APOLLYON, the "foul fiend" who assaulted Christian on his pilgrimage through the Valley of Humiliation in John Bunyan's great allegory.
It is of interest to note that, although John Bunyan was bitterly opposed to Quakers, his friends, on hearing of the petition contemplated by them, requested them to insert his name on the list, and in this way he gained his freedom.
In his method of employing illustration he is suggestive of Thomas Adams, Thomas Fuller, Richard Baxter, Thomas Manton and John Bunyan.
How far in all this and in the next vision the author is describing facts, and how far transforming his personal history into a type (after the manner of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress), the better to impress his moral upon his readers, is uncertain.
On the one hand are Andrewes, Hall, Chillingworth, Jeremy Taylor, Barrow and South; on the other Baxter, Calamy, the Goodwins, Howe, Owen, Bunyan, in each case but a few names out of many.
His style in its simplicity, facility and clearness owed something to De Foe, something to Cotton Mather, something to Plutarch, more to Bunyan and to his early attempts to reproduce the manner of the third volume of the Spectator; and not the least to his own careful study of word usage.
After 1 Shalford Fair, the chapels on the two hills and the Surrey hills are probably the scene of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, see E.
Among his publications are Characters and Characteristics of William Law (1893); Bunyan Characters (3 vols., 1894); Samuel Rutherford (1894); An Appreciation of Jacob Behmen (1895) Lancelot Andrewes and his Private Devotions (1895); Bible Characters (7 vols., 1897); Santa Teresa (1897); Father John of Cronstadt (1898); An Appreciation of Browne's Religio Medici (1898); Cardinal Newman, An Appreciation (1901).
Among eminent persons interred here are John Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, Susanna, mother of John and Charles Wesley, and George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends.
Up to this time a great majority of the Baptists admitted none either to membership or communion who were not baptized, the principal exception being the churches in Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, founded or influenced by Bunyan, who maintained that difference of opinion in respect to water baptism was no bar to communion.
The misdirected activity of the civil magistrate in the 17th century is illustrated by the familiar literature of Butler, Bunyan and others.
Very striking is the description, like that given six centuries later by Marco Polo, of the quasi-supernatural horrors that beset the lonely traveller in the wilderness - the visions of armies and banners; and the manner in which they are dissipated singularly recalls passages in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
JOHN BUNYAN (1628-1688), English religious writer, was born at Elstow, about a mile from Bedford, in November 1628.
His father, Thomas Bunyan,' was a tinker, or, as he described himself, a "brasier."
Bunyan's father had a fixed residence, and was able to send his son to a village school where reading and writing were taught.
It was long an ordinary practice with pious writers to cite Bunyan as an instance of the supernatural power of divine grace to rescue the human soul from the lowest depths of wickedness.
It is quite certain that Bunyan was, at eighteen, what, in any but the most austerely puritanical circles, would have been considered as a young man of singular gravity and innocence.
But Bunyan's notions of good and evil had been learned in a very different school; and he was made miserable by the conflict between his tastes and his scruples.
They were small freeholders, but all the property except the cottage had been lost in the time of Bunyan's grandfather.
Bunyan's own account of his family as the "meanest and most despised of all the families of the land" must be put down to his habitual self-depreciation.
Thomas Bunyan had a forge and workshop at Elstow.
Bunyan ever after considered himself as having been saved from death by the special interference of Providence.
In 1646 Bunyan returned home and married about two years later.
The story of the struggle is told in Bunyan's Grace Abounding.
Neither the books which Bunyan read, nor the advisers whom he consulted, were likely to do much good in a case like his.
"I am afraid," said Bunyan, "that I have committed the sin against the Holy Ghost."
Bunyan was finally relieved from the internal sufferings which had embittered his life by sharp persecution from without.
1 Bunyan had joined, in 1653, the nonconformist community which met under a certain Mr Gifford at St John's church, Bedford.
When Bunyan removed to Bedford in 1655, he became a deacon of this church, and two years later he was formally recognized as a preacher, his fame soon spreading through the neighbouring counties.
Bunyan's works were coarse, indeed, but they showed a keen mother wit, a great command of the homely mother tongue, an intimate knowledge of the English Bible, and a vast and dearly bought spiritual experience.
Much of Bunyan's time was spent in controversy.
The most acrimonious of all his works is his Defence of Justification by Faith, an answer to what Bunyan calls "the brutish and beastly latitudinarianism" of Edward Fowler, afterwards bishop of Gloucester, an excellent man, but not free from the taint of Pelagianism.
Bunyan had also a dispute with some of the chiefs of the sect to which he belonged.
The cause which Bunyan had defended with rude logic and rhetoric against Kiffin and Danvers has since been pleaded by Robert Hall with an ingenuity and eloquence such as no polemical writer has ever surpassed.
During the years which immediately followed the Restoration, Bunyan's confinement seems to have been strict.
Bunyan was consequently set at large.'
He would have thought it a sin to borrow any time from the serious business of his life, from his expositions, ' His formal pardon is dated the 13th of September 1672; but five months earlier he had received a royal licence to preach, and acted for the next three years as pastor of the nonconformist body to which he belonged, in a barn on the site of which stands the present Bunyan Meeting.
It is now generally supposed that Bunyan wrote his Pilgrim's Progress, not during his twelve years' imprisonment, but during a short period of incarceration in 1675, probably in the old gaol on the bridge.
There had been a time when the cant of such fools would have made Bunyan miserable.
Bunyan has told us, with very pardonable vanity, that in New England his dream was the daily subject of the conversation of thousands, and was thought worthy to appear in the most superb binding.
Bunyan's place in society was now very different from what it had been.
He had so great an authority among the Baptists that he was popularly called Bishop Bunyan.
Two eminent Baptists, with whom Bunyan had been engaged in controversy, were in great peril and distress.
The tradition is that, during those evil days, Bunyan was forced to disguise himself as a wagoner, and that he preached to his congregation at Bedford in a smock-frock, with a cart-whip in his hand.
Some of the creatures of the government tried to secure the aid of Bunyan.
Bunyan was not deceived.
Bunyan did not live to see the Revolution.
The fame of Bunyan during his life, and during the century which followed his death, was indeed great, but was almost entirely confined to religious families of the middle and lower classes.
But the peculiar glory of Bunyan is that those who most hated his doctrines have tried to borrow the help of his genius.
The task was not easy; for it was necessary to make two sacraments the most prominent objects in the allegory, and of all Christian theologians, avowed Quakers excepted, Bunyan was the one in whose system the sacraments held the least prominent place.
Bunyan's works were first partially collected in a folio volume (1692) by his friend Charles Doe.
Southey's edition (1830) of the Pilgrim's Progress contained his Life of Bunyan.
Venables (1888); but the standard work on the subject is John Bunyan; his Life, Times and Work (1885), by the Rev. J.
Why, then, would a Puritan like Bunyan write allegory at all?
long-drawn-out affairs; years may pass before the seeker finds Christ and peace, as in Bunyan's case.
Meanwhile, like Bunyan and many other puritans, Cromwell had been passing through a trying period of mental and religious change and struggle, beginning with deep melancholy and religious doubt and depression, and ending with "seeing light" and with enthusiastic and convinced faith, which remained henceforth the chief characteristic and impulse in his career.
At another time Bunyan was disturbed by a strange dilemma: "If I have not faith, I am lost; if I have faith, I can work miracles."
Overall, this is a sophisticated rustic Syrah, a sort of a metrosexual Paul Bunyan.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.