Burma sentence example

burma
  • In India elephants seldom breed in captivity, though they do so more frequently in Burma and Siam; the domesticated stock is therefore replenished by fresh captures.
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  • Others have been constructed since the annexation of Upper Burma.
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  • The custom is vouched for by travellers as still observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal chosen being a pig or a fowl.
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  • In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.
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  • It is now generally admitted, however, that, though hot, it compares favourably with that of Burma.
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  • Instead, we find the Sakai occupying this position, thus indicating that they have been driven northward by the Malays, and that the latter people has not been expelled by the Mon-Khmer races from the countries now represented by Burma, Siam and French Indo-China.
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  • We may conclude that these books are still extant in Burma, where the catalogue was drawn up. Two only of these ten authors are otherwise known.
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  • They have beer_ preserved for us by the unbroken succession of Pali scholars in Ceylon and Burma.
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  • The Pali books written in Ceylon, Burma and Siam will be our best and oldest, and in many respects our only, authorities for the sociology and politics, the literature and the religion, of their respective countries.
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  • Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese.
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  • The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race.
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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
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  • They are placed on a line joining the north end of Sumatra and Cape Negrais, the south-western extremity of Burma.
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  • Captain William Gill, of the Indian survey, first made his way across China to eastern Tibet and Burma, and subsequently delighted the world with his story of the River of Golden Sand.
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  • Meanwhile, the acquisition of Burma and the demarcation of boundaries had opened the way to the extension of geographical surveys in directions hitherto untraversed.
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  • Woodthorpe was followed into Burmese fields by many others; and amongst the earliest travellers to those mysterious mountains which hide the sources of the Irrawaddy, the Salween and the Mekong, was Prince Henri d'Orleans Burma was rapidly brought under survey; Siam was already in the 'mapmaking hands of James M'Carthy, whilst Curzon and Warrington Smyth added much to our knowledge of its picturesque coast districts.
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  • Farther east no part of Asia has been brought under more careful investigation than the hydrography of the strange mountain wilderness that divides Tibet and Burma from China.
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  • Burma In this field the researches of travellers already menand Chin a.
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  • From the water-divide which separates the most eastern affluent of the Brahmaputra, eastwards to the deep gorges which enclose the most westerly branch of the upper Yang-tsze-kiang (here running from north to south), is a short space of loo m.; and within that space two mighty rivers, the Salween and the Mekong, send down their torrents to Burma and Siam.
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  • The Mekong river which limits British interests in Burma limits also those Boundary of France in Tongking.
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  • Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
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  • In Burma also there is at least one extinct volcano.
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  • It is found in greatest perfection in the forests of the west coasts of Burma and the Indian peninsula, where the rainfall is heaviest, growing to a height of too or 150 ft., mixed with other trees and bamboos.
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  • From the river Sutlej and the borders of the Sind desert, as far as Burma and to Ceylon, the religion of the great bulk of the people of India is Hindu or Brahminical, though the Mahommedans are often numerous, and in some places even in a majority.
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  • In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
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  • According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
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  • Pali, though only a form of Hindu literature, has a separate history, for it died in India and was preserved in Ceylon, whence it was imported to Burma and Siam as the language of religion.
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  • Another category of European possessions in Asia comprises those acquired towards the end of the 19th century, such as Indo-China (France), Burma and Wei-Hai-Wei (Britain), and Kiao-Chow (Germany).
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  • It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Burma.
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  • In '724 Hermann Boernaave referred to the oleum terrae of Burma, and "Barbados tar" was then well known as a medicinal agent.
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  • In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.
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  • Similarly, Burma, where the Burmah Oil Company have, since 1890, rapidly extended their operations, is rising to a position of importance.
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  • The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
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  • The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
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  • Thus, in Upper Burma, it was conveyed in earthenware vessels from the wells to the river bank, where it was poured into the holds of boats.
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  • But besides an immense resort to Benares of poor pilgrims from every part of India, as well as from Tibet and Burma, numbers of rich Hindus in the decline of life go there for religious salvation.
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  • Now the Kachins are on both sides of the border of Upper Burma, and are a force to be reckoned with by frontier administrators.
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  • Gayal are kept by the natives of the hill-districts of Assam and parts of Tenasserim and Upper Burma.
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  • It is the great boat-building centre of Upper Burma.
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  • The gaur, which extends into Burma and the Malay Peninsula, where it is known as seladang, is the typical representative of an Indo-Malay group of wild cattle characterized by the presence of a ridge on the withers, the compressed horns, and the white legs.
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  • The Patkoi border the plains of Upper Assam to the south-east, and across these hills lies the most reasonable probability of railway extension to Burma.
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  • Among these are species of Willughbeia and Leuconotis, from which much of the rubber exported from Borneo is derived; Parameria glandulifera, common in Siam and Borneo, and Urceola esculenta and Cryptostegia grandiflora, both common in Burma.
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  • It is a native of India, Burma and the Malay Archipel ago, and is most abundant in those regions in which the climate is distinctly humid, and subject to this condition the tree flourishes at high altitudes.
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  • In Assam and in upper Burma there are extensive forests of Ficus elastica, but to a large extent the trees have been damaged by careless tapping.
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  • Among other shrubs and vines which yield rubber of fair quality may be mentioned Willughbeia edulis and Urceola elastica and Parameria glandulifera, which occur in Burma and Malaya.
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  • In Burma the species is represented by the tsaine, or h'saine, in which the colour of the adult bulls is rufous fawn.
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  • The name Lao, which appears to mean simply "man," is the collective Siamese term for all the Thai peoples subject to Siam, while Shan, said to be of Chinese origin, is the collective Burmese term for those subject to Burma.
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  • Its use was obviously continued by the Buddhists during the prevalence of their religion in India, for it is still used by them in Nepal, Tibet, Ceylon, Burma, China and Japan.
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  • It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.
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  • To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from it by the Arakan Yomas, lies the main body of Burma in the basin of the Irrawaddy.
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  • The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes thewhole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the Southern Shan States.
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  • The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown.
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  • Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges.
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  • Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 f t., but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano, a landmark and an object of superstitious folklore, throughout the whole of Central Burma.
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  • Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains, resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma.
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  • Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.
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  • It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.
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  • South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to begin.
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  • The Gyaing and the Attaran rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma.
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  • The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter physique of the people of the lower province as compared with the inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where there is a great infusion of other types of the TibetoBurman family.
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  • In the extreme north of Upper Burma the rainfall is rather less than in the country adjoining Rangoon, and in the dry zone the annual average falls as low as 20 and 30 in.
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  • The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known.
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  • Volcanic rocks are not common in any part of Burma, but about 50 m.
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  • The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
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  • The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'
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  • Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase during the decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8%.
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  • England and Wales have a population more than twelve times as dense as that of Burma, so there is still room for expansion.
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  • The chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens (717,859), Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings (321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills.
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  • Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese.
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  • The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.
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  • The Maha Yazawin or " Royal Chronicle," forms the great historical work of Burma.
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  • After the Second Burmese War no record was ever made in the Yazawin that Pegu had been torn away from Burma by the British.
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  • Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.
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  • There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.
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  • The education department is under a director of public instruction, and there are three circles - eastern, western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of schools.
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  • The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator, with twenty-one deputy conservators.
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  • There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma.
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  • Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.
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  • In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.
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  • In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.
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  • The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.
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  • The Chin hills were not declared an integral part of Burma until 1895, but they now form a scheduled district.
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  • The forms of Christianity which make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and Roman Catholic faiths.
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  • Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of the countries of Europe, Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those able to both read and write.
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  • Taking the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India.
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  • It was not till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma.
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  • There are three circles - Eastern, Central and Upper Burma.
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  • In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.
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  • The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.
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  • In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.
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  • In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds.
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  • The expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870-1871 was Rs.49,70,020.
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  • In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.
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  • In 1886-1887, the year after the annexation, the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twentytwo lakhs of rupees.
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  • Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890.
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  • The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.
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  • Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army, consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general.
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  • Of the native regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police.
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  • These regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma.
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  • The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port Defence Volunteers, comprising artillery, naval, and engineer corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles.
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  • In its three chief mineral products, earthoil, coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more.
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  • The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.
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  • The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.
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  • The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.
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  • The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.
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  • Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture.
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  • The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or cable system, and the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important.
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  • Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw.
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  • The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma.
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  • The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.
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  • In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable.
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  • In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.
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  • Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.
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  • At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.
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  • On the whole the people of Burma are prosperous and contented.
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  • The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding, and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma.
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  • In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.
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  • In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.
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  • The work of the forest department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891.
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  • At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.
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  • Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907.
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  • The total number of persons engaged in the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901 was 419,007.
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  • The chief dyeproduct of Burma is cutch, a brown dye obtained from the wood of the sha tree.
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  • Cutch-boiling forms the chief means of livelihood of a large number of the poorer classes in the Prome and Thayetmyo districts of Lower Burma, and a subsidiary means of subsistence elsewhere.
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  • The chief arts of Burma are wood-carving and silver work.
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  • The chief articles of export from Burma are rice and timber.
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  • England takes by far the greatest share of Burma's rice, though large quantities are also consumed in Germany, while France, Italy, Belgium and Holland also consume a considerable amount.
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  • The length of roads has not greatly increased in Lower Burma, but there has been a great deal of road constuction in Upper Burma.
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  • Since the annexation of Upper Burma this has been extended to Mandalay, and the Mu Valley railway has been constructed from Sagaing to Myitkyina, a distance of 752 m.
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  • The total length of lines open in 1904-1905 was 1340 m., but railway communication in Burma is still very incomplete.
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  • Arakan is in the worst position of all, for it is connected with Burma by neither railway nor river, nor even by a metalled road, and the only way to reach Akyab from Rangoon is once a week by sea.
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  • The British government has administered the law in Burma on principles identical with those which have been adopted elsewhere in the British dominions in India.
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  • Acts of the British parliament relating to India generally would be applicable to Burma, whether passed before or after its annexation, these acts being considered applicable to all the dominions of the crown in India.
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  • As regards the acts of the governorgeneral in council passed for India generally - they, too, were from the first applicable to Lower Burma; and they have all been declared applicable to Upper Burma also by the Burma Laws Act of 1898.
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  • That portion of the English law which has been introduced into India without legislation, and all the rules of law resting upon the authority of the courts, are made applicable to Burma by the same act.
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  • But consistently with the practice which has always prevailed in India, there is a large field of law in Burma which the British government has not attempted to disturb.
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  • It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
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  • The whole of the law administered now in Burma rests ultimately upon statutory authority; and all the Indian acts relating to Burma, whether of the governor-general or the lieutenant-governor of Burma in council, will be found in the Burma Code (Calcutta, 1899), and in the supplements to that volume which are published from time to time at Rangoon.
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  • It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
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  • After that the empire fell to a low ebb, and Central Burma was often subject to Shan dynasties.
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  • No treaty was obtained or insisted upon, - the British government being content with the tacit acquiescence of the king of Burma without such documents; but its resolution was declared, that any active demonstration of hostility by him would be followed by retribution.
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  • In that year the province of British Burma, the present Lower Burma, was formed,with Sir Arthur Phayre as chief commissioner.
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  • The Burmese court, in contravention of the express terms of the treaty of 1869, created monopolies to the detriment of the trade of both England and Burma; and while the Indian government was unrepresented at Mandalay, representatives of Italy and France were welcomed, and two separate embassies were sent to Europe for the purpose of contracting new and, if possible, close alliances with sundry European powers.
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  • Upper Burma was formally annexed on the 1st of January 1886, and the work of restoring the country to order and introducing settled government commenced.
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  • By the close of 1889 all the larger bands of marauders were broken up, and since 1890 the country has enjoyed greater freedom from violent crime than the province formerly known as British Burma.
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  • By the Upper Burma Village Regulations and the Lower Burma Village Act, the villagers themselves were made responsible for maintaining order in every village, and the system has worked with the greatest success.
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  • With good harvests and good markets the standard of living in Burma has much improved.
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  • Scott O'Connor, The Silken East (London, 1904); Talbot Kelly, Burma (London, 1905); an exhaustive account of the administration is contained in Dr Alleyne Ireland's The Province of Burma, Report prepared on behalf of the university of Chicago (Boston, U.S.A., 2 vols., 1907).
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  • Cheroots come principally from Manila, but there are now large quantities imported into the United Kingdom from the East Indies and Burma.
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  • The road from Yun-nan Fu to Bhamo in Burma via Ta-li Fu (12 days), Teng-yueh Chow or Momein (8 days) and Manwyne - beyond Ta-li Fu it is a difficult mountain route.
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  • This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • In Burma the quarterly Buddhism appeared in 1904.
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  • For picturesque beauty Ava is unequalled in Burma, but it is now more like a park than the site of an old capital.
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  • The species of Bungarus, four in number, are extremely common in India, Burma, and Ceylon, and are distinguished by having only one row of undivided sub-caudal shields.
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  • On the other hand, in Merycopotamus, of the Lower Pliocene of India and Burma, the upper molars have lost the fifth intermediate cusp of Ancodon; and thus, although highly selenodont, might be easily modified, by a kind of retrograde development, into the trefoil-columned molars of Hippopotamus.
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  • After passing the mangrove limits, the ground to the east gradually rises till it becomes mountainous, even to the banks of the rivers, and finally culminates in the grand natural barrier dividing Burma from Siam.
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  • Its ridge is the boundary between central Siam and Burma.
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  • In its flora and fauna Siam combines the forms of Burma and the Shan States with those of Malaya, farther south, and of Cambodia to the south-east.
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  • Most of the so-called Burma teak exported from Moulmein is floated down from Siamese territory.
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  • The country is rich in birds, a large number of which appear to be common to Burma and Cambodia.
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  • They are mere offshoots from the main tribes which inhabit the Burma side of the boundary range, and are supposed by some to be of Burmo-Tibetan origin.
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  • The Siamese, as southern Buddhists, pride themselves on their orthodoxy; and since Burma, like Ceylon, has lost its independence, the king is regarded in the light of the sole surviving defender of the faith.
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  • As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
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  • For centuries she had been distracted by wars with Cambodians, Peguans and Burmans, but the incorporation of Lower Cochin China, Annam and Tongking by the French, and the annexation of Lower and Upper Burma successively by the British, freed her from all further danger on the part of her old rivals.
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  • The frontier between Siam and the new British possessions in Burma was settled amicably and without difficulty, but the; boundary question on the east was a much more intricate one and was still outstanding.
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  • It carries on a considerable coasting trade with other ports of Burma, and with the Straits Settlements.
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  • Before the rebellion Yun-nan Fu had a prosperous aspect; the shops were large and well supplied with native silken goods, saddlery, &c., while English cotton, Russian cloths and raw cotton from Burma constituted the main foreign merchandise.
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  • The construction of a British railway to connect Burma with Yun-nan Fu and onwards to the Yangtsze-kiang has been in contemplation.
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  • Pseudopus, the glass-snake, from Morocco and the Balkan peninsula to Burma and Fokien; also in the U.S.A., with the limbs reduced to a pair of tiny spikes near the vent, and a lateral fold along the snake-like body.
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  • America, and ranges to China and Burma in winter.
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  • When the British annexed Upper Burma in 1885 the state became a refuge for rebels and dacoit leaders.
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  • The zone between Burma and Siam, established by an agreement between Great Britain and France dated the 15th of January 1896, declared " the portion of Siam which is comprised within the drainage basin of the Menam, and of the coast streams of a corresponding longitude," neutral as between them.
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  • The work in China began in 1851; the Burma mission was established in 1887.
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  • It was formerly a capital of Burma.
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  • Slaving raids far into the Shan states brought on invasions from Burma, which, however, were not very successful.
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  • Numbers have enlisted in the Burma police, but there are various opinions as to their value.
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  • The government census for India and Burma (1901) gives a Christian population of 2,923,241 (native Christians 2,664,313) out of a total population of 294,361,056, or about 3%.
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  • In Burma the American Baptists, whose work began with Adoniram Judson in 1813, are conspicuous, and have had marked success among the Karens or peasant class, where the pioneer was George Dana Boardman (1827).
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  • The forests comprise almost every variety of timber found in Burma.
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  • Of humble origin, he had risen to be chief of his native village when the invasion of Burma by the king of Pegu in 1752 gave him the opportunity of attaining to the highest distinction.
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  • In 1754 the Peguans, to avenge themselves for a severe defeat at Keoum-nuoum, slew the king of Burma, who was their prisoner.
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  • The missionaries were sent to Kashmir, to the Himalayas, to the border lands on the Indus, to the coast of Burma, to south India and to Ceylon.
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  • It was thus as large as, or perhaps somewhat larger than, British India before the conquest of Burma.
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  • In Upper Burma three productive irrigation works were planned at the opening of the century - the Mandalay, the Shwebo, and the Mon canals, of which the first was estimated to cost -Rx.323,280, and to irrigate 72,000 acres.
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  • The area estimated from the whole three projects is 262,000 acres, situated in the only part of Burma that is considered liable to famine.
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  • Teak (Tectona grandis) is a native of southern India and Burma.
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  • Though not entirely free from malaria, it has been chosen for the summer residence of the lieutenant-governor; and it is also the permanent headquarters of the lieutenant-general commanding the Burma division, and of other officials.
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  • The whole Indian empire, including Burma, has an area of 1,766,000 sq.
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  • To this compact dominion the British have added Burma, the strip of country on the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal.
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  • But if we could look down on the whole from a balloon, we should find that India (apart from Burma, for which see the separate article) consists of three separate and well-defined tracts.
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  • On the north-east, those offshoots, under the name of the Naga and Patkoi mountains, &c., form a barrier between the civilized districts of Assam and the wild tribes of Upper Burma.
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  • In Lower Burma the western face of the Arakan Yoma hills, like that of the Western Ghats in India, is exposed to the full force of the south-western monsoon, and receives a very heavy rainfall.
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  • The wild dog, or dhole (Cyon), is found in all the wilder jungles of India, including Assam and Lower Burma.
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  • A peculiar variety of wild dog exists in the Karen hills of Burma, thus described from a specimen in confinement.
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  • The main source of supply at the present time is the confused mass of hills which forms the north-east boundary of British India, from Assam to Burma.
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  • The sarau (Nemorhaedus bubalinus), allied to the chamois, has a wide range in the mountains of the north, from the Himalayas to Assam and Burma.
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  • The finest specimens come from Assam and Burma.
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  • The pheasant does not occur in India Proper, though a white variety is found in Burma.
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  • In Burma the favourite relish of nga-pi is prepared from fish; and at Goalanda, at the junction of the Brahmaputra with the Ganges, and along the Madras coast many establishments exist for salting fish in bond.
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  • Political Divisions India (including Burma) has a total area of 1,766,597 sq.
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  • These thirteen provinces or local governments are Ajmer-Merwara, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, British Baluchistan, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Provinces prescribing the conditions and degree of social intercourse permitted between the several castes.
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  • Of the 9,476,759 enumerated in the census of 1901 all but some three hundred thousand were in Burma.
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  • The greater part of the remainder are found in Bengal on the borders of Burma, on the borders of Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan, and in the Spiti, Lahul and Kanawar districts of the Punjab Himalayas, where many of the inhabitants are of Tibetan origin.
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  • The Mon-Khmer family, which is most numerous in Indo-China, is here represented by the Talaings of southern Burma and the Khasis of Assam.
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  • Even at the present day knowledge of reading and writing is, owing to the teaching of Buddhist monks, as widely diffused throughout Burma as it is in some countries of Europe.
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  • Next follow the five lieutenantgovernorships of Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, for each of which a council may be appointed, beginning with Bengal.
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  • The chief nonregulation provinces are the Punjab, Central Provinces and Burma; but non-regulation districts are also to be found in Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and Sind.
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  • The township is peculiar to Burma.
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  • The Of the other provinces the Punjab and Lower Burma Judici Servicale.
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  • The entire force, British and native, is now subdivided into a Northern and a Southern Army, with Burma as an independent command attached to the latter.
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  • In addition, the reserve of the native army numbered 34,846 men, the volunteers 34,962, the frontier militia (including the Khyber Rifles) about 6000, the levies (chiefly in Baluchistan) about 6000, and the military police (chiefly in Burma) about 22,000.
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  • In addition, the village watchmen or chaukidars, a primitive institution paid from local sources but to some extent incorporated in the general system, aggregated about 700,000; while a special force of military police, numbering about 20,000 under officers seconded from the army, is maintained along the frontier, more especially in Burma.
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  • The germs of rival systems can be traced in the old military and other service tenures of Assam, and in the poll tax of Burma, &c. The exclusive development of the land system is due to two conditions, - a comparatively high state of agriculture and an organized plan of administration, - both of which are supplied by the primitive village community.
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  • The rice crop is most important in Burma, Bengal and Madras, and there is an average of 20 million acres under rice in the other provinces of British India.
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  • In Burma, where the large waste area is being gradually brought under cultivation, there has been an almost uninterrupted increase in the area of the rice crop, and the rice export is one of the main industries of the province.
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  • In ordinary years most of this rice goes either to Europe or to the Farther East; but in famine seasons a large part is diverted to peninsular India, and Burma is the most important of the outside sources from which the deficient crops are supplemented.
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  • Bengal and the United Provinces are at present the chief sources of supply for the foreign demand, but gingelly is largely exported from Madras, and, to a smaller extent, from Burma.
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  • The cultivation of coffee is confined to southern India, though attempts have been made to introduce the plant both into Lower Burma and into the Eastern Bengal district of Chittagong.
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  • A large part of the reserved forests, where the control of the forest department is most complete, consists of valuable timber, in which the first place is held by teak, found at its best in Burma, especially in the upper division, and on the south-west coast of India, in Kanara and Malabar.
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  • In the Himalayas themselves the deodar and other conifers form the bulk of the timber, while in the lower ranges, such as the Khasi hills in Assam, and those of Burma, various pines are prominent.
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  • In the north-east of Assam and in the north of Upper Burma the Ficus elastica, a species of india-rubber tree, is found.
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  • A valuable tree, known as the padouk, is at present restricted almost entirely to the Andaman Islands, with a scattering in Lower Burma.
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  • About half of this quantity comes from the forests of Burma, where large amounts of teak and other woods are annually extracted, chiefly through the agency of private firms. It is, however, only the more valuable of the woods, such as teak, sandal-wood, ebony and the like, which find a market abroad.
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  • There is a large trade in wood-carving, the material being generally Indian ebony in northern India, sandal-wood in southern India, and teak in Burma and elsewhere.
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  • Putting aside salt, which has been already treated, the chief mining resources of India at the present day are the coal mines, the gold mines, the petroleum oil-fields, the ruby mines, manganese deposits, mica mines in Bengal, and the tin ores and jade of Burma.
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  • An uncertain but unimportant amount is annually procured by sand-washing in various tracts of northern India and Burma; and there have been many attempts, including the great boom of 1880, to work mines in the Wynaad district of the Madras Presidency.
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  • The great oilfields of the Indian empire are in Burma, which supplies 98% of the total output.
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  • There are also valuable deposits of manganese in the Central Provinces and, it is believed, in Burma.
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  • In Madras also a mica industry has recently grown up. Tin is found in the Tavoy and Mergui districts of Lower Burma, and has for many years been worked in an unprogressive manner chiefly by Chinese labour.
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  • At the present day the only important industries are the rubies and jade of Burma.
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  • It is supposed that sea-going merchants, mostly Dravidians, and not Aryans, availing themselves of the monsoons, traded in the 7th century B.C. from the south-west ports of India to Babylon, and that there they became acquainted with a Semitic alphabet, which they brought back with them, and from which all the alphabets now used in India, Burma, Siam and Ceylon have been gradually evolved.
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  • Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.
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  • The successors of Alompra, after having subjugated all Burma, and overrun Assam, which was then an independent kingdom, began a series of encroachments upon British territory in Bengal.
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  • Though professedly a man of peace, he was compelled to fight two wars, in the Punjab and in Burma.
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  • Lower Burma prospered under their rule scarcely less than the Punjab.
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  • For the causes of the dispute with King Thebaw, and a description of the military operations which ensued before the country was finally pacified, see Burma.
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  • It was formerly in the Irrawaddy division of Lower Burma, but was transferred to Upper Burma for administrative purposes in 1896.
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  • During the first forty years of British rule it increased from a village to a town of 1 5,53 6 inhabitants, and now it is the third port of Burma, with a population in 1901 of 31,687.
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  • It forms the northernmost district of Lower Burma, and consists of the level tract lying between the sea and the Arakan Yoma mountains, and of the broken country formed by a portion of their western spurs and valleys.
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  • There are several passes over the Yoma mountains, the easiest being that called the Aeng route, leading from the village of that name into Upper Burma.
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  • The Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakan; but in 1782 the province was finally conquered by the Burmese, from which period until its cession to the British in 1826, under the treaty of Yandaboo, its history forms part of that of Burma.
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  • The Maghs, who form nearly the whole population of the province, follow the Buddhist doctrines, which are universally professed throughout Burma.
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  • Touching the coast of Arakan or Burma, he reached Sumatra in forty days, and was provided with a junk for China by Malik al Dhahir, a zealous disciple of Islam, which had recently spread among the states on the northern coast of that island.
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  • The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.
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  • A large proportion of them derive their origin from tribes who came from the Himalayan ranges, from Burma or from the Chinese frontier.
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  • The most important of these are the Ahoms or Ahams, an offshoot of the Shan race of northern Burma.
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  • The Singphos are another of the main population of the same race, who occupy in force the hilly country between the Patkai and Chindwin rivers, and are nominally subject to Burma.
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  • In the early part of the 113th century the Ahoms or Ahams, from northern Burma and the Chinese frontiers, poured into the eastern districts of Assam, founded a kingdom, and held it firmly for several centuries.
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  • The lacquer ware of Nyaung-u and other villages near Pagan is noted throughout Burma.
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  • A cotton-pressing machine was erected here in the time of independent Burma, and still exists.
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  • The District Of Chittagong is situated at the north-east corner of the province, occupying a strip of coast and hills between the sea and the mountains of Burma.
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  • Baluchistan as a whole is a sparsely populated tract covering a larger area than any Indian province save Burma, Madras and Bengal.
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  • This river, called Nam Kong by the Shans, Thanlwin by the Burmese, Lu Kiang, or Nu Kiang, or Lu Tzu Kiang by the Chinese, is the longest river in Burma, and one of the wildest and most picturesque streams in the world.
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  • Launches ply regularly from Moulmein to the mouth of the Yonzalin, in Lower Burma.
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  • The Chinese believe the Salween valley to be deadly to all strangers, but it is in Chinese territory - particularly in the Lu Kiang, or Mong Hko state - that there is the largest population on the river until Lower Burma is reached.
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  • The sale and use of morphine in India and Burma is now restricted.
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  • The quantity of morphine that any one may legally possess, and then only for medicinal purposes, is in India 10 grams, and in Burma five.
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  • The cultivation of the poppy is also carried on in Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal and the Shan states of Burma, but the areas and production are not known.
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  • Finally, we have the thamin, or Eld's deer, C. (R.) eldi, ranging from Burma to Siam, and characterized by the continuous curve formed by the beam and the brow-tine of the antlers.
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  • In 1824 the 47th Bengal infantry refused to march when it was ordered for service in Burma, and after being decimated by British artillery was struck out of the army list.
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  • Canning sent at once for more British troops from Burma.
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  • Adding these two together, the date of the Buddha's death would be 488 B.C., and, as he was eighty years old at the time of his death, the date of his birth would be 568 B.C. The dates for his death and birth accepted in Burma, Siam and Ceylon are about half a century earlier, namely, 543 and 623 B.C., the difference being in the date of Asoka's accession.
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  • In Africa; the advance of the red line which marks the bounds of British dominion was even more rapid; while in India the Punjab, Sind, Oudh and Burma were some of the acquisitions added to the British empire while the queen was on the throne.
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  • The garrison consists of a brigade belonging to the Burma command of the Indian army.
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  • His appointment to Burma followed, and in 1812, accompanied by his wife, Ann Hasseltine Judson (1789-1826), he went to Calcutta.
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  • There Judson mastered Burmese, into which he translated part of the Gospels with his wife's help. In 1824 he removed to Ava, where during the war between the East India Company and Burma he was imprisoned for almost two years.
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  • She returned with him in 1846 to Burma, where the rest of his life was devoted largely to the rewriting of his Burmese dictionary.
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  • In - the Indian muntjac the height of the buck is from 20 to 22 in.; allied types, some of which have received distinct names, occur in Burma and the Malay Peninsula and Islands.
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  • It is now the headquarters of a district in the Mandalay division of Upper Burma (Chinese frontier).
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  • Rangoon is the headquarters of a brigade in the Burma command of the Southern army.
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  • Upper Burma was formally annexed on the 1st of January 1886.
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  • In Burma and Nigeria today, civil resistance offers the one slim hope of avoiding all-out civil war and new killing fields.
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  • Burma now called Myanmar is situated in south eastern Asia.
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  • The Burmese military has been conducting ethnic cleansing against the Karen and other minorities in Burma.
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  • Horton argues that there is a strong case to be made for charging Burma's regime with genocide or at least attempted genocide.
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  • It was William's great-great niece, Edwina Ashley, who married Lord Mountbatten of Burma.
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  • Japan's advance through the Pacific and into Burma transformed Indian politics.
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  • Burma is one of the most repressive regimes in the world.
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  • Even when riven by war, Burma was intensely seductive, a country of magic.
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  • The slippage occurred along 750 miles of the line where the Indian plate slides under the Burma plate, a process called subduction.
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  • We can't go to Burma and capture warlords there.
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  • It is an important railway centre, containing the principal workshops of the Burma railway company, also a government engineering school, a reformatory school and the largest gaol in the province.
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  • He first defined the geography of Tsaidam, and mapped the hydrography of that remarkable region, from which emanate the great rivers of China, Siam and Burma.
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  • This is an appropriate name for Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Annam, &c., for both in position and in civilization they lie between India and China.
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  • In the Shan States there are a few open plateaus, fertile and well populated, and Maymyo in the Mandalay district, the hill-station to which in the hot weather the government of Burma migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin plateauYsome 3500 ft.
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  • The forests of Burma, therefore, are now strictly preserved by the government, and there is a regular forest department for the conservation and cutting of timber, the planting of young trees for future generations, the prevention of forest fires, and for generally supervising their treatment by the natives.
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  • That portion of the law which is usually described as Anglo-Indian law (see Indian Law) is generally applicable to Burma, though there are certain districts inhabited by tribes in a backward state of civilization which are excepted from its operation.
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  • The Mindon prince, who had become apprehensive for his own safety, made him prisoner in February 1853, and was himself crowned king of Burma towards the end of the year.
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  • In Upper Burma sapphires occur in association with rubies, but are much less important (see Ruby).
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  • Of games the young Moors play a great number; the principal one is a kind of football, more like that of Siam and Burma than that of England; wrestling and fencing are popular, but the chief amusement of the adult Moors is the "powder-play" (la ` ab el bariid), which consists of a type of military tournament, the horsemen going through lance and musket exercises or charging in review fashion, firing volleys as they gallop. Other recreations much in favour throughout Morocco are music, singing, jugglery, snake-charming and acrobatic performances.
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  • A regular service of steamers carries oil in bulk from Rangoon to Calcutta, and now Burmese oil competes with the Russian product, which had already driven the dearer American oil from the market (see Burma).
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  • Last of all came Bahadur Shah, who atoned for his association with the mutineers in 1857 by banish ment to Burma.
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  • When there was a coup in Burma, now Myanmar, in 1988, they closed the universities.
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  • We ca n't go to Burma and capture warlords there.
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  • If you are are a beginner or an intermediate skier or snowboarder, or if you simply enjoy cruising, you will have lots of fun on Burma Road, Lazy Mile or Paradise.
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  • He spent less than a year there, then quit and moved overseas where he snuck into Burma to report on students who were fighting with the Burmese government.
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  • The name for rubies stems from the Latin word for red.One of the best known gem stones, discovered thousands of years ago, rubies are found primarily in Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, and Thailand.
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  • It's made by the Karen Hill Tribe in Burma.
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  • Trachoma is widespread and present in a high percentage of the population in many parts of Africa, Iraq, Afghanistan, Burma, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
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  • The Asiatic elephant inhabits the forest-lands of India, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Cochin China, Ceylon and Sumatra.
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  • In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.
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  • Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
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