By-steam Sentence Examples
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
There are several different systems of heating by steam - low pressure, high pressure and minus pressure.
The steam is employed for warming apartments by means of pipe radiators, for heating water by steam injections, and for all cooking purposes.
Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.
In 1839 Seguin endeavoured to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat from the loss of heat suffered by steam in expanding, assuming that the whole of the heat so lost was consumed in doing external work against the pressure to which the steam was exposed.Advertisement
While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.
Ravenna has railway communication with Bologna (via Castel Bolognese), Ferrara and Rimini, and by steam tram with Forli.Advertisement
Much advantage arises from the steam working of bastard fallows in summer, and after harvest a considerable amount of autumn cultivation can be done by steam power, thus materially lightening the work in the succeeding spring.
It is connected by steam tramways with Ravenna and Meldola, and by a road through the Apennines with Pontassieve.
Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.
Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
Vulcanization is then effected by steam heat, and, the preparation on the cloth being softened by water, the sheet of rubber is readily removed.Advertisement
It is a rapidly growing town, immediately opposite and suburban to the city of Sydney, with which, however, the only connexion is by steam ferry.
The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam or electric power.
The mouth of the bottle is ground by a revolving iron cone, or mandrel, fed with sand and water and driven by steam.
Of the rest, the following are readily oxidized by steam at a red heat, with formation of hydrogen gas - zinc, iron, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, tin.
All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.Advertisement
Granulated sugar, so called, is made by passing the crystals, after leaving the centrifugals, through a large and slightly inclined revolving cylinder with a smaller one inside heated by steam.
The cities of Shanghai, Hangchow and Suchow form the three points of a triangle, each being connected with the other by canal, and trade is now open by steam between all three under the inland navigation rules.
After well washing with water, the slimes are roughly dried in bag-filters or filter-presses, and then treated with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution being heated by steam.
Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.
The power is applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end of the axle, and the diameter of the fan may be 40 ft.Advertisement
The piston was in communication with a vacuum vessel from which the air had been pumped by steam power.
The modern practice consists in heating the perfectly fresh, cleaned livers by steam to a temperature above that of boiling water, or, in more recent practice, to a lower temperature, the livers being kept as far as possible from contact with air.
The old and new towns are connected by steam tramways.
It is connected by steam tramway with Haarlem and The Hague respectively, and with the seaside resorts of Katwyk and Noordwyk.
In the most approved modern filatures there is a separate cocoon boiler (cuiseuse), an oblong tank containing water boiled by steam heat.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1, 4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors.
In 1890 also the Hall process operated by steam power was installed at Patricroft, Lancashire, where the plant had a capacity of 300 lb per day, but by 1894 the turbines of the Swiss and French works ruined the enterprise.
Plant houses were formerly heated in a variety of ways - by fermenting organic matter, such as dung, by smoke flues, by steam and by hot water circulating in iron pipes.
Lumber is sawed by steam power, and cotton mills in the Tondo district are operated by steam.
The surface of the central hole was heated by steam under pressure, and the total flow of FIG.
The leaves are passed repeatedly through a machine driven by steam or other power giving a rotary motion, the operation occupying about 40 to 60 minutes.
The small rivers which empty into them can be ascended for some miles by steam launches.
It is served by the New York, Ontario & Western, and the West Shore railways (being a terminus of the latter), and by suburban electric lines, and is connected with New York City by steam ferries.
It is connected with North Shields and Tynemouth by steam ferries.
He also studied the alkaloids and organic acids, introduced a classification of the metals according to the facility with which they or their sulphides are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, and effected a comparison of the chemical composition of atmospheric air from all parts of the world.
It is also connected by steam tramway S.E.
A network of canals supplies from 14,000 to 24,000 h.p.; and a small amount is also furnished by the Concord river, but about 26,000 h.p. is supplied by steam.
The leading industries in 1905 were the construction of cars and general railway shop and repair work by steam railway companies (value of product, $2,509,845), the manufacture of lumber and timber products (value $1,315,364) and of flour and grist mill products (value $388,124), and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals (value $279,858).
It was found that by the manufacture in bulk, even by steam engines, at primary centres the cost could be considerably reduced, and in numerous districts in England large power stations began to be erected between 1903 and 1905 for the supply of current for power purposes.
It is joined to the city by a bridge (completed 1910) containing a roadway and the railway, Khartum itself being served by steam trams and rickshaws.
A large local traffic is carried on by steam launches on the lakes during the season of open navigation; and vessels have even been introduced on some of the lakes and rivers of the far north, principally in connexion with the timber trade.
The other manufactures were of much less importance, the principal ones being cars and general shop construction, including repairs by steam railway companies ($1,329,308), lumber and timber products ($960,778), and flour and grist mill products ($743,124).
It has spinning-mills and other mills worked by steam.
To determine the amount of moisture, which should not exceed 30%, a weighed sample is evaporated and dried in a plate on a metallic surface heated by steam.
Then came the material agent, machinery propelled by steam.
The fishing industry of Lake Superior is important, salmon-trout (Salvelinus namaycush, Walb), ranging from 10 to 50 lb in weight, being gathered from the individual fishermen by steam tenders and shipped by rail to city markets.
The principal approach to the convent is from St Laurent du Pont, a village situated on the Guiers Mort, and largely built by the monks - it is connected by steam tramways with Voiron (for Grenoble) and St Beron (for Chambery).
It lies on the main line of railway between Verona and Modena; and is also connected by rail with Cremona and with Monselice, on the line from Padua to Bologna, and by steam tramway with Brescia and other places.
The most prominent items in this were slaughtering and meat-packing products (value $60,031,133 in 1905); tobacco (in 1905, $30,884,182), flour and grist-mill products (in 1905, $38,026,142), 1 malt liquors (in 1905, $24,154,264), boots and shoes (in 1905, $ 2 3,493,55 2), lumber and timber products (in 1905, $10,903,783), men's factory-made clothing (in 1905, $8,872,831), and cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railways (1905, $8,720,433).
The railway system of the province is supplemented by steam tram-lines between Zwolle, Dedemsvaart and Hardenberg.
It is connected by steam tramway by way of Bolswaard with Sneek.
In 1837 the entire commercial navy comprised 2,800,000 tons, of which less than ioo,ooo tons were moved by steam.
These last have greatly increased in number; over a score are driven by steam and about a hundred by water.
The new ones are built of steel, operated by steam or electricity, protected from fire by pneumatic water-pipes, and have complete machinery for drying and scouring the wheat whenever it is necessary.
By the 1860s most coal carried to London came by steam colliers, with sailing vessels picking up the pieces.
Ginger oil is obtained by steam distillation of dried ginger root.
It is prepared by steam distillation of the wood.
The fragrance raw material known as elemi oil is prepared by steam distillation of Manila elemi oil is prepared by steam distillation of Manila elemi.
By the 1860s, cargo ships were being made from iron and powered by steam engines.
If a substance admits of being heated to say ioo, the drying may be effected by means of an air-bath, which is simply an oven heated by gas or by steam.
Livingston and the inventive genius of Robert Fulton in the application of the steam engine to traffic on the water, had given to them a monopoly of all transportation by steam within the waters of New York.
Having first determined by experiment - for which he was given special facilities by the admiralty - what are the manoeuvring powers of ships propelled by steam under varying conditions of speed and helm, he proceeded to devise a system of tactics based on these data.
If cotton or linen is used, it is usual to incorporate sulphur with the paste, and to effect vulcanization by steam heat; but, when silk or wool is employed, no sulphur is added to the paste, the dried coating of rubber being merely brought into momentary contact with the mixture of chloride of sulphur and carbon disulphide already mentioned.
Gerbert's letters contain more than one allusion to organs which he seems to have constructed, and William of Malmesbury has preserved an account of a wonderful musical instrument still to be seen in his days at Reims, which, so far as the English chronicler's words can be made out, seems to refer to an organ worked by steam.
He kept on, planning and thinking and working, until at last he succeeded in making a boat with paddle wheels that could be run by steam.
The original reciprocating engines were replaced by steam turbines in 1922.
Electricity is generated through turbines, which are moved by steam.
Like other essential oils, tea tree oil is made by steam distillation.
When you step out of the shower surrounded by steam and still slightly damp, the last thing you want to do is put on a pair of sticky blue jeans--and there lies the beauty of bath robes.
The novel extrapolated technological advances, powered by steam at the time, in the 1800s, leading to great changes.