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burghers

burghers Sentence Examples

  • Famine forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a victorious diet at Roncaglia.

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  • Having crushed a rebellion at Utrecht, he compelled the burghers of Ghent to restore Philip to him in 1485, and returning to Germany was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Frankfort on the 16th of February 1486, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the following April.

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  • The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.

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  • The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.

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  • It still needed nearly a century of struggle to render the burghers independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, self-governed in its several assemblies.

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  • In addition to this privy council, we find a gran consiglio, consisting of the burghers who had established the right to interfere immediately in public affairs, and a still larger assembly called parlamenlo, which included the whole adult population.

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  • It will be perceived that the type was rather oligarchical than strictly democratic. Between the parlamento and the consuls with their privy council, or credenza, was interposed the gran consiglio of privileged burghers.

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  • No sooner had the compromise of the investitures been conduded than it was manifest that the burghers of the new enfranchised communes were resolved to turn their arms against each other.

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  • The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.

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  • Burghers of all denominations are enrolled in one or other of the arts or gilds, and these trading companies furnish the material from which the government or signoria bf the city is composed.

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  • It was with their own militia that the burghers won freedom in the war of independence, subdued the nobles, and fought the battles of the parties.

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  • This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.

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  • The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.

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  • The burghers thus attained to a very considerable measure of self-government.

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  • Having extorted a large sum of money from the burghers of Nuremberg, he quarrelled with his supporter, the French king, and offered his services to the emperor.

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  • Early in 1795 the burghers of the town and district rose in revolt against the Dutch East India Company, proclaimed a "free republic," and elected a so-styled national assembly.

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  • At the same time the burghers of Graaff Reinet also rebelled against the Cape authorities, who were powerless to suppress the insurrectionary movement.

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  • The liberties of the burghers were, however, still restrained by the presence of a royal advocatus (Vogt) and bailiff.

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  • The great mass of the people, 81.6%, belong to the peasant order, the others being: nobility, 1.3%; clergy, 0.9; the burghers and merchants, 9.3; and military, 6.1.

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  • The opposition which he encountered came not from the burghers but from the boyars and the nobles.

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  • A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.

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  • Henceforth the history of the city is that of the growing power, spiritual and temporal, of the bishops, whose secular influence was gradually supplanted in the 14th century by the advance of the rival power of the burghers.

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  • The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."

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  • The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.

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  • His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.

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  • This council of nine, composed only of burghers, carried on the government for about seventy years, and its rule was sagacious and peaceful.

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  • The noveschi, being "fat burghers" with powerful connexions, abilities and traditions, gained increased strength and influence in exile; and five years later, on 22nd July 1487, they returned triumphantly to Siena, dispersed the few adherents of the popolo who offered resistance, murdered the captain of the people, reorganized the state, and placed it under the protection of the Virgin Mary.

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  • The burghers represented that they were under the protection of Holland, but this plea was peremptorily rejected by the commander of the British forces.

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  • The principal head in the allocation of this loan was the purchase of the railways in the two colonies at a cost of £13,520,000, while an additional £5,958,000 was devoted to the building of new lines, purchases of rolling stock, &c. The debt of the South African Republic was paid off; £542,000 went to make good the deficit on the administration for 1901-1902; the sum of £1,561,000 was paid to burghers of the Cape Colony and Natal as compensation for war losses; £3,000,000 was devoted to land settlement schemes and £2,000,000 to public works other than railways.

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  • In addition to the charges enumerated £5,000,000 were spent out of the loan on " repatriation and compensation " of burghers who had suffered during the war.

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  • A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.

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  • A determination to keep clear of the British and to obtain access to the outer world through an independent channel led Potgieter and a considerable number of the Potchefstroom and Winburg burghers in 1845 to migrate towards Delagoa Bay.

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  • Pretorius (q.v.) had been appointed his successor, and to the younger Pretorius was due the first efforts to end the discord and confusion which prevailed among the burghers - a discord heightened by ecclesiastical strife, the points at issue being questions not of faith but of church government.

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  • At length Commandant Paul Kruger called cut the burghers of his district and entered into the strife.

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  • When called upon to go to the aid of this settlement, which in1865-1866was sore pressed by one of the mountain Bantu tribes known as the Baramapulana, the burghers of the southern Transvaal objected that the white inhabitants of that region were too lawless and reckless a body to merit their assistance.

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  • The expedition was an ignominious failure, and many burghers did not hesitate to assign their non-success to the fact that Burgers's views on religious questions were not sound.

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  • In 1882 also began that alteration of the franchise law which subsequently developed into positive exclusion of practically all save the original Boer burghers of the country from the franchise.

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  • Some prominent burghers even spoke at Uitlander meetings in favour of the Uitlander requests.

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  • General Botha stated that there were 83,000 burghers from 15 to 65 years of age on the commando lists.

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  • The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.

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  • Bloemfontein, President Kruger himself arriving on the scene to give confidence to his burghers; but the demoralization was so great that neither the military genius of the few nor the personal influence of the president could bolster up an adequate resistance, and on the 13th of March 1900 Lord Roberts's army marched into the Free State capital.

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  • The halt at Bloemfontein was marked by the publication of proclamations, offering protection to the burghers, which, however, the invaders had not yet the power to fulfil.

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  • The enemy invariably dispersed before superior forces, and the removal of the women and children from the farms did not have the effect of disheartening the burghers as had been anticipated - it rather mended their vitality by relieving them of responsibility for their families' welfare.

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  • The corps of National Scouts (formed of burghers who had taken the oath of allegiance) was inaugurated and the Johannesburg stock exchange reopened.

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  • The terms of peace may be condensed into the following points: (1) Surrender of all burghers in the field, with all arms and munitions of war; (2) all burghers duly declaring themselves subjects of King Edward VII.

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  • Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."

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  • The attempt to seize Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six caporali di popolo, who formed the basis of the primo popolo or body of citizens independent of the nobles, headed by the capitano del popolo.

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  • He was assisted by the consiglio speciale of 9 0 and the consiglio generale e speciale of 300, composed of nobles, while the capitano del popolo had also two councils composed of burghers, heads of the gilds, gonfalonieri of the companies, &c. The anziani had a council of 3 6 burghers, and then there was the parlamento or general assembly of the people, which met only on great occasions.

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  • These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the middle ages.

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  • The great landowners who were developing into feudal lords, and the smaller freemen who were becoming independent burghers, broke the imperial.

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  • From the balcony of the town house, which overlooks the square, proclamations were read to the burghers, summoned to the spot by the ringing of the bell in the smalldomed tower.

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  • The position was simplified when, in 1220, Albert van Cuyck, the last of the hereditary burgraves, sold his rights to the bishop. These ecclesiastical princes were churchmen in little but name, and their desire to be absolute rulers found itself confronted by the determination of the burghers to secure greater independence.

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  • He took the part of the nobles against the burghers, but Duke Charles of Gelderland, jealous of the growing power of the house of Habsburg, intervened, put an end to the strife, and, in 1527, himself occupied the city.

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  • Executive authority was entrusted to a president elected by the burghers from a list submitted by the volksraad.

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  • The majority of the burghers rallied to his support, and on the 25th of May the two opposing forces faced one another on the banks of the Rhenoster.

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  • In consequence of the dissensions among the burghers President Boshof tendered his resignation in February 1858, but was for a time induced to remain in office.

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  • The peace was nominal only, while the burghers were also involved in disputes with other tribes.

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  • Many of the burghers would have at this time welcomed union with the Transvaal, but learning from Sir George Grey that such a union would nullify the conventions of 1852 and 1854 and necessitate the reconsideration of Great Britain's policy towards the native tribes north of the Orange and Vaal rivers, the project dropped.

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  • The burghers generally, however, had not learned the need of discipline, of confidence in their elected rulers, or that to carry on a government taxes must be levied.

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  • For nearly two years longer the burghers kept the field under Christian de Wet (q.v.), and other leaders, but by the articles of peace signed on the 31st of May 1902 British sovereignty was acknowledged.

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  • The burghers accepted the reformed doctrines in 1527.

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  • Burghers there were, properly speaking, none, for most of the citizens in the large towns were foreigners governed by the Jus magdeburgicum.

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  • The leading burghers were, however, soon alienated by his violent and despotic methods, by his defence of Kieft, and by his devotion to the interests of the company; the nine men became (as early as 1649, when they sent the famous Vertoogh, or Remonstrance, to the states-general asking for burgher government and other reforms) the centre of municipal discontent; and a bitter quarrel ensued.

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  • As the burghers refused to support him, Stuyvesant was compelled to surrender the town and fort on the 8th of September.

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  • in 1189 granted the burghers leave to choose their bailiffs and a justice to hold the pleas of the crown within the borough, freedom from the obligation of duel, freedom of passage and pontage through England, free warren, fishery and custom as in the time of Henry I., and other privileges.

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  • Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469) .

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  • Already, in the r3th century, they were hard pressed by the growing wealth of the burghers, and even the greatest nobles could scarcely keep up their state without careful business management.

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  • It is recorded in 1298 as " an immemorial custom " in Provence that rich burghers enjoyed the honour of knighthood; and less than a century later we find Sacchetti complaining that the dignity is open to any rich upstart, however disreputable his antecedents.

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  • It became a town in the 12th century and in 1370 the burghers, having meanwhile shaken off the authority of the abbots, placed themselves under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse.

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  • Gradually, however, the burghers, aided by the neighbouring Frisians, succeeded in freeing themselves from the episcopal yoke.

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  • This Raad of wealthy burghers gradually monopolized all power.

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  • In 1439 it decreed that no one might trade in all the district between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee except burghers, and those who had purchased the burwal (right of residence in the city) and the freedom of the gilds.

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  • On the king's death (1250), however, Bishop Jacob Erlandsen obtained the town, and, in 1254, gave to the burghers their first municipal privileges, which were confirmed by Pope Urban III.

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  • Though, however, there is no direct evidence of the existence of any communal organization during this period, it is clear from the vigorous part taken by the burghers in the struggle of the emperor Frederick with Henry the Lion of Saxony that some such organization very early existed.

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  • Charters to the burghers authorized fairs on the days of St Peter and of St Simon and St Jude in 1554, on St Bartholomew's day in 1605, in Mid-lent week in 1665, and on the feast of the Purification and on the 2nd of May in 1685; these fairs have modern representatives.

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  • In spite of their feuds with the archbishops, the burghers of Cologne were stanch Catholics, and the number of the magnificent medieval churches left is evidence at once of their piety and their wealth.

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  • It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.

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  • Of the noble palaces which it produced the castle of the Wartburg remains a perfect specimen, while the many magnificent churches dating from this time that still survive, prove the taste, wealth and piety of the burghers.

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  • Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.

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  • The greater burghers had a union, and made laws and regulations for municipal affairs.

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  • Lutheranism was more attractive to grand-ducal patriots and well-to-do burghers than to the poor and oppressed and disinherited.

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  • Pious parents, whether among the burghers or peasants, seem to have taught their children a simple evangelical faith.

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  • The rescued nuns found places of refuge in the families of Wittenberg burghers.

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  • The counts of Mansfeld, the magistrates of the city and all the burghers of Eisleben accompanied the coffin to the gates of their town.

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  • They began with a riot between the nobles and the burghers, but ended in an antiSpanish movement; and while the inhabitants called The rei n the French, the Spaniards, who could not crush the rising, called in the Dutch.

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  • Afterwards the counts of the house of Dampierre fell into financial dependence on the burghers, and therefore allied themselves with the rising artisans, led by the weavers.

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  • Not far from these ruins stands the Luginsland, a stronghold with four corner turrets, said to have been built by the burghers in 1367 as a watch-tower against the burg of the Hohenzollerns.

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  • They, however, reserved certain rights, and their insistence on these led to fierce and sanguinary feuds between the burghers and the margraves Albert Achilles and Frederick and Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth.

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  • In the decorative arts the Nuremberg handicraftsman attained great perfection in ministering to the luxurious tastes of the burghers, and a large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like, which are now admired in industrial museums, was made in Nuremberg workshops.

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  • This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses."

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  • His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.

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  • From all such property, whether land or the sheaves and fruits of land, and also from the personal property of burghers in the towns; Knox now held that the state should authorize the kirk to claim the salaries of the ministers, and the salaries of teachers in the schools and universities, but above all, the relief of the poor - not only of the absolutely "indigent" but of "your poor brethren, the labourers and handworkers of the ground."

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  • But lords, ladies and burghers also crowded around his bed, and his colleague and his servant have severally transmitted to us the words in which his weakness daily strove with pain, rising on the day before his death into a solemn exultation - yet characteristically, not so much on his own account as for "the troubled Church of God."

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  • In 1657 a few soldiers and sailors, discharged by the Dutch East India Company, had farms allotted them, and these men constituted the first so-called " free burghers."

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  • On the settlement under van Riebeek, and the position in it which the so-called " free burghers " enjoyed, this candid Dutch writer throws an interesting light.

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  • The proposition that any freemen or burghers not in the pay of the company should be encouraged to cultivate the ground was first made about three years after Riebeek's arrival.

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  • Accordingly, some discharged sailors and soldiers, who received on certain conditions plots of ground extending from the Fresh River to the Liesbeek, were the first free burghers of the colony..

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  • The first burghers were, in truth, a mere change from paid to unpaid servants of the company.

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  • In 1789 so strong had feeling amongst the burghers become that delegates were sent from the Cape to interview the authorities at Amsterdam.

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  • After this deputation some nominal reforms were granted; but in 1795 a number of burghers settled in the Swellendam and Graaf Reinet districts drove out the officials of the company and established independent governments.

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  • The rebellion was accompanied by an assertion of rights on the part of the burghers or freemen, which contained the following clause, the spirit of which animated many of the Trek Boers: That every Bushman or Hottentot, male or female, whether made prisoner by commanders or caught by individuals, as well in time past as in future, shall for life be the lawful property of such burghers as may possess them, and serve in bondage from generation to generation.

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  • During his governorship no new taxes were levied on the burghers.

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  • The home government (the first Russell administration), which had reluctantly consented to confirm Sir Harry Smith's annexation of the Orange River territory., on learning of these difficulties, and also that many of the burghers remained dissatisfied, changed their policy, and in 1851 the governor was informed that the ultimate abandonment of the Sovereignty was a settled point.2 In fulfilment of their settled policy to keep the British South African dominions within the smallest possible limits, the cabinet decided to recognize the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal.

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  • During the 1880-81 revolt many Free State burghers, despite the moderating influence of President Brand, joined the Transvaal commandoes.

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  • This influx was looked upon with disfavour by Kruger and his supporters, and, while the new corners were heavily taxed, steps were speedily taken to revise the franchise laws so that the immigrants should have little chance of becoming burghers of the republic. This exclusion the tilt' policy was even applied to immigrants from the le nders.

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  • In the Transvaal the burghers of British origin were about equal in number with those of Dutch origin, and the fairly even balance of parties might be held to be a guarantee against retrogression; in the Orange River Colony it was notorious that the grant of selfgovernment meant handing over the control of the country not simply to the Boers, but to that section of them which since the war had exhibited the greatest racial bitterness.

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  • For the most part this is founded on Dutch models, and testifies in a high degree to the king's progressive aims. Provision was made for the better education of the lower, and the restriction of the political influence of the higher clergy; there were stern prohibitions against wreckers and "the evil and unchristian practice of selling peasants as if they were brute beasts"; the old trade gilds were retained, but the rules of admittance thereto made easier, and trade combinations of the richer burghers, to the detriment of the smaller tradesmen, were sternly forbidden.

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  • Several young men in the town had studied at Wittenberg, and the burghers, in their Lutheran zeal, had already expelled their youthful Bishop Jurgen Friis.

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  • The bishop, very naturally averse to these high-handed proceedings, sent armed men to the church to arrest Tausen, but the burghers, who had brought their weapons with them, drove back "the bishop's swains."

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  • The burghers and people, who knew him to be their best friend, took such vengeance on his slayers as permanently to reduce the power of the nobles.

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  • In 1599, on the abdication of Sigismund Bfithory in Transylvania, Michael, in league with the imperialist forces, and in connivance with the Saxon burghers, attacked and of Tran- defeated his successor Andreas Bathory near Hermannstadt, and, seizing himself the reins of government, secured his proclamation as prince of Transylvania.

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  • The Palais de Justice, of the 18th century, on the site of the House of the Franc - the outside burghers of the Franc district admitted to the full privileges of citizenship - contains a fine carved chimney-piece (1530).

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  • In 1 795 the heavily taxed burghers of the frontier districts, who were afforded no protection against the Kaffirs, expelled the officials of the East India Company, and set up independent governments at Swellendam and Graaff Reinet.

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  • The burghers of Graaff Reinet did not surrender until a force had been sent against them, while in 1799 and again in 1801 they rose in revolt.

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  • Mr Schreiner ultimately addressed, as prime minister, a sharp remonstrance to President Steyn for allowing his burghers to invade the colony.

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  • In 1514, the year after the battle of Flodden, in which the burghers had suffered severely, a number of young men surprised an English force at Hornshole, a spot on the Teviot 2 m.

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  • By the 18th century the burghers had sunk to the level of "stadtische Bauern," or peasants with municipal privileges, and poverty and misery were widely spread.

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  • But these clauses are less numerous than might have been expectedthe framers of the document were, after all, barons and not burghers.

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  • and scattered adherents both among the burghers and the knighthood, the nucleus of the party that afterwards became famous as the Lollards.

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  • After several changes of ownership, Komotau came in 1588 to Popel of Lobkovic, who established the Jesuits here, which led to trouble between the Protestant burghers and the over-lord.

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  • The Jacobins leant on the revolutionary commune and the mob of Paris; the Girondins leant on the thriving burghers of the provincial cities.

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  • When Saxony was divided in 1485 Leipzig fell to the Albertine, or ducal branch of the family, whose head Duke George gave new rights to the burghers.

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  • Power had passed from the hands of the burghers of Amsterdam into those of William of Orange, who on the 30th peace ~ of August 1673, profiting by the arrest of the army Ni/rn- brought about by the inundation and by the fears of wegen, Europe, joined in a coalition with the emperor, the ~ king of Spain, the duke of Lorraine, many of the princes of the Empire, and with England, now at last enlightened as to the projects of Catholic restoration which Louis XIV.

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  • Charters began to be given to the towns, and a class of burghers, endowed with rights and armed to defend them, was formed; while the council of the magnates was beginning to develop into a Cortes.

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  • They were summoned to the royal council, but only as ornamental members, the real authority and the exclusive right to vote being confined to the letrados, or lawyers, chosen by the Crown from the class of the burghers.

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  • In his conflict with the towns over his refusal to ratify all their privileges the elector's task was lightened by a quarrel between the magistrates and the burghers of Berlin, which he was called in to decide in 1442.

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  • The nobles and prelates generally preferred to raise their share of the revenue by the old method of a bede, or contribution, thus weakening the remaining bond between them and the burghers.

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  • burghers of the city.

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  • From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns.

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  • The gallant mounted burghers hacked their way through the unarmed crowd, killing eleven people with their swords and injuring many others.

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  • What have the good, honest burghers of Geordieland done to deserve this?

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  • good news, on the other hand, for the good burghers of Baghdad.

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  • They were the voices of old burghers that I heard in the streets.

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  • His queen took pity on them, and asked if the brave burghers could also be spared if the town surrendered.

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  • This often led to friction between the free burghers and the tenants of the Bishop.

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  • RESURFACING Leek's 18th and 19th century burghers left the town with an attractive palette of floorscape materials.

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  • Having crushed a rebellion at Utrecht, he compelled the burghers of Ghent to restore Philip to him in 1485, and returning to Germany was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Frankfort on the 16th of February 1486, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the following April.

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  • The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.

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  • When he was twenty (1201) the neighbouring and rival city of Perugia attempted to restore by force of arms the nobles who had been expelled from Assisi by the burghers and the populace, and Francis took part in the battle fought in the plain that lies between the two cities; the men of Assisi were defeated and Francis was among the prisoners.

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  • The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.

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  • That Heriberts device proved effectual in raising the spirit of his burghers, and consolidating them into a formidable band of warriors, is shown by the fact that it was speedily adopted in all the free cities.

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  • It still needed nearly a century of struggle to render the burghers independent of lordship, with a fully organized commune, self-governed in its several assemblies.

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  • In addition to this privy council, we find a gran consiglio, consisting of the burghers who had established the right to interfere immediately in public affairs, and a still larger assembly called parlamenlo, which included the whole adult population.

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  • It will be perceived that the type was rather oligarchical than strictly democratic. Between the parlamento and the consuls with their privy council, or credenza, was interposed the gran consiglio of privileged burghers.

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  • No sooner had the compromise of the investitures been conduded than it was manifest that the burghers of the new enfranchised communes were resolved to turn their arms against each other.

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  • The popes cause and the emperors cause were of comparatively little moment to Italian burghers; and the names of Guelph and Ghibelline, which before long began to be heard in every street, on every market-place, had no meaning for them.

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  • Famine forced the burghers to partial obedience, and Frederick held a victorious diet at Roncaglia.

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  • It must suffice to say that, partly by mortgaging their property to rich burghers, partly by entering the service of the cities ~s condottieri (mercenary leaders), partly by espousing the cause of one town against another, and partly by forced submission after the siege of their strong places, the counts were gradually brought into connection of dependence on the communes.

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  • The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.

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  • Burghers of all denominations are enrolled in one or other of the arts or gilds, and these trading companies furnish the material from which the government or signoria bf the city is composed.

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  • It was with their own militia that the burghers won freedom in the war of independence, subdued the nobles, and fought the battles of the parties.

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  • This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.

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  • The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.

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  • The burghers thus attained to a very considerable measure of self-government.

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  • Having extorted a large sum of money from the burghers of Nuremberg, he quarrelled with his supporter, the French king, and offered his services to the emperor.

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  • Early in 1795 the burghers of the town and district rose in revolt against the Dutch East India Company, proclaimed a "free republic," and elected a so-styled national assembly.

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  • At the same time the burghers of Graaff Reinet also rebelled against the Cape authorities, who were powerless to suppress the insurrectionary movement.

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  • The liberties of the burghers were, however, still restrained by the presence of a royal advocatus (Vogt) and bailiff.

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  • The great mass of the people, 81.6%, belong to the peasant order, the others being: nobility, 1.3%; clergy, 0.9; the burghers and merchants, 9.3; and military, 6.1.

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  • Descendants of Rurik, impregnated with the pride of a dominant military caste, did not much like serving those truculent, wilful burghers, and some of them, after a time, voluntarily laid down their office and retired to more congenial surroundings.

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  • The opposition which he encountered came not from the burghers but from the boyars and the nobles.

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  • A Grand Commission, which might be called a consultative parliament, composed of 652 members of all classes - officials, nobles, burghers and peasants - and 1 To assist the reader in threading the genealogical maze briefly described above, the following tabular statement is inserted (I.) Michael, founder of the Romanov dynasty (1613-45).

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  • A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.

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  • Henceforth the history of the city is that of the growing power, spiritual and temporal, of the bishops, whose secular influence was gradually supplanted in the 14th century by the advance of the rival power of the burghers.

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  • The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended.

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  • The better to understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal."

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  • The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.

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  • His vision of the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and advised by the traditional estates of the realm - nobles, peasants, burghers - and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion; but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine right.

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  • This council of nine, composed only of burghers, carried on the government for about seventy years, and its rule was sagacious and peaceful.

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  • The noveschi, being "fat burghers" with powerful connexions, abilities and traditions, gained increased strength and influence in exile; and five years later, on 22nd July 1487, they returned triumphantly to Siena, dispersed the few adherents of the popolo who offered resistance, murdered the captain of the people, reorganized the state, and placed it under the protection of the Virgin Mary.

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  • The burghers represented that they were under the protection of Holland, but this plea was peremptorily rejected by the commander of the British forces.

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  • He behaved with the utmost tact and got rid of the Winburg and Potchefstroom burghers by declaring that he should recommend the Drakensberg as the northern limit of Natal.

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  • The principal head in the allocation of this loan was the purchase of the railways in the two colonies at a cost of £13,520,000, while an additional £5,958,000 was devoted to the building of new lines, purchases of rolling stock, &c. The debt of the South African Republic was paid off; £542,000 went to make good the deficit on the administration for 1901-1902; the sum of £1,561,000 was paid to burghers of the Cape Colony and Natal as compensation for war losses; £3,000,000 was devoted to land settlement schemes and £2,000,000 to public works other than railways.

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  • In addition to the charges enumerated £5,000,000 were spent out of the loan on " repatriation and compensation " of burghers who had suffered during the war.

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  • A " Scouts " Church was formed at the end of the war of1899-1902by burghers who had previously acted as " National Scouts " and were ostracized by the synods of their former Churches.

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  • A determination to keep clear of the British and to obtain access to the outer world through an independent channel led Potgieter and a considerable number of the Potchefstroom and Winburg burghers in 1845 to migrate towards Delagoa Bay.

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  • Pretorius (q.v.) had been appointed his successor, and to the younger Pretorius was due the first efforts to end the discord and confusion which prevailed among the burghers - a discord heightened by ecclesiastical strife, the points at issue being questions not of faith but of church government.

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  • At length Commandant Paul Kruger called cut the burghers of his district and entered into the strife.

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  • When called upon to go to the aid of this settlement, which in1865-1866was sore pressed by one of the mountain Bantu tribes known as the Baramapulana, the burghers of the southern Transvaal objected that the white inhabitants of that region were too lawless and reckless a body to merit their assistance.

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  • The expedition was an ignominious failure, and many burghers did not hesitate to assign their non-success to the fact that Burgers's views on religious questions were not sound.

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  • In 1882 also began that alteration of the franchise law which subsequently developed into positive exclusion of practically all save the original Boer burghers of the country from the franchise.

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  • Some prominent burghers even spoke at Uitlander meetings in favour of the Uitlander requests.

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  • General Botha stated that there were 83,000 burghers from 15 to 65 years of age on the commando lists.

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  • " c. That all reinforcements of troops which have arrived in South Africa since the 1st of June 1899 shall be removed from South Africa within a reasonable time, to be agreed upon with this government, and with a mutual assurance and guarantee on the part of this government that no attack upon or hostilities against any portion of the possessions of the British Government shall be made by the republic during further negotiations within a period of time to be subsequently agreed upon between the governments, and this government will, on compliance therewith, be prepared to withdraw the armed burghers of this republic from the borders.

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  • The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.

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  • Bloemfontein, President Kruger himself arriving on the scene to give confidence to his burghers; but the demoralization was so great that neither the military genius of the few nor the personal influence of the president could bolster up an adequate resistance, and on the 13th of March 1900 Lord Roberts's army marched into the Free State capital.

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  • The halt at Bloemfontein was marked by the publication of proclamations, offering protection to the burghers, which, however, the invaders had not yet the power to fulfil.

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  • The enemy invariably dispersed before superior forces, and the removal of the women and children from the farms did not have the effect of disheartening the burghers as had been anticipated - it rather mended their vitality by relieving them of responsibility for their families' welfare.

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  • The corps of National Scouts (formed of burghers who had taken the oath of allegiance) was inaugurated and the Johannesburg stock exchange reopened.

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  • The terms of peace may be condensed into the following points: (1) Surrender of all burghers in the field, with all arms and munitions of war; (2) all burghers duly declaring themselves subjects of King Edward VII.

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  • to be repatriated; (3) no burghers who should surrender to be deprived of either their liberty or property; (4) no proceedings to be taken against burghers for any legitimate acts of war during the period of hostilities; (5) the Dutch language to be taught in public schools on the request of parents, and to be allowed in courts of law; (6) sporting rifles to be allowed upon the taking out of licences; (7) the military administration to be superseded by civil administration as soon as possible, the civil administration to lead up to self-government; (8) the question of the native franchise not to be considered until after the introduction of self-government; (9) landed property not to be subjected to any special tax to defray the cost of the war; (io) a commission to be formed to facilitate the repatriation of the burghers, a grant of £3,000,000 being given as compensation for the destruction of farms. In the whole war the British lost 5774 killed and 22,829 wounded, while the Boers lost about 4000 killed.

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  • Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."

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  • The attempt to seize Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six caporali di popolo, who formed the basis of the primo popolo or body of citizens independent of the nobles, headed by the capitano del popolo.

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  • He was assisted by the consiglio speciale of 9 0 and the consiglio generale e speciale of 300, composed of nobles, while the capitano del popolo had also two councils composed of burghers, heads of the gilds, gonfalonieri of the companies, &c. The anziani had a council of 3 6 burghers, and then there was the parlamento or general assembly of the people, which met only on great occasions.

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  • These armed men formed the exercitus romanae militiae, who were the forerunners of the free armed burghers of the Italian cities of the middle ages.

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  • The great landowners who were developing into feudal lords, and the smaller freemen who were becoming independent burghers, broke the imperial.

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  • Again the populace rose on behalf of their hero, who, in his turn, strong in the conscientious conviction that "in the things which pertain to salvation God is to be obeyed rather than man," continued uninterruptedly to preach in the Bethlehem chapel, and in the university began publicly to defend the socalled heretical treatises of Wycliffe, while from king and queen, nobles and burghers, a petition was sent to Rome praying that the condemnation and prohibition in the bull of Alexander V.

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  • From the balcony of the town house, which overlooks the square, proclamations were read to the burghers, summoned to the spot by the ringing of the bell in the smalldomed tower.

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  • The position was simplified when, in 1220, Albert van Cuyck, the last of the hereditary burgraves, sold his rights to the bishop. These ecclesiastical princes were churchmen in little but name, and their desire to be absolute rulers found itself confronted by the determination of the burghers to secure greater independence.

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  • He took the part of the nobles against the burghers, but Duke Charles of Gelderland, jealous of the growing power of the house of Habsburg, intervened, put an end to the strife, and, in 1527, himself occupied the city.

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  • Executive authority was entrusted to a president elected by the burghers from a list submitted by the volksraad.

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  • The majority of the burghers rallied to his support, and on the 25th of May the two opposing forces faced one another on the banks of the Rhenoster.

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  • In consequence of the dissensions among the burghers President Boshof tendered his resignation in February 1858, but was for a time induced to remain in office.

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  • The peace was nominal only, while the burghers were also involved in disputes with other tribes.

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  • Many of the burghers would have at this time welcomed union with the Transvaal, but learning from Sir George Grey that such a union would nullify the conventions of 1852 and 1854 and necessitate the reconsideration of Great Britain's policy towards the native tribes north of the Orange and Vaal rivers, the project dropped.

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  • The burghers generally, however, had not learned the need of discipline, of confidence in their elected rulers, or that to carry on a government taxes must be levied.

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  • The burghers thus reinforced gained at length a decisive victory over their great antagonist, every stronghold in Basutoland save Thaba Bosigo being stormed.

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  • For nearly two years longer the burghers kept the field under Christian de Wet (q.v.), and other leaders, but by the articles of peace signed on the 31st of May 1902 British sovereignty was acknowledged.

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  • The burghers accepted the reformed doctrines in 1527.

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  • On the 11th of July 1302 the great battle of Courtrai (see Infantry) was fought outside its walls, when the French army, under the count of Artois, was vanquished by the allied burghers of Bruges, Ypres and Courtrai with tremendous loss.

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  • Burghers there were, properly speaking, none, for most of the citizens in the large towns were foreigners governed by the Jus magdeburgicum.

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  • The leading burghers were, however, soon alienated by his violent and despotic methods, by his defence of Kieft, and by his devotion to the interests of the company; the nine men became (as early as 1649, when they sent the famous Vertoogh, or Remonstrance, to the states-general asking for burgher government and other reforms) the centre of municipal discontent; and a bitter quarrel ensued.

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  • As the burghers refused to support him, Stuyvesant was compelled to surrender the town and fort on the 8th of September.

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  • in 1189 granted the burghers leave to choose their bailiffs and a justice to hold the pleas of the crown within the borough, freedom from the obligation of duel, freedom of passage and pontage through England, free warren, fishery and custom as in the time of Henry I., and other privileges.

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  • Though most of the Silesian dynasts seemed ready to acquiesce, the burghers of Breslau fiercely repudiated the new suzerain, and before he could enforce his claims to homage he was ousted by the Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, who was readily recognized as overlord (1469) .

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  • Already, in the r3th century, they were hard pressed by the growing wealth of the burghers, and even the greatest nobles could scarcely keep up their state without careful business management.

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  • It is recorded in 1298 as " an immemorial custom " in Provence that rich burghers enjoyed the honour of knighthood; and less than a century later we find Sacchetti complaining that the dignity is open to any rich upstart, however disreputable his antecedents.

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  • It became a town in the 12th century and in 1370 the burghers, having meanwhile shaken off the authority of the abbots, placed themselves under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse.

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  • In 1299 John I., count of Holland, granted to the people of Rotterdam the same rights as were enjoyed by the burghers of Beverwijk, which were identical with those of Haarlem (K.

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  • Gradually, however, the burghers, aided by the neighbouring Frisians, succeeded in freeing themselves from the episcopal yoke.

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  • This Raad of wealthy burghers gradually monopolized all power.

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  • In 1439 it decreed that no one might trade in all the district between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee except burghers, and those who had purchased the burwal (right of residence in the city) and the freedom of the gilds.

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  • On the king's death (1250), however, Bishop Jacob Erlandsen obtained the town, and, in 1254, gave to the burghers their first municipal privileges, which were confirmed by Pope Urban III.

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  • Though, however, there is no direct evidence of the existence of any communal organization during this period, it is clear from the vigorous part taken by the burghers in the struggle of the emperor Frederick with Henry the Lion of Saxony that some such organization very early existed.

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  • Charters to the burghers authorized fairs on the days of St Peter and of St Simon and St Jude in 1554, on St Bartholomew's day in 1605, in Mid-lent week in 1665, and on the feast of the Purification and on the 2nd of May in 1685; these fairs have modern representatives.

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  • In spite of their feuds with the archbishops, the burghers of Cologne were stanch Catholics, and the number of the magnificent medieval churches left is evidence at once of their piety and their wealth.

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  • It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.

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  • Of the noble palaces which it produced the castle of the Wartburg remains a perfect specimen, while the many magnificent churches dating from this time that still survive, prove the taste, wealth and piety of the burghers.

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  • Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.

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  • The greater burghers had a union, and made laws and regulations for municipal affairs.

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  • It is impossible here to follow the schisms which split the seceding body within itself: the Erskines themselves were handed over to Satan; their very families adopted opposite factions: there were " Burghers " and " Anti-Burghers," " New Lights " and " Old Lights "; besides the sects which in the 19th century merged in United Presbyterians, and merged themselves later with the Free Church of the Disruption, itself the parent of a small protesting body, popularly styled " The Wee Frees " (see SCOTLAND, CHURCH or).

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  • Lutheranism was more attractive to grand-ducal patriots and well-to-do burghers than to the poor and oppressed and disinherited.

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  • Pious parents, whether among the burghers or peasants, seem to have taught their children a simple evangelical faith.

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  • The rescued nuns found places of refuge in the families of Wittenberg burghers.

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  • The counts of Mansfeld, the magistrates of the city and all the burghers of Eisleben accompanied the coffin to the gates of their town.

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  • They began with a riot between the nobles and the burghers, but ended in an antiSpanish movement; and while the inhabitants called The rei n the French, the Spaniards, who could not crush the rising, called in the Dutch.

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  • Afterwards the counts of the house of Dampierre fell into financial dependence on the burghers, and therefore allied themselves with the rising artisans, led by the weavers.

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  • Not far from these ruins stands the Luginsland, a stronghold with four corner turrets, said to have been built by the burghers in 1367 as a watch-tower against the burg of the Hohenzollerns.

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  • They, however, reserved certain rights, and their insistence on these led to fierce and sanguinary feuds between the burghers and the margraves Albert Achilles and Frederick and Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth.

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  • In the decorative arts the Nuremberg handicraftsman attained great perfection in ministering to the luxurious tastes of the burghers, and a large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like, which are now admired in industrial museums, was made in Nuremberg workshops.

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  • This diet was on the old Swedish model, consisting of representatives of the four estates - nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants - sitting and voting in separate " Houses."

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  • His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.

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  • From all such property, whether land or the sheaves and fruits of land, and also from the personal property of burghers in the towns; Knox now held that the state should authorize the kirk to claim the salaries of the ministers, and the salaries of teachers in the schools and universities, but above all, the relief of the poor - not only of the absolutely "indigent" but of "your poor brethren, the labourers and handworkers of the ground."

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  • But lords, ladies and burghers also crowded around his bed, and his colleague and his servant have severally transmitted to us the words in which his weakness daily strove with pain, rising on the day before his death into a solemn exultation - yet characteristically, not so much on his own account as for "the troubled Church of God."

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  • In 1657 a few soldiers and sailors, discharged by the Dutch East India Company, had farms allotted them, and these men constituted the first so-called " free burghers."

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  • On the settlement under van Riebeek, and the position in it which the so-called " free burghers " enjoyed, this candid Dutch writer throws an interesting light.

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  • The proposition that any freemen or burghers not in the pay of the company should be encouraged to cultivate the ground was first made about three years after Riebeek's arrival.

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  • Accordingly, some discharged sailors and soldiers, who received on certain conditions plots of ground extending from the Fresh River to the Liesbeek, were the first free burghers of the colony..

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  • The first burghers were, in truth, a mere change from paid to unpaid servants of the company.

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  • In 1789 so strong had feeling amongst the burghers become that delegates were sent from the Cape to interview the authorities at Amsterdam.

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  • After this deputation some nominal reforms were granted; but in 1795 a number of burghers settled in the Swellendam and Graaf Reinet districts drove out the officials of the company and established independent governments.

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  • The rebellion was accompanied by an assertion of rights on the part of the burghers or freemen, which contained the following clause, the spirit of which animated many of the Trek Boers: That every Bushman or Hottentot, male or female, whether made prisoner by commanders or caught by individuals, as well in time past as in future, shall for life be the lawful property of such burghers as may possess them, and serve in bondage from generation to generation.

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  • During his governorship no new taxes were levied on the burghers.

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  • The home government (the first Russell administration), which had reluctantly consented to confirm Sir Harry Smith's annexation of the Orange River territory., on learning of these difficulties, and also that many of the burghers remained dissatisfied, changed their policy, and in 1851 the governor was informed that the ultimate abandonment of the Sovereignty was a settled point.2 In fulfilment of their settled policy to keep the British South African dominions within the smallest possible limits, the cabinet decided to recognize the independence of the Boers living beyond the Vaal.

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  • During the 1880-81 revolt many Free State burghers, despite the moderating influence of President Brand, joined the Transvaal commandoes.

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  • This influx was looked upon with disfavour by Kruger and his supporters, and, while the new corners were heavily taxed, steps were speedily taken to revise the franchise laws so that the immigrants should have little chance of becoming burghers of the republic. This exclusion the tilt' policy was even applied to immigrants from the le nders.

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  • In the Transvaal the burghers of British origin were about equal in number with those of Dutch origin, and the fairly even balance of parties might be held to be a guarantee against retrogression; in the Orange River Colony it was notorious that the grant of selfgovernment meant handing over the control of the country not simply to the Boers, but to that section of them which since the war had exhibited the greatest racial bitterness.

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  • Owing to Aratus's irresolute generalship, the indolence of the rich burghers and the inadequate provision for levying troops and paying mercenaries, the league lost several battles and much of its territory; but rather than compromise with the Spartan Gracchus the assembly negotiated with Antigonus Doson, who recovered the lost districts but retained Corinth for himself (223-221).

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  • For the most part this is founded on Dutch models, and testifies in a high degree to the king's progressive aims. Provision was made for the better education of the lower, and the restriction of the political influence of the higher clergy; there were stern prohibitions against wreckers and "the evil and unchristian practice of selling peasants as if they were brute beasts"; the old trade gilds were retained, but the rules of admittance thereto made easier, and trade combinations of the richer burghers, to the detriment of the smaller tradesmen, were sternly forbidden.

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  • Several young men in the town had studied at Wittenberg, and the burghers, in their Lutheran zeal, had already expelled their youthful Bishop Jurgen Friis.

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  • The bishop, very naturally averse to these high-handed proceedings, sent armed men to the church to arrest Tausen, but the burghers, who had brought their weapons with them, drove back "the bishop's swains."

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  • The burghers and people, who knew him to be their best friend, took such vengeance on his slayers as permanently to reduce the power of the nobles.

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  • In 1599, on the abdication of Sigismund Bfithory in Transylvania, Michael, in league with the imperialist forces, and in connivance with the Saxon burghers, attacked and of Tran- defeated his successor Andreas Bathory near Hermannstadt, and, seizing himself the reins of government, secured his proclamation as prince of Transylvania.

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  • The Palais de Justice, of the 18th century, on the site of the House of the Franc - the outside burghers of the Franc district admitted to the full privileges of citizenship - contains a fine carved chimney-piece (1530).

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  • In 1 795 the heavily taxed burghers of the frontier districts, who were afforded no protection against the Kaffirs, expelled the officials of the East India Company, and set up independent governments at Swellendam and Graaff Reinet.

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  • The burghers of Graaff Reinet did not surrender until a force had been sent against them, while in 1799 and again in 1801 they rose in revolt.

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  • Mr Schreiner ultimately addressed, as prime minister, a sharp remonstrance to President Steyn for allowing his burghers to invade the colony.

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  • In 1514, the year after the battle of Flodden, in which the burghers had suffered severely, a number of young men surprised an English force at Hornshole, a spot on the Teviot 2 m.

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  • By the 18th century the burghers had sunk to the level of "stadtische Bauern," or peasants with municipal privileges, and poverty and misery were widely spread.

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  • But these clauses are less numerous than might have been expectedthe framers of the document were, after all, barons and not burghers.

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  • and scattered adherents both among the burghers and the knighthood, the nucleus of the party that afterwards became famous as the Lollards.

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  • After several changes of ownership, Komotau came in 1588 to Popel of Lobkovic, who established the Jesuits here, which led to trouble between the Protestant burghers and the over-lord.

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  • The Jacobins leant on the revolutionary commune and the mob of Paris; the Girondins leant on the thriving burghers of the provincial cities.

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  • When Saxony was divided in 1485 Leipzig fell to the Albertine, or ducal branch of the family, whose head Duke George gave new rights to the burghers.

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  • Power had passed from the hands of the burghers of Amsterdam into those of William of Orange, who on the 30th peace ~ of August 1673, profiting by the arrest of the army Ni/rn- brought about by the inundation and by the fears of wegen, Europe, joined in a coalition with the emperor, the ~ king of Spain, the duke of Lorraine, many of the princes of the Empire, and with England, now at last enlightened as to the projects of Catholic restoration which Louis XIV.

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  • Charters began to be given to the towns, and a class of burghers, endowed with rights and armed to defend them, was formed; while the council of the magnates was beginning to develop into a Cortes.

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  • They were summoned to the royal council, but only as ornamental members, the real authority and the exclusive right to vote being confined to the letrados, or lawyers, chosen by the Crown from the class of the burghers.

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  • In his conflict with the towns over his refusal to ratify all their privileges the elector's task was lightened by a quarrel between the magistrates and the burghers of Berlin, which he was called in to decide in 1442.

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  • The nobles and prelates generally preferred to raise their share of the revenue by the old method of a bede, or contribution, thus weakening the remaining bond between them and the burghers.

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  • But the attention of the crowd--officials, burghers, shopkeepers, peasants, and women in cloaks and in pelisses--was so eagerly centered on what was passing in Lobnoe Place that no one answered him.

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  • The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended.

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