How to use By-means-of in a sentence

by-means-of
  • The microscope or viewing telescope is fitted with a spider-line micrometer having two screws at right angles to each other, by means of which readings can be made first on one reseau-line, then on the star, and finally on the opposite reseau-line in both co-ordinates.

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  • In this crisis Pericles induced the Spartan leaders to retreat, apparently by means of.

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  • Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws.

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  • At their opposite ends the dorsal and ventral vessels are probably connected with one another by means of a splanchnic sinus surrounding the stomach.

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  • It is admitted that he conducted by means of agents a large business in timber in the Gangetic Sundarbans.

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  • The waterways of Cochin-China communicate by means of natural or artificial channels (arroyos), facilitating transport and aiding in the uniform distribution of the inundation to which the country owes its fertility.

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  • By means of the quick rack motions A and B move the plate so as to bring the reseau-square into the centre of the field of the micrometer; then, by means of the screw heads o, p, perfect the coincidence of the " fixed square " of webs, with the image of the reseau-square.

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  • The veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various shapes.

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  • In light Kundt's name is widely known for his inquiries in anomalous dispersion, not only in liquids and vapours, but even in metals, which he obtained in very thin films by means of a laborious process of electrolytic deposition upon platinized glass.

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  • From the brain these spirits are conveyed through the body by means of the nerves, regarded by Descartes as tubular vessels, resembling the pipes conveying the water of a spring to act upon the mechanical appliances in an artificial fountain.

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  • From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.

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  • In 1747, however, the town was taken by the French, under Marshal Lowendahl, who surprised it by means of a subterranean passage.

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  • A proposal to confine the Drin to its former course by means of a dyke, and to ease the downflow of the Boyana by a canal opening navigation to Lake Scutari, has long been considered by the Turkish authorities.

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  • Podophyllin is a resinous powder obtained by precipitating an alcoholic tincture of the rhizome by means of water acidulated with hydrochloric acid.

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  • If each distributing flue is connected by means of a mixing valve with a cold-air flue, the warmth of the incoming air can be regulated nicely.

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  • All these methods warm chiefly by means of convected heat, the amount of true radiation from the pipes being small.

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  • Branches may be made from the main pipes by means of smaller pipes arranged in the same manner as the mains, the Bolter branch flow pipe being connected with the main flow pipe and returning into the main return.

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  • The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.

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  • In a type built with vertical sections each division is complete in itself, and is not directly connected with the next section, but communicates with flow and return drums. A defective section may thus be left in position and stopped off by means of plugs from the drums until it is convenient to fit a new one in its place.

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  • The steam is employed for warming apartments by means of pipe radiators, for heating water by steam injections, and for all cooking purposes.

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  • These rules were published in the Canonis Descriptio (1614), and Napier has there given a figure, and indicated.a method, by means of which they may be proved directly.

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  • The service is not popular, and it is recruited by means of conscription from the national guard, the term of service being two years.

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  • By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.

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  • The above table shows the developments of French trade during the years from 1876 to 1905 by means of quinquennial averages.

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  • It is not compulsory, nor is it entirely gratuitous, but the fees are small and the state offers a great many scholarships, by means of which a clever child can pay for its own instruction.

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  • Later, while attempting to utilize the gas for the production of electricity by means of a Grove gas battery, he noticed that the carbon monoxide contained in it combined with nickel.

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  • Railway connexion with the port of La Guaira was opened in 1883 by means of a line 23 m.

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  • Whether a pouch is present or not, the young are born in an exceedingly imperfect state of development, after a very short period of gestation, and are immediately transferred by the female parent to the teats, where they remain firmly attached for a considerable time; the milk being injected into their mouths at intervals by means of a special muscle which compresses the glands.

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  • The family is connected with the Phalangeridae by means of the musk-kangaroo (Hypsiprymnodon moschatus); forming the sub-family Hypsiprymnodontinae.

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  • Some trade is carried on by means of the river, and the town is the centre of a salmon fishery district.

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  • He adds a reason that recalls one of Plato's, " As manifestly as the human soul is by means of the senses linked to the present life, so manifestly it attaches itself by reason, and the conceptions, conclusions, anticipations and efforts to which reason leads it, to God and eternity."

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  • At this meeting all the colonies except New Zealand were represented, and it was agreed that the parliament of each colony should be asked to pass a bill enabling the people to choose ten persons to represent the colony on a federal convention; the work of such convention being the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval by means of the referendum.

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  • Charles devoted the rest of his life to the gigantic task of rehabilitating Sweden by means of a reduktion, or recovery of alienated crown lands, a process which involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, and resulted in the complete readjustment of the finances.

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  • Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.

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  • When the consolidation of the Dominion by means of railway construction was under discussion in 1872, Grant travelled from the Atlantic to the Pacific with the engineers who surveyed the route of the Canadian Pacific railway, and his book Ocean to Ocean (1873) was one of the first things that opened the eyes of Canadians to the value of the immense heritage they enjoyed.

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  • The distortion of the spring determines the actual force which the wind is exerting on the plate, and this is either read off on a suitable gauge, or leaves a record in the ordinary way by means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved by clockwork.

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  • His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile monism (Hegel) and individualism (Herbart) by means of theism (Leibnitz).

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  • It is probable that the parasite is then transferred to the alimentary canal of man by means of drinking-water, and thence makes its way to the subcutaneous connective tissue.

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  • The male next casts his cuticle, and by means of his spine bores FIG.

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  • Before that time there was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoining salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been constructed, communicating with each other by means of large locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at Gillingham to that at Upnor.

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  • Where the rail-gauge is narrow and great weight is not desired, blocking girders are provided across the under side of the truck; these are arranged so that, by means of wedges or screws, they can be made to increase the base.

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  • The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.

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  • The lines are carried on poles, at a sufficient height above the ground, by means of insulators.

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  • Connexion is made into the office (or to the underground system, as is often the case) from the aerial wire by means of a copper conductor, insulated with gutta-percha, which passes through a " leading in " cup, whereby leakage is prevented between the wire and the pole.

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  • As the cable is sheathed it is stored in large water-tight tanks and kept at a nearly uniform temperature by means of water.

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  • In the earlier forms of instrument the record was made by embossing lines on a ribbon of paper by means of a sharp style fixed to one end of a lever, which carried at the other end the armature of an electromagnet.

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  • In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.

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  • In this the tongue of the relay is kept over to the spacing side by means of a current flowing in one direction, but on the depression of the signalling key the current is reversed, moving the relay tongue over to the marking side.

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  • The arm which moves round over the segments rotates at the rate of three revolutions per second, and is kept in motion by means of an iron toothed wheel, the rim of which is set in close proximity to the poles of an electromagnet.

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  • It consists in punching, by means of " a puncher," a series of holes in a strip of paper in such a way that, when the strip is sent through another instrument, called the " transmitter," the holes cause the circuit to be closed at the proper times and for the proper proportionate intervals for the message to be correctly printed by the receiving instrument or recorder.

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  • The perforation of the paper when done by hand is usually performed by means of small mallets, but at the central telegraph office in London, and at other large offices, the keys are only used for opening air-valves, the actual punching being done by pneumatic pressure.

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  • In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.

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  • The current thus sent to the line may be made either to act directly on the printing instrument or to close a local circuit by means of a relay.

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  • The Baudot apparatus can have certain channels extended so as to form a means of continuous communication between one station and two or three others by means of one line.

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  • This machine reproduces a copy of the original transmitting slip, which can be passed on to any other Wheatstone circuit or can be run through a " Creed printer," which is a pneumatic machine actuating a typewriter by means of valves.

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  • Since each letter is represented by a specific combination of positive and negative currents, it is possible, by means of the combinations, to close a local circuit at any given interval, and so cause the paper to be pressed against the periphery of the type-wheel at the time when the letter required is opposite.

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  • In the Korn apparatus the light from a Nernst electric lamp is concentrated to a point by means of a lens on the original picture, which is wound on a glass cylinder in the shape of a transparent photographic film.

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  • The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.

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  • The motor is usually supported on a platform at the back of the instrument, its drivingwheel being connected to the shaft of the paper roller by means of a spirally wound steel band.

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  • In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.

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  • Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.

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  • At a later date, 1891, Trowbridge discussed another method of effecting communication at a distance, viz., by means of magnetic induction between two separate and completely insulated circuits.

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  • Rathenau of Berlin made many experiments in 1894 in which, by means of a conductive system of wireless telegraphy, he signalled through 3 m.

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  • The relay itself served to actuate a Morse printing telegraph by means of a local battery.

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  • It is attached to a brass disk E, which is fastened to the centre of the diaphragm F by means of a rivet, and is capable of moving to and fro like a plunger when the diaphragm vibrates.

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  • When the subscribers in a local area exceed a certain number, or when for some other reason it is not convenient or economical to connect all the subscribers in the area to one exchange, it is usual to divide the area into a number of districts in each of which an exchange is placed, and to connect these district exchanges together by means of " junction circuits."

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  • Each connecting-cord circuit had associated with it a clearing-out drop connected between the cord and earth and a key by means of which the operator's speaking and ringing apparatus could be brought into circuit.

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  • This attracted the attention of the attendant, who in response to the call inserted a plug into the spring-jack and connected the speaking apparatus to the circuit by means of the key.

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  • Each telephone set was equipped with a special key or switch by means of which the telephone could be transferred from an exclusive line to the call-wire at will.

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  • If there be a line free, or when the turn of the call is reached, particulars of the connexion wanted are passed to the distant end, and the trunk operators request the local exchanges to connect the subscribers by means of junction I F..?

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  • In suburban and rural districts subscribers are usually served by means of bare wires erected upon wooden or iron poles.

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  • In large towns telephone distribution by means of open wires is practically impossible, and the employment of cables either laid in the ground or suspended from poles or other overhead supports is necessary.

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  • Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.

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  • The decision covered also future invention in regard to " every organized system of communication by means of wires according to any preconcerted system of signals."

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  • They are shrubby plants climbing over surrounding vegetation by means of tendrillike prolongations of the midrib of the leaf beyond the leaf-tip.

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  • The food of the camel consists chiefly of the leaves of trees, shrubs and dry hard vegetables, which it is enabled to tear down and masticate by means of its powerful front teeth.

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  • The last named has succeeded, by means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the whole Italian market but an export trade.

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  • In 890 they established themselves again at Ban, and ruled the Theme of Lombardy by means of an officer entitled Catapan.

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  • Young Italy spread to all centres of Italian exiles, and by means of literature carried on an active propaganda in Italy itself, where the party came to be called Ghibellini, as though reviving the traditions of medieval anti-Papalism.

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  • Menelek, by means of Count Antonelli, resident in the Shoa country, requested Italy to execute a di version in his favor by occupying Asmar and other points on the high plateau.

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  • Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.

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  • Italy, therefore, instituted a counter-propaganda by means of schools and commercial agencies.

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  • Beginning with the certainties of everyday experience, it reaches theism at last by means of an analogical argument.

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  • Still, the Design argument is a good sample of a proof by means of the inferior method.

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  • He first introduced the division into chapters and paragraphs, and by means of carefully compiled indexes illustrated the lexical peculiarities of each author.

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  • The hydroid Dicoryne 'is re- ' markable for the possession of gonophores, which are ciliate and become detached and swim away by means of their cilia.

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  • A typical Siphonophore is a stock or cormus consisting of a number of appendages placed in organic connexion with one another by means of a coenosarc. The coenosarc does not differ in structure from that already described in colonial Hydrozoa.

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  • Yet on the whole Aristotle leans to a teleological theory of evolution, which he interprets dualistually by means of certain metaphysical distinctions.

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  • More importance attaches to Duns Scotus, who brings prominently forward the idea of a progressive development in nature by means of a process of determination.

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  • Cesare's position was greatly shaken, and when he tried to browbeat the cardinals by means of Don Michelotto and his bravos, they refused to be intimidated; he had to leave Rome in September, trusting that the Spanish cardinals would elect a candidate friendly to his house.

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  • In some species of Rana and Staurois inhabiting mountainous districts in south-eastern Asia, the larvae are adapted for life in torrents, being provided with a circular adhesive disk on the ventral surface behind the mouth, by means of which they are able to anchor themselves to stones.

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  • The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.

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  • The male gametophyte is sometimes represented by a transitory prothallial cell;, the two male cells are carried passively down into the ovary and into the mouth of the ovule by means of the pollen-tube.

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  • If this division occurs by means of a localized secondary meristem connecting the cambial layers of adjacent bundles, an inlerfascicular is formed in addition to the fascicular cambium.

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  • In nearly all plants which produce secondary vascular tissues by means of a cambium there is another layer of secondary meristem arising externally to, but in quite the same fashion as, Ph II

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  • Communication between the various protoplasts of the colony is, however, carried on by means of fine protoplasmic threads, which are continuous through the cell-walls.

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  • In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.

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  • In many of the Fungi the non-motile male cell or nucleus is carried by means of a fertilizing tube actually into the interior of the egg-cell, and is extruded through the apex in close proximity to the egg nucleus.

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  • The meta-nitrocompound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means of the Sandmeyer reaction.

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  • The mixture is then cooled, acidified by means of sulphuric acid, and titrated with decinormal sodium thiosulphate solution.

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  • The sovereigns saw that wealth was beginning to flow in to the new tribunals by means of fines and confiscations; and they obliged Torquemada to take as assessors five persons who would represent them in all matters affecting the royal prerogatives.

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  • Arising as a long tendon from the sterno-scapular ligament, it passes the axilla by means of a fibrous pulley, accompanies the axillary vessels and nerves along the humerus, and is inserted by a few fleshy fibres on the base of the last two or three cubital quills.

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  • This spirit of do ut des will be found to go closely with the gift-theory of sacrifice, and to be especially characteristic of those religions of middle grade that are given over to sacrificial worship as conducted in temples and by means of organized priesthoods.

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  • Viewed analytically in its developed nature, magic is a wonder-working recognized as such, the core of the mystery consisting in the supposed transformation of suggested idea into accomplished fact by means of that suggestion itself.

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  • Henceforward he lived a life of unbroken seclusion at Vignay, his only subsequent public appearance being by means of a memoire which he addressed to the king in 1570 under the title Le But de la guerre et de la paix, ou discours du chancelier l'Hospital pour exhorter Charles IX.

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  • In 1826 the idea occurred to him of attacking this problem by means of pendulum experiments at the top and bottom of a deep mine.

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  • By an invention probably due to Humfray Cole and published in 1 578 by William Bourne in his Inventions and Devices, it was proposed to register a ship's speed by means of a "little small close boat," with a wheel, or wheels, and an axle-tree to turn clockwork in the little boat, with dials and pointers indicating fathoms, leagues, scores of leagues and hundreds of leagues.

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  • The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.

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  • Strictly speaking, however, the term ant-lion applies to the larval form, which has been known scientifically for over two hundred years, on account of its peculiar and forbidding appearance and its skilful and unique manner of entrapping prey by means of a pitfall.

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  • The fore-legs of many male dyticids have the three proximal foot-segments broad and saucer-shaped, and covered with suckers, by means of which they secure a firm hold of their mates.

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  • No legislation by means of the budget is allowed, i.e.

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  • When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.

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  • The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.

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  • This may be rectangular in shape (" straight " shed), containing a series of parallel tracks on which the engines stand and which are reached by means of points and crossings diverging from a main track outside; or it may take a polygonal or circular form (round house or rotunda), the lines for the engines radiating from a turn-table which occupies the centre and can be rotated so as to serve any of the radiating lines.

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  • This car is equipped with apparatus by means of which a continuous record of the draw-bar pull is obtained on a distance base; time indications are also made on the diagram from which the speed at any instant can be deduced.

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  • This large quantity of air is forced through the furnace by means of the difference of pressure established between the external atmospheric pressure in the ash-pan and the pressure in the smoke-box.

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  • That is to say, the engine actually utilized 61% of the energy which it was possible to utilize by means of a perfect engine working with the same initial pressure against a back pressure equal to;the atmosphere.

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  • A convenient way of describing any type of engine is by means of numerals indicating the number of wheels - (I) in the group of wheels supporting the leading or chimney end, (2) in the group of coupled wheels, and (3) in the group supporting the trailing end of the engine.

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  • In these the central bar which connects the two end links has screw threads cut upon it,;and by means of a lever can be turned so as either to shorten the coupling and bring the vehicles together till their buffers .are firmly pressed together, or to lengthen it to permit the end link to be lifted off the hook.

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  • Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.

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  • The earliest communications were carried on by means of "raps," or, as Sir William Crookes calls them, "percussive sounds."

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  • Probably it would be impossible to unite spiritualists in any creed, which,, besides the generally accepted belief in God and immortality, should postulate more than the progress of the spirit after death, and the power of some of the dead to communicate with the living by means of mediums.

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  • The sacrifices of sacralization and desacralization mentioned above find their analogues in the Hindu scheme of the rite; sacralization and desacralization, sometimes performed by means of subsidiary sacrifices, are the essential elements of the preparation for sacrifice and the subsequent lustration.

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  • For ordinary combustions compressed oxygen is used, so that the combustible substance burns almost instantaneously, the action being induced by means of some electrical device which can be controlled from without the calorimeter.

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  • In the former a separate history of the northern kingdom has been combined with Judaean history by means of synchronisms in accordance with a definite scheme.

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  • Pilate came up to Jerusalem and dispersed the petitioners by means of disguised soldiers armed with clubs.

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  • The " Solemn League and Covenant," which pledged both countries to the extirpation of prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided by the " example of the best reformed churches," after undergoing some slight alterations, passed the two Houses of Parliament and the Westminster Assembly, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great Britain.

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  • This, of course, varies in different longitudes, while a further difficulty occurred in the attempt to fix the correct time of Easter by means of cycles of years, when the changes of the sun and moon more or less exactly repeat themselves.

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  • At the same time, by means of an exchange, he obtained to the highest dignity in the university, becoming chancellor of Notre-Dame de Paris.

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  • Buying up the stock of the Missouri Pacific he built up, by means of consolidations, reorganizations, and the construction of branch lines, the "Gould System" of railways in the south-western states.

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  • He develops the Platonic philosophy into an elaborate system by means of the doctrine of emanation.

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  • Fielde show that an ant follows her own old track by a scent exercised by the tenth segment of the feeler, recognizes other inmates of her nest by a sense of smell resident in the eleventh segment, is guided to the eggs, maggots and pupae, which she has to tend, by sensation through the eighth and ninth segments, and appreciates the general smell of the nest itself by means of organs in the twelfth segment.

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  • Ants invite one another to work, or ask for food from one another, by means of pats with the feelers; and they respond to the solicitations of their guest-beetles or mites, who ask for food by patting the ants with their feet.

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  • The seeds are minute and innumerable; they contain a small rudimentary embryo surrounded by a thin loose membraneous coat, and are scattered by means of hygroscopic hairs on the inside of the valves which by their movements jerk out the seeds.

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  • They derive this moisture from the air by means of aerial roots, developed from the stem and bearing an outer spongy structure, or velamen, consisting of empty cells kept open by spiral thickenings in the wall; this sponge-like tissue absorbs dew and rain and condenses the moisture of the air and passes it on to the internal tissues.

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  • He took a passionate delight in the pursuit of knowledge from his very infancy, and is reported to have worked out long arithmetical sums by means of pebbles and biscuit crumbs before he knew the figures.

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  • In the latter case, the numerous bands of muscle attaching the pharynx to the parietes have obliterated the regular partition by means of septa.

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  • Spermatheca rarely with diverticula; sperm ducts as a rule occupying two segments only, usually opening by means of an atrium.

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  • These regions of the coelom end at the ends of the body and communicate with each other by means of a branched system of coelomic sinuses, which are in places very fine tubes.

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  • Goodrich that the vascular system and the coelom are in communication (as in vertebrates by means of the lymph system).

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  • Each testis communicates by means of an efferent duct with a common collecting duct of its side of the body, which opens on to the exterior by means of a protrusible penis, and to which is sometimes appended a seminal vesicle.

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  • Sir Charles Wheatstone discovered its principle and applied it as early as 1838 to the construction of a cumbrous but effective instrument, in which the binocular pictures were made to combine by means of mirrors.

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  • A good deal of this is transported by gravitation from Baku to Batum on the Black Sea by means of a pipe laid overland.

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  • Unsuccessful attempts were made in February and March 1864 to free the Federal prisoners in Richmond by means of cavalry raids.

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  • The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.

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  • It owed its fertility to the Nile, which, inundating the land near its banks, was distributed by means of canals over more distant portions of its valley.

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  • The latter, when ripe, was pulled up by the roots, and the grain was separated by means of an implement resembling a comb.

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  • Attica was famous for its olives and figs, but general agriculture excelled in Peloponnesus, where, by means of irrigation and drainage, all the available land was utilized.

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  • As wealth increased the peasant-farmer gave way before the large landowner, who cultivated his property by means of slave-labour, superintended by slave-bailiffs.

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  • The substantial education supplied by the parish schools, of which nearly the whole population could then avail themselves, had diffused through all ranks such a measure of intelligence as enabled them promptly to discern and skilfully and energetically to take advantage of this spring-tide of prosperity, and to profit by the agricultural information now plentifully furnished by means of the Bath and West of England Society, established in 1777; the Highland Society, instituted in 1784; and the National Board of Agriculture, in 1793.

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  • The cleaning process is carried on through the next summer by means of successive hoeings of the spring-sown root-crop. As turnips or swedes May occupy the ground till after Christmas little time is left for the preparation of a seed-bed for barley, but as the latter is a shallow-rooted crop only surface-stirring is required.

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  • The female lays her eggs in a slit made by means of her "saw-like" ovipositor in the leaf or fruit of a tree.

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  • Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG.

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  • Asia Minor and the West developed the strict ecclesiastical forms by means of which the church closed her lines against heathenism, and especially against heresy; in Alexandria Christian ideas were handled in a free and speculative fashion and worked out with the help of Greek philosophy.

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  • Here we may notice that the perpetuation of the republic by means of the armed forces tended to exalt the army at the expense of the civil authorities.

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  • Two days later Napoleon, by means of unworthy artifices, hurried the Austrian plenipotentiaries into signing the treaty of peace at Schonbrunn.

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  • His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."

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  • As mentioned above, respiration by means of airtubes (tracheae) is a most characteristic feature of the Hexapoda.

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  • Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.

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  • With regard to the internal organs, we need only say that transformation occurs in an essentially similar manner, by means of a development from centres distributed in the various organs.

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  • Other aquatic larvae have the tracheal system entirely closed, and are able to breathe dissolved air by means of tubular or leaf-like gills.

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  • But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.

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  • In this the large plates were reduced by means of the camera lucida, the text was revised, and the whole systematically arranged.

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  • Macleay indeed never pretended to a high position in this branch of science, his tastes lying in the direction of Entomology; but few of their countrymen knew more of birds than did Swainson and Vigors; and, while the latter, as editor for many years of the Zoological Journal, and the first secretary of the Zoological Society, has especial claims to the regard of all zoologists, so the former's indefatigable pursuit of Natural History, and conscientious labour in its behalf-among other ways by means of his graceful pencil-deserve to be remembered as a set-off against the injury he unwittingly caused.

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  • The union of the index and middle fingers by means of a web extending as far as the terminal joints is the distinctive feature of the siamang, which is the largest of the group, and black in colour with a white frontal band.

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  • The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.

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  • Some are nocturnal, some diurnal; some catch their prey by speed of foot, some by cunningly lying hid, some by means of silken nets.

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  • In the breeding season the male deposits drops of sperm on a sheet of webbing, picks it up in these flasks by means of capillary attraction and carries it about until he falls in with a female.

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  • Growth is accompanied by a succession of moults, the spider emerging from its old skins by means of a fracture which extends along the front and sides of the cephalothorax just beneath the edge of the carapace.

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  • It is believed that the males of these species signal to their females by means of the sound these organs emit.

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  • All spiders possess a pair of poison-glands, one in each of the chelicerae or mandibles and opening by means of a duct at the tip of the fang.

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  • In the breeding season the male spins a bell or thimble near that of the female and joins the two by means of a silken passage.

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  • The little Lake Frolikha, situated close to the northern extremity of Lake Baikal and communicating with it by means of a river of the same name, contains a peculiar species of trout, Salmo erythreas, which is not known elsewhere.

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  • This he accomplished by means of four wands of yew inscribed with ogam characters.

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    0
  • The engine, which is provided with reversing gear, is of 12 or 15 horse-power and motion is communicated through a belt to the band-wheel, which operates the walking-beam by means of a crank.

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  • The throttle-valve is opened or closed by turning a grooved vertical pulley by means of an endless cord, called the telegraph, passing round another pulley fixed upon the " headache-post," and is thus under the control of the driller working in the derrick.

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  • The position of the reversing link is altered by means of a cord, passing over two pulleys, fixed respectively in the engine-house and on the derrick.

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  • This consists in the use of an expanding reamer by means of which Drilling in the well may be drilled to a diameter admitting of the Galicia.

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  • This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.

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  • The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.

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  • The men of that nation and of that epoch were bent on creating a new intellectual atmosphere for Europe by means of vital contact with antiquity.

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  • When a current is passed through the instrument it causes one end of the movable system to tilt downwards, and the other end upwards; the sliding weight is then moved along the tray by means of a silk cord until equilibrium is again established.

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  • The calibration of ammeters is best conducted by means of a series of standard low resistances and of a potentio meter.

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  • Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.

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  • Prior to their conversion to Mahommedanism the Malays were subjected to a considerable Hindu influence, which reached them by means of the traders who visited the archipelago from India.

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  • Both facts are largely due to the opening (1882) of the St Gotthard railway, as merchandise collected from every part of north and central Europe is stored in Basel previous to being redistributed by means of that line.

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  • But side by side with this literary transmission Berthelot insists that there was another mode of transmission, by means of the knowledge of practical receipts and processes traditional among jewellers, painters, workers in glass and pottery, and other handicraftsmen.

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  • Separated from Lycabettus by a depression to the south-west, through which flows a brook, now a covered drain (probably to be identified with the Eridanus), stands the remarkable oblong rocky mass of the Acropolis (512 ft.), rising precipitously on all sides except the western; its summit was partially levelled in prehistoric times, and the flat area was subsequently enlarged by further cutting and by means of retaining walls.

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  • In the 3rd codification, however, many provisions have been taken from the 2nd, and these are designated by the word "antiqua"; by means of these "antiqua" we are enabled in a certain measure to reconstruct the work of Leovigild.

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  • Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.

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  • Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it.

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  • This has led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimeter, and of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products.

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  • Thirlmere itself was raised in level, and adapted by means of a dam at the north end, as a reservoir for the watersupply of Manchester in 1890-1894.

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  • The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.

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  • The valley in which the town is situated used to be subject to inundations, but in 1805 a tunnel was constructed by means of which the surplus waters of the Bied are carried into the Doubs.

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  • Joseph John Gurney of Norwich, a brother of Elizabeth Fry, by means of his high social position and his various writings (some published before 1835), was the most prominent actor in this movement.

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  • Friends have always held that the attempt to enforce truthspeaking by means of an oath, in courts of law and elsewhere, tends to create a double standard of truth.

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  • The camels make excellent mounts, swift and hardy; and the extensive caravan trade is everywhere carried on exclusively by means of these pack-animals.

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  • The Arabic writer Shahrastani endeavours to bridge the divergence between the two traditions by means of the following.

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  • Off the south-east shore lies the Holm (160 ft.), with which communication used to be maintained by means of the Cradle of Noss swing or ropes.

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  • Rigid leathery leaves are fixed by means of glue, or, if they present too smooth a surface, by stitching at their edges.

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  • When a number of specimens have to be submitted to pressure, ventilation is secured by means of frames corresponding in size to the drying paper, and composed of strips of wood or wires.

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  • The zinc plates are then drawn close together by means of straps, and suspended before a fire until the drying is effected.

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  • A light but strong portfolio, to which pressure by means of straps can be applied, and a few quires of this paper, if the paper be changed night and morning, will be usually sufficient to dry all except very succulent plants.

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  • For use, the mixture is warmed to render it fluid, and applied by means of a camel's hair brush to the under side of the specimen, which is then laid neatly on paper.

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  • Of the Characeae many are so exceedingly brittle that it is best to float them out like sea-weeds, except the prickly species, which may be carefully laid out on bibulous paper, and when dry fastened on sheets of white paper by means of gummed strips.

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  • Light and air are introduced by means of vertical shafts (luminaria) running up to the outer air, and often serving for several storeys.

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  • The following are the leading characteristics by means of which the sub-order Perissodactyla is distinguished from the Artiodactyla.

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  • He continued to play a prominent part in International Socialist politics, striving to arrange concerted action of the working classes to make wars impossible by means of general strikes.

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  • The arithmetic of rational numbers is now established by means of appropriate definitions, which indicate the entities meant by the operations of addition and multiplication.

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  • It may be said to be an absolutely autocthonous enterprise, no recourse having been had to foreign capital to find the means requisite for construction and equipment, which were provided by means of a " national subscription " - not entirely voluntary - and from other sources which, although the financial methods were not strictly orthodox, were strictly Turkish.

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  • Later, without taking into consideration the effective amounts in cash at the disposal of the vilayets, considerable sums were drawn upon them, by means of havales, out of proportion to their capacity.

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  • The taxes are collected by means of the mukhtars, termed for this purpose kabz-i-mal (receiver of treasure), and under the supervision of gendarmes specially named, termed tahsildar (collectors).

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  • Successful so far by means of the mixture which Medea, daughter of Aeetes, had given him as proof against fire and sword, Jason was next allowed to approach the dragon which watched the fleece; Medea soothed the monster with another mixture, and Jason became master of the fleece.

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  • It was in fact well supplied with information by means of the spy service directed by an exiled French royalist, the count d'Antraigues, who was established at Dresden as a Russian diplomatic agent.

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  • Bagdad is in communication with Europe by means of two lines of telegraph, one British and one Turkish, and two postal services.

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  • They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.

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  • It discharges its waters, by means of the Thioux canal, into the Fier, a tributary of the Rhone.

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  • It supports a fishing population of over 30,000, most of whom are Annamese; the fish, which are taken by means of large nets at the end of the inundation, are either dried or fermented for the production of the sauce known as nuoc-mam.

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  • The books (manuscripts) are generally formed of palmleaves upon which the characters are traced by means of a style.

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  • The theory was purely democratic, but was all ready to be transformed, by means of a series of fictions and implications, into an imperialist doctrine; and in like manner it contained a visionary plan of reformation which ended, not in the separation of the church from the state, but in the subjection of the church to the state.

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  • It affords facilities for the transport of logs by means of booms above Minneapolis, and is navigable below St Paul; being half a mile broad where it reaches the border of the state at Hastings.

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  • Respiration is effected by means of external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax.

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  • Hydrodynamical methods received increased attention and the investigation of the movements of the ocean by means of physico-mathematical devices developed as a result of the older work of Bjerknes, continued chiefly by Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom.

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  • Of these divisions of the coelom the first two communicate with the exterior by means of a pair of ciliated pore-canals placed at the posterior end of their respective segments.

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  • In one family, the Ptychoderidae, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal.

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  • It was lined within and without with gold, and through four golden rings were placed staves of acacia wood, by means of which it was carried.

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  • We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.

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  • Glucose may be estimated by means of the polarimeter, i.e.

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  • Bizerta occupies the site of the ancient Tyrian colony, Hippo Zarytus or Diarrhytus, the harbour of which, by means of a spacious pier, protecting it from the north-east wind, was rendered one of the safest and finest.

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  • After brushing away the loose stones and dirt from the root of the tree by means of a handful of twigs, the collector lays down large leaves for the latex to drop upon.

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  • There is no feasible method at present known of preventing the inclusion of the resin of the latex with the rubber during coagulation, and although the separation of the resin from the solid caoutchouc by means of solvents is possible, it is not practicable or profitable commercially.

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  • It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.

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  • Before commencing the mastication it is generally necessary to warm the apparatus by means of steam; but as the operation proceeds the heat produced requires to be moderated by streams of cold water flowing through channels provided for the purpose.

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  • The blocks are cut into thin sheets by means of a sharp knife, which is caused to move to and fro about two thousand times per minute, the knife being kept moistened with water, and the block fed up to it by mechanical means.

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  • Most of the rubber now manufactured is not combined with sulphur when in the form of sheets, but is mechanically incorporated with about one-tenth of its weight of that substance by means of the mixing rollers - any required pigment or other matter, such as whiting or barium sulphate, being added.

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  • Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.

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  • Large metallic surfaces (especially external surfaces) are sometimes plated by means of a "doctor," which, in its simplest form, is a brush constantly wetted with the electrolyte, with a wire anode buried amid the hairs or bristles; this brush is painted slowly over the surface of the metal to be coated, which must be connected to the negative terminal of the electrical generator.

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  • The cirri or tentacles, of which three or four pairs are present, are capable of being protruded, and the minute larva swims by means of the ciliary action they produce.

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  • Every covariant is rationally expressible by means of the forms f, u 2, u3,...

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  • He proves, by means of the six linear partial differential equations satisfied by the concomitants, that, if any concomitant be expanded in powers of xi, x 2, x 3, the point variables-and of u 8, u 2, u3, the contragredient line variables-it is completely determinate if its leading coefficient be known.

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  • The general equation of degree 5 cannot be solved algebraically, but the roots can be expressed by means of elliptic modular functions.

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  • When 0=4 it is clear that no form, whose partition contains a part 3, can be reduced; but every form, whose partition is composed of the parts 4 and 2, is by elementary algebra reducible by means of perpetuants of degree 2.

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  • At Abuzabel, near Cairo, he founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical instruction, as well as for the study of the French language; and, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, instituted the study of anatomy by means of dissection.

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  • It surmounts the watershed by means of Sapperton tunnel, 2 m.

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  • The harsher measures which about that time began to be adopted towards his co-religionists in France are usually assigned as the motive of this step. He now devoted himself during six years to the production of lenses of enormous focal distance, which, mounted on high poles, and connected with the eye-piece by means of a cord, formed what were called "aerial telescopes."

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  • While he also prevents interruption of the operation by means of water-jackets, he uses hot-blast, and produces, besides metallic lead, large volumes of lead fumes which are drawn off by fans through long cooling tubes, and then forced through suspended bags which filter off the dust, called "blue powder."

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  • Silver is extracted from lead by means of the process of cupellation.

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  • In 1833 Pattinson invented his process by means of which practically all the silver is concentrated in 13% of the original lead to be cupelled, while the rest becomes market lead.

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  • In 1842 Karsten discovered that lead could be desilverized by means of zinc. His invention, however, only took practical form in1850-1852through the researches of Parkes, who showed how the zinc-silver-lead alloy formed could be worked and the desilverized lead freed from the zinc it had taken up. In the Parkes process only 5% of the original lead need be cupelled.

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  • The fire underneath the pot is again started, the crystals are liquefied, and one of the two pans, filled with melted lead, is tilted by means of the crane and its contents poured into the pot.

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  • In the kettle covered with a hood the zinc is oxidized by means of dry steam, and incidentally some lead by the air which cannot be completely excluded.

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    0
  • Such a combination constitutes an electromagnet, a valuable device by means of which a magnet can be instantly made and unmade at will.

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  • It is however easy to demonstrate by means of the compass that the force is much greater in some parts of the field than in others.

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  • This may be shown by means of the uniform field of force due to the earth's magnetism.

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  • The effective number of turns in the coil surrounding the test rod can be varied by means of three dial switches (for hundreds, tens and units), which also introduce compensating resistances as the number of effective turns in the coil is reduced, thus keeping the total resistance of the circuit constant.

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  • Since the demagnetizing factor was o 052, the strongest field due to the coil was about 1340; but though arrangements were pro vided for cooling the apparatus by means of o ice, great difficulty was experienced owing to heating.

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  • Their anatomy has not been studied, as yet, by means of freshly-killed material, and is imperfectly known, though the presence of the coxal FIG.

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  • The subject he had chosen for his Habilitationsschrift was the "Representation of a Function by Means of a Trigonometrical Series," a subject which Dirichlet had made his own by a now well-known series of researches.

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  • Gloriosa, well known in cultivation, climbs by means of its tendril-like leaftips; it has handsome flowers with decurved orange-red or yellow petals; it is a native of tropical Asia and Africa.

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  • They climb by means of tendrils, which are stipular structures arising from the leaf-sheath.

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  • In algebra he discovered the method of approximating to the real roots of an equation by means of continued fractions, and imagined a general process of solving algebraical equations of every degree.

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  • It has not indeed proved practically available; but his system of calculating cometary perturbations by means of "mechanical quadratures" has formed the startingpoint of all subsequent researches on the subject.

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  • With Kant, reason (Vernunft) is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts provided by the intellect (Verstand).

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  • When Coutinho formed his establishment, where Villa Velha now stands, he found a noble Portuguese living in the neighbourhood who, having been shipwrecked, had, by means of his fire-arms, raised himself to the rank of chief among the natives.

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  • Before the building of the Forth Bridge the customary approach to Fifeshire and the north-east of Scotland was by means of a steam ferry from Granton to Burntisland, which is still used to some extent.

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  • He based his foreign policy on alliance with Florence and France, and directed the internal affairs of the state by means of the council (collegio) of the balia, which, although occasionally reorganized for the purpose of conciliating rival factions, was always subject to his will.

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  • This pure individualism, consistently interpreted, involves the denial of all real relation whatsoever; for things are related and classified by means of their general characteristics.

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  • The Ars magna of the former professed by means of a species of logical machine to give a rigid demonstration of all the fundamental Christian doctrines, and was intended by its author as an unfailing instrument for the conversion of the Saracens and heathen.

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  • In the case of gastric dilatation from pyloric obstruction great relief may be afforded by washing out the viscus by means of a long rubber tube, a funnel, and a jug of hot water, as originally suggested by Adolf Kussmaul.

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  • The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.

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  • The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.

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  • Hence we can separate the numbers from the common unit, and replace 3 lb - I - 5 lb - 7 lb +2 lb by (3+5-7+2) lb, the additions and subtractions being then performed by means of an addition-table.

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  • It is true that we obtain this result by subtracting 3 from io by means of a subtractiontable (concrete or ideal); but this table merely gives the generalized results of a number of operations of addition or subtraction performed with concrete units.

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  • Thus the concrete fact required to enable us to pass arithmetically from the conception of a fractional number to the conception of a surd is the fact of performing calculations by means of logarithms.

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  • We then obtain a set of equations, and by means of these equations we establish the required result by a process known as mathematical induction.

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  • We therefore define algebraical division by means of algebraical multiplication, and say that, if P and M are multinomials, the statement " P/M = Q " means that Q is a multinomial such that MQ (or QM) and P are identical.

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  • There are extensions of the binomial theorem, by means of which approximate calculations can be made of fractions, surds, and powers of fractions and of surds; the main difference being that the number of terms which can be taken into account is unlimited, so that, although we may approach nearer and nearer to the true value, we never attain it exactly.

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  • From A Merely Formal Point Of View, We Have In The Barycentric Calculus A Set Of " Special Symbols Of Quantity " Or " Extraordinaries " A, B, C, &C., Which Combine With Each Other By Means Of Operations And Which Obey The Ordinary Rules, And With Ordinary Algebraic Quantities By Operations X And =, Also According To The Ordinary Rules, Except That Division By An Extraordinary Is Not Used.

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  • The active search for knowledge by means of observation and experiment found its natural home in the universities.

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  • In the 17th century the lovers of the new philosophy, the investigators of nature by means of observation and experiment, banded themselves into academies or societies for mutual support and intercourse.

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  • If the grating be composed of alternate transparent and opaque parts, the question may be treated by means of the general integrals (§ 3) by merely limiting the integration to the transparent parts of the aperture.

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  • The general nature of the effects to be expected in such a case may be made clear by means of an illustration already employed for another purpose.

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  • Proetus thereupon sent him to Iobates, his wife's father, king of Lycia, with a letter or sealed tablet, in which were instructions, apparently given by means of signs, to take the life of the bearer.

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  • The new form takes on the characters of that from which it arose; exhibits the same power of propagating itself by means of an offshoot; and, sooner or later, like its predecessor, ceases to live, and is resolved into more highly oxidated compounds of its elements.

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  • Egyptian women had a tight foldless tunic which exposed the breasts; it was generally kept up by means of braces over the shoulders.

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  • Next above this is the school of the district capital, where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which are selected those eligible for the course of higher education given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction of a doc-hoc, or inspector of studies.

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  • The whole of the record is independent of names, and the final identification is by means of the photograph which lies with the individual's card of measurements.

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  • A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.

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  • Another canal has been projected for connecting Kiel with the Elbe by means of a canal trained through the Plan Lakes.

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  • Absorption of this infarcted zone is carried on by means of leucocytes and other phagocytic cells, and by new blood-vessels.

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  • Generally it is either dried, after being separated from the wash water, by means of common salt, upon a layer of which the moist nitroglycerin is gently run and allowed to drain or filter through, or it is filtered through a mass of dry sponge or similar dry and porous material.

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  • The 10th century, by means of this illumination of one of the darkest regions of disease, may diminish human suffering enormously, and may make habitable rich and beautiful regions of the earth's surface now, so far as man's work is concerned, condemned to sterility.

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  • Many other diseases formerly regarded as primarily diseases of the nervous system are not such; but, by means of agents either introduced into the body or modified there, establish themselves after the affinities of these in contiguous associated parts of the structure, as in vascular, membranous or connective elements, or again in distant and peripheral parts; the perturbations of nervous function being secondary and consequential.

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  • For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.

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  • Having been thrown into prison by her father, who was afraid of being injured by her witchcraft, she escaped by means of her art and fled to the temple of Helios the Sun-god, her reputed grandfather.

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  • The natural process of sedimentation assisted the gradual artificial drainage of the marshes by means of embankments confining the river.

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  • The general scope of the polytechnics is to give instruction both in general knowledge and special crafts or trades by means of classes, lectures and laboratories, instructive entertainments and exhibitions, and facilities for bodily and mental exercise (gymnasia, libraries, &c.).

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  • With many this is a practice at all seasons, and the railway companies foster the habit by means of tickets at reduced fares to all parts.

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  • In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.

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  • Larger cars are usually dumped by means of rotating or swinging cradles, the car bodies being rigidly attached to the axles or trucks.

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  • Formerly, at many deep European mines, and at a few in the United States, men were raised by means of " man-engines."

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  • It consisted of a spherical glass vessel opening below by means of a stop-cock and narrow nozzle into the cylinder of an "exhausting syringe," which inclined upwards from the extremity of the nozzle.

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  • It can be considerably shortened, the two vessels A and B brought more closely together, and the somewhat objectionable india-rubber tube be dispensed with, if we connect the air-space in B with an ordinary air pump, and by means of it do the greater part of the sucking and the whole of the lifting work.

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  • The chief industries of the place are straw-plaiting, boatbuilding, and the manufacture of pottery; and a considerable traffic is carried on by means of the river.

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  • It is named the tractory, since a weight placed on the ground and drawn along by means of a flexible string by a person travelling in a straight line, the weight not being in this line, describes the curve in question.

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  • Guinand, towards the end of the 18th century, by introducing the process of stirring the molten glass by means of a cylinder of fireclay.

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  • The empty crucible, having first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the temperature of which is then gradually raised.

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  • The examination of small test-pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this manipulation being to render the glass as homogeneous as possible and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product.

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  • The manufactured goods are either removed gradually from a constant source of heat by means of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an endless chain, or are placed in a heated kiln in which the fire is allowed gradually to die out.

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  • One workman holds the blowing iron with the mass of glass attached to it, and another fixes an iron rod by means of a seal of glass to the extremity of the mass.

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  • Touches of colour may be added to vessels in course of manufacture by means of seals of molten glass, applied like sealing-wax; or by causing vessels to wrap themselves round with threads or coils of coloured glass.

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  • Engraving is a process of drawing on glass by means of small copper wheels.

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  • The true use of engraving is to add interest to vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions and graceful outlines.

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  • The head of the stopper is fastened in a chuck and the peg is ground to the size of the mouth of the bottle by means of sand and water pressed against the glass by bent strips of thin sheet iron.

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  • Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than.

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  • When flattened, the sheet is moved away from the working opening of the furnace, and pushed to a system of movable grids, by means of which it is slowly moved along a tunnel, away from a source of heat nearly equal in temperature to that of the flattening chamber.

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  • In an American process the glass is drawn direct from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means of an iron ring previously immersed in the glass, and is kept in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it leaves the molten bath.

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  • The whole pot, with its contents of viscous glass, is then removed bodily from the furnace by means of huge tongs and is transported to a crane, which grips the pot, raises it, and ultimately tips it over so as to pour the glass upon the slab of the rolling-table.

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  • Before the glass is introduced, the annealing kiln is heated to dull red by means of coal fires in grates which are provided at the ends or sides of the kiln for that purpose.

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  • Having severed the body of the vase from the blowing iron, he heated and closed the fractured base, whilst holding the vase by means of the rod fixed in the neck.

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  • The outer coat was then removed from that portion which was to constitute the ground, leaving the white for the figures, foliage or other ornamentation; these were then sculptured by means of the gem-engraver's tools.

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  • The system of decorating vases and vessels by means of strands of glass trailed upon the surface in knots, zigzags and trellis work, was adopted by the Moors and is characteristic of Roman craftsmanship. Glassmaking was continued at Pinar de la Vidriera and at Al Castril de la Pena into the 17th century.

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  • Most other carbonates are formed by precipitation of salts of the metals by means of alkaline carbonates.

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  • The resolution of the questions concerning the motion of fluids was effected by means of Euler's partial differential coefficients.

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  • The great engineering works by means of which the marshes were drained and the overflow of the rivers regulated by canals went back to Sumerian times, like a considerable part of later Babylonian religion and the beginnings of Babylonian law.

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  • According to the developed cuneiform system of writing, words may be written by means of a sign (or combination of signs) expressive of the entire word, or they may be spelled out phonetically in syllables.

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  • He exiled those who opposed him, and governed by means of the balie, which, re-elected acted according to his orders.

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  • The former at once assumed Magnin - the reins of government and became ruler of Florence in a way neither Cosimo nor Piero had ever attempted; he established his domination by means of balie consisting of the signory, the accoppiatori, and 240 other members, all Mediceans, to be renewed every five years (1471).

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  • They manufactured rough pottery, mostly without decorations, or ornamented by means of the finger-nail.

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