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bulgarians

bulgarians Sentence Examples

  • In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.

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  • the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.

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  • When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).

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  • A serious breach with Russia followed, which was widened by the part which the prince subsequently played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians.

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  • The terror of their name had long preceded them, and Bela, in 1235 or 1236, sent the Dominican monk Julian, by way of Constantinople, to Russia, to collect information about them from the "ancient Magyars" settled there, possibly the Volgan Bulgarians.

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  • The population, of which more than twothirds are Bulgarians, and about one-sixth Spanish Jews, was 20,501 in 1881, 30,428 in 1888, 46,593 in 1893 and 82,187 in 1907.

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  • The town was taken by the Bulgarians under Krum in A.D.

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  • About 77% Bulgarians, the rest mostly Bohemians (Czechs).

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  • Ethnologically the Bulgarians ought perhaps to come here; but, as a large admixture of Slav blood flows in their veins and they speak a distinctly Slav language, they have in this table been grouped with the Slays.

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  • Russia was 'the seat of the empire' of the Khazars, who drove the Bulgarians, descendants of the Huns, from the Don, one Section of them migia.tiug up thu Volga to found there the Bulgarian empire, and the remainder travelling towards the Danube.

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  • (Servians, Bulgarians, Croatians, &c.), and the E.

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  • Russia, even then were subdivided into Ugrians, Permyaks, Bulgarians and Finns proper, who drove back the previous Lapp population from what is now Finland, and about the 7th century penetrated to the S.

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  • Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.

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  • Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, Jews and Gipsies.

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  • In 1207 he died, killed in battle with the Bulgarians.

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  • The Roman empire kept back the Persians and Parthians, but could not prevent a series of incursions by Avars, Huns, Bulgarians, and later by Mongols and Turks.

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  • the Bulgarians) settled down without keeping up any connexion with Asia.

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  • against the Arabs, Sla y s and Bulgarians.

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  • After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.

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  • In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).

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  • Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.

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  • Of the Aryan races the Slavs - Serbs, Bulgarians, Pomaks and Cossacks - and the Greeks predominate, the other representatives being chiefly Albanians and Kurds.

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  • The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.

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  • The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.

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  • The population is composed of Turks, Greeks and Bulgarians.

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  • In the 9th century it was captured by the Bulgarians, and held by them until the beginning of the 11th century, when the Byzantine emperor Basil II.

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  • From that time it was constantly changing hands - Greeks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, replacing each other in turn.

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  • The only exception is formed by the Banat, where Magyars, Rumanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats and Germans live mixed together.

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  • The Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats and Avars in the southern provinces were subdued with equal ease.

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  • Enver put himself at the head of the troops, and in July 1913 made a triumphal entry into Adrianople, which had already been evacuated by the Bulgarians.

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  • transplanted many Paulicians from Germanicia, Doliche, Melitene, and Theodosiupolis (Erzerum), to Thrace, to defend the empire from Bulgarians and Sclavonians.

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  • Meanwhile Terbelis, king of the Bulgarians, plundered up to the walls of Constantinople, and shortly afterwards the Saracens made similar inroads from the Asiatic side.

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  • They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.

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  • The official titles recorded by Ibn Fadlan are those in use amongst the Tatar nations of that age, whether Huns, Bulgarians, Turks or Mongols.

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  • Some too amongst the medieval authorities (Ibn Haugal and Istakhri) note a resemblance between the speech in use amongst the Khazars and the Bulgarians; and the modern Magyar - a Ugrian language - can be traced back to a tribe which in the 9th century formed part of the Khazar kingdom.

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  • They appear in European history as White Huns (Ephthalites), White Ugrians (Sar-ogours), White Bulgarians.

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  • Indeed his dominion became an object of uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.

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  • Disastrous campaigns against the Bulgarians and Arabs afforded her an opportunity of rousing the contempt and hatred of the people against their ruler.

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  • The popular hero of the Servians and Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich, son of Vukashin, characterized by Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.

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  • Villehardouin himself before long received an important command against the Bulgarians.

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  • Angelus against the Bulgarians.

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  • In the war between Servia and Bulgaria in 1885 the Bulgarians occupied and held it until the conclusion of peace.

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  • In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Servia after the abdication of King Milan.

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  • The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.

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  • The Bulgarians, who took Serres on Nov.

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  • At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.

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  • Through her agency an important bulwark for the Christian faith was created in the new nations which had sprung into existence since the beginning of the middle ages: the Bulgarians, the Servians, and the multifarious peoples grouped under the name of Russians.

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  • The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.

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  • In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.

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  • He failed in an attempt to recover Cyprus from a rebellious noble, and by the oppressiveness of his taxes drove the Bulgarians and Vlachs to revolt (1186).

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  • This has been partly preserved in some of their literary remains, and has taken deep root in the beliefs and traditions of the Bulgarians and other nations with whom they had come into close contact.

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  • Settled along the Balkans as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgars, the Armenians on the contrary soon fraternized with the newcomers, whom they converted to their own views; even a prince of the Bulgarians adopted their teaching.

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  • Pop. (1905), about 16,000, of whom about half are Greeks, and the remainder Bulgarians, Turks and Jews.

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  • In 813 and again in 1206 it was sacked by the Bulgarians, but it continues to appear as a place of considerable note in later Byzantine history.

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  • Eastward the Empire was overrun by the Turks; from the north Bulgarians and Vlachs descended unchecked to ravage the plains of Macedonia and Thrace; while Alexius squandered the public treasure on his palaces and gardens.

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  • (382-3 3 6 B.C.), and destroyed by the Bulgarians in A.D.

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  • From the creation of the Bulgarian patriarchate of Ochrida in 893 to its abolition in 1767 the city was the ecclesiastical headquarters of the Bulgarians in the west of the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • In the 9th century it is said to have repulsed the Saracens; in the 10th it defended itself against the Narentine pirates, and Simeon, tsar of the Bulgarians.

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  • But hardly had the new state been established when various provinces rose in rebellion and the Bulgarians invaded Thrace.

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  • Jews, Armenians, Bulgarians, Ruthenians and Greeks are also represented in the medley of peoples.

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  • The Serbo-Croats of Dalmatia, and Croatia-Slavonia, some of the Gheg tribes in Albania, about 21% of the Bosnians, a still smaller number of Bulgarians in the kingdom and in Macedonia and a few Greeks in the islands belong to the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • He first appears in history when, as bishop of Porto, he was sent on an embassy to the Bulgarians.

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  • He is a great figure in Servian poetry, and his deeds are also told in the epic poems of the Rumanians and the Bulgarians.

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  • The former contains an interesting account of the origin and migrations of the Bulgarians.

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  • Here his chief aim was to liberate from Turkish domination and bring under the influence of Russia the Christian nationalities in general and the Bulgarians in particular.

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  • Possibly the Bulgarians and Khazars were offshoots of the same horde.

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  • Many, however, appear to have returned to what is now South Russia, and may perhaps have taken part in the ethnical combinations which produced the Bulgarians.

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  • There are not more than 10,000 to 15,000 Uniat Bulgarians, who have been ruled since 1883 by three vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenians and Melchites in Constantinople belong to the Eastern patriarchates.

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  • Elected as the tool of the bigoted orthodox party in the Church, Michael diligently persecuted the iconoclasts on the northern and eastern frontiers of the empire, but meanwhile allowed the Bulgarians to ravage a great part of Macedonia and Thrace; having at last taken the field in the spring of 813, he was defeated near Bersinikia, and Leo the Armenian was saluted emperor in his stead in the following summer.

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  • The city was plundered by the Saracens in 840, and by the Bulgarians in 1102.

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  • To aid the Bulgarians in the siege of Adrianople, it sent the II.

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  • In view of the urgency of occupying Salonika before the Bulgarians arrived, the Crown Prince decided to leave only flank guards (5th Div.

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  • Nevertheless, the actual plan of campaign of the Bulgarians still remains obscure - all that is known being the fact that the first successes caused it to be abandoned.

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  • The Bulgarians, on their side, allocated a whole army to the task of dealing with it, by investment, brusque assault or regular siege, or a combination of those methods.

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  • Columns (a) and (b), forming the strongest part of the army, and also column (c) soon met with strong resistance (morning 22nd), and the country, the weather (stormy since the 20th) and tactical incidents making progress uneven, the front at nightfall of the 22nd was very sinuous, the Turks holding pronounced salients at Eski Polos, and .also at Almajik, while the Bulgarians had penetrated nearly to Kadikoi in the centre and within 2 m.

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  • And thereupon, worn out by two days' hill fighting and lacking in internal homogeneity, Mahmud Mukhtar's Corps broke up, abandoning Kirk Kilisse and its fortifications, and streamed away in panic. The Bulgarians entered Kirk Kilisse on the 24th and possessed themselves of immense booty, including 55 guns.

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  • This information, showing that the Ergene line had been abandoned, and that Abdalla was regrouping his forces and assembling his incoming reserve divisions in the Lule Burgas-Vaisa region, involved a complete change of front for the Bulgarians.

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  • On the 27th the Bulgarian wheel began, but instead of its being carried out on a fixed pivot, the pivot itself was allowed to advance eastward, so that, instead of presenting a united line, the Bulgarians formed a loose echelon, left in advance, which led to successive instead of simultaneous engagements.

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  • I, with various tactical incidents, of which the most important was a successful night-attack of the Bulgarians at Turk Bey, the Turks disengaged themselves, beginning from the left, and by the 2nd the three corps on the right were also in retreat.

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  • On their side, the Bulgarians were tired, far ahead of their supply depots, and losing more and more men daily from sickness.

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  • On Dec. 3, without further fighting on the Chatalja front, a general armistice was signed, more favourable to the Bulgarians perhaps than their military situation warranted, for it gave them the use of the railway through Adrianople without allowing the Turks to revictual that place.

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  • An effort was indeed made by the Turkish field forces in Thrace to debouch from the lines of Bulair and those of Chatalja simultaneously with a view to relieving Adrianople, but after locally heavy fighting the Bulgarians succeeded in holding their own on each of these fronts, and thereafter Adrianople was left to its fate.'

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  • 25, Kartal Tepe was captured, and Papas Tepe won and lost again), the Bulgarians sat down to await the Serbians, whose II.

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  • During the day of the 25th the Bulgarians suffered a good deal in the captured positions, but Gen.

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  • This great triumph cost the Bulgarians on the E.

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  • For their part the Bulgarians used the railway lines Adrianople - Sofia and Dede Aghach - Seres (the latter secured by the conquest of the coastal region by the 7th and 2nd Divs.

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  • But the Bulgarians had skilfully exploited their primacy during the first war to induce the European press and public to regard Serbians and Greeks as mere satellites,' and, as is not unusually the case with successful propaganda, they had come to believe in it themselves, fortified in the belief by fulsome compliments addressing them as the "Prussians of the Balkans" and the "Japanese of the West."

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  • At the apex of the Serbian salient the Bulgarians had obtained a firm hold on Car Vrh.

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  • But the Bulgarians, in order to relieve pressure and to keep their hold upon Western opinion, seized the initiative again while the regrouping was in process and the Greeks had hardly yet entered the Struma and Strumitsa valleys.

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  • Finally, however, the Bulgarians were repulsed here also, and retired to the line of frontier mountains (Golemi Vrh-Bozderitsa-Rujan-Sivakobila), more or less in touch with the right of the forces in the mountains of the Bregalnitsa bend.

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  • Yet this relative inactivity of the Serbs gave the Bulgarians one more opportunity, which they seized.

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  • But the capacity of resistance of the Greek troops, especially in mountain country for which their aptitude was remarkable throughout these campaigns, enabled them to weather the first crisis; they were reinforced from the left as well as from the rear, and on the night of the 26th-27th the Bulgarians withdrew towards the Jumaya Pass.

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  • From the earliest times the Bulgarians had occupied an anomalous position on the borders of Eastern and Western Christendom, but they had ultimately become subject to Constantinople.

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  • The Porte espoused the cause of the Bulgarians, partly to pacify them, but still more to strengthen its hold on all the Christians of Turkey by fostering their differences.

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  • Ultimately, on 28th February 1870, the sultan issued a firman constituting a new church, including all Bulgarians who desired to join it within the vilayet of the Danube (i.e.

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  • It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.

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  • The position is further complicated by the fact that many Bulgarians, both within and without the kingdom of Bulgaria, still remain subject to the patriarch.

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  • The Bulgarians of course say they are not schismatics, but a national branch of the Church Catholic, using their sacred right to manage their own affairs in their own way.

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  • Theodore's grandson, Theodore (Lascaris), emperor from 125 4 to 1258, is chiefly noticeable for two brilliant campaigns by which he recovered Thrace from the Bulgarians (1255-56).

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  • (1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.

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  • It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.

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  • In the following century the Goths poured into this quarter of the empire, and in the 5th century it was overrun one after the other by the Huns, the Avars and the Bulgarians.

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  • The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.

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  • The interior of the Dobrudja is occupied largely by Turks and Bulgarians, with Tatars, Russians and Armenians, but here the Ruman steadily gains ground at the expense of the alien.

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  • By the treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the Russians rewarded their Rumanian allies with this land of mountains, fens and barren steppes, peopled by Turks, Bulgarians, Tatars, Jews and other aliens; while, to add to the indignation of Rumania, they annexed instead the fertile country of Bessarabia, largely inhabited by Rumans.

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  • Pop. (1892) 11,718; (1900) 12,133; (1908) 12,055, of whom 6142 were Bulgarians and 4126 Turks.

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  • (c. 958-1025), known as Bilgaroktonos (slayer of Bulgarians), Roman emperor in the East, son of Romanus II.

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  • the Armenian built the wall which stands in front of the wall of Heraclius to strengthen that point in view of an expected attack by the Bulgarians.

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  • If we leave out of account the attacks upon the city in the course of the civil wars between rival parties in the empire, the fortifications of Constantinople were assailed by the Avars in 627; by the Saracens in 673-677, and again in 718; by the Bulgarians in 813 and 913; by the forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1203-1204; by the Turks in 1422 and 1453.

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  • The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians.

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  • In 1268 he undertook an expedition against the Bulgarians, conquering the land as far as Tirnova and styling himself henceforth king of Bulgaria.

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  • These territories had been occupied, under Turkish rule, by Albanians, west of the Morava, and by Bulgarians, along the Nishava; but, after 1878, the Albanians withdrew, and the Bulgarians were absorbed.

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  • The danger increased when the Bulgarians came, towards the end of the 7th century, and formed a powerful kingdom on the eastern and south-eastern frontiers of the Serbs.

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  • But after the death of Samuel the Bulgarian power rapidly lost the Serb provinces, which, to get rid of the Bulgarians, again acknowledged the Greek overlordship. About 1042, however, Prince Voislav of Travuniya (Trebinje), cousin of the assassinated Vladimir of Zetta, started a successful insurrection against the Greeks, and united under his own rule Travuniya, Zahumlye and Zetta.

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  • yezika, Belgrade, 1874), the Servians were the first Slavonic branch which separated from the original Slavonic stem, while the Russians and the Bulgarians only separated from it at a considerably later date.

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  • That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.

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  • Under this denomination he comprised Servians, Croats, Slovenes and Bulgarians, anticipating the modern appellations of the Yugo-Sloveni (Southern Slays).

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  • (Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).

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  • But after the surrender of Eastern Macedonia to the Bulgarians (Aug.

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  • (c. 94 0 -94 6), his successor Miroslav, and especially Kresimir II., surnamed the Great (c. 1000-1 035), who harried the Bulgarians, at that time a powerful nation, and conquered a large part of Dalmatia, including some of the Italian cities.

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  • The inhabitants, among whom are many Turks and Bulgarians, are mostly fisherfolk.

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  • The order thus imposed lasted twenty-four years, until a military revolution placed a soldier of fortune, half Armenian, half Persian, named Leo, on the throne; he, like his soldiers, was persuaded that the ill-success of the Roman arms against Bulgarians and other invaders was due to the idolatry rampant at court and elsewhere.

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  • It is generally considered to have been the capital of the Bulgarians when they were established in that part of Europe (5th to 15th century).

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  • On his northern frontier he began a war against the Bulgarians, to whom the Byzantines had of late been paying tribute (967), and by instigating an attack from the Russians distracted their attention effectively.

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  • The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was often applied to the Albigenses, and they always kept up intercourse with the Bogomil sectaries of Thrace.

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  • The quarrel broke out again and, notwithstanding the help of the Bulgarians, the older emperor was compelled to abdicate, 1328.

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  • Seven British children even study in the local school, and a fellow countrywoman of theirs teaches Bulgarians English there.

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  • deputyler, the chairman of the Communist deputies to the Reichstag and a number of other communists are arrested including several Bulgarians.

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  • In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.

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  • the Bulgarians conquered the southern portion of the country and Epirus as far as Khimara; under their powerful tsar Simeon (893-927), who defeated the Servians, they established their rule on the Adriatic littoral, except at Durazzo, which remained Byzantine, and colonized these regions in great numbers.

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  • When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).

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  • A serious breach with Russia followed, which was widened by the part which the prince subsequently played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians.

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  • The terror of their name had long preceded them, and Bela, in 1235 or 1236, sent the Dominican monk Julian, by way of Constantinople, to Russia, to collect information about them from the "ancient Magyars" settled there, possibly the Volgan Bulgarians.

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  • The population, of which more than twothirds are Bulgarians, and about one-sixth Spanish Jews, was 20,501 in 1881, 30,428 in 1888, 46,593 in 1893 and 82,187 in 1907.

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  • The town was taken by the Bulgarians under Krum in A.D.

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  • About 77% Bulgarians, the rest mostly Bohemians (Czechs).

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  • Ethnologically the Bulgarians ought perhaps to come here; but, as a large admixture of Slav blood flows in their veins and they speak a distinctly Slav language, they have in this table been grouped with the Slays.

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  • Russia was 'the seat of the empire' of the Khazars, who drove the Bulgarians, descendants of the Huns, from the Don, one Section of them migia.tiug up thu Volga to found there the Bulgarian empire, and the remainder travelling towards the Danube.

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  • (Servians, Bulgarians, Croatians, &c.), and the E.

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  • Russia, even then were subdivided into Ugrians, Permyaks, Bulgarians and Finns proper, who drove back the previous Lapp population from what is now Finland, and about the 7th century penetrated to the S.

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  • Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.

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  • Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, Jews and Gipsies.

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  • In 1207 he died, killed in battle with the Bulgarians.

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  • (i.) The early invasions of Europe by the Avars, Huns and Bulgarians.

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  • The Roman empire kept back the Persians and Parthians, but could not prevent a series of incursions by Avars, Huns, Bulgarians, and later by Mongols and Turks.

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  • the Bulgarians) settled down without keeping up any connexion with Asia.

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  • against the Arabs, Sla y s and Bulgarians.

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  • After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.

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  • In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).

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  • Some improvement was now effected in the financial administration, but the genera] state of the country continued to grow worse; large funds were collected abroad by the committees at Athens, which despatched numerous bands largely composed of Cretans into the southern districts, the Servians displayed renewed activity in the north, while the Bulgarians offered a dogged resistance to all their foes.

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  • Of the Aryan races the Slavs - Serbs, Bulgarians, Pomaks and Cossacks - and the Greeks predominate, the other representatives being chiefly Albanians and Kurds.

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  • The Bulgarians, Bosnians and Servians had at different periods invaded and conquered the territories inhabited by them; the Albanians, original natives of their land, were governed by princes of their own.

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  • The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.

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  • The population is composed of Turks, Greeks and Bulgarians.

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  • In the 9th century it was captured by the Bulgarians, and held by them until the beginning of the 11th century, when the Byzantine emperor Basil II.

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  • From that time it was constantly changing hands - Greeks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, replacing each other in turn.

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  • The only exception is formed by the Banat, where Magyars, Rumanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats and Germans live mixed together.

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  • The Bulgarians, Serbs, Croats and Avars in the southern provinces were subdued with equal ease.

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  • Enver put himself at the head of the troops, and in July 1913 made a triumphal entry into Adrianople, which had already been evacuated by the Bulgarians.

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  • transplanted many Paulicians from Germanicia, Doliche, Melitene, and Theodosiupolis (Erzerum), to Thrace, to defend the empire from Bulgarians and Sclavonians.

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  • Meanwhile Terbelis, king of the Bulgarians, plundered up to the walls of Constantinople, and shortly afterwards the Saracens made similar inroads from the Asiatic side.

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  • They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.

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  • The official titles recorded by Ibn Fadlan are those in use amongst the Tatar nations of that age, whether Huns, Bulgarians, Turks or Mongols.

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  • Some too amongst the medieval authorities (Ibn Haugal and Istakhri) note a resemblance between the speech in use amongst the Khazars and the Bulgarians; and the modern Magyar - a Ugrian language - can be traced back to a tribe which in the 9th century formed part of the Khazar kingdom.

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  • They appear in European history as White Huns (Ephthalites), White Ugrians (Sar-ogours), White Bulgarians.

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  • Indeed his dominion became an object of uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.

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  • Disastrous campaigns against the Bulgarians and Arabs afforded her an opportunity of rousing the contempt and hatred of the people against their ruler.

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  • The popular hero of the Servians and Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich, son of Vukashin, characterized by Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.

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  • Villehardouin himself before long received an important command against the Bulgarians.

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  • Angelus against the Bulgarians.

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  • In the war between Servia and Bulgaria in 1885 the Bulgarians occupied and held it until the conclusion of peace.

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  • In 1885 he interfered after the battle of Slivnitza to arrest the advance of the Bulgarians on Belgrade, but he lost influence in Servia after the abdication of King Milan.

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  • of the whole, Germans (5.4 per cent.), Bulgarians (2.8 per cent.), Jews (3.8 per cent.), and Armenians.

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  • The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.

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  • The Bulgarians, who took Serres on Nov.

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  • At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.

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  • Through her agency an important bulwark for the Christian faith was created in the new nations which had sprung into existence since the beginning of the middle ages: the Bulgarians, the Servians, and the multifarious peoples grouped under the name of Russians.

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  • The Czechs and the Slovaks, or, to give them their united name, the Czechoslovaks, are a branch of the great Slav family of which the Russians are the most numerous and the most important member and to which the Serbo-Croats with the Slovenes, the Poles, the Bulgarians and the Wends of Germany also belong.

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  • In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.

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  • He failed in an attempt to recover Cyprus from a rebellious noble, and by the oppressiveness of his taxes drove the Bulgarians and Vlachs to revolt (1186).

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  • This has been partly preserved in some of their literary remains, and has taken deep root in the beliefs and traditions of the Bulgarians and other nations with whom they had come into close contact.

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  • Settled along the Balkans as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgars, the Armenians on the contrary soon fraternized with the newcomers, whom they converted to their own views; even a prince of the Bulgarians adopted their teaching.

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  • Pop. (1905), about 16,000, of whom about half are Greeks, and the remainder Bulgarians, Turks and Jews.

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  • In 813 and again in 1206 it was sacked by the Bulgarians, but it continues to appear as a place of considerable note in later Byzantine history.

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  • Eastward the Empire was overrun by the Turks; from the north Bulgarians and Vlachs descended unchecked to ravage the plains of Macedonia and Thrace; while Alexius squandered the public treasure on his palaces and gardens.

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  • (382-3 3 6 B.C.), and destroyed by the Bulgarians in A.D.

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  • From the creation of the Bulgarian patriarchate of Ochrida in 893 to its abolition in 1767 the city was the ecclesiastical headquarters of the Bulgarians in the west of the Balkan Peninsula.

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  • In the 9th century it is said to have repulsed the Saracens; in the 10th it defended itself against the Narentine pirates, and Simeon, tsar of the Bulgarians.

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  • But hardly had the new state been established when various provinces rose in rebellion and the Bulgarians invaded Thrace.

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  • Jews, Armenians, Bulgarians, Ruthenians and Greeks are also represented in the medley of peoples.

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  • The Serbo-Croats of Dalmatia, and Croatia-Slavonia, some of the Gheg tribes in Albania, about 21% of the Bosnians, a still smaller number of Bulgarians in the kingdom and in Macedonia and a few Greeks in the islands belong to the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • He first appears in history when, as bishop of Porto, he was sent on an embassy to the Bulgarians.

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  • He is a great figure in Servian poetry, and his deeds are also told in the epic poems of the Rumanians and the Bulgarians.

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  • The former contains an interesting account of the origin and migrations of the Bulgarians.

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  • Here his chief aim was to liberate from Turkish domination and bring under the influence of Russia the Christian nationalities in general and the Bulgarians in particular.

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  • Possibly the Bulgarians and Khazars were offshoots of the same horde.

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  • Many, however, appear to have returned to what is now South Russia, and may perhaps have taken part in the ethnical combinations which produced the Bulgarians.

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  • There are not more than 10,000 to 15,000 Uniat Bulgarians, who have been ruled since 1883 by three vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenians and Melchites in Constantinople belong to the Eastern patriarchates.

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  • Elected as the tool of the bigoted orthodox party in the Church, Michael diligently persecuted the iconoclasts on the northern and eastern frontiers of the empire, but meanwhile allowed the Bulgarians to ravage a great part of Macedonia and Thrace; having at last taken the field in the spring of 813, he was defeated near Bersinikia, and Leo the Armenian was saluted emperor in his stead in the following summer.

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  • The city was plundered by the Saracens in 840, and by the Bulgarians in 1102.

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  • To aid the Bulgarians in the siege of Adrianople, it sent the II.

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  • In view of the urgency of occupying Salonika before the Bulgarians arrived, the Crown Prince decided to leave only flank guards (5th Div.

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  • Nevertheless, the actual plan of campaign of the Bulgarians still remains obscure - all that is known being the fact that the first successes caused it to be abandoned.

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  • on the Macedonian side, the Bulgarians formed three armies between Philippopolis, Trnovo-Seimen, and Yamboli, the latter with especial precautions of secrecy.

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  • The Bulgarians, on their side, allocated a whole army to the task of dealing with it, by investment, brusque assault or regular siege, or a combination of those methods.

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  • Columns (a) and (b), forming the strongest part of the army, and also column (c) soon met with strong resistance (morning 22nd), and the country, the weather (stormy since the 20th) and tactical incidents making progress uneven, the front at nightfall of the 22nd was very sinuous, the Turks holding pronounced salients at Eski Polos, and .also at Almajik, while the Bulgarians had penetrated nearly to Kadikoi in the centre and within 2 m.

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  • And thereupon, worn out by two days' hill fighting and lacking in internal homogeneity, Mahmud Mukhtar's Corps broke up, abandoning Kirk Kilisse and its fortifications, and streamed away in panic. The Bulgarians entered Kirk Kilisse on the 24th and possessed themselves of immense booty, including 55 guns.

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  • This information, showing that the Ergene line had been abandoned, and that Abdalla was regrouping his forces and assembling his incoming reserve divisions in the Lule Burgas-Vaisa region, involved a complete change of front for the Bulgarians.

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  • On the 27th the Bulgarian wheel began, but instead of its being carried out on a fixed pivot, the pivot itself was allowed to advance eastward, so that, instead of presenting a united line, the Bulgarians formed a loose echelon, left in advance, which led to successive instead of simultaneous engagements.

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  • I, with various tactical incidents, of which the most important was a successful night-attack of the Bulgarians at Turk Bey, the Turks disengaged themselves, beginning from the left, and by the 2nd the three corps on the right were also in retreat.

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  • On their side, the Bulgarians were tired, far ahead of their supply depots, and losing more and more men daily from sickness.

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  • On Dec. 3, without further fighting on the Chatalja front, a general armistice was signed, more favourable to the Bulgarians perhaps than their military situation warranted, for it gave them the use of the railway through Adrianople without allowing the Turks to revictual that place.

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  • An effort was indeed made by the Turkish field forces in Thrace to debouch from the lines of Bulair and those of Chatalja simultaneously with a view to relieving Adrianople, but after locally heavy fighting the Bulgarians succeeded in holding their own on each of these fronts, and thereafter Adrianople was left to its fate.'

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  • 25, Kartal Tepe was captured, and Papas Tepe won and lost again), the Bulgarians sat down to await the Serbians, whose II.

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  • During the day of the 25th the Bulgarians suffered a good deal in the captured positions, but Gen.

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  • This great triumph cost the Bulgarians on the E.

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  • For their part the Bulgarians used the railway lines Adrianople - Sofia and Dede Aghach - Seres (the latter secured by the conquest of the coastal region by the 7th and 2nd Divs.

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  • But the Bulgarians had skilfully exploited their primacy during the first war to induce the European press and public to regard Serbians and Greeks as mere satellites,' and, as is not unusually the case with successful propaganda, they had come to believe in it themselves, fortified in the belief by fulsome compliments addressing them as the "Prussians of the Balkans" and the "Japanese of the West."

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  • At the apex of the Serbian salient the Bulgarians had obtained a firm hold on Car Vrh.

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  • But the Bulgarians, in order to relieve pressure and to keep their hold upon Western opinion, seized the initiative again while the regrouping was in process and the Greeks had hardly yet entered the Struma and Strumitsa valleys.

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  • Finally, however, the Bulgarians were repulsed here also, and retired to the line of frontier mountains (Golemi Vrh-Bozderitsa-Rujan-Sivakobila), more or less in touch with the right of the forces in the mountains of the Bregalnitsa bend.

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  • Yet this relative inactivity of the Serbs gave the Bulgarians one more opportunity, which they seized.

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  • But the capacity of resistance of the Greek troops, especially in mountain country for which their aptitude was remarkable throughout these campaigns, enabled them to weather the first crisis; they were reinforced from the left as well as from the rear, and on the night of the 26th-27th the Bulgarians withdrew towards the Jumaya Pass.

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  • From the earliest times the Bulgarians had occupied an anomalous position on the borders of Eastern and Western Christendom, but they had ultimately become subject to Constantinople.

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  • The Porte espoused the cause of the Bulgarians, partly to pacify them, but still more to strengthen its hold on all the Christians of Turkey by fostering their differences.

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  • Ultimately, on 28th February 1870, the sultan issued a firman constituting a new church, including all Bulgarians who desired to join it within the vilayet of the Danube (i.e.

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  • It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.

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  • The position is further complicated by the fact that many Bulgarians, both within and without the kingdom of Bulgaria, still remain subject to the patriarch.

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  • The Bulgarians of course say they are not schismatics, but a national branch of the Church Catholic, using their sacred right to manage their own affairs in their own way.

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  • Theodore's grandson, Theodore (Lascaris), emperor from 125 4 to 1258, is chiefly noticeable for two brilliant campaigns by which he recovered Thrace from the Bulgarians (1255-56).

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  • Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.

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  • (1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.

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  • It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.

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  • In the following century the Goths poured into this quarter of the empire, and in the 5th century it was overrun one after the other by the Huns, the Avars and the Bulgarians.

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  • The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.

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  • The interior of the Dobrudja is occupied largely by Turks and Bulgarians, with Tatars, Russians and Armenians, but here the Ruman steadily gains ground at the expense of the alien.

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  • By the treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the Russians rewarded their Rumanian allies with this land of mountains, fens and barren steppes, peopled by Turks, Bulgarians, Tatars, Jews and other aliens; while, to add to the indignation of Rumania, they annexed instead the fertile country of Bessarabia, largely inhabited by Rumans.

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  • Pop. (1892) 11,718; (1900) 12,133; (1908) 12,055, of whom 6142 were Bulgarians and 4126 Turks.

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  • (c. 958-1025), known as Bilgaroktonos (slayer of Bulgarians), Roman emperor in the East, son of Romanus II.

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  • the Armenian built the wall which stands in front of the wall of Heraclius to strengthen that point in view of an expected attack by the Bulgarians.

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  • If we leave out of account the attacks upon the city in the course of the civil wars between rival parties in the empire, the fortifications of Constantinople were assailed by the Avars in 627; by the Saracens in 673-677, and again in 718; by the Bulgarians in 813 and 913; by the forces of the Fourth Crusade in 1203-1204; by the Turks in 1422 and 1453.

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  • The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians.

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  • In 1268 he undertook an expedition against the Bulgarians, conquering the land as far as Tirnova and styling himself henceforth king of Bulgaria.

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  • These territories had been occupied, under Turkish rule, by Albanians, west of the Morava, and by Bulgarians, along the Nishava; but, after 1878, the Albanians withdrew, and the Bulgarians were absorbed.

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  • The danger increased when the Bulgarians came, towards the end of the 7th century, and formed a powerful kingdom on the eastern and south-eastern frontiers of the Serbs.

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  • But after the death of Samuel the Bulgarian power rapidly lost the Serb provinces, which, to get rid of the Bulgarians, again acknowledged the Greek overlordship. About 1042, however, Prince Voislav of Travuniya (Trebinje), cousin of the assassinated Vladimir of Zetta, started a successful insurrection against the Greeks, and united under his own rule Travuniya, Zahumlye and Zetta.

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  • yezika, Belgrade, 1874), the Servians were the first Slavonic branch which separated from the original Slavonic stem, while the Russians and the Bulgarians only separated from it at a considerably later date.

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  • That alphabet is called " Cyrillic " (in Servian Kyrilitsa), and is - simplified and modernized - practically the alphabet used by the Servians, Bulgarians and Russians of our times.

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  • Under this denomination he comprised Servians, Croats, Slovenes and Bulgarians, anticipating the modern appellations of the Yugo-Sloveni (Southern Slays).

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  • (Moscow, 1 754); the Short Introduction into the History of the Origin of the SlavenoServian Nation, by Paul Yulinats (Venice, 1765); and above all the History of the Slavonic Nations, more especially of the Bulgarians, Croats and Servians, by Archimandrite Yovan Raich (Vienna, 1794).

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  • But after the surrender of Eastern Macedonia to the Bulgarians (Aug.

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  • (c. 94 0 -94 6), his successor Miroslav, and especially Kresimir II., surnamed the Great (c. 1000-1 035), who harried the Bulgarians, at that time a powerful nation, and conquered a large part of Dalmatia, including some of the Italian cities.

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  • The inhabitants, among whom are many Turks and Bulgarians, are mostly fisherfolk.

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  • Ipek has been incorrectly identified by some writers with Doclea or Dioclea (Dukle in Montenegro), the birthplace of Diocletian, and the capital of a small principality which was overthrown by the Bulgarians in the 11th century.

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  • The order thus imposed lasted twenty-four years, until a military revolution placed a soldier of fortune, half Armenian, half Persian, named Leo, on the throne; he, like his soldiers, was persuaded that the ill-success of the Roman arms against Bulgarians and other invaders was due to the idolatry rampant at court and elsewhere.

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  • It is generally considered to have been the capital of the Bulgarians when they were established in that part of Europe (5th to 15th century).

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  • On his northern frontier he began a war against the Bulgarians, to whom the Byzantines had of late been paying tribute (967), and by instigating an attack from the Russians distracted their attention effectively.

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  • The name of Bulgarians (Bougres) was often applied to the Albigenses, and they always kept up intercourse with the Bogomil sectaries of Thrace.

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  • The quarrel broke out again and, notwithstanding the help of the Bulgarians, the older emperor was compelled to abdicate, 1328.

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