Otto encouraged this revolution by placing the enclosures of the chief burghs beyond the jurisdiction of the counts.
The town is under the control of a provost, bailies and council, and, along with Hawick and Selkirk, forms the Hawick (or Border) group of parliamentary burghs.
The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
In this way, Qwing to the dislocation of the ancient aristocracy, to the enlarged jurisdiction,of a power so democratic as the episcopate, and to the increased privileges of the burghs, feudalism received a powerful check in Italy.
It is here, at the Heribert present epoch and for the next two centuries, that the and the pith and nerve of the Italian nation must be sought; Lombard and among the burghs of Lombardy, Milan, the eldest burghs.
It must not, however, be supposed that .at this epoch the liberties of the burghs were fully developed.
But by far tht greatest profit the Italians reaped was the emancipation of theh burghs.
Under their consuls the Italian burghs rose to a great height of prosperity and splendour.
Frederick immediately B~barossa determined to reassert the imperial rights in his and the southern provinces, and to check the warfare of the Lombard burghs.
Here, as upon neutral ground, the emperor met the pope, and a truce for six years was concluded with the Lombard burghs.
The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.
A network of party policy embraces and dominates the burghs of Italy, bringing the most distant centres into relation, and by the very division of the country augmenting the sense of nationality.
The contest being carried on by warfare, it followed that these captains in the burghs were chosen on account of military skill; and, since the nobles were men of arms by profession, members of ancient houses took the lead again in towns where they had been absorbed into the bourgeoisie.
The court consists of ministers and elders, elected from the presbyteries in specified proportions, and of commissioners from the four universities, the city of Edinburgh and the royal burghs.
Musselburgh joins with Leith and Portobello (the Leith Burghs) in returning one member to parliament.
Inverurie belongs to the Elgin district group of parliamentary burghs.
Forres is one of the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs, the other members being Nairn, Fortrose and Inverness.
Derby under Guthrum was one of the five Danish burghs, but in 917 was recovered by i thelfla d.
Kinghorn belongs 'to the Kirkcaldy district group of parliamentary burghs.
In 1818, soon after his marriage with Miss Burnley, the daughter of an East India director, he was returned to parliament as member for the Border burghs.
He was afterwards successively elected for Middlesex (1830), Kilkenny (1837) and for the Montrose burghs (1842), in the service of which constituency he died.
Hence, though the village of Canongate grew up beside the abbey of David I., and Edinburgh was a place of sufficient importance to be reckoned one of the four principal burghs as a judicatory for all commercial matters, nevertheless, even so late as 1450, when it became for the first time a walled town, it did not extend beyond the upper part of the ridge which slopes eastwards from the castle.
Beyond the walls lay the burghs of Calton, Easter and Wester Portsburgh, the villages of St Cuthbert's, Moutrie'sHill,Broughton,Canonmills, SilvermillsandDeanhaugh - all successively swallowed up in the extension of the modern city.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
conferred on the city various privileges relating to the holding of fairs and markets, and the levying of customs; and by a royal charter of 1452 he gave it pre-eminence over the other burghs.
With Burntisland and Kinghorn Dysart forms one of the Kirkcaldy district group of parliamentary burghs.
Kirkwall belongs to the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs, the others being Cromarty, Dingwall, Dornoch and Tain.
It comprises the royal and police burghs of Anstruther Easter (pop. 1190), Anstruther Wester (501) and Kilrenny (2542), and lies 9 m.
Dunbar used to form one of the Haddington district group of parliamentary burghs, but its constituency was merged in that of the county in 1885.
Having been elected M.P. for the Ayr burghs in 1818, he devoted the greater part of his life to the promotion of Liberal reforms. In 1820 he married the only daughter of Sir Samuel Romilly.
Maximilian was planning a journey into Italy in order to be crowned emperor at Rome, and was levying subsidies from the imperial burghs for his expenses.
In 1775 Port Glasgow was created a burgh of barony and since 1832 has formed one of the Kilmarnock parliamentary burghs (with Kilmarnock, Dumbarton, Renfrew and Rutherglen).
Bervie unites with Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar and Montrose in returning one member (for the "Montrose burghs") to parliament.
The town belongs to the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs.
In England the franchises enjoyed by burgesses, freemen and other consuetudinary constituencies in burghs, were dependent on the character of the burgagetenure.
On the return of the Whigs to power in 1830 he became lord advocate, and entered parliament as member for the Perth burghs.
Orkney unites with Shetland to send one member to parliament, and Kirkwall, the county town and the only royal burgh, is one of the Wick district groups of parliamentary burghs.
It forms one of the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs, with Dumbarton, Port-Glasgow, Renfrew and Kilmarnock.
After the murder of William de Burgh, 3rd earl of Ulster (1333), the Bourkes (de Burghs) of the collateral male line, rejecting the claim of William's heiress (the wife of Lionel, son of King Edward III.) to the succession, succeeded in holding the bulk of the De Burgh possessions, what is now Mayo falling to the branch known by the name of "MacWilliam Oughter," who maintained their virtual independence till the time of Elizabeth.
Through the favour of Lord Bute, he was returned to parliament for the Ayr burghs in 1761.
Peterhead is one of the Elgin district group of parliamentary burghs, with Banff, Cullen, Elgin, Inverurie and Kintore.
It unites with Airdrie, Falkirk, Lanark and Linlithgow to form the Falkirk district of burghs, which returns one member to parliament.
Nairn belongs to the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs (Forres, Fortrose, Inverness and Nairn).
With Stirling, Dunfermline, Culross and Queensferry, Inverkeithing returns one member to parliament (the Stirling district burghs).
With Ayr, Campbeltown, Inveraray and Irvine (the Ayr burghs), it unites to send one member to parliament.
Culross belongs to the Stirling district group of parliamentary burghs.
The burgh is one of the Dumfries district group of parliamentary burghs.
A celebrated beauty, a maid of honour and bridesmaid of Queen Victoria, she married, on the 10th of December 1843, Archibald, Lord Dalmeny (1809-1851), member for the Stirling Burghs, who became a lord of the adrriralty under Melbourne.
The burghs in which the largest proportion of Scottish-born persons lived in 1901 were Kirkcaldy (with 95'997 in every loo of its inhabitants), Aberdeen (with 94'997), Perth (with 94.44 2) and Kilmarnock (with 94.046).
In several burghs grammar schools have existed from a very early date, and some of them, such as the Royal High School of Edinburgh and the High School of Glasgow, reached a high standard of proficiency.
The committee exists also in a few of the largest burghs, the members being in this case appointed by the town council, school board, and sometimes the trustees of educational endowments.
The Roads and Bridges (Scotland) Act of 1878 entrusted the control of the roads to royal and police burghs and in the counties to road trustees, from whom it was transferred by the Local Government Act of 1889 to county councils, the management, however, being in the hands of district committees.
In the parliament of Great Britain its representation was fixed at sixteen peers elected in Holyrood Palace by the peers of Scotland at each new parliament in the House of Lords, and at forty-five members in the House of Commons, the counties returning thirty and the burghs fifteen.
By the Reform Act of 1832 the number of Scottish representatives in the Commons was raised to fifty-three, the counties under a slightly altered arrangement returning thirty members as before, and the burghs, reinforced by the erection of various towns into parliamentary burghs, twenty-three; the second Reform Act (1867) increased the number to sixty, the universities obtaining representation by two members, while two additional members were assigned to the counties and three to the burghs; by the Redistribution of Seats Act in 1885 an addition of seven members was made to the representation of the counties and five to that of the burghs, the total representation being raised to seventy-two.
Those created by charter directly from the crown were styled royal burghs: they number seventy in all, of which no fewer than seventeen belong to Fifeshire.
Those holding their charters from a feudal superior and not from the crown were called burghs of regality, their magistrates and council being usually appointed by the overlord or his representative.
Being small and unimportant, these burghs were not affected by the act of 1833, but in 1892 were required to adopt the constitution of police burghs.
Towns that received their charters from bishops were burghs of barony, their magistrates and council being appointed by the superior.
When the bishop's jurisdiction was abolished, the burghs as a rule assumed the position of royal burghs.
Police burghs are wholly modern, dating from the middle of the 19th century.
The principle on which they are established may be briefly stated thus: towns with a minimum population of Boo can, on a poll demanded by the ratepayers showing a majority in favour of it, acquire the status of a police burgh subject to representations from neighbouring burghs, a proviso devised to check the growth of " parasitic " burghs in the immediate vicinity of a great centre of population and industry, enjoying all the public improvements initiated by their powerful neighbour and yet contributing nothing towards the cost and upkeep of them.
It should be noted that, according to Scottish usage, police " includes drainage, the suppression of nuisances, paving, lighting and cleansing, in addition to the provision of a constabulary force, and that in point of fact, paradoxical as it appears, the bulk of the police burghs do not manage their police.
Royal burghs derive part of their income from ancient corporate property known as " the Common Good " and consisting mostly of land and houses.
overcrowding, the obnoxious display of advertisements, the compulsory acquisition of land for gas, water or electric-power enterprises, all the other burghs being governed by Public General Acts.
The corporation of the burghs consists of the provost (or lord provost, in the cases of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee), bailies and councillors, with certain permanent officials, of whom the town clerk is the most important.
In 1833 Scottish burghs were for the first time entitled to be governed by directly-elected bodies, and at various times since that date fuller powers of legal self-government were granted in different directions.
laws in the burghs.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
The burghs were not actually the creations of David and William the Lion, but the rights, duties and privileges which had gradually developed in the towns were in the time of these kings codified and confirmed by charters; the towns had magistrates of their own election, courts, and legalized open markets.
In addition to royal burghs, there were burghs of nobles and of bishops, and the provostship was apt to become, by custom, almost hereditary in a local noble family, which protected the burgesses.
In the matter of education, the monasteries had their schools, as had the parish churches, and there were high schools in the burghs, and " song-schools."
The representatives of the burghs were present: they made a grant of all tenths to the king during his life; while they covenanted with him that he should collect no other taxes and should exercise the privileges of prisiae et cariagia with moderation.
The town is under the control of a council with provost and bailies, and combines with Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark and Linlithgow (the Falkirk group of burghs) to return a member to parliament.
After the union he continued to represent Edinburgh, and later the Wigton burghs.
Before the union of the shires of Ross and Cromarty, it was the county town of Cromartyshire, and is one of the Wick district group of parliamentary burghs.
But while he notes that in Perth the act was that of "the rascal multitude," he was glad to claim in St Andrews the support of the civic "authority"; and indeed the burghs, which were throughout Europe generally in favour of freedom, soon became in Scotland a main support of the Reformation.
Called to the bar in 1807, he was elected member of parliament for the Inverness burghs in 1807, and having gained some reputation as a speaker in the House of Commons, he was made a lord of the treasury in December 1813, an office which he held until August 1819, when he became secretary to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland and a privy councillor.
The earldom of Ulster, the old inheritance of the De Burghs, had descended to him from Lionel, duke of Clarence; the earldom of March came from the Mortimers, and the dukedom of York and the earldom of Cambridge from his paternal ancestry.
The town is governed by a provost, bailies and council, and unites with Selkirk and Galashiels (together known as the Border burghs) to send a member to parliament.
The area of the city extends to 6602 acres, the burghs of Old Aberdeen and Woodside, and the district of Torry (for parliamentary purposes in the constituency of Kincardineshire) to the south of the Dee, having been incorporated in 1891.
The burgh unites with Montrose, Arbroath, Brechin and Inverbervie (the Montrose group of burghs) in returning one member to parliament.
Stirling is under the jurisdiction of a council with provost and bailies, and, along with Culross, Dunfermline, Inverkeithing and Queensferry (the Stirling burghs) returns a member; to Parliament.
was one of the Court of Four Burghs (superseded under James III.
by the Convention of Royal Burghs).
Cupar belongs to the St Andrews district group of burghs for returning one member to parliament, the other constituents being Crail, the two Anstruthers, Kilrenny, Pittenweem and St Andrews.
Dornoch became a royal burgh in 1628, and, as one of the Wick burghs, returns a member to parliament.
On the other hand, the De Burghs, partly by alliance with the Irish, partly by sheer hard fighting, made good their claims to the lordship of Connaught, and the western O'Connors henceforth play a very subordinate part in Irish history.
The family quarrels of the O'Connors at this time, and their alliances with the Burkes, or De Burghs, and the Berminghams, may be traced in great detail in the annalists - the general result being fatal to the royal tribe of Connaught, which is said to have lost ro,000 warriors in the battle of Templetogher.
The two chief men among the De Burghs were 10th to hold their lands of a little absentee girl.
The De Burghs were supreme in Connaught, and English families occupied eastern Ulster.
- For sanitary purposes, highways and some others, certain classes of burghs were made separate areas from the parishes in which they lay.
Renfrew belongs to the Kilmarnock district group of parliamentary burghs (with Kilmarnock, Dumbarton, Rutherglen and Port Glasgow).
Dalkeith is a burgh of barony; Canongate and Portsburgh burghs of regality; beside which there are about 165 villages and hamlets.
He also produced two non- heraldic books on Scotland's police burghs.
The town is one of the Falkirk district group of parliamentary burghs, the other constituents being Airdrie, Hamilton, Falkirk and Linlithgow.
Still, speaking generally, the age of independence for the burghs had only begun when Heribert from Milan undertook the earliest organization of a force that was to become paramount in peace and war.
and Alexander II., how he succeeded in raising the papal office from the depths of degradation and subjection to illimitable sway over the minds of men in Europe, and how his warfare with the empire established on a solid basis the still doubtful independence of the Italian burghs, renewing the long neglected protectorate of the Italian race, and bequeathing to his successors a national policy which had been forgotten by the popes since his great predecessor Gregory II., forms a chapter in European history which must now be interrupted.
The Commissioners of Supply, originally appointed to apportion and collect the national revenue and afterwards entrusted with the regulation of the land tax, the control of the county police, the raising of the militia, and the levying of rates for county expenditure, were practically superseded by the county councils, which are also the local authority under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) and the Public Health Acts in all parishes (burghs and police burghs excepted), perform the administrative duties formerly entrusted to the justices of the peace, and may also enforce the Rivers Pollution Act each within its own jurisdiction.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.