By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
The large number of Slavonic local names in Albania, even in districts where no trace of a Slavonic population exists, bears witness to the extensive Servian and Bulgarian immigrations in the early middle ages, but the original inhabitants gradually ousted or assimilated the invaders.
To these seven groups, which are included under the general appellation of Malissori, or "highlanders," may be added the Malsia of Dibra, who extend to the west and north of that town, and form a large separate group; they are notorious for their fierce lawless character, and maintain themselves by plundering the Bulgarian peasants in their neighbourhood.
The Orthodox Church has metropolitans at Prizren, Durazzo, Berat, Iannina and Kortcha; the Bulgarian exarchate maintains a bishop at Dibra.
The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.
A new Bulgarian dynasty, that of Shishman, was founded at Ochrida after the death of Simeon.
Shishman's son Samuel (976-1014) captured Durazzo; he extended his sway over a great part of the Balkan Peninsula, but was eventually defeated in 1014 by the emperor Basil II., who put out the eyes of 1.5,000 Bulgarian prisoners.
In his boyhood and early youth he was frequently at St Petersburg, and he accompanied his uncle, who was much attached to him, during the Bulgarian campaign of 1877.
The prince, after vainly endeavouring to obtain the recall of the generals, restored the constitution with the concurrence of all the Bulgarian political parties (September 18, 1883).
He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27).
This was partially remedied after the Bulgarian annexation of Eastern Rumelia, in 1885, had driven the Moslems of that country to emigrate in like manner to Adrianople; but the advantage was counterbalanced by the establishment of hostile Bulgarian tariffs.
Robilant, for whom the Skiernie~vice pact was no secret, followed a firmly independent policy throughout the Bulgarian crisis of 1885-1886, declining to be drawn into any action beyond that required by the treaty of Berlin and the protection.
Towards Prince Bjsmarck Robilant maintained an attitude of dignified independence, and as, in the spring of 1886, the moment for the renewal of the triple alliance drew near, he profited by the development of the Bulgarian crisis and the threatened Franco-Russian understanding to secure from the central powers something more than the bare territorial guarantee of the original treaty.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
SOFIA (Bulgarian Sredetz, the middle town, a name now little used), the capital of Bulgaria, situated almost in the centre of an upland plain, about 1700 ft.
Russia was 'the seat of the empire' of the Khazars, who drove the Bulgarians, descendants of the Huns, from the Don, one Section of them migia.tiug up thu Volga to found there the Bulgarian empire, and the remainder travelling towards the Danube.
Siberia; (c) the Volga Finns, or rather the old Bulgarian branch, to which belong the Mordvinians, and the Cheremisses in Kazan, Kostroma and Vyatka, though they are classified by some authors with the following: (d) the Permyaks, or Cis-Uralian Finns, including the Votiaks on the E.
The Bulgarian government, first under Prince Alexander and afterwards under the direction of M.
"ALEXANDER STAMBOLIISKI (1879-), Bulgarian statesman, was born at Slavovitsa in Bulgaria Sept.
In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).
At his coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar; and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
An important event not to be passed over without mention is the grant on the 10th of March 1870 of the firman instituting the Bulgarian exarchate, thus severing the Bulgarian Church from Text in Holland, p. 212.
This concession, given under strong pressure from Russia, aroused the deepest resentment of the Greeks, and was the principal factor in the awakening of the Bulgarian national spirit which subsequent events have done so much to develop. Russian influence at Constantinople had been gradually increasing, and towards the end of 1870 the tsar took advantage of the temporary disabling of France to declare himself no longer bound by those clauses of the Treaty of Paris which restricted Russia's liberty of possessing warships on the Black Sea.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
Turkey's severity in repressing the Bulgarian insurrection had raised up in England a storm of public opinion against her, of which the Liberal opposition had taken the fullest advantage; moreover the suspension of payments on the Ottoman debt had dealt Turkey's popularity a blow from which it had never recovered.
So long as Stambolov, the energetic Bulgarian statesman, was alive he succeeded in keeping the Bulgarian element quiet, and the peace of the country was less liable to disturbance.
A serious Bulgarian insurrection in Macedonia in the autumn of 1903 induced Austria and Russia to combine in formulating the Miirzsteg reform programme, tardily consented to by Turkey, by which Austrian and Russian civil agents were appointed to exercise a certain degree of control and supervision over the three vilayets of Salonica, Monastir and Kossovo.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
On the 3rd of February 1910 the Porte accepted a Bulgarian proposal for a mixed commission to delimit disputed sections of the Turco-Bulgarian frontier, and in March King Ferdinand visited Constantinople.
Both of these powers were interested in preventing any possible accession of territory to the Bulgarian kingdom; and Rumania (q.v.) had for many years been a formidable opponent of Hellenism among the Macedonian Vlachs.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.
The Serbian and Bulgarian anthems were sung on the streets, collections were made in every village for the Balkan Red Cross funds, and when Austria-Hungary mobilized, protests were heard on every side against the bare possibility of war with Serbia, which to the Yugosla y s would be a veritable civil war.
The Bulgarian kingdom was established under its first king Isperich in 679.
A ferry plies across the Danube to the Bulgarian fortress of Nicopolis.
They issued from the land of Barsilia, and extended their rule over the Bulgarian hordes left masterless by the Turks, compelling the more stubborn to migrate to the Danube (641).
Public indignation was aroused by what were known as the "Bulgarian atrocities," and Gladstone flung himself into the agitation against Turkey with characteristic zeal.
Most of the European races with which the Turks came into close contact during the 15th and 6th centuries seem to have adopted it as a loan-word, and it appears in Magyar as hajdu (plural hajduk), in Serbo-Croatian, Rumanian, Polish and Cech as hajduk, in Bulgarian as hajdutin and in Greek as xaw-rouTns.
He again led the vanguard in the emperor Henry's expedition against Burilas the Bulgarian, and he is represented by the Valenciennes scribe as encouraging his sovereign to the attack in a long speech.
The city is the headquarters of an army corps, and the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop, of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Albanians and of a Bulgarian bishop. Its principal buildings are the citadel, the palace of the vali or provincial governor, the Greek and Bulgarian schools, numerous churches and mosques and a Roman aqueduct.
from the Bulgarian frontier at Tsaribrod, on the railway line between Nish and Sofia.
The town is of great strategical importance, for which reason the Russian plenipotentiaries at the Berlin congress (1878) stubbornly tried to include it within the Bulgarian frontier, while Austria and some other Powers insisted that it should be given to Servia.
His forceful spirit was equally conspicuous in his opposition to the Church Discipline Act of 1874, and in his denunciation of the Bulgarian atrocities of 1876.
The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.
8, anxious to forestall a Bulgarian column aiming at the same objective.
The heavy and decisive operations of the war were carried out by the Bulgarian army.
The main Bulgarian advance was made south-eastward through Eastern Thrace.
The fortress of Adrianople, containing a large Turkish garrison, was thus isolated and left to Bulgarian investment.
A great attack by the Bulgarian army on this last defence of the capital took place on Nov.
Bulgarian losses were great, and the army ravaged by cholera; on Dec. 2 an armistice was concluded which remained in force until Jan.
Subsequent Bulgarian operations were confined to resisting Turkish attempts to advance from Chatalja; to the occupation of Thrace down to the Sea of Marmora; to resisting an attack on the Bulgar lines across the isthmus of the Gallipoli Peninsula; and to the capture of Adrianople.
The Bulgarian armies were on the Greek and Serbian frontiers; the force left in Thrace was weak, and the Turkish Government saw their opportunity.
It compelled the Allies to gigantic military efforts far from their own territory and bases, as the only means of countering the advantages Germany gained from Turkish and Bulgarian support.
In 1879 he organized a Bulgarian rising, but was arrested at Adrianople and sent back to Russia.
" " Dutch florins 20.6 " " Danish .kroner 7.9 " " Swedish kroner 3.6 " Bulgarian levas.
The Greeks had in all some 7000 men, Suliotes, Albanians, armatoli from Rumelia, and some irregular Bulgarian and Vlach cavalry.
He took a prominent part in the agitation which followed "the Bulgarian atrocities"; his speeches were intemperate, and he was accused of uttering the words "Perish India!"
It is the see of a Greek archbishop, and of one Armenian and two Bulgarian bishops.
It is the chief fortress near the Bulgarian frontier, being defended by a ring of powerful modern forts.
The two last named are exclusively Greek, but a large proportion of the inhabitants of Kiretchhane are Bulgarian.
According to Slavonic documents the founder of this sect was a certain priest Bogumil, who "imbibed the Manichaean teaching and flourished at the time of the Bulgarian emperor Peter" (927-968).
churches it is confined to the patriarchs and metropolitans; in the Russian, Ruthenian and Bulgarian churches it is worn by all bishops.
The plain white cross, suspended from the Bulgarian crown, bears the name of the patron saint in old Cyrillic letters in the centre.
The mis-government and financial straits of the country brought on the outbreak of Mussulman discontent and fanaticism which eventually culminated in the murder of two consuls at Salonica and in the "Bulgarian atrocities," and cost Abd-ul-Aziz his throne.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
The most important ecclesiastical event of the reign was the elevation of the Bulgarian, Gregory Tsamblak, to the metropolitan see of Kiev (1425) by Vitovt, grand-duke of Lithuania; the immediate political consequence of which was the weakening of the hold of Muscovy on the south-western Russian states.
The disaster in Tongking brought about a change of ministry in France, and Bulgarian affairs again alienated Austria and Russia.
It is the seat of Bulgarian and Greek bishops.
From the creation of the Bulgarian patriarchate of Ochrida in 893 to its abolition in 1767 the city was the ecclesiastical headquarters of the Bulgarians in the west of the Balkan Peninsula.
After 1880, the exertions of Count Kalnoky again established a fairly good understanding with Russia, as was shown by the meetings of Francis Joseph with the tsar in 1884 and 1885, but the outbreak of the Bulgarian question in 1885 again brought into prominence the opposed interests of Russia and Austria-Hungary.
His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssmn.ian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.
on the Bulgarian shore, linking the Rumanian railway system to the chief Bulgarian line north of the Balkans (Rustchuk-Varna).
The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.
The Bulgarian, Servian, Montenegrin and Greek churches are, however, in reality autocephalous.
The Bulgarian church enjoys an exceptional position, inasmuch as its spiritual chief, the exarch, who resides at Constantinople, controls the Bulgarian prelates in European Turkey as well as those in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
The Slavonic masses, however, both Servian and Bulgarian, preserved their language, which saved these nationalities from extinction.
Bulgarian, for nearly four centuries, ceased to be a written language except in a few monasteries; a literary revival, which began about the middle of the 18th century, was the first symptom of returning national consciousness.
The Servian, Bulgarian and Rumanian languages have borrowed largely from the Turkish in their vocabularies, but not in their structural forms, and have adopted many words from the Greek.
Certain remarkable analogies between Albanian and the other languages of the Peninsula, especially Bulgarian and Rumanian, have been supposed to point to the influence exercised by the primitive speech upon the idioms of the immigrant races.
In 971 "the first Bulgarian empire" was overthrown by the emperor John Zimisces, but Bulgarian power was soon revived under the Shishman dynasty at Ochrida.
In 1014 Tsar Samuel of Ochrida, who had conquered the greater part of the Peninsula, was defeated at Belasitza by the Greek emperor Basil II., and the "western Bulgarian empire" came to an end.
A new Bulgarian power, known as the "second" or "Bulgaro-Vlach empire," was founded at Trnovo in 1186 under the brothers Ivan and Peter Asen, who led a revolt of Vlachs and Bulgars against the Greeks.
In 1230 Theodore of Epirus, who had conquered Albania, Great Walachia and Macedonia, was overthrown at Klokotnitza by Ivan Asen II., the greatest of Bulgarian monarchs (1218-1241), who defeated Baldwin at Adrianople and extended his sway over most of the Peninsula.
The Bulgarian power declined after his death and was extinguished at the battle of Velbilzhd (1330) by the Servians under Stephen Urosh III.
The last remnant of Bulgarian national existence disappeared with the fall of Trnovo in 1393, and Great Walachia was conquered in the same year.
A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
The treaty of Berlin followed, which limited the principality to the country between the Danube and the Balkans, created the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia south of the Balkans, and left the remainder of the proposed Bulgarian state under Turkish rule.
In 1897 a Bulgarian proposal for joint pacific action with a view to obtaining reforms in Macedonia was rejected by Greece.
The empire was only saved by an outbreak of plague amongst the invaders and the bravery of the Bulgarian peasants.
The so-called "Varna quadrilateral," which has played an important part in Bulgarian military history, consists of the fortresses of Varna, Shumla, Rustchuk and Silistria.
In 1907 the port was entered by 869 ships of 926,449 tons, the largest number of vessels being Bulgarian and the greatest tonnage AustroHungarian.
It has long been the seat of a Greek metropolitan and since 1870 of a Bulgarian bishop.
The symbols are as follows 2: - much discussion authorities on Slavonic seem generally agreed that it was the Glagolitic (the name is derived from the Old Bulgarian, i.e old ecclesiastical Slavonic glagolu, " word").
the Greeks in Italy (Italograeci), the scattered Bulgarian Uniats, the Abyssinians, some of the Armenians and the " Christians of St Thomas "; (2)(2) those having their own bishops and sometimes their own metropolitans, as in Austria-Hungary; (3) the Eastern patriarchates.
The movement in favour of the union of the Bulgarian Church with Rome, which grew up in 1860, was the outcome of the national opposition to the Greeks, and with the establishment of the Bulgarian exarchate in 1872 it died away.
These misfortunes, which were but partially retrieved by the suppression of a Bulgarian revolt (1073), caused widespread dissatisfaction.
The Sla y s, driven perhaps to the west, had only the Volkhov and the Dnieper, while the (Mahommedan) Bulgarian empire, at the confluence of the Volga with the Kama, was so powerful that for some time it was an open question whether Islam or Christianity would gain the upper hand among the Slav idolaters.
The title of exarch has been borne by the head of the Bulgarian Church, since in 1872 it repudiated the jurisdiction of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
In the next year it was ceded to Servia by the Bulgarian tsar Samuel, but revolted, in alliance with Ragusa, and only submitted in 1184, as a protected state, preserving intact its republican institutions, and its right to conclude treaties and engage in war.
He spent a part of his boyhood in captivity in Bulgaria, whither his family was carried by the Bulgarian prince Krum in 813.
The decision of the Bulgarian tsar Michael to submit the new Bulgarian Church to the jurisdiction of Constantinople was a great blow to Rome, who had hoped to secure it for herself.
CALAFAT, a town of Rumania in the department of Doljiu; on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin.
Her European possessions formed two separate theatres of war, Macedonia and Thrace, which were linked only by the coastal railway Dede Aghach - Seres - Salonika, and this line, open in its middle section to Bulgarian raids from the mountains on the N.
Ban division (four 4-battalion regiments) was two-thirds that of a Bulgarian division and 2 Even solidarity within the unit had been seriously shaken by the incorporation, under new conscription laws, of Christians allied in race and religion to the enemy peoples.
Here the population was neither definitely Bulgarian nor definitely Serbian, and unless the two allies concerned were both represented in the conquering army the absent member would certainly suffer when it came to drawing the frontier-line.
If the road system was judged by the staffs sufficient to permit of the augmentation of the left wing, this was to be made up of 2 Serbian and 3 Bulgarian divisions - a force equivalent to to Turkish divisions, while the other 5 Serbian divisions (equal to about 8 Turkish) descended from Vranya upon Kumanovo.
3 Bulgarian divisions advancing on the front Kratovo - Kochana.
The 6 (or 7) Bulgarian divisions remaining were to form the army destined for Thrace.
Army on its left (now reduced to one division) was concentrated along with the 7th Bulgarian Div.
on the right, with flank guards in the Kara Dagh, fol The 7th Bulgarian Div.
was nominally under the orders of this army, but in fact obeyed orders only from the Bulgarian headquarters.
Bulgarian coOperation was limited to a movement by one brigade over the mountains towards the upper Bregalnitsa.
But when at the last moment it became clear that the Bulgarian effort was concentrated on Thrace, `Ali Riza Pasha, commander-in-chief in the Macedonian theatre, was ordered to take the offensive.
But uncertainty as to Bulgarian movements and dispositions was not yet cleared up. In any case, the seizure of the initiative at a moment when the Serbian I.
in replacement of the Bulgarian 7th Div.
As to the Bulgarian 7th Div., the last thing desired by the Greek headquarters was an energetic advance of this force to forestall them at Salonika.
Next day the 7th Bulgarian Div.
From these positions the four corps advanced on the 21st and 22nd in accordance with the order to take the offensive, and two encounterbattles ensued, one of which, the engagement of the Bulgarian I.
penetrated the Turkish front between Gechkenlia and Seliolu) brought the Bulgarian army victoriously to the Deremanlia-KukilerGerdeli road by morning on the 24th.
Owing to events on their right, they had given up their somewhat disjointed efforts to defeat the Bulgarian centre, and retired in a direction or directions which the victors were unable to determine.
continued pressure on the Kadikoi and Petra fronts forced the Turks to evacuate their salients, and at night the Bulgarian line, with its flanks somewhat advanced, ran roughly E.W.
On the 27th the Bulgarian wheel began, but instead of its being carried out on a fixed pivot, the pivot itself was allowed to advance eastward, so that, instead of presenting a united line, the Bulgarians formed a loose echelon, left in advance, which led to successive instead of simultaneous engagements.
of the Kara Aghach, in the forest of Sujak, between Mahmud Mukhtar's troops and the Bulgarian 5th Div., the latter finally drawing back behind the stream and occupying a line from Chiftlik Teke on the left to Mura Aghach on the right.
Thereupon the various Bulgarian columns echeloned back to the right of this division, hastened their march, and part of the 3rd Div.
On the other side, confusion in the command and other causes made the general advance slow and disjointed; the initiative was soon lost, and the battle became one of the parallel fronts along the 1 This is all the more remarkable as the Bulgarian I.
On the 29th (afternoon) the 4th Bulgarian Div.
Bulgarian Army came into action opposite Lule Burgas (1st Div.) and on and S.
Corps, were still exchanging attacks and counter-attacks with the Bulgarian 5th Div.
Against the Bulgarian 4th Div.
Corps held the line at Lule Burgas and down to the Ergene against the Bulgarian I.
The Bulgarian losses out of perhaps 110,000 combatants numbered 15,000; those of the enemy, whose force was probably rather less, are not known with certainty, but are supposed to have been about 25,000 inclusive of prisoners.
17, the Bulgarian infantry advanced and drove in the Turkish outposts and on Nov.
It was completely repulsed, with heavy losses, and the Bulgarian command, sobered, took care not to waste its reserves in renewed assaults.
While the main Bulgarian armies were fighting these battles, the 2nd Div.
and part of the Bulgarian i ith Div.
Bulgarian Army as well as the whole siege force, had his 8th Div.
having been brought into the Bulgarian II.
Army from Chatalja-90,000 Bulgarian and 30,000 Serbian infantry were actually available for the attack, which would be prepared and covered by the 125 Bulgarian siege guns and howitzers of 12 and 15 cm.
The assault was duly delivered in the night, and came to a standstill on the Turkish wire, save at the point where the 10th Bulgarian Regt.
Thus he cleared the way for unit after unit held up at the frontal wire, and, growing snowball fashion, the Bulgarian attack, soon joined by accompanying field batteries, cleared the whole line of the eastern forts by 8 A.M.
Further, Rumania was on the point of intervening in order to secure herself against the consequences of Bulgarian aggrandisement, and the internal politics of Turkey became more confused than ever.
As already mentioned, the Bulgarian 7th Div., in arriving from the Struma side a few days after the Crown Prince had fought his way into Salonika from the W., had lost no time in publicly claiming ownership, and it was with hardly concealed joy that the Greek Government received and promptly executed a request to transport this division by sea to the Thracian theatre.
The combatants were fully deployed, and their battle was the first example of the form that has ' For example, a British officer lecturing at the staff college on his return from Thrace told his hearers that the Bulgarian 7th Div.
The Bulgarian scheme of operations, necessarily offensive, suffered from the weakness of having two objectives - the Ovche Polye and Salonika - and being based on two main lines of communication diverging towards the rear - Kyustendil and Seres - Drama.
At the opening of the Bregalnitsa battle, the forces were thus disposed :- Bulgarian Army.
Beginning on June 30, the Bulgarian II.
The Bulgarian IV.
On the Egri Palanka front the Bulgarian IV.
But the Serbians, and also the Greeks, were disposed in considerable depth, and the Bulgarian soldier had little heart for the offensive once it became evident that the enemy was determined to fight.
Army broke through the Bulgarian line between the Zletovska and Redki Buku inclusive, hustling the defenders back on the 3rd and 4th to the upper Bregalnitsa.
time the Bulgarian forces between Shtip and Krivolak were slowly driving back Timok II.
On the latter, the Bulgarian advance had come to a standstill, as soon as King Constantine had brought up his reserves, and the counter-offensive opened on the 3rd.
His left (loth and 3rd Divs.) retook Gevgeli, his centre (4th, 2nd, 5th) Kilkish, and his right (1st, .6th, 7th) drove back the Bulgarian left on Nigrita and also eastward on the Seres road (July 3-4).
But Ivanov had obtained an opportunity that he could not have gained by his own efforts to extricate the various forces of the Bulgarian left which were scattered from the Vardar to the Struma.
At the present day, then, the Orthodox Eastern Church consists of twelve mutually independent churches (or thirteen if we reckon the Bulgarian Church), using their own language in divine service (or some ancient form of it, as in Russia) and varying not a little in points of detail, but standing in full communion with one another, and united as equals in what has been described as one great ecclesiastical federation.
The Bulgarian Church, unless indeed it be classed with the separated churches.
The revival of Bulgarian national feeling near the middle of the 19th century led to a movement for religious independence, the leaders of which were the archimandrite Neophit Bozveli and the bishop Ilarion Mikhailovsky.
The members of this Church were to constitute a millet or community, enjoying equal rights with the Greeks and Armenians; and its head, the Bulgarian exarch, was to reside at Constantinople.
Naturally, this was resented by the patriarch Anthimus, who stigmatized the racial basis of the Bulgarian Church as the heresy of Phyletism.
It never actually acknowledged the Bulgarian Church, and Bulgarian prelates may not officiate publicly in Russian churches; on the other hand, the Holy Synod of Moscow refused to recognize the patriarch's condemnation, and Russian ecclesiastics have secretly supplied the Bulgarians with the holy oil.
Above all, when Prince Boris, the heir-apparent of the principality, was received into the Bulgarian Church on 14th February 1896, the emperor of Russia was his godfather.
Nevertheless, the Bulgarian Church has made great headway both in Bulgaria itself and in Macedonia.
The patriarch of Constantinople dares not excommunicate Russia, but the chief of its many grievances against that country is its patronage of the Bulgarian exarchate.
Relieved of the danger of invasion by a Latin force which had defeated him in 1204 but was recalled to Europe by a Bulgarian invasion, he set to work to form a new Byzantine state in Asia Minor, and in 1206 assumed the title of emperor.
On the Volga they mingled with remnants of the old Bulgarian empire, and elsewhere with Finnish stems, as well as with remnants of the ancient Italian and Greek colonies in Crimea and Caucasians in Caucasus.
The Bulgarian king led to its relief an army which far outnumbered that of the crusaders.
It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks.
At this council Adrian was represented by legates, who presided at the condemnation of Photius, but did not succeed in coming to an understanding with Ignatius on the subject of the jurisdiction over the Bulgarian converts.
He took a leading part in ventilating the Bulgarian and Armenian "atrocities," and his combative personality was constantly to the fore in support of the campaigns of Gladstonian Liberalism.
Otherwise, the Danube constitutes the whole southern frontier; its right bank being Bulgarian for 290 m., and Servian, in the extreme west, for 50 m.
Its high crystalline rocks, covered with sedimentary formations, descend abruptly towards the delta, but more gradually towards the south, where the Bulgarian steppes encroach upon Rumanian soil.
North of this, the lagoon is called Lake Razim; while its southern half, shut off by three long islands, is the Blue Lake (Sinoe Osero, in Bulgarian).
Besides the junctions at Suczawa and Verciorova, the Rumania system meets the Hungarian through the Gyimes, Rothenthurm and Vulkan Passes; the Russian by lines from Jassy and Galatz to Kishinev in Bessarabia; the Bulgarian and Servian by means of numerous] ferries.
In central Moldavia there is a large population of Magyar descent, and the Servian and Bulgarian elements are strong near the Danube.
A great military road encircled the Dobrudja hills and skirted the Bulgarian shore of the Danube.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode, knez and ban (all implying military as well as civil authority) are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian (or Bulgaro-Vlachian) empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 (nobles).
Meanwhile the Turkish governors on the Bulgarian bank never ceased to ravage the country, and again it seemed as if Walachia must share the fate of the Balkan States and succumb to the direct government of the Ottoman.
Rumania was little affected by the political changes in the Balkan Peninsula (1908-10) coincident with the Turkish revolution, the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Dual Monarchy, the proclamation of Bulgarian independence and the erection of Montenegro into a kingdom.
This was Anton Pann, who was born in 1797 at Slivden, of Bulgarian parentage, and died at Bucharest in 1854.
DOBRUDJA (Bulgarian Dobritch, Rumanian Dobrogea), also written Dobrudscha, and Dobruja, a region of south-eastern Europe, bounded on the north and west by the Danube, on the east by the Black Sea, and on the south by Bulgaria.
SILISTRIA (Bulgarian Silistra), the chief town of a department in Bulgaria and the see of an archbishop, situated on a low-lying peninsula projecting into the Danube, 8r m.
Silistria was the Durostorum of the Romans (Bulgarian Drstr); the ancient name remains in the title of the archbishop, who is styled metropolitan of Dorostol, and whose diocese is now united with that of Tcherven (Rustchuk).
It was defended by the Bulgarian tsar Simeon against the Magyars and Greeks in 893.
The story of the Bulgarian atrocities was published in Great Britain in the summer of 1876.
After the death of Tzimisces (who had reduced only the eastern part of the Bulgarian kingdom), the power of Bulgaria was restored by the Tsar Samuel, in whom Basil found a worthy foe.
Eastern Bulgaria was finally recovered in 1000; but the war continued with varying successes till 1014, when the Bulgarian army suffered an overwhelming defeat.
They are supposed to be recent immigrants to Syr-darya, having come from the former Bulgarian Empire on the middle Volga.
(forty separate articles in various journals, Longitude East af of Greenwich C in the north-east the Danube, for 50 m., and the Timok for 23 m., constitute respectively the Rumanian and Bulgarian boundaries.
The Timok, which formed the Bulgarian frontier as long ago as the 9th century, springs in the western Balkans, or Stara Planina, and issues into the Danube, near Negotin, after a course of 70 m.
In the upper part of its course it is known as the Bulgarian Morava, and only after receiving the Servian Morava on the left is it known as the Morava simply or as the Great Morava.
The valleys of all these rivers, especially those of the Bulgarian and the Great Morava, and of the Nishava, contain considerable areas of level or low-lying country well suited for the growth of corn, and the low grounds along the Save and the Danube from the Drina to the Morava are also well adapted for agriculture, except the tract of fenland called the Machva, in the extreme north-west.
Even language does not afford a sure criterion, so nearly akin are many spoken dialects of Servian and Bulgarian.
The medieval citadels of Belgrade, Nish, Pirot and Semendria have no military value, but some strategic points on the Bulgarian frontier were entrenched between 1889 and 1899, while the modern forts of Nish, Pirot and Zayechar were strengthened and re-armed at the beginning of the 10th century.
Practically from the 8th to the 12th century the bulk of the Serbs was under either Bulgarian or Greek suzerainty, while the Serbo-Croat provinces of Dalmatia acknowledged either Venetian or Hungarian supremacy.
Vlastimir successfully defended the western provinces of Servia against the Bulgarian attacks, although the eastern provinces (Branichevo, Morava, Timok, Vardar, Podrimlye) were occupied by the Bulgars.
The Bulgarian danger, and probably the energetic and successful operations of the Greek emperor Basil the Macedonian (867-886), determined the Servian Zhupans to acknowledge again the suzerainty of the Greek emperors.
During the reign of his heirs almost all the Servian provinces were conquered by the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon (924).(924).
In 931 Chaslav, one of the princes of the Visheslav dynasty, liberated the largest part of the Servian territory from Bulgarian domination, but to maintain that liberty he had to acknowledge the Byzantine emperors as his suzerains.
The prince (sometimes called king) of Zetta, Yovan Vladimir, tried to stop the triumphal march of the Bulgarian Tsar Samuel through the Serb provinces, but in 989 was defeated, made prisoner and sent to Samuel's capital, Prespa.
The historical fact that Vladimir married Kossara, the daughter of Samuel, and was sent back to Zetta as reigning prince under the Bulgarian suzerainty, forms the subject of the first Serb novel, Vladimir and Kossara, as early as the 13th century.
But after the death of Samuel the Bulgarian power rapidly lost the Serb provinces, which, to get rid of the Bulgarians, again acknowledged the Greek overlordship. About 1042, however, Prince Voislav of Travuniya (Trebinje), cousin of the assassinated Vladimir of Zetta, started a successful insurrection against the Greeks, and united under his own rule Travuniya, Zahumlye and Zetta.
This convention, which tended to neutralize the dependence of Servia upon Austria-Hungary by facilitating the export of Servian goods through the Bulgarian ports on the Black Sea, brought about a war of tariffs between Servia and the Dual Monarchy.
The Russian and Bulgarian languages undoubtedly stand nearer to Old Slavonic than the Servian.
179) two separate branches developed from the Old Slavonic stem, one identical with the western Slays, and the other with the south-eastern group; and from the Slavonic of the south-east the first languages to separate were the Russian and the South Slavonic. From the latter developed Bulgarian, on one side, and Servian-Slovene on the other, while from the last-named branch Servian or Serbo-Croatian and Slovene developed on two separate twigs.
It ranks with Bulgarian as one of the two principal Slav languages of the Balkan Peninsula; the Macedonian dialects are intermediate between these two.
The Old Slavonic church books had naturally to be copied from time to time, and the Servian, Bulgarian and Russian copyists were unable to resist the influences of their respective living languages.
Thus comparatively soon there appeared church books no longer written in pure Old Slavonic (of which the so-called " Asseman's Gospel " in the Vatican is the best type), but in Old Slavonic modified by Servian, Bulgarian, Russian influences, or in the languages which could be called Servian-Slavonic, Bulgarian-Slavonic, Russian-Slavonic. The best extant specimen of the Servian-Slavonic is " Miroslav's Gospel," written in the second half of the 12th century for the Servian prince Miroslav; a facsimile edition was published in 1897 in Belgrade.
The story of the love and sufferings of the Servian prince Vladimir, who lived in the 11th century, and his wife, the Bulgarian princess Kossara, written probably in the 13th century, was very popular among the Servians.
STEFAN STAMBOLOV (1854-1895), Bulgarian statesman, was born on the 31st of January 1854 at Trnovo, the ancient Bulgarian capital, where his father kept a small inn.
During the politico-religious agitation which preceded the establishment of the Bulgarian exarchate in 1870, a number of Bulgarian youths were sent to Russia to be educated at the expense of the Imperial government; among them was Stambolov, who was entered at the seminary of Odessa in order to prepare for the priesthood.
His wayward and independent nature, however, rebelled against the discipline of school life; he was expelled from the seminary on the ground of his association with Nihilists, and, making his way to Rumania, he entered into close relations with the Bulgarian revolutionary committees at Bucharest, Giurgevo and Galatz.
In the autumn of 1876 he took part as a volunteer in the Servian campaign against Turkey, and subsequently joined the Bulgarian irregular contingent with the Russian army in the war of 1877-78.
His force of character, his undoubted patriotism, his brilliant eloquence, and his disinclination to accept office - a rare characteristic in a Bulgarian politician - combined to render him one of the most influential men in Bulgaria.
The war with Servia followed, and Stambolov, notwithstanding his official position, served as an ordinary soldier in the Bulgarian army.
His tyrannical disposition was increased by the assassination of his colleague, Beltchev, in 1891, and of Dr Vlkovitch, the Bulgarian representative at Constantinople, in 1892, and eventually proved intolerable to Prince Ferdinand, who compelled him to resign in May 1894.
The north bank is mostly flat and marshy, whereas the Bulgarian bank is almost continuously crowned by low heights on which are built the considerable towns of Vidin (Widdin), Lom Palanka, Rustchuk and Silistria, all memorable names in Turko-Russian wars.
The sun and moon, as in the Bulgarian ballad of the Sun's Bride (a mortal 'girl), are looked on as living beings.
of the Bulgarian frontier.
Salonica is the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop. Each religious community has its own schools and places of worship, among the most important being the Jewish high-school, the Greek and Bulgarian gymnasia, the Jesuit college, a high-school founded in 1860 and supported by the Jewish Mission of the Established Church of Scotland, a German school, dating from 1887, and a college for boys and a secondary school for girls, both managed by the French Mission Laique and subsidized since 1905 by the French government.
It was the attempt made to transfer the whole Bulgarian trade to Thessalonica that in the close of the 9th century caused the invasion of the empire by Simeon of Bulgaria.
It was a dialect closely related to Bulgarian.
atrocityll the old days of Bulgarian atrocities, in which he and Liddon struck up their surprising friendship.
The person who is to acquire Bulgarian citizenship should have given his/her consent in writing to that end in advance.
But Petar Merkov, the Bulgarian who finished second, is involved in a drugs controversy which could yet see him disqualified.
During the rebellion of the brothers Asen and Petar in 1185 it bravely defends the attacks toward the Bulgarian capital Tarnovo.
Said he: " It is all wrong to say that there are three thousand or two thousand refugees within the Bulgarian frontier.
The disorganized revolt was then crushed by German troops and Bulgarian government loyalists, with fighting ending on 2 October.
Mafia gangs involved in the sale of babies abroad is not easy for the Bulgarian police.
Is the polish plumber soon to be followed by the Bulgarian builder?
Curiously, while the Bulgarian government had agreed to allow the German doctors to perform a postmortem, the king's own family had refused.
But not many years ago six or seven army officers resigned from the Bulgarian army and led armed insurrection into Macedonia.
One of the highlights was both of us doing an interview on the more than slightly scary Bulgarian National Radio.
Sozopol Situated 34 kilometers south of Bourgas upon a small peninsula, Sozopol is the oldest town at the Bulgarian seaside.
Bulgarian Move Ltd We are Bulgarian Move Ltd., a professional real estate agency specialized in serving UK buyers purchasing properties in Bulgaria.
Servian settlements exist in various parts of northern Albania; there is a strong Bulgarian colony in the neighbourhood of Dibra and Ochrida; farther south, Mount Zygos and the Pindus range - the "Great Walachia" of the middle ages - are inhabited by Vlachs or Tzintzars, who possibly number 70,000.
Like the Cretan Moslems and the Bulgarian Pomaks, the Albanian Mahommedans retain many Christian traditions and customs; it is said that many thousands of them secretly adhere to their original faith.
The suffix-article likewise appears in Rumanian and Bulgarian, but in no other Latin or Slavonic language; it is in each case a form of the demonstrative pronoun.
of dova, "I will"), like the Greek 6a, is prefixed without change to all persons of the verb: a similar usage in Servian and Bulgarian, as well as in Rumanian (especially the Macedonian dialect), is peculiar to these languages in the Slavonic and Latin groups.
Belisarius remained at Constantinople in tranquil retirement until 559, when an incursion of Bulgarian savages spread a panic through the metropolis, and men's eyes were once more turned towards the neglected veteran, who placed himself at the head of a mixed multitude of peasants and soldiers, and repelled the barbarians with his wonted courage and adroitness.
On the one hand he was exposed to numberless humiliations on the part of the representatives of official Russia, who made it clear to him that he was expected to play the part of a y oi fainÃ¯¿½t; on the other he was compelled to make terms with the Bulgarian politicians, who, intoxicated with newly won liberty, prosecuted their quarrels with a crude violence which threatened to subvert his authority and to plunge the nation in anarchy.
The experiment, however, proved unsuccessful; the Bulgarian Liberal and Radical politicians were infuriated, and the real power fell into the hands of two Russian generals, Sobolev and Kaulbars, who had been specially despatched from St Petersburg.
Default in the public funds and an empty treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, the war with Servia and Montenegro, the feeling aroused throughout Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian rebellion, all combined to prove to the new sultan that he could expect little aid from the Powers.
Though less central than Philippopolis and less renowned in Bulgarian history than Trnovo, Sofia a s selected as the capital of the newly-created Bulgarian state in view of its strategical position, which commands the routes to Constantinople, Belgrade, Macedonia and the Danube.
But the Austro-Hungarian government, profiting by the weakness of Russia after the war with Japan, and aware that the proclamation of Bulgarian independence was imminent, had already decided to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, in spite of the pledges given at Berlin, and although the proposal was unpopular in Hungary.
Public indignation was aroused by what were known as the " Bulgarian atrocities," and Gladstone flung himself into the agitation against Turkey with characteristic zeal.
The Greeks and Greek Melchite metropolitans now wear the sakkos instead of the phelonion; and in the Russian, Ruthenian, Bulgarian and Italo-Greek churches this vestment has superseded the phelonion in the case of all bishops (see Dalmatic and Vestments).
The Servian dialect extending into regions which escaped the Turkish yoke, enjoyed certain advantages denied to the Bulgarian: in free Montenegro the first Slavonic printing-press was founded in 1493; at Ragusa, a century later, Servian literature attained a high degree of excellence.
The title of exarch has been borne by the head of the Bulgarian Church (see BULGARIA), since in 1872 it repudiated the jurisdiction of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
On the side of the allies, administration being regular and sentiment uniform within each army, the paper strength and order of battle represent realities, and can be summed up thus :- Bulgarian Army: - Nine divisions (I Sofia, 2 Philippopolis, 3 Steven, 4 Shumla, 5 Ruschuk, 6 Vratsa, 7 Dupnitsa, 8 Stara Zagora, 9 Plevna) each of two brigades plus a reserve brigade formed on mobilization.
All these things were, in their varying degrees, elements of policy upon which the Allied strategy must base itself if its war aims were to be obtained, and accordingly the military treaty between Bulgaria and Serbia provided for a Serbo-Bulgarian army of 7 Serbian and 3 Bulgarian divisions to invade Macedonia, moving concentrically against the front Uskub - Kumanovo - Kratovo - Kochana, forming the outer contour of the plain known as Ovche Polye which was assumed on both sides to be the natural concentration area of the Turks.
Yielding to necessity, the Bulgarian forces on the Vardar withdrew, ere it was too late, into the Belashitsa valley, while those pursuing Timok II.
Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.
This view, which did not find support anywhere outside Servia, led to war between Servia and Bulgaria (see Servo-Bulgarian War); the Servians were defeated at Slivnitza and had to abandon Pirot, whilst the farther advance of the Bulgarian army on Nish was stopped by the intervention of Austria-Hungary.
In his dealings with Turkey, the suzerain power, he displayed considerable acuteness; he gained the confidence of the Sultan, whom he flattered and occasionally menaced; and aided by the ambassadors of the friendly powers, he succeeded in obtaining on two occasions important concessions for the Bulgarian episcopate in Macedonia (see Macedonia), while securing the tacit sanction of the Porte for the technically illegal situation in the principality.
On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later.
The specific powder this article focuses on is then infused with the natural scent of Bulgarian Rose, which is added to the formulation by the company's in-house perfumer.
A perfect way to add a little allure to your look next time you are with that special someone, the delicate scent of Bulgarian Rose has been known to work as a subtle aphrodisiac, making you unforgettable at that special night out.
The Vampire Diaries took advantage of her fluency in Bulgarian by writing her character Katherine's history as being set in early Bulgaria.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.