Burmese sentence example
Burmite is the name under which the Burmese amber is now described.
It is known that to the TibetoChinese modifications of the pure Mongolian type all the eastern Burmese tribes - Chins, Kachins, Shans, &c. - belong (as indeed do the Burmese themselves), and that a cognate race occupies the Himalaya to the eastern limits of Kashmir.
In 1824 Port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the fleet carrying the army to the first Burmese war.
Most of the Burmese amber is worked at Mandalay into rosary-beads and ear-cylinders.
The early history consists largely of conflicts between the Burmese and Talaings.Advertisement
It was founded by the British in 1826 on the restoration of the town of Martaban to the Burmese, and named in compliment to the governor-general of India of that day; but in 1827 the headquarters were transferred to Moulmein.
This is quite the reverse of what is the rule in Burmese.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
Bamboorats, of which one genus (Rhizomys) is Indian and Burmese, and the other (Tachyoryctes) East African, differ by the absence of skin over the eyes, the presence of short ears, and a short, sparsely-haired tail.
The great majority of the population is Burmese, but in Yaw there is a peculiar race called Taungthas, who claim to be quite distinct from both Burmese and Chins.Advertisement
After holding various commands he commissioned the "Larne," 20, for the East Indies and was senior naval officer at Rangoon during the Burmese War from May to September 1824.
In the early part of the next year he commanded an expedition up the Bassein River, in which Bassein was occupied and the Burmese stores seized.
The name Lao, which appears to mean simply "man," is the collective Siamese term for all the Thai peoples subject to Siam, while Shan, said to be of Chinese origin, is the collective Burmese term for those subject to Burma.
The Burmese were called in to the assistance of one of the contending factions in 1810.
The language had an alphabet of its own, which was clearly related to that of Burmese.Advertisement
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
On the Tenasserim and Burmese coast falls of more than 200 in.
Of these may be named the Tibetans, the Burmese and the Siamese.
In contradistinction to the Lao Pong Dam, who have derived their written language from the Burmese character, the eastern race has retained what appears to be the early form of the present Siamese writing, from which it differs little.
The chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens (717,859), Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings (321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills.Advertisement
The Burmese in person have the Mongoloid characteristics common to the Indo-Chinese races, the Tibetans and tribes of the Eastern Himalaya.
Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been called " the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat inclined to laziness.
Since the advent of the British power, the immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country.
As compared with the Hindu, the Burmese wear silk instead of cotton, and eat rice instead of the cheaper grains; they are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less practical character.
The Burmese women have a keener business instinct than the men, and serve in some degree to redress the balance.Advertisement
The Burmese children are adored by their parents, and are said to be the happiest and merriest children in the world.
Burmese, which was spoken by 7,006,495 people in the province in 1901, is a monosyllabic language, with, according to some authorities, three different tones; so that any given syllable may have three entirely different meanings only distinguishable by the intonation when spoken, or by accents or diacritical marks when written.
The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.
Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese.
The Burmese literature is for the most part metrical, and consists of religious romances, chronological histories and songs.
This is an authorized history, in which everything unflattering to the Burmese monarchs was rigidly suppressed.
After the Second Burmese War no record was ever made in the Yazawin that Pegu had been torn away from Burma by the British.
The Burmese are fond of stage-plays in which great licence of language is permitted, and great liberty to " gag " is left to the wit or intelligence of the actors.
An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess Christianity, and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among them.
It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.
The number of Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo.
These Christians returned themselves as Burmese.
Experiments have also been made with the Kachin hillmen and with the Shans; but the Burmese character is so averse to discipline and control in petty matters that it is impossible to get really suitable men to enlist even in the civil police.
Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.
At the close of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable timber; and it was trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third Burmese War of 1885.
Salted fish forms, along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a very sound basis.
The Burmese are fond of bright colours, and pink and yellow harmonize well with their dark olive complexion, but even here the influence of western civilization is being felt, and in the towns the tendency now is towards maroon, brown, olive and dark green for the women's skirts.
Both in the wood-carving and silver work the Burmese character displays itself, giving boldness, breadth and freedom of design, but a general want of careful finish.
It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
In the early part of the 16th century the Burmese princes of Toungoo, in the north-east of Pegu, began to rise to power, and established a dynasty which at one time held possession of Pegu, Ava and Arakan.
This army was hemmed in by the skill of the Burmans; and, being reduced by the want of provisions, it was afterwards attacked and totally destroyed, with the exception of 2500 men, who were sent in fetters to work in the Burmese capital at their several trades.
He died in 1776, after a reign of twelve years, during which he had extended the Burmese dominions on every side.
In 1795 the Burmese were involved in a dispute with the British in India, in consequence of their troops, to the amount of 5000 men, entering the district of Chittagong in pursuit of three robbers who had fled from justice across the frontier.
Explanations being made and terms'of accommodation offered by General Erskine, the commanding officer, the Burmese commander retired from the British territories, when the fugitives were restored, and all differences for the time amicably arranged.
But it was evident that the gradual extension of the British and Burmese territories would in time bring the two powers into close contact along a more extended line of frontier, and in all probability lead to a war between them.
It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.
The Burmese leaders, arrested in their career of conquest, were impatient to measure their strength with their new neighbours.
These were attacked on the 23rd of September 1823 by the Burmese, and driven from their post with the loss of several lives; and to the repeated demands of the British for redress no answer was returned.
The military operations, which will be found described under Burmese Wars, ended in the treaty of Yandaboo on the 24th of February 1826, which conceded the British terms and enabled their army to be withdrawn.
Probably the feeling of amity on the part of the Burmese government was not very strong; but so long as the prince by whom the treaty was concluded continued in power, no attempt was made to depart from its main stipulations.
The latter, at an early period, manifested not only that hatred of British connexion which was almost universal at the Burmese court, but also the extremest contempt.
A series of negotiations followed; nothing was demanded of the Burmese beyond a very moderate compensation for the injuries inflicted on the masters of two British vessels, an apology for the insults offered by the governor of Rangoon to the representatives of the British government, and the re-establishment of at least the appearance of friendly relations by the reception of a British agent by the Burmese government.
Another Burmese war was the result, the first shot being fired in January 1852.
As in the former, though success was varying, the British finally triumphed, and the chief towns in the lower part of the Burmese kingdom fell to them in succession.
Early in 1879 he excited much horror by executing a number of the members of the Burmese royal family, and relations became much strained.
The Burmese court, in contravention of the express terms of the treaty of 1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay, representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if possible, close alliances with sundry European powers.
Matters were brought to a crisis towards the close of 1885, when the Burmese government imposed a fine of £230,000 on the BombayBurma Trading Corporation, and refused to comply with a suggestion of the Indian government that the cause of complaint should be investigated by an impartial arbitrator.
This was a more serious task than the overthrow of the Burmese government, and occupied four years.
In that year, however, it was seized by the warrior, Paya Tak, as a convenient point from which to attack the Burmese army then in occupation of Siam, and upon his becoming king it was chosen as the capital of the country.
Although the English squirrel is a beautiful little animal, it is surpassed by many of the tropical members of the group, and especially by those of the Malay countries, where nearly all the species are brilliantly marked, and many are ornamented The Burmese Red-bellied Squirrel (Sciurus pygerythrus).
From the notices of early travellers it appears that Mergui, when under Siamese rule, before it passed to the Burmese, was a rich and densely peopled country.
There is a considerable coasting trade with other Burmese ports and with the Straits Settlements.
The chief, the Sawbwa Hkun Yon, held charge through the reigns of four Burmese kings, and submitted early in 1887 on the first arrival of British troops.
It is of historic interest as the birthplace and ',capital of Alompra, the founder of the last Burmese dynasty.
Of this total about 3,000,000 are Siamese, about 2,000,000 Laos, about 400,000 Chinese, 115,000 Malay, 80,000 Cambodian and the rest Burmese, Indian, Mohn, Karen, Annamite, Kache, Lawa and others.
Bangkok, the capital, with some 650,000 inhabitants, is about one-third Chinese, while in the suburbs are to be found settlements of Mohns, Burmese, Annamites and Cambodians, the descendants of captives taken in ancient wars.
When it is understood that there are over 30,000 Chinese, Annamese, Burmese and other Asiatic foreign subjects living in Siam, the importance to the country of this change will be to some extent realized.
While the pure-blooded Malays of the Peninsula are Mahommedans, the Siamese and Lao profess a form of Buddhism which is tinged by Cingalese and Burmese influences, and, especially in the more remote country districts, by the spirit-worship which is characteristic of the imaginative and timid Ka and other hill peoples of Indo-China.
During the 15th and 16th centuries Siam was frequently invaded by the Burmese and Peguans, who, attracted probably by the great wealth of Ayuthia, besieged it mote than once without success, the defenders being aided by Portuguese mercenaries, till about 1555, when the city was taken and Siam reduced to dependence.
But after the civil wars of the 18th century the Burmese, having previously taken Chieng-mai, which appealed to Siam for help, entered Tenasserim and took Mergui and Tavoy in 1764, and then advancing simultaneously from the north and the west captured and destroyed Ayuthia after a two years' siege (1767).
Under him Tenasserim was invaded and Tavoy held for the last time by the Siamese in 1792, though in 1825, taking advantage of the Burmese difficulty with England, they bombarded some of the towns on that coast.
Bali, the ancient language of the kingdom of Magadha, in which the sacred writings of Buddhism were made, was largely instrumental in forming all the languages of Further India, including Siamese - a fact which accounts for the numerous connecting links between the Mon, Burmese and Siamese languages of the present time, though these are of quite separate origin.
Tavoy, with the rest of Tenasserim, was handed over to the British at the end of the first Burmese war in 1824.
Wuntho was classed by the Burmese as a Shan state, but was never on the same footing as the true Shan states, and only escaped becoming an integral part of the Burmese empire through Burmese want of system.
Holiness is dangerous and may even involve degradation, as in the case of the Burmese para-gyoon or servitor of the pagoda who is by heredity for ever a slave and outcast, unclean of the unclean, with whom none may eat or intermarry, yet ever tending and keeping clean the shrine.
Linguistically, Tibetan is allied to the Burmese languages, and forms with the latter a family of the so-called Turano-Scythian stock called " Tibeto-Burman " (q.v.), the unity of which family was first recognized by Brian Hodgson in 1828, and indeed several of the dialects of Tibetan are still only known through the copious vocabularies collected by him.
Brjod (to speak), pronounced jod, is cognate to the Burmese pyauhtso, the Garo brot, &c. The word for " cowries " is gron- in written, rum- in spoken Tibetan, and grwa in written Burmese; slop (to learn), spoken lop, is slop in Melam.
The sound is out of proportion to the metal used, and is inferior to that of the Shan and Burmese gongs.
About the middle of the 18th century it was destroyed by Alompra; but it rose again, and was important enough to be the scene of fighting in both the first and second Burmese Wars.
The district was once a portion of the Talaing kingdom of Pegu, afterwards annexed to the Burmese empire in 1753, and has no history of its own.
During the second Burmese war, after Prome had been seized, the Burmese on the right bank of the Irrawaddy crossed the river and offered resistance to the British, but were completely routed.
Under Burmese rule Lashio was also the centre of authority for the northern Shan States, but the Burmese post in the valley was close to the Nam Yao, in an old Chinese fortified camp. The Lashio valley was formerly very populous; but a rebellion, started by the sawbwa of Hsenwi, about ten years before the British occupation, ruined it, and it is only slowly approaching the prosperity it formerly enjoyed; pop. (1901) 2565.
After the second Burmese War it was an important frontier station, but the troops were withdrawn in 1893.
The group of islands, Cheduba and others, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are occasionally active.
The remains of the former palace of the Burmese monarchs still survive in the centre of the town.
Upon this the Burmese, to the number of a thousand, rallied to his standard and marched with him upon Ava, which was recovered from the invaders before the close of 1 753.
Stretching south-eastwards from the delta of the Irrawaddy, a confused succession of little explored ranges separates the Burmese division of Tenasserim from the native kingdom of Siam.
Eastward from the Bengal delta, two alluvial plains stretch up between the hills which connect the Himalayan system with that of the Burmese peninsula.
Amongst the Burmese, however, silk still holds its own.
It is known in history by two prominent events, the first Burmese War and the capture of Bharatpur.
For some years past the north-east frontier had been disturbed by the restlessness of the Burmese.
Little military glory could be gained by beating the Burmese, who were formidable only from the pestilential character of their country.
His first care on arrival in India was to restore equilibrium to the finances, which were tottering under the burden imposed upon them by the Burmese War.
Thuggism was an abnormal First Burmese War.
The disaster in Afghanistan was quickly followed by the conquest of Sind, the two wars in the Punjab, the second Burmese War, and last of all the Mutiny.
Later in the same year (1885) occurred the third Burmese war.
Originally it was a mere fishing village, but when the British government in 1826 removed the restrictions on trade imposed by the Burmese, Akyab quickly grew into an important seat of maritime commerce.
This district passed into the hands of the British, together with the rest of Arakan division, at the close of the first Burmese war of 1825-1826.
The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan; but in 1782 the province was finally conquered by the Burmese, from which period until its cession to the British in 1826, under the treaty of Yandaboo, its history forms part of that of Burma.
The Arakanese are of Burmese origin, but separated from the parent stock by the Arakan Yoma mountains, and they have a dialect and customs of their own.
Though conquered by the Burmese, they have remained distinct from their conquerors.
There is a branch of the Bank of Bengal, and two newspapers are published - one in English and one in Burmese.
The older rocks are like those of Bengal, and the newer beds show no sign of either the Himalayan or the Burmese folding - on the top of the plateau they are nearly horizontal, but along the southern margin they are bent sharply downwards in a simple monoclinal fold.
The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.
The country, however, then formed part of the Burmese dominions.
They were the last conquerors of Assam before the Burmese, and they long preserved their ancient traditions, habits and institutions.
Indeed, although frequently overrun by Mussulman armies, and its western districts annexed to the Mahommedan vice-royalty of Bengal, the province maintained an uncertain independence till its invasion by the Burmese towards the end of the 18th century, and its final cession to the British in 1826.
Its condition encouraged the Burmese to depose the rajah, and to make Assam a dependency of Ava.
Hence arose the series of hostilities with Ava known in Indian history as the first Burmese War, on the termination of which by treaty in February 1826, Assam remained a British possession.
This river, called Nam Kong by the Shans, Thanlwin by the Burmese, Lu Kiang, or Nu Kiang, or Lu Tzu Kiang by the Chinese, is the longest river in Burma, and one of the wildest and most picturesque streams in the world.
It was opened to foreign trade by the Burmese Convention of 1897, but so far no advantage has been taken of the permission.
It lies close to the Burmese frontier and on the old trade route from Bhamo to Yunnan, but its importance as an outpost of the British Empire is political rather than commercial.
The principal event of his government was the first Burmese war of 1824, resulting in the cession of Arakan and Tenasserim to Great Britain.
It is represented by a number of local races, mostly of smaller size, such as the Burmese and Malay C. u.
The town was twice destroyed by the Burmese, once in 1555 and again in 1767, and from the date of the second destruction it ceased to be the capital of the country.
It fell before the British arms, in May 1852, during the second Burmese war.
Still unsatisfied, he next retired to the jungle of Uruvela, on the most northerly spur of the Vindhya range of mountains, and there for six years, attended by five faithful disciples, he gave himself up to the severest penance and self-torture, till his fame as an ascetic spread in all the country round about "like the sound," says the Burmese chronicle, "of a great bell hung in the canopy of the skies."
It is served by dug-outs, three in number in 1899, and capable of carrying about fifteen men on a trip. Formerly the trade was very considerable, and the Burmese had a customs station on the island, from which the place takes its name; but the rebellion in the great state of Theinni, and the southward movement of the Kachins, as well as the Mahommedan rebellion in Yunnan, diverted the caravans to the northern route to Bhamo, which is still chiefly followed.
Besides Burmese there are Zerbadis (the offspring of a Mahommedan with a Burman wife), Mahommedans, Hindus, Jews, Chinese, Shans and Manipuris (called Kathe), Kachins and Palaungs.
Educated at Winchester, he obtained a cadetship in the Bengal infantry in 1842, and served through the second Burmese War.
There Judson mastered Burmese, into which he translated part of the Gospels with his wife's help. In 1824 he removed to Ava, where during the war between the East India Company and Burma he was imprisoned for almost two years.
In 1833 he completed his translation of the Bible; in succeeding years he compiled a Burmese grammar, a Burmese dictionary, and a Pali dictionary.
She returned with him in 1846 to Burma, where the rest of his life was devoted largely to the rewriting of his Burmese dictionary.
The chiefs of the Myelat are known by the Burmese title of gwegunhmu, i.e.
Among these, the Burmese C. muntjac grandicornis is noteworthy on account of its large antlers.
The town was in ancient times the capital of the Shan state of Manmaw, later the seat of a Burmese governor.
The population in 1901 was 29,454, over two-thirds of whom were Shans and the remainder Taungthu, Burmese, Yangsek and Red Karens.
There are very fine orange groves a few miles south of the town at Kantu-awn, called Kadugate by the Burmese.
The city is dominated by the great golden pile of the Shwe Dagon pagoda, the centre of Burmese religious life.
Moreover, benefactions to this pagoda are one of the favourite methods of acquiring religious merit among the Burmese.
Though traditionally a site of great sanctity, Rangoon owes its first importance to its rebuilding in 1753 by Alompra, the founder of the Burmese monarchy, who gave it the present name of Yan Kon, "the end of the war."
On the outbreak of the first Burmese War, in 1824, it was taken by the British, but subsequently restored.
Some were occupied by POWs and others by Burmese coolies.
The Burmese military has been conducting ethnic cleansing against the Karen and other minorities in Burma.
The firm has withdrawn all three products in its Neptune Burmese teak garden furniture range.
The winner was Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese pro-democracy campaigner and noble peace prizewinner.
The Reticulated python can reach a maximum length of over 30 feet; the Burmese python can reach lengths up to 20 feet.
I ordered some Burmese teak to make a replacement center plate case capping and it was delivered within a week of placing the order.
The great majority of the population is pure Burmese, but in the hills there are a good many Danus, a cross between Shans and Burmese.
It has a population (1901) of 5420, mostly Burmese, with a colony of Indian traders.
Another peculiarity of Malay (and likewise of Chinese, Shan, Talaing, Burmese and Siamese) is the use of certain classwords or coefficients with numerals, such as orang (man),when speaking of persons, ekor (tail) of animals, keping (piece) of flat things, biji (seed) of roundish things; e.g.
The Burmese are really as devoted to demonolatry as the hill-tribes who are labelled plain spiritworshippers.
In the beginning of 1855 he sent a mission of compliment to Lord Dalhousie, the governorgeneral; and in the summer of the same year Major (afterwards Sir Arthur) Phayre, de facto governor of the new province of Pegu, was appointed envoy to the Burmese court.
On the 14th of November 1885 the British field force crossed the frontier, and advanced to Mandalay without incurring any serious resistance (see Burmese Wars).
On its occupation by the British in1824-1825it was found to be almost depopulated - the result of border warfare and of the cruelties exercised by the Burmese conquerors.
Spra or spreu (a monkey), now altered into deu at Lhasa, teu in Lahul, Spiti and Tsang, is still more recognizable in the Gyarung shepri and in the following degenerated forms - shreu in Ladak, streu-go in Khams and in cognate languages, soba in Limbu, saheu in Lepcha, simai in Tablung Naga, sibeh in Abor Miri, shibe in Sibsagar Miri, sarrha in Kol, sara in Kuri, &c. Grog-ma (ant), now altered into the spoken t'oma, is still kyoma in Bhutan, and, without the suffix, korok in Gyarung, k'oro- in Sokpa, k'orok, k'alek in Kiranti, &c. Grang-po- (cold), spoken t' ammo, is still grang-mo in Takpa, k'yam in Burmese, &c. A respectful word for " head " is ii, written dbu, which finds its cognates in Murmi thobo, Sibsagar Miri tub, &c. Bya (bird), spoken cha, is still pye in Gyarung.
A regular service of steamers carries oil in bulk from Rangoon to Calcutta, and now Burmese oil competes with the Russian product, which had already driven the dearer American oil from the market (see Burma).
I ordered some Burmese Teak to make a replacement center plate case capping and it was delivered within a week of placing the order.
They provided a 100-page report of carefully documented examples of human rights violations committed by Burmese military over the past twelve months alone.
Burmese have personalities that are quite similar to dogs.
A Burmese is very interested in everything you do, and wants to live hand-in-paw with you.
The crossbreeding of Siamese cats led to many breeds including Tonkinese, Himalayan, Burmese and Balinese.
He spent less than a year there, then quit and moved overseas where he snuck into Burma to report on students who were fighting with the Burmese government.
Instead they ask me if I want some Burmese Rain forest mixture or some leaves pressed by cloistered nuns in Nepal.
They subsequently hid among the Pulau Sambilan near the mouth of the Perak river, and thence captured a large Portuguese vessel which was sailing from Malacca in company with two Burmese ships.
The general character of the forests is Burmese with an admixture of Malay types.
The Burmese amber is yellow or reddish, some being of ruby tint, and like the Sicilian amber it is fluorescent.
Woodthorpe was followed into Burmese fields by many others; and amongst the earliest travellers to those mysterious mountains which hide the sources of the Irrawaddy, the Salween and the Mekong, was Prince Henri d'Orleans Burma was rapidly brought under survey; Siam was already in the 'mapmaking hands of James M'Carthy, whilst Curzon and Warrington Smyth added much to our knowledge of its picturesque coast districts.