byzantine antiquities, inscriptions, sculptures, jewelry, &c. - including the possible remains of a suit of gold armour of Theodoric - and a collection of Italian woodcuts; also the library with rare MSS.
It was one of the five seaports which remained Byzantine until the time of Pippin.
Southern Albania and Epirus fell once more under Byzantine rule, which, however, was shaken by numerous revolts.
Southern Albania and Epirus remained under Byzantine domination till 1204, when, after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders, Michael Comnenus, a member of the imperial family, withdrew to Epirus and founded an independent sovereignty known as the Despotate of Epirus at Iannina; his realm included the whole of southern Albania, Acarnania and Aetolia.
The Anecdota Graeca (1829-1833) and Anecdota Nova (1844) are important for Byzantine history and the Greek grammarians.
It was reserved for Finlay to depict, with greater knowledge and a juster perception, the lights and shades of Byzantine history.
A village of the Byzantine period has been explored at Balatizzo, immediately to the south of the modern town (Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 511-520).
The three Cipxovms who appear in the loth-century inscriptions just mentioned bear alternately the names Torcotorius and Salusius; and, inasmuch as this is the case with the judices of Cagliari from the 11th to the 13th century, there seems no doubt that they were the successors of these Byzantine ripXovrfs, who were perhaps the actual founders of the dynasty.
Several interesting monuments of this period remain at Trebizond in the form of churches in the Byzantine style of architecture.
In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
After the division of the Roman empire, the lands inhabited by the Albanian race became provinces of the Byzantine empire; northern Albania from Scutari to Berat formed the thema or province of Dyrrachium (Durazzo, Albanian Dourtz), southern Albania and Epirus the thema of Nikopolis.
Its history under the Byzantine rule is uneventful,but for some temporary occupations by the Saracens (653 -658, 717-718), and the gradual encroachment of Venetian traders since 1082.
Notre-Dame d'Afrique, a church built (1858-1872) in a mixture of the Roman and Byzantine styles, is conspicuously situated, overlooking the sea, on the shoulder of the Bu Zarea hills, m.
On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
It appears to be completely ignored by the Byzantine chroniclers.
" Century IX.") Since these transactions patriarchs have been deposed by the Byzantine emperors; and the Turkish sultans since the 15th century have assumed to exercise the same prerogative.
The style is commonly called Byzantine; but some of the most striking features of the churches of Ravenna - the colonnades, the mosaics, perhaps the cupolas - are not so much Byzantine as representative of early Christian art generally.
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
The cities of Gaeta and Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombardy in South Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor.
The empire of Russia has in the matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction partly developed into other forms, partly systematized 4th century and later Byzantine rules.
809; the name Serdica was converted into Sredetz by the Slays, who associated it with sreda (middle), and the Slavonic form subsequently became the Byzantine Triaditza.
Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
In 93 1 he entered the service of King Hugo of Italy as page; he afterwards rose to a high position at the court of Hugo's successor Berengar, having become chancellor, and having been sent (949) on an embassy to the Byzantine court.
The inner walls are decorated with Byzantine frescoes, among which only a painting of the Last Supper, and the portraits of five saints, remain unrestored.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
The detailed description of Constantinople and the Byzantine court is a document of rare value - though highly coloured by his ill reception and offended dignity.
The tsar Theodore in 1587 exercised the power of the Byzantine emperors by deposing the metropolitan, Dionysius Grammaticus (Mouravieff, p. 125).
Satisfactory lexicons of patristic Greek and Latin are still a desideratum: but assistance may be obtained in the study of the Greek fathers from Suicer's Thesaurus, the Lexicon of Byzantine Greek by E.
In the Byzantine and early Romanesque periods it was an essential part of church furniture; but during the middle ages it was gradually superseded in the Western Church by the pulpit and lectern.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
One of his successors, half a century later, married a daughter of the Byzantine emperor, and gave his own daughter in marriage to a Russian prince.
For the ambitious Moscow princes many of the Byzantine ideas were very acceptable.
Now the tsar of Muscovy and of all Russia adopted the airs and methods of a Tatar khan and surrounded himself with the pomp and splendours of a Byzantine emperor.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
The earlier usage of the Armenians is expressed in the two following rules recorded against them by a renegade Armenian prelate named Isaac, who in the 8th century went over to the Byzantine church: "Christ did not hand down to us the teaching to celebrate the mystery of the offering of the bread in church, but in an ordinary house, and sitting at a common table.
Its connexion with that empire - or, in other words, its dependence upon Constantinople - lasted for more than 200 years, during which period, under the rule of Narses and his successors the exarchs, Ravenna was the seat of Byzantine dominion in Italy.
It resembles a very large and elaborate mausoleum, built in Byzantine style, with Moorish arabesques.
In 553 he interdicted the use of the Talmud (which had then not long been completed), and the Byzantine emperors of the 8th and 9th centuries passed even more intolerant regulations.
There were Jews in the Byzantine empire, in Rome, in France and Spain at very early periods, but it is with the Arab conquest of Spain that the Jews of Europe began to rival in culture and importance their brethren of the Persian gaonate.
It continued to form part of the Byzantine empire till the 9th century, when it fell into the hands of the Saracens (823).
Not far from Suczawa lies the monastery of Dragomirna, in Byzantine style, built at the beginning of the 17th century.
Though the Turks have profoundly affected the whole of eastern Europe, the result of their conquests has been not so much to plant Asiatic culture in Europe as to arrest development entirely, the countries under their rule remaining in much the same condition as under the moribund Byzantine empire.
Despite his adoption of these barbarous Byzantine methods, Coloman was a good king and a wise ruler.
It was he who, in 1776, sketched the plan for the conquest of the Crimea which was subsequently realized; and about the same period he was busy with the socalled "Greek project," which aimed at restoring the Byzantine Empire under one of Catherine's grandsons.
This laudation, both of the Goths and of their Byzantine conquerors, may perhaps help us to understand the motive with which the Getica was written.
GEMISTUS PLETHO [or [[Plethon], Georgius]] (c. 1355-1450), Greek Platonic philosopher and scholar, one of the chief pioneers of the revival of learning in Western Europe, was a Byzantine by birth who settled at Mistra in the Peloponnese, the site of ancient Sparta.
Tozer, "A Byzantine Reformer," in Journal of Hellenic Studies, vii.
PALAEOLOGUS (1350-1425), Byzantine emperor from 1391 to 1425, was born in 1350.
Shortly before his death he was forced to sign an agreement whereby the Byzantine empire undertook to pay tribute to the sultan.
This many-named and enigmatical tribe was of considerable importance in the history of India and Persia in the 5th and 6th centuries, and was known to the Byzantine writers, who call them 'E40aXiroL, Ei)Owytroi, NecbOaAtroc or 'A(3b€Xoi.
The Byzantine style prevailed in Venice during the 11th and 12th centuries.
The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.
Pietro Orseolo and his successors rebuilt the church on a larger scale in the form of a basilica with three eastern apses and no transept, and Byzantine workmen were employed.
There can be no doubt that Byzantine artists had a large share in the work, but it is equally certain that Lombard workmen were employed along with the Orientals, and thus St Mark's became, as it were, a workshop in which twd styles, Byzantine and Lombard, met and were fused together, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district, which may fairly be called Veneto-Byzantine.
It is composed of figures of Christ, angels, prophets and saints, in Byzantine enamel run into gold plates.
Fine examples of Venetian Byzantine palaces - at least of the façades - are still to be seen on the Grand Canal and in some of the small canals.
The Byzantine palace seems to have had twin angle-towers - geminas angulares turres - such as those of the Ca' Molin on the Riva degli Schiavoni, where Petrarch lived.
The remains of a Byzantine façade now almost entirely built into a wall in the Rio di Ca' Foscari offer us excellent illustration of this decorative work.
We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
The grey column is surmounted by a fine bronze lion of Byzantine style, cast in Venice for Doge Ziani about 1178 (this was carried off to Paris by Napoleon in 1797, and sent back in pieces in 1816; but in 1893 it was put together again); and in 1329 a marble statue of St Theodore, standing upon a crocodile, was placed on the other column.
The cardinal therefore obtained a bull from Pope Paul II., permitting him to recall his original donation, and in a letter dated from the baths of Viterbo, May 13th, 1468, he made over his library to the republic. The principal treasures of the collection, including splendid Byzantine book-covers, the priceless codices of Homer, the Grimani Breviary, an early Dante, &c., are exhibited under cases in the Sala Bessarione in the Zecca or mint where the library has been installed.
But the empire was vast and weak, and its capital lay far away; in practice, no doubt, the lagoon population enjoyed virtual independence, though later the Byzantine claim to suzerainty became one of the leading factors in the formation of the state.
He did so, and expelled the exarch Paul, who took refuge in Venice and was restored to his post by the doge of the Heraclean or Byzantine party, Orso, who in return for this assistance received the imperial title of hypatos, and trading rights in Ravenna.
Pietro has Byzantine frescoes.
It remained in the hands of the Byzantine emperors until it was taken by Robert Guiscard in 1068.
The town is situated on a rocky promontory, crowned by a Byzantine fortress, and has a growing trade.
The Corinthian Li LJi and (also at Corcyra) and the of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol.
The town was so heavily taxed by the Hamdanid princes at Mosul that the Arab tribe of the Banu Habib, although blood relations of the Hamdanids, migrated into Byzantine territory, where they were well received, accepted Christianity, attracted other emigrants from Nisibis, and at last began to avenge themselves by yearly raids upon their old home.
GEORGE PHRANTZA [GEORGIOS PHRANTZES] (1401 - c. 1477), the last Byzantine historian, was born in Constantinople.
The fanaticism of the caliph Hakim destroyed the church of the Sepulchre and ended the Frankish protectorate (Ioio); and the patronage of the Holy Places, a source of strife between the Greek and the Latin Churches as late as the beginning of the Crimean War, passed to the Byzantine empire in 1021.
In either case there is an importation of Western feudalism into a country originally possessed of Byzantine institutions, but affected by an Arabic occupation.
They threatened at once the debris of the old Latin empire in Greece and the archipelago, and the relics of the Byzantine empire round Constantinople; they menaced the Hospitallers in Rhodes and the Lusignans in Cyprus.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
Of these the Byzantine authority, the Alexiad of Anna Comnena, is most important, partly from the position of the authoress, partly from the many points of contact between the Byzantine empire and the crusaders.
The Byzantine point of view is presented in the 'Excro,cn of Cinnamus, the private secretary of Manuel, who continued the Alexiad of Anna Comnena in a work describing the reigns of John and Manuel.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
The Chronicle of the Morea (as this work is generally called) is written from the Frankish point of view, in spite of its Greek verse; and the Byzantine point of view must be sought in Nicetas.'
(6) The sixth district was the military frontier (awasim) bordering upon the Byzantine dominions in Asia Minor.
it is now generally admitted that he was one of the most capable rulers who ever occupied the Byzantine throne.
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
The cathedral, a large, modern structure, is devoid of architectural merit, but some of the smaller, ancient, Byzantine churches are singularly interesting and beautiful.
The monuments of the Byzantine epoch have latterly occupied a prominent place in its investigations.
- The city now sank into the position of a provincial Byzantine town.
The history of Athens for the next four centuries is almost a blank; the city is rarely mentioned by the Byzantine chronicles of this period.
Like the rest of Greece, Athens suffered greatly from the rapacity of its Byzantine administrators.
For the Byzantine and medieval periods, William Miller, Latins in the Levant (London, 1908); F.
Germanicia-Marasion played a great part in Byzantine border warfare: Heraclius was there in A.D.
The columns and capitals were all taken from ancient buildings, Egyptian, Roman and Byzantine, and they carry arches of different forms, semicircular, pointed and horseshoe.
641 there are no remains of mosques there earlier than the 13th century, and the oldest example at Tabriz is evidently, as far as its plan is concerned, a copy of a Byzantine church, departing entirely therefore from the normal plans.'
At this period the state of the Byzantine Empire was such as to render its powers of resistance insignificant; indeed the length of time during which it held out against the Turks is to be attributed rather to the lack of efficacious means at the disposal of its assailants than to any qualities possessed by its defenders.
After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
a v, portrait, image), generally any image or portrait-figure, but specially the term applied to the representations in the Eastern Church of sacred personages, whether in painting or sculpture, and particularly to the small metal plaques in archaic Byzantine style, venerated by the adherents of the Greek Church.
See Iconoclasts; Image-worship; Byzantine Art.
Kir-sheher represents the ancient Mocissus, a small town which became important in the Byzantine period: it was enlarged by the emperor Justinian, who re-named it Justinianopolis, and made it the capital of a large division of Cappadocia, a position it still retains.
The modern town contains many remains of the Roman and Byzantine periods.
Perhaps the remarks of the Byzantine historian Priscus may refer to Meroveus.
In the 9th century it was captured by the Bulgarians, and held by them until the beginning of the 11th century, when the Byzantine emperor Basil II.
The municipal picture gallery contains a collection of pictures, and among them are some primitive frescoes, attributable to the 12th century, which still retain traces of Byzantine influence.
The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
In these catacombs we find numerous sarcophagi and inscriptions painted or engraved of the Roman and Byzantine periods (Comptes rendus de l'Acad.
Royalists, from Syriac melcha, a king), the name given in the 5th century to those Christians who adhered to the creed supported by the authority of the Byzantine emperor.
ARETHAS (c. 860-940), Byzantine theological writer and scholar, archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, was born at Patrae.
Reconquered by Belisarius in 534, Africa formed, under the name of praefectura Africae, one of the great administrative districts of the Byzantine empire.
The country is covered with Roman and Byzantine remains.
Heron de Villefosse, who has laid bare a beautiful temple of Jupiter, a triumphal arch of Caracalla, a Byzantine basilica and the gate of the Byzantine general Solomon.
Diehl, L'Afrique byzantine (1896); Stephane Gsell, Recherches archeologiques en Afrique (1893); Paul Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de l'Afrique chretienne (1901-1905); J.
The two Latin versions and a Byzantine recension of the Greek contain i.
Andrea have "Byzantine" domes.
CHALCONDYLES 1 (or [[Chalcocondylas), Laonicus]], the only Athenian Byzantine writer.
Like that of other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of confusion.
Castamon became an important city in later Byzantine times.
The Sienese school of painting owes its origin to the influence of Byzantine art; but it improved that art, impressed it with a special stamp and was for long independent of all other influences.
Opposite are the Queen Victoria Markets, a striking Byzantine erection, capped by numerous turrets and domes.
Petrus Hispanus had predecessors, however, in William of Shyreswood (died 124 9 as chancellor of Lincoln) and Lambert of Auxerre, and it has been hotly disputed whether the whole of the additions are not originally due to the Byzantine Synopsis of Psellus.
In Dalmatia the Venetians III were too strong for her; but she helped materially to break up the Byzantine rule in the Balkan peninsula by assisting Stephen Nemanya to establish an independent Servian kingdom, originally under nominal Hungarian suzerainty.
Bela endeavoured to strengthen his own monarchy by introducing the hereditary principle, crowning his infant son Emerich, as his successor during his own lifetime, a practice followed by most of the later Arpads; he also held a brilliant court on the Byzantine model, and replenished the treasury by his wise economies.
1371), Byzantine mystic and theological writer.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
Like the Scyths they were pressed towards the west by yet newer swarms, and with the coming of the Huns Scythia enters upon a new cycle, though still keeping its old name in the Byzantine historians.
The latter visited the Paulician fortress Tephrike to treat for the release of Byzantine prisoners.
For the next 50 years they continued to raid the Byzantine empire, although Sergius condemned retaliation.
EUDOCIA MACREMBOLITISSA (c. 1021 - 1096), daughter of John Macrembolites, was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X., and after his death (1067) of Romanus IV.
BILEJIK (Byzantine Belocome), chief town of the Ertoghrul sanjak of the Brusa vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 1900 ft., situated on a hill 22 m.
The Byzantine school of medicine, which closely corresponds to the Byzantine literary and historical schools, followed closely in Galen's footsteps, and its writers were chiefly compilers and encyclopaedists.
But the most prominent figure in Byzantine medicine is that of Paul of Aegina (Paulus Aegineta), who lived probably in the early part of the 7th century.
The succeeding period of Byzantine history was so little favourable to science that no name worthy of note occurs again (though many medical works of this period are still extant) till the 13th century, when we meet with a group of writers: Demetrius Pepagomenus, Nicolaus Myrepsus and Johannes, called Actuarius, who flourished under the protection of the Palaeologi.
Something was borrowed even from the school of Salerno, and thus the close of Byzantine medicine is brought into connexion with the dawn of science in modern Europe.
A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile.
This is of glass of a greenish hue; on the upper part is represented, in relief, the chase of a lion by two men on horseback accompanied by dogs; the costume appears to be Byzantine rather than Roman, and the style is very bad.
This is decorated with circles of rosettes of blue, green and red enamel, each surrounded by lines of gold; within the circles are little figures evidently suggested by antique originals, and precisely like similar figures found on carved ivory boxes of Byzantine origin dating from the II th or 12th century.
Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.
Invited to Tuscany by the Countess Matilda, he convoked a council at Piacenza in March 1095, attended by so vast a number of prelates and laymen that its sessions were held in the open air, and addressed by ambassadors of Alexis, the Byzantine emperor, who sought aid against the Mussulmans.
In 652 Abu Sari) with a fleet from Egypt won a naval battle over the Byzantine fleet near Alexandria.
And as they were under ban from Rome and out of communion with the Byzantine Church the Persian government welcomed them as a political ally, though the religious opposition of the Magi was still largely retained.
Ibn Ali Talib, anxious to perpetuate their severance from the orthodox church and the Byzantine empire, confirmed these privileges by charter and in 762 the patriarchate was removed to Bagdad.
- The combined hostility of the orthodox church and the Byzantine empire drove the Nestorians into exile, but they went much further than was needed simply to secure immunity from persecution.
and exercised all the real power from 919 to 944, was admiral of the Byzantine fleet on the Danube when, hearing of the defeat of the army at Achelous (917), he resolved to sail for Constantinople.
apoc in Byzantine writers, as Khazirs in Armenian and Khwalisses in Russian chronicles, and Ugri Bielii in Nestor), an ancient people who occupied a prominent place amongst the secondary powers of the Byzantine state-system.
They have been identified with the AKarcpoc (perhaps AkKhazari, or White Khazars) who appear upon the lower Volga in the Byzantine annals, and thence they have been deduced, though with less convincing proof, either from the AyetOvpvoc (Agathyrsi) or the Kariapoc of Herodotus, iv.
Simultaneously, and no doubt in concert, with the Byzantine campaign against Persia (589), the Khazars had reappeared in Armenia, though it was not till 625 that they appear as Khazars in the Byzantine annals.
The khakan, who had defied the summons sent him by the invaders, now aided the Byzantine patrician -in the defence of Armenia.
At the Byzantine court the khakan was held in high honour.
(775) the grandson of a Khazar sovereign ascended the Byzantine throne.
Byzantine Historians: The relative passages are collected in Stritter's Memoriae populorum (St Petersburg, 1778).
Under the Byzantine dominion Pisa, like many other of the maritime cities of Italy, profited by the weakness of the government at Constantinople to reassert its strength.
The inhabitants of the Cape Bon Peninsula show evident signs of Greek blood arising from Greek invasions, which began in prehistoric times and finished with the downfall of the Byzantine Empire in North Africa.
Amathus still flourished and produced a distinguished patriarch of Alexandria (Johannes Eleemon), as late as 606-616, and a ruined Byzantine church marks the site; but it was already almost deserted when Richard Coeur de Lion won Cyprus by a victory there over Isaac Comnenus in 1191.
There was a bishopric at Neapolis during the Byzantine period, and an attack made by the Samaritans on the bishop (Pentecost, A.D.
The Allerheiligen-Hofkirche, or court-church, is in the Byzantine style, with a Romanesque facade.
The church of Santa Maria Maggiore, built in 1627-1682, is a characteristic specimen of Jesuit architecture; the church of Sant' Antonio Nuovo, built in 1827-1849, is in the Greek style, as also the Greek Orthodox church, built in 1782, which is one of the handsomest Byzantine structures in the whole of Austria.
A second and slightly divergent list from the hand of a Byzantine rhetorician has been incorporated in the works of Philo of Byzantium.
In later Roman and Byzantine times it must have been a large and wealthy city.
SARDIS, more correctly Sardes (al Xap& ts), the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a conventus under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times, was situated in the middle Hermus valley, at the foot of Mt.
17, it was destroyed by an earthquake; but it was always rebuilt, and was one of the great cities of western Asia Minor till the later Byzantine time.
The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.
Finally in 1390 Philadelphia, which had for some time been an independent Christian city, surrendered to Sultan Bayezid's mixed army of Ottoman Turks and Byzantine Christians, and the Seljuk power in the Hermus valley was merged in the Ottoman empire.
The church erected by the French is a fine building in the Byzantine style.
They are a very interesting survival of the almost classical Roman style of painting, and appear to be quite free from the generally prevalent Byzantine influence.
(ii.) The Byzantine period seems to have 1 The valuable collection of works of art once preserved in the Bevilacqua Palace has long been dispersed.
In Byzantine times a new settlement took its place under the name of Arta.
This rearrangement gave place in turn to the Byzantine system of military districts (themes).
In spite of his partial failures, Heraclius must be regarded as one of the greatest of Byzantine emperors, and his early campaigns were the means of saving the realm from almost certain destruction.
Syrians by race and Arab-speaking, they are descendants of those "Melkites" who took the side of the Byzantine church in the time of Justinian II.
They may thus be said to have hollowed out the imperial, or Byzantine, possessions in Italy, the interior being under their power, and the coast remaining to the imperial officers.
See Etudes sur l'administration Byzantine dans l'exarchat de Ravenne (568-751), by Charles Diehl (Paris, 1888).
7 vols., 1859-1861), on the history of the 18th century (Geschichte des z8ten Jahrhunderts, 1862-1873), on German popular rights (Zur Geschichte deutscher Volksrechte im Mittelalter, Basel, 1865-1866) and on Byzantine history (Byzantinische Geschichten, 1872-1874), are also of real value.
Of his separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration and good sense.
Old Corinth passed through its various stages, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Turkish.
The limestone pavement, with long porches on either side, was found to stop at the foot of a marble staircase of thirty-four steps of Byzantine construction, underneath which appeared a Roman arrangement of the two flights with a platform halfway up. The top flight led up to the propylaea.
In Byzantine times five columns, of various diameters, with no two bases of the same size, bearing Corinthian capitals, were set up about 6 ft.
870, the Maltese joined forces against the Byzantine garrison, and 3000 Greeks were massacred.
In Augustus' time Tegea was the only important town of Arcadia, but its history throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods is obscure; it ceased to exist as a Greek city after the Gothic invasion of 395.
Educated at the Byzantine court, where he had been compelled to seek refuge, he was fortunate enough to win the friendship of the brilliant emperor Manuel who, before the birth of his own son Alexius, intended to make Bela his successor and betrothed him to his daughter.
Under the Byzantine empire Chersonesus was an administrative centre for its possessions in Taurida.
east of the site of Byzantine Jericho, and 1 m.
The festival is first mentioned by St Andrew of Crete (c. 650), and, according to the Byzantine historian Nicephorus Callistus (Hist.
(2) De administrando imperio, an account of the condition of the empire, and an exposition of the author's view of government, written for the use of his son Romanus; it also contains most valuable information as to the condition and history of various foreign nations with which the Byzantine empire had been brought into contact on the east, west and north.
Isaac's great aim was to restore the former strict organization of the government, and his reforms, though unpopular with the aristocracy and the clergy, and not understood by the people, certainly contributed to stave off for a while the final ruin of the Byzantine empire.
Annales Moslemici, 5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789-91), he collected a veritable treasure of sound and original research; he knew the Byzantine writers as thoroughly as the Arabic authors, and was alike at home in modern works of travel in all languages and in ancient and medieval authorities.
A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Coinnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople.
It was partly rebuilt during the Byzantine occupation and became a centre of Christianity.
In 961 it became the capital of the Bagratid kings of Armenia, and when yielded to the Byzantine emperor (1046) it was a populous city, known traditionally as the "city with the I oor churches."
wall of the latter occur the three famous megaliths, which gave the name Trilithon to the Jupiter temple in Byzantine times.
There is a vast difference in national character between these young peoples and the successors of the Hellenes; and it is therefore all the more significant to find that both the Church and religious sentiment should in their case have fully preserved the Byzantine character.
From these and other indications it seems probable that what we have is only an epitome of the original work, made by an anonymous Byzantine writer of much later date.
But though the plan shows no imitation of the great Byzantine church, the decorations of the interior (mosaics, frescoes, &c.) do indicate direct Byzantine influence.
In this quarter, some distance back from the river, is the new and richly decorated Vladimir cathedral (1862-1896), in the Byzantine style, distinguished for the beauty and richness of its paintings.
Under the Byzantine empire Bithynia was again divided into two provinces, separated by the Sangarius, to the west of which the name of Bithynia was restricted.
It is mentioned from time to time in the Byzantine annals, and on the establishment of the lordship of Epirus by Michael Angelus Comnenus Ducas, it became his capital.
wide), in the Byzantine style, is four storeys high, and has two towers of 140 ft.; the building was completed in 1860 and has subsequently been remodelled.
NICEPHORUS BRYENNIUS (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople).
- (a) In the East, commonly called the Byzantine Age, c. 530-1350.
The principal prose authors were Thucydides, parts of Plato and Demosthenes, with Aristotle, Plutarch's Lives, and, above all, Lucian, who is often imitated in the Byzantine age.
While the Byzantine MSS.
The scholars of the Byzantine age cannot be compared with the great Alexandrians, but they served to maintain the continuity of tradition by which the Greek classics selected by the critics of Alexandria were transmitted to modern Europe.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
and in Byzantine writers.
PALAEOLOGUS, a Byzantine family name which first appears in history about the middle of the 11th century, when George Palaeologus is mentioned among the prominent supporters of Nicephorus Botaniates, and afterwards as having helped to raise Alexius I.
Taking a wider range of place and time, the Roman libra has an average variation of 1/50 in the examples of better period (43), and in those of Byzantine age 1/35 (44).
Roughly dividing the Roman weights, there appears a decrease of 1/40 from imperial to Byzantine times (43).
with the Byzantine Roman empire; Julian perished, in the pursuit of this project.
The idealism of the new philosophy was too heavenly to be naturalized in the Byzantine empire, which stood more in need of police officials than of philosophers.
He built the opera-house in Renaissance style, the new museum and picture gallery, and a Byzantine synagogue.
It is to this that Venice owes its origin, under Byzantine protection, early in the 9th century A.D.
He also assisted in August Bekker's edition of the Byzantine historians, and delivered courses of lectures on ancient history, ethnography, geography, and on the French Revolution.
into Galatia Prima and Secunda or Salutaris, the division indicating the renewed importance of Galatia in the Byzantine empire.
The outsides of the principal doorways and their pointed arches are magnificently enriched with carving and coloured inlay, a curious combination of three styles - Norman-French, Byzantine and Arab.
The design, execution and choice of subjects all appear to be of Byzantine origin, the subjects being selected from the Menologium drawn up by the emperor Basilius Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century.
The most interesting object is the church of St Paraskeve, which was once the chief church of the Venetians; it dates from the Byzantine period, though many of its architectural features are Western.
Though the direct results of these unions were the restoration of prestige to the absolutist papacy and the bringing of Byzantine men of letters, like Bessarion, to the West, the outcome was on the whole disappointing.
The town contains also a Byzantine castle, built on the lofty site of the ancient citadel; a palace belonging to the Greek metropolitan; a number of mosques, synagogues and churches, the most remarkable being the church of the Virgin of Consolation, founded in 819.
The Christian Byzantine and Roman emperors, from Valens onwards, enacted strict laws against the Manichaeans.
But it still continued to exist elsewhere, both in the Byzantine Empire and in the West, and in the earlier part of the middle ages it gave an impulse to the formation of new sects, which remained related to it.'
Vodena is the see of a Greek archbishop, and possesses numerous churches and mosques, besides unimportant remains of Roman and Byzantine buildings.
In addition the church of the Rosary, a rich building in the Byzantine style, was erected in front of and below the basilica from 1884 to 1889.
In the centre of this court stands the catholicon or conventual church, a square building with an apse of the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed narthex.
The forgery thus had a double object: as a weapon against Byzantine heresy and as a defence of the papal patrimony.
(Argyrus), emperor 1028-1034, was an undistinguished Byzantine patrician, who was compelled by the dying emperor Constantine IX.
Schlumberger, L'Epopee byzantine (Paris, 1905), iii.
A determined opponent of the Latin church and an enthusiastic admirer of the Byzantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the Crusades as a danger both political and religious.
and the Byzantine writers), which traced its lineage to Oghuz, the famous eponymic hero not only of this but of all Turkish tribes.
In addition to writing numerous articles for the Leipzig Acta Eruditorum, Bergler edited the editio princeps of the Byzantine historiographer Genesius (1733), and the letters of Alciphron (1715), in which seventy-five hitherto unpublished letters were for the first time included.
He also brought out editions of the Byzantine historians, John Cinnamus and John Zonaras, as Joannis Cinnami historiarum de rebus gestis a Joanne et Manuele Comnenis (Paris, 1670) and Joannis Zonarae Annales ab exordio mundi ad mortem Alexii Comneni (Paris, 1686).
The works of Du Cange published after his death are: an edition of the Byzantine historian, Nicephorus Gregoras (Paris, 1702); De imperatorum Constantinopolitanorum seu inferioris aevi vel imperii uti vocant numismatibus dissertatio (Rome, 1755); Histoire de l'Nat de la y ule d'Amiens et de ses comtes (Amiens, 1840); and a valuable work Des principautes d'outre-mer, published by E.
On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.
Apart from the illuminated MSS., the mural paintings, the mosaics, and the goldsmith's work of Mount Athos are of infinite interest to the student of Byzantine art.
The frescoes in general date from the 15th or 16th century: some are attributed by the monks to Panselinos, " the Raphael of Byzantine painting," who apparently flourished in the time of the Palaeologi.
The same spirit of conservatism is manifest in the architecture of the churches, which are all of the medieval Byzantine type.
Langlois, Le Mont Athos et ses monasteres, with a complete bibliography (Paris, 1867); Duchesne and Bayet, Memoire sur une mission en Macedoine et au Mont Athos (Paris, 1876); Texier and Pullan, Byzantine Architecture (London, 1864); H.
He was one of the weakest and most vicious princes that occupied the Byzantine throne.
The name Corfu is an Italian corruption of the Byzantine Kopvcd, which is derived from the Greek Kopvy5ai (crests).
Soon after, in 468 B.C., Tiryns was finally destroyed through the jealousy of the Argives, and the site has been deserted ever since, but for a brief occupation in Byzantine times.
Its decline dates from the local disorganization of the empire in the 3rd century A.D.; and though a bishopric, it was not an important military or commercial centre in Byzantine times.
The revival which took place under Byzantine rule (6th and 7th centuries) was of little importance; Victor's conduct in this matter was not approved by a number of bishops (including Irenaeus), who protested against it (&vrt1rapaKEXd,ovrau) in the interests of peace and Christian love (Eusebius, Hist.
On the Byzantine side his hands were less tied; but here he had to reckon with the theory of the five patriarchates which had been a force since Justinian.
According to Byzantine ideas, the Church was governed - under the supreme authority, of course, of the emperor - by the five patriarchs of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
This dissidence Islam was to complete, and by actually suppressing the patriarchate of Jerusalem to reduce Byzantine Christendom to the two patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople.
On these different occasions the pope, ignored in ordinary times, was made use of by the Byzantine government to ratify measures which it had found necessary to adopt in opposition to the opinion of the Greek episcopate.
Byzantine Church, and the authority of the patriarchate of Constantinople, around which centred all that survived of Christianity in those regions.
In the time of St Gregory there subsisted only what lay in Byzantine Italy, the Lombards having confiscated the property of the Church as well as the imperial domains.
During the quarrels between the papacy and the Byzantine Empire her domains in lower Italy and Sicily also disappeared as time went on, and the territorial possessions of the Roman Church were concentrated in the neighbourhood of Rome.
Rome, together with such of the Byzantine territories as still subsisted in her neighbourhood, was considered as a domain sacred to the apostle Peter, and entrusted to the administration of his successor, the pope.
The higher places in the government were 'occupied ', by the clergy, who for matters of detail made use of the civil and military officials who had carried on the administration under the Byzantine rule.
o f the election by the aristocracy: at first by the senate, and later by the exercitus romanus, or rather of its staff, composed of Byzantine officers.
This ceremony was at first celebrated in the Lateran, but from Byzantine times onwards it took place at St Peter's.
It was also under the Byzantine regime that the condition was imposed that the pope should not be consecrated until the emperor had ratified his election.
This had not 'been required under the old Latin emperors nor under the Gothic kings, and it disappeared of its own accord with the Byzantine regime.
influences and from the domination of lay sovereignties; to convert the Church thus regenerated, spiritualized, and detached from the world, into an organism which would be submissive to the absolute authority of the papal see, and to concentrate at Rome all its energies and jurisdictions; to establish the supremacy of the Roman see over all the Christian Churches, and win over to the Roman Church the Churches of the Byzantine Empire, Africa and Asia; to establish the temporal domain of St Peter, not only by taking possession of Rome and Italy, but also by placing all the crowns of Europe under the supreme sovereignty of the popes, or even in direct vassalage to them; and, finally, to maintain unity of faith in Christendom and defend it against the attacks of unbelievers, Mussulmans, heretics and pagans - these were the main features of his scheme.
With him, as with all his successors, the idea of a collective expedition of Europe for the recovery of the Holy Places was always associated with the sanguine hope of extinguishing the schism at Constantinople, its very centre, by the substitution of a Latin for a Byzantine domination.
The Norman adventurers in possession of Palermo and Naples perpetually tended to look for their aggrandizement to the Byzantine Empire.
This contingency explains the vacillating and illogical character of the papal diplomacy with regard to the Byzantine problem, and, inter slid, the opposition of Eugenius III.
He suspended an archbishop of Sens (1136) who had neglected to take into consideration the appeal to Rome, summoned an archbishop of Milan to Rome to receive the pallium from the pope's hands, lavished exemptions, and extended the right of appeal to such abnormal lengths that a Byzantine ambassador is reported to have exclaimed to Lothair III., Your Pope Innocent is not a bishop, but an emperor."
With joy and pride he welcomed the Byzantine East into the circle of vassal peoples and kingdoms of Rome bound politically to the see of St Peter, and with the same emotions beheld the patriarchate of Constantinople at last recognize Roman supremacy.
The principal obstacle, however, was the incompatibility of the popes' Byzantine and Italian policies.
The popes were in favour of Charles of Anjou and his dynasty, but Charles was hostile to the union of the two Churches, since it was his intention to seize the Byzantine Empire and substitute himself for the Palaeologi.
It was a centre of Greek civilization, devoted especially to the worship of Artemis, and producing famous teachers, of whom Stephen the Byzantine mentions Ariston, Kerykos and Plato.
A ridge of limestone hills - whose principal summits, Hagios Elias and Hagios Simeon, are crowned by old Byzantine churches - runs through the island; for about 2 m.
Churches and convents of Byzantine architecture are scattered about the island.
The Basilian service of the Eucharist was used in the 5th century, but superseded later on by a Byzantine rite which will be found translated in F.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
apart, each formed by a row of Corinthian columns surmounted by an equal number of a Byzantine type.
In 813 and again in 1206 it was sacked by the Bulgarians, but it continues to appear as a place of considerable note in later Byzantine history.
HESYCHASTS (i)avXacrrai or iluvX& ovens, from ajavxos, quiet, also called 6µ0aX61,GvXot, Umbilicanimi, and sometimes referred to as Euchites, Massalians or Palamites), a quietistic sect which arose, during the later period of the Byzantine empire, among the monks of the Greek church, especially at Mount Athos, then at the height of its fame and influence under the reign of Andronicus the younger and the abbacy of Symeon.
After the division of the empire, Lemnos passed under the Byzantine emperors; it shared in the vicissitudes of the eastern provinces, being alternately in the power of Greeks, Italians and Turks, till finally the Turkish sultans became supreme in the Aegean.
Erzerum is a town of great antiquity, and has been identified with the Armenian Garin Kalakh, the Arabic Kalikale, and the Byzantine Theodosiopolis of the 5th century, when it was a frontier fortress of the empire - hence its name Erzen-er-Rum.
Near the palaestra on the south a - Byzantine church forms the central point in a complex group of remains.
(e) There is also a long and narrow building on the south of the Byzantine church.
The architectural members of some of the treasure-houses have been found built into the Byzantine wall, or elsewhere on the site, as well as the terra-cotta plates that overlaid the stonework in some cases, and the pedimental figures, representing the battle of the gods and giants, from the treasure-house of the Megarians.
In front is a beautiful quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work.
In the Byzantine empire it was applied to any one filling a regular office (e.g.
The chief modern' buildings, such as the Athenaeum, with its Ionic facade and Byzantine dome, are principally on the quays and boulevards, and are constructed of stone.
The Orthodox Greek churches are generally small, with very narrow windows, and are built of brick in a modified Byzantine style.
The most conspicuous building of the town is the Episcopal palace, in Byzantine style, built in 1864-1875, which is adorned with a high tower and possesses a magnificent reception hall.
This church was erected on the site of the cathedral in the beginning of the 12th century; it was built in the Byzantine style and was burnt down by the French in 1761.
During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population; for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.
In the tribune are fine mosaics of the 9th century, which, Burckhardt remarks, completely break with Byzantine tradition.
After the first overthrow of the Byzantine empire Aetolia passed to a branch of the old imperial house (1205).
officiorum), 1 also known as a monk by the name Theodulos Monachos, a native of Thessalonica, Byzantine scholar and grammarian and confidential adviser of Andronicus II.
It deals chiefly with the struggles of the Byzantine army, under the command of the eunuch Narses, against the Goths, Vandals, Franks and Persians.
BASILIUS DIGENES ACRITAS, Byzantine national hero, probably lived in the 10th century.
Schlumberger, L'Epopee Byzantine a la fin du dixieme siecle (1897).
In reconstituting the Byzantine Empire Michael restored the old administration without endeavouring to correct its abuses.
By debasing the coinage he hastened the decay of Byzantine commerce.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
All the columns are Roman or Byzantine, and are the spoil of many ancient cities.
In all the mosque contains 439 columns, including two of alabaster given by one of the Byzantine emperors.
Prof. C. Krumbacher, who has edited the works of Romanos from the best (the Patmos) MSS., regards him as the greatest poet of the Byzantine age, and perhaps the greatest ecclesiastical poet of any age.
It was very popular in the Byzantine period, and was read and commented on very frequently; the collection of scholia by Isaac and John Tzetzes is very valuable, and the MSS.
The church of St Mary, Byzantine in style, dates from 1752.
" one who accounts, calculates or ratiocinates"), originally the title of a variety of administrative officials in the Byzantine Empire, e.g.
Its chief buildings are the citadel and many mosques, one of which is an ancient Byzantine basilica, originally a 1 Prince von Billow was credited with suggesting in his correspondence on the question of the Bundesrath that a tribunal of arbitration should be instituted to deal with all questions of capture.
It was during this reign that, by the surrender of Ban (1071), the Byzantine empire lost its last hold upon Italy.
GEORGIUS PACHYMERES (1242 - c. 1310), Byzantine historian and miscellaneous writer, was born at Nicaea, in Bithynia, where his father had taken refuge after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204.
His literary activity was considerable, his most important work being a Byzantine history in 13 books, in continuation of that of Georgius Acropolita from 1261 (or rather 1255) to 1308, containing the history of the reigns of Michael and Andronicus Palaeologi.
It contains large mosaics of the 12th century, strongly under Byzantine influence; those on the west wall represent the Resurrection and Last Judgment.
It possesses one church, of the Byzantine period, which is mentioned in 13thcentury documents as even then of great age.
Among many fine pieces of jewellers' work preserved in the ecclesiastical treasuries may be mentioned the silver statuette of San Biagio, and the reliquary which contains his skull - a 17th-century casket in filigree and enamels with Byzantine medallions of the 11th or 12th century.
Many Christian catacombs and Byzantine rock-cut villages, churches and tombs have been explored of recent years.
The exact extent of the reconquest is uncertain; Byzantine writers claim the deliverance of the whole island; but it is certain that the Saracens never lost Panormus.
In Italy they overthrew the Byzantine dominion; their own rule was perhaps not worse, but they were not deliverers.
As in the Saracen conquest of Sicily, as in the Byzantine recovt.y, so in the Norman conquest, the immediate occasion was given by a home traitor.
And, if any element, Latin or akin to Latin, had lingered on through Byzantine and Saracen rule, it would of course be attracted to the new Latin element, and would help to strengthen it.
Occasional notices we of course have in the Byzantine writers, and Archbishop Eustathius's account of the taking of Thessalonica is more than occasional.
PROCOPIUS, Byzantine historian, was born at Caesarea in Palestine towards the end of the 5th century A.D.
During the dark ages, in the Byzantine East, as well as in the West, Hellenism had become little more than a dried and shrivelled tradition, although the closer study of Byzantine culture in latter years has seemed to discover more vitality than was once supposed.
v.), covers the whole period from Alexander to the end of the Byzantine Empire.
In the north of the Delta wherever salt marshes have prevented cultivation in modern times, the mounds, such as those of Pelusium, still stand to their full height, and the more important are covered with ruins of brick structures of Byzantine and Arab date.
Offices, with new Byzantine names, were now almost hereditary in.
An attempt was made in the year 645 with a force under Manuel, commander of the Imperial forces, to regain Alexandria for the Byzantine empire; the city was surprised, and held till the summer of 646, when it was again stormed by Amr. In 654 a fleet was equipped by Constans with a view to an invasion, but it was repulsed, and partly destroyed by storm.
In 877 and 878 Al~mad advanced into Syria and obtained the submission of the chief cities, and at Tarsus entered into friendly relations with the representatives of the Byzantine emperor.
These persons were charged by the ~vIoslems with unduly favoring their co-religionists, and the belief that the Christians of Egypt were in league with the Byzantine emperor, and even burned a fleet which was being built for the Byzantine war, led to some persecution.
GEORGE CODINUS [GEoRGIos KonINos], the reputed author of three extant works in Byzantine literature.
Its great natural strength and situation, not far from the mouth of the Sis pass, and near the great road which debouched from the Cilician gates, made Anazarbus play a considerable part in the struggles between the Byzantine empire and the early Moslem invaders.
Remains of ancient fortifications still exist, though it seems uncertain whether they are of Greek or of Byzantine origin (Notizie degli Scavi, 1899, p. 70).
Napoleon thought him a " shifty Byzantine," and called him the Talma of the North, as ready to play any conspicuous part.
The distinction between the Serbs of the more central region and the Croats of the north-west, was first drawn by the early Byzantine chroniclers, and was well established by the 12th century.
In the wild and mountainous interior, however, the Byzantine Church had few or no rivals and the Orthodox creed prevailed.
At the beginning of this movement the Byzantine empire was in actual or nominal possession of all the regions south of the Danube; the greater part of the native ThracoIllyrian population of the interior had been romanized and spoke Latin.
The despotate of Epirus succumbed in 1449, the duchy of Athens in 1456; in 1453 Constantinople was taken and the decrepit Byzantine empire perished; the greater part of Bosnia submitted in 1463; the heroic resistance of the Albanians under Scanderbeg collapsed with the fall of Croia (1466), and Venetian supremacy in Upper Albania ended with the capture of Scutari (1478).
In spite of the long neglect, wilful vandalism and ill-judged restoration which the Alhambra has endured, it remains the most perfect example of Moorish art in its final European development, - freed from the direct Byzantine influences which can be traced in the cathedral of Cordova, more elaborate and fantastic than the Giralda at Seville.
THEODOSIUS III., emperor of the East (716-717), was a financial officer whom a Byzantine army rebelling against Anastasius III.
The Capella Palatina, at Palermo, the most wonderful of Roger's churches, with Norman doors, Saracenic arches, Byzantine dome, and roof adorned with Arabic scripts, is perhaps the most striking product of the brilliant and mixed civilization over which the grandson of the Norman Trancred ruled.
From the Greek authors only a few notices have been preserved, especially by Justin (and in the prologues of Trogus) and Strabo; for the later times we get some information from the Byzantine authors and from Persian and Armenian sources; cf.
It is a 4th-century Greek building of rich Ionic style, and was still unfinished at the time of the earthquake, then cleared and partially rebuilt, and finally used as a water reservoir in the Byzantine period.
west of it, near the modern Kumbet, stood Metropolis, a bishopric in the Byzantine time, but never mentioned under the Roman empire.
Almost the whole of Byzantine Phrygia is now included in the vilayet of Brusa, with the exception of a small part of Parorius and the district about Themisonium (Karayuk Bazar) and Ceretapa (Kayadibi), which belong to the vilayet of Konia, and the district of Laodicea and Hierapolis, which belongs to Aidin.
The boundaries of the two Byzantine Phrygias were not always the same.
The Hermus drains a small district included in the Byzantine Phrygia, but in earlier times assigned to Lydia and Mysia.
Aeginium is described by Livy as a strong place, and is frequently mentioned during the Roman wars; and Stagus appears from time to time in Byzantine writers.
the East Roman or Byzantine empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote that part of the Balkan Peninsula which was subject to Turkey.
especially Vassiliev, Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina) which follow the fortunes of the Byzantine emperors and their governments.
3, on the later Byzantine prophecies; Vassiliev, Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina, i.
(Moscow, 1893), which gives the texts of a series of Byzantine prophecies; E.
Istrin, The Apocalypse of Methodius of Patara and the Apocryphal Visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian Literature, Russian (Moscow, 1897); J.
Donato, of the Lombard period, with Byzantine capitals, is interesting; Giosue Carducci has written a fine ode on the subject (La Chiesa di Polenta, Bologna, 1897).
Under the later Roman Empire the name was revived by the Byzantine emperors as the title of a new order of nobility.
Among the former it appears to have become a sort of ex officio title of the Byzantine vicegerents of Italy, the exarchs of Ravenna; among the barbarian chiefs who were thus dignified were Odoacer, Theodoric, Sigismund of Burgundy, Clovis, and even in later days princes of Bulgaria, the Saracens, and the West Saxons.
According to the legend given by Metaphrastes the Byzantine hagiologist, and substantially repeated in the Roman Ada sanctorum and in the Spanish breviary, he was born in Cappadocia of noble Christian parents, from whom he received a careful religious training.
It was ranked by Philostratus the third city of Pamphylia, and in Byzantine times seems to have been known as Primopolis, under which name its bishop signed at Ephesus in A.D.
This structure was probably put to some ecclesiastical Byzantine use, as certain mutilated heads of saints appear upon it; and later it became a fortress and received certain additions.
In the year before Constantine's death the remnant of the Byzantine possessions in Italy was finally lost to the empire, and the chief town, Bari, taken by the Normans.
The extension of the name of Palestine beyond the limits of Philistia proper is not older than the Byzantine Period.
This division, it may be added, also seems to leave its mark upon the lengthy archaeological history of Palestine from the earliest times to the Byzantine age.
Not till 611 do we find any event of importance in the uninteresting record of Byzantine sovereignty.
wrongs at the hands of certain of the Byzantine generals, the army of Heraclius was utterly defeated, and with it fell the Byzantine Empire in Syria and Palestine.
The gorgeous Pala d'oro, still in St Mark's at Venice, a gold retable covered with delicate reliefs and enriched with enamels and jewels, was the work of Byzantine artists during the 11th century.
The technical skill of these Byzantine metal-workers was soon acquired by native Italian artists, who produced many important works in bronze similar in style and execution to those of the Byzantine Greeks.
Though something in the grotesque dragons of the base recalls the Byzantine school, yet the beauty of the figures and the keen feeling for graceful curves and folds in the drapery point to a native Italian as being the artist who produced this wonderful work of art.
Unlike England, Germany in the 10th and iith centuries produced large and elaborate works in cast bronze, especially doors for churches, much resembling the contemporary doors made in Italy under Byzantine influence.
NICEPHORUS PATRIARCHA (c. 758-829), Byzantine historian and patriarch of Constantinople (806-815).
Nicephorus is the author of a valuable compendium (Breviarium historicum) of Byzantine history from 602 to 770, of a meagre Chronologia compendiaria from Adam to the year of his own death.
267 and 395 it retained some of its commerce and culture in Byzantine days.
into three main groups - the Alexandrian, the Western and the Byzantine (see Bible: New Testament, " Textual Criticism").
- William of Tyre is the great primary authority for his reign; Cinnamus and Ibn-al-athir (see Bibliography to the article CRUSADES) give the Byzantine and Mahommedan point of view.
Left to themselves, the Christians henceforward defended themselves only in isolated cases in the fortified cities; for the most part they witnessed the disappearance of the Byzantine power without regret.
To him was committed the conduct of the war against the Byzantine emperor, which he continued with energy, at first only on land, but later, when the caliph had at last given in to his urgent representations, at sea also.
Up to the year 693 the Moslems had no special coinage of their own, and chiefly used Byzantine and Persian money, either imported or struck by themselves.
2 Moreover, the Byzantine empire was in these years disturbed by internal troubles.
When the news of the death of Abu`1-Abbas reached Abdallah, who at the head of a numerous army was on the point of renewing the Byzantine war, he came to Harran, furious at his exclusion, and proclaimed himself caliph.
The numerous efforts of Mamun to put them down had been all in vain, and they were now in alliance with the Byzantine emperor.
In the year 905 the Greek general Andronicus took Marash, and penetrated as far as Haleb (Aleppo), but the Moslems were successful at sea, and in 907 captured Iconium, whilst Andronicus went over to the caliph's side, so that the Byzantine emperor sent an embassy to Bagdad to ask for a truce and an exchange of prisoners.
Under the Byzantine emperors they were the representatives in all causes of the central power.
The flight of Byzantine scholarship westward in the 15th century revealed, and finally, that the philosophic content of the Scholastic teaching was as alien from Aristotle as from the spirit of the contemporary revolt of science, with its cry for a new medicine, a new nautical astronomy and the like.
aopcpvpoyivvnros) was borne particularly by Constantine VII., Byzantine emperor, but was also used generally of those born of the Byzantine imperial family.
At length the line of battle was formed, and the Gothic army, probably greatly inferior in number to the Byzantine was hopelessly routed (July 552), the king receiving a mortal wound as he was hurrying from the battlefield.
Three miles east of Boli, at Eskihissar, are the ruins of Bithynium, the birthplace of Antinous, also called Antinoopolis, and in Byzantine times Claudiopolis.
700 the young republic seems to have thrown off the rule of the Byzantine dux Histriae et Venetiae and elected a duke (doge) of its own, in whom was vested the executive power, the right to convoke the popular assembly (concio) and appoint tribunes and justices.
The foreign policy of Venice was likewise mainly dictated by commercial motives, the chief objectives being commercial privilege in the Byzantine empire and in the Frankish states in the East, domination of the Adriatic, 1 H.
The principal passes across the range are those over which Roman or Byzantine roads ran: - (i) from Laodicea to Adalia (Attalia), by way of the Khonas pass and the valley of the Istanoz Chai; (2) from Apamea or from Pisidian Antioch to Adalia, by Isbarta and Sagalassus; (3) from Laranda, by Coropissus and the upper valley of the southern Calycadnus, to Germanicopolis and thence to Anemourium or Kelenderis; (4) from Laranda, by the lower Calycadnus, to Claudiopolis and thence to Kelenderis or Seleucia; (5) from Iconium or Caesarea Mazaca, through the Cilician Gates (Gulek Boghaz, 3300 ft.) to Tarsus; (6) from Caesarea to the valley of the Sarus and thence to Flaviopolis on the Cilician Plain; (7) from Caesarea over Anti-Taurus by the Kuru Chai to Cocysus (Geuksun) and thence to Germanicia (Marash).
These people became "Greeks" as being subjects of the Byzantine empire and members of the Eastern Church.
DUCAS (15th cent.), Byzantine historian, flourished under Constantine Xiii.
But its greatest importance dates from the time when it became, in 852, a seat of the Saracen power, and in 885, the residence of the Byzantine governor.
The Church architecture of the "middle ages," then developed naturally and without a break, through the Byzantine and Romanesque styles, out of the secular and religious architecture of Greece and Rome.
In the later Byzantine times it was believed that Peisistratus was aided by seventy grammarians, of whom Zenodotus and Aristarchus were the chief.
In Byzantine times it became a bishop's seat, and to judge by its later name "Hellas" it served as a refuge for the Greeks from the Slavonic immigrants of the 8th century.
From the 6th to the 12th century a large number of massive and splendid works in the precious metals were produced at Byzantium or under Byzantine influence, many of which were largely decorated with niello; the silver dome of the baldacchino over the high altar of S.
After the Macedonian conquest of Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks in honour of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early Byzantine period it was known by both its Hebrew and its Greek name.
It must, however, have been subject to the Byzantine authorities, as inscriptions testify to restorations of its walls by Byzantine officials.
Previous to this it had been the main emporium of Byzantine commerce upon the N.
They are enclosed by a Byzantine wall.
Many Byzantine churches, both cruciform and basilican, have been excavated.
The fact that the site has not been inhabited since the 14th century makes it important for our knowledge of Byzantine life.
200, and also some of Byzantine date.
Of the Byzantine period little remains but the ruins of the castles of St Hilarion, Buffavento and Kantara; and a magnificent series of gold ornaments and silver plate, found near Kyrenia in 1883 and 1897 respectively.
M.) Modern History After the division of the Roman empire Cyprus naturally passed, with all the neighbouring countries, into the hands of the Eastern or Byzantine emperors, to whom it continued subject, with brief intervals, for more than seven centuries.
The island was recovered by the Greek emperors and, though again conquered by the Arabs in the reign of Harun al-Rashid (802), it was finally restored to the Byzantine empire under Nicephorus Phocas.
MALALAS (or Malelas) (Syriac for "orator"), John (c. 49 1 - 57 8), Byzantine chronicler, was born at Antioch.
An inscription found on the site shows it to have had a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine times.
Of these the coins are chiefly Roman and Byzantine gold pieces of the 5th century, the bracteates copies of Roman coins of the same period.
The Persian Empire under Hulagu and his descendants extended from the dominions of Jagatai on the north to that of the Egyptian dynasts on the south, and from the Byzantine Empire on the west to the confines of China.
He died in 1265 and was succeeded by his son Abagha or Abaka, who married the daughter of Michael Palaeologus, the Byzantine ruler.
After Constantinople became the capital of the empire Nicaea grew in importance, and after the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders became the temporary seat of the Byzantine emperor; the double line of walls with the Roman gates is still well preserved.
The last successes opened a new period of Byzantine domination in southern Italy.
Martroye, L'Occident a l'epoque byzantine (1904).
Its material was then quarried extensively for the construction of the great cathedral of St John Theologos on the neighbouring hill (Ayassoluk), and a large Byzantine building (a church?) came into existence on the central part of its denuded site, but did not last long.
Here interesting inscriptions and Byzantine architectural remains were found.
During the Byzantine period it served as a place of refuge against foreign invaders, and from the 10th century became a centre of the new silk trade.
1468), patriarch of Constantinople from 1454 to 1456, philosopher and theologian, was one of the last representatives of Byzantine learning.
(the first thoroughly Byzantine emperor) at least six church histories were written in Greek within the limits of the Eastern Empire - those, namely, of Philostorgius the Arian, of Philip of Side, of Socrates, of Sozomen, of Theodoret and of Hesychius.
This attitude, which was that of most educated Byzantine laymen, has in particular cases made it possible for him to arrive at very free judgments.
Even granting that some feeble remains of antique reserve may have contributed to this, and even although some of it is certainly to be set down to his disposition and temperament, still it was his religious passivity that here determined the character of Socrates and made him a typical example of the later Byzantine Christianity.
This indeed is characteristic of his Byzantine Christian point of view; church history becomes metamorphosed into a history of the emperors and of the state, because a special church history is at bottom impossible.
She introduced many Byzantine customs into the German court.
The Taj alone is well worth the journey."' The Taj was designed by Ustad Isa, variously described as a Byzantine Turk and a native of Shiraz in Persia.
Christianity never succeeded in establishing itself here in the Byzantine period, though there was a bishopric of Tiberias, and a church built by Constantine.
NICEPHORUS GREGORAS (c. 1295-1360), Byzantine historian, man of learning and religious controversialist, was born at Heraclea in Pontus.
The date of the arrival of the Cechs in Bohemia is very uncertain, and the scanty references to the country in classical and Byzantine writers are rather misleading than otherwise.
The chief building is the Church of Scotland church, a fine red brick building, a mixture of Norman and Byzantine styles, with lofty turrets and white domes.
The relation of the Byzantine Church to the Roman may be described as one of growing estrangement from the 5th to the 1 ith century, and a series of abortive attempts at reconciliation since the latter date.
The negotiations at the council of Lyons (1274) were, strictly speaking, between the pope and the Byzantine emperor, and were more political than ecclesiastical.
It was really suggested by the political weakness of the Byzantine empire and the dread of the approach of the Turks.
The patriarch has the assistance and support of a large household, a survival from Byzantine times.
Pargoire, L'Eglise Byzantine de 527 a 8 47 (Paris, 1905); I.
Martroye, L'Occident a l'epoque byzantine: Goths et Vandales (Paris, 1903).
CINNAMUS [KINNAMOS], John, Byzantine historian, flourished in the second half of the 1 2 th century.
and Manuel I., down to the unsuccessful campaign of the latter against the Turks, which ended with the disastrous battle of Myriokephalon and the rout of the Byzantine army.