Bulgaria sentence example
Murad thereupon returned to Europe with a large force, and sent Chendereli Zade Ali Pasha northwards; the fortresses of Shumla, Pravadi, Trnovo, Nicopolis and Silistria were taken by him; Sisman III., rebel king of Bulgaria, was punished and Bulgaria once more subjugated.
He soon, however, returned to Bulgaria, owing to the success of the counterrevolution led by Stamboloff, which overthrew the provisional government set up by the Russian party at Sofia.
He therefore issued a manifesto resigning the throne, and left Bulgaria on the 8th of September 1886.
The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin Congress, was another blow.
Few people south of the Balkans dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province, and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of it.Advertisement
Then the best was made of it, and for some years the sultan preserved towards Bulgaria an attitude skilfully calculated so as to avoid running counter either to Russian or to German wishes.
In the time of Ptolemy their territory is limited to the district between the Ciabrus (Tzibritza) and Utus (Vid), in the modern Bulgaria, their chief town being Oescus (OtvKos Tpc aXX6 v).
The conflict with France, the operations in Eritrea, the vigorous interpretation of the triple alliance, the questions of Morocco and Bulgaria, were all used by him as means to stimulate national sentiment.
Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria had long been anxious to legalize his position by a reconciliation, and as soon as he got rid of Stamboloff he made advances to the Russian government.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.Advertisement
Amongst his works may be mentioned Our National Defences (1860), War in Bulgaria, a Narrative of Personal Experience (London, 1879), Clouds in the East (London, 1876).
All that we certainly know about his life is contained in three sentences of his history of the Goths (cap. 50), from which, among other particulars as to the history of his family, we learn that his grandfather Paria was notary to Candac, the chief of a confederation of Alans and other tribes settled during the latter half of the 5th century on the south of the Danube in the provinces which are now Bulgaria and the Dobrudscha.
The second, led by Peter himself, passed safely through Hungary, but suffered severely in Bulgaria, and only attained Constantinople with sadly diminished numbers at the end of July.
Master of Servia and of Bulgaria, as well as of Asia Minor, the sultan Bayezid was now threatening Constantinople itself.
At Kossovo he was reinforced by 20,000 Albanians, led by the rebel Mustapha Pasha; and within a few weeks the united armies occupied the whole of Bulgaria, and a large part of Macedonia.Advertisement
In order to assist the young kingdom of Bulgaria, which could only with great difficulty and with much damage to its resources have found means to indemnify Turkey for this serious breach of treaty engagements, the Russian government intervened, and proposed as compensation to the Turkish government the deferment for forty years of the annual payment (£T350,000) of the 1877 war indemnity.
It should be mentioned that the Bagdad Railway Company has sublet the working of the line to the Anatolian Railway Company at the rate of £148 per kilometre, as against the £180 per kilometre guaranteed by the Turkish government The line from Mustafa-Pasha to Vakarel now lies in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
It was further provided that Bulgaria should pay to Turkey an annual tribute, and should moreover (as well as the other Balkan states receiving accessions of territory at Turkey's expense) bear a portion of the Ottoman debt.
The success of the Young Turks created a serious situation for the statesmen of Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.Advertisement
A regenerated Ottoman Empire might in time be strong enough to demand the evacuation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, g and to maintain or extend the nominal suzerainty over Bulgaria which the sultan had exercised since 1878.
When Constantinople fell in 1453 the whole country passed into the hands of the Turks, and in their possession it remained until 1878, when, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, the northern portion of it was placed under a separate administration, with the title of Eastern Rumelia; this province has now become, to all intents and purposes, a part of the principality of Bulgaria.
In 1360 they conquered southern Bulgaria.
The Arpad kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with half a dozen military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Walachia, 2 and the northern parts of Bulgaria, Servia and Bosnia.
In the course of that year Kuprili regained Servia and Bulgaria, placed Tok611 on the throne of Transylvania, and on the 6th of October took Belgrade by assault.Advertisement
This in turn strengthened the hands of the extreme section among the Yugosla y s, who now advanced the full ethnographic claim, involving Trieste and Gorizia as well as Dalmatia and Istria, and at the same time increased their demands against Bulgaria, Austria and Albania.
Against Bulgaria the Yugoslav delegation claimed considerable frontier rectifications - (a) the Strumnica salient, which threatened the Vardar railway from the east, (b) the district of Kochana (Tocana) and the Bregalnitsa (Bregalnica), (c) a strip of territory running parallel with the old Serbo-Bulgarian frontier the whole way from Zajecar to Kyustendil, and (d) the town of Vidin on the Danube and the salient between it and the Timok.
His History of the Manicheans is dedicated to the archbishop of Bulgaria, whither the Paulicians were sending missionaries.
Their sect however continued to spread in Bulgaria, where in 969 John Zimiskes settled a new colony of them at Philippopolis.
The campaign by which the Central Powers and Bulgaria crushed Serbia for the time being, and by their triumph opened communications through Bulgaria with the Ottoman Empire, profoundly influenced the situation in the Gallipoli Peninsula.
In the autumn of 1875 an insurrection broke out in Bulgaria, and the suppression of it by the Turks was marked by massacres and outrages.
But before marching south he led another expedition across the Balkans into the country now called Bulgaria, and returned to Pella with much spoil but severely wounded in the thigh.
In the war between Servia and Bulgaria in 1885 the Bulgarians occupied and held it until the conclusion of peace.
Its presence in Europe can be traced in Bulgaria soon.
In 861 Michael and Bardas invaded Bulgaria and secured the conversion of the king to Christianity.
There are also congregational churches in Austria, Bulgaria, Holland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and in Japan (93).
Bulgaria began her mobilization at the end of September, followed immediately by her allies; Turkey ordered mobilization on Oct.1; by Oct.
Within a month of the signature of the treaty, the second Balkan War broke out between Bulgaria and her allies over the division of territory wrested from Turkey.
Bulgaria herself was helpless; the Powers would not assist her; her late allies - now her enemies - were not opposed to the Turkish aggression; and in the end Bulgaria executed a treaty restoring the province to the Ottoman Empire.
To complete German political preparations in the Near East, and to make her Turkish Alliance effective, it was necessary to secure the support of Bulgaria.
The prospect of revenge upon her enemies of the Second Balkan War - Serbia, Greece and Rumania - and of attaining her large territorial ambitions at their expense, proved sufficient, after prudent hesitation, to attract Bulgaria to the side of Germany.
Coupled with similar action on the part of Bulgaria it isolated Russia and Rumania from the Western Powers, and was a potent influence in producing the collapse of the Russian Empire.
Its aim was to sever German communications with Constantinople by knocking Bulgaria out of the war.
Just before, the prince, who was still chancellor, had taken a very strong line with regard to a royal marriage in which the queen was keenly interested - the proposal that Prince Alexander of Battenberg, lately ruler of Bulgaria, and brother of the queen's son-in-law, Prince Henry, should marry Princess Victoria, the eldest daughter of the emperor Frederick.
In similar vigorous fashion he restored order in Bulgaria in 1857.
The society's foreign agencies extend to China, Japan, Korea, the Turkish empire, Bulgaria, Egypt, Micronesia, Siam, Mexico, Central America, the South American republics, Cuba and the Philippines.
Adrianople had previously been the commercial headquarters of all Thrace, and of a large portion of the region between the Balkans and the Danube, now Bulgaria.
It thus corresponded in the main to the modern Servia and Bulgaria.
In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.
In 1223 the Albigenses are declared to be the local Bougres, and at the same period mention is made of the "Pope of the Albigenses who resided within the confines of Bulgaria."
The Historiated Bible, the Letter from Heaven, the Wanderings through Heaven and Hell, the numerous Adam and Cross legends, the religious poems of the "Kaleki perehozhie" and other similar productions owe their dissemination to a large extent to the activity of the Bogomils of Bulgaria, and their successors in other lands.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
Mission work commenced in Bulgaria during the latter part of the 9th century; thence it extended to Moravia, where in 863 two Greek missionaries - Cyril and Methodius - provided for the people a Slavonic Bible and a Slavonic Liturgy; thence to Bohemia and Poland, and so onwards to the Russian kingdom of Ruric the Northman, where about the close of the 10th century the Eastern Church " silently and almost unconsciously bore into the world her mightiest offspring."
He was educated entirely in Bulgaria, first by tutors and later at the cadet and officers' schools, serving subsequently as A.D.C. to the King and to various generals.
On the abdication of King Ferdinand, immediately after the Armistice which put an end to Bulgaria's disastrous share in the World War, Boris succeeded his father, Oct.
He was a Goth and belonged to the western branch of that nation - sometimes called the Visigoths - who at the time of his birth were quartered in the region now known as Bulgaria, having taken refuge on the southern shore of the Danube from the pursuit of their enemies the Huns.
The bulk of the Visigothic people sought refuge within the Empire in the region now known as Bulgaria, but Athanaric seems to have fled into Transylvania.
A branch railway to Calafat facilitates the export trade with Bulgaria.
A compact with the Turks, made in 1370 and renewed in the next century, saved Ragusa from the fate of its more powerful neighbours, Servia and Byzantium, besides enabling the Ragusan caravans to penetrate into Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, Servia, Bulgaria and Rumania.
This could not be given, and the rebellion continued and spread to Bulgaria.
In the December of this year AustriaHungary indeed decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria and Servia, for at this time Austrian influence predominated in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austro-Hungarian minister warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if he advanced farther he would be met by Austro-Hungarian as well as Servian troops.
But after the abdication of Alexander, Count Kalnoky stated in the Delegations that Austria-Hungary would not permit Russia to interfere with the independence of Bulgaria.
This decided step was required by Hungarian feeling, but it was a policy in which Austria-Hungarycould not depend on the support of Germany, for - as Bismarck stated - Bulgaria was not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier.
Austria-Hungary also differed from Russia as to the position of Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, and during 1886-1887 much alarm was caused by the massing of Russian troops on the Galician frontier.
The chief objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the building of railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused serious anxiety.
Thus Giurgevo, besides having a considerable trade with the home ports lower down the Danube, is the headquarters of commerce between Bulgaria and Rumania.
It is diminishing in Thessaly; it has entirely dis appeared in the rest of Greece, almost entirely in Servia; and it continues to decrease in Bulgaria notwithstanding the efforts of the authorities to check emigration.
It is nowhere found in compact masses except in north-eastern Bulgaria and the region between Adrianople, .the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora.
The Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the kingdom of Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia), parts of the Dobrudja and the greater part of Macedonia, except Old Servia and the Aegean littoral.
It is found in numerous detached settlements in Macedonia, Albania and northern Greece, and in colonies of recent date in Servia and Bulgaria.
The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.
The Bulgarian church enjoys an exceptional position, inasmuch as its spiritual chief, the exarch, who resides at Constantinople, controls the Bulgarian prelates in European Turkey as well as those in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
On the other hand, the Greek prelates in Bulgaria are subject to the patriarch.
In 1886 the informal union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria was sanctioned by Europe, the districts of Tumrush (Rhodope) and Krjali being given back to the sultan.
In 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed to the Dual Monarchy, and Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia) was proclaimed an independent kingdom.
The movement was favourably regarded by King Charles of Rumania and Prince Alexander of Bulgaria.
Sulina is the only free port on the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into seagoing vessels of grain which is brought down the river in large lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and AustriaHungary.
Eastern Rumelia was constituted an autonomous province of the Turkish empire by the Berlin treaty of 1878; but on the 18th of September 1885, after a bloodless revolution, it was united with Bulgaria (q.v.).
Among the former it appears to have become a sort of ex officio title of the Byzantine vicegerents of Italy, the exarchs of Ravenna; among the barbarian chiefs who were thus dignified were Odoacer, Theodoric, Sigismund of Burgundy, Clovis, and even in later days princes of Bulgaria, the Saracens, and the West Saxons.
The scene was laid in Bulgaria, the piece being a satire on romanticism, a destructive criticism on military "glory."
Between Russia and Turkey it interposed, in effect,a barrier of independent (Rumania, Servia) and quasi-independent (Bulgaria) states, erected with the counsel and consent of collective Europe.
Sooner or later the issue was sure to be raised of the status of those countries, still nominally part of the Ottoman empire, but in effect independent, like Bulgaria, or subject to another state, like Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The cutting of the Gordian knot by Austria's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by the proclamation of the independence of Bulgaria, and of Prince Ferdinand's assumption of the old title of tsar (king), threatened to raise the Eastern Question once more in its acutest form.
Once indeed, in 409, they are said to have crossed the Danube and invaded Bulgaria under perhaps the same chief (Uldin), but extensive desertions soon compelled a retreat.
One horde settled under Roman protection in Little Scythia (the Dobrudzha), others in Dacia Ripensis (on the confines of Servia and Bulgaria) or on the southern borders of Pannonia.
The area was divided into Albania (now Albania and Kosovo), Macedonia (now in Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece) and Thrace (now divided among Greece and Turkey).
Near Varna is the summer palace of the king of Bulgaria.
By the treaty of Berlin (1878) it was ceded to Bulgaria.
The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire has been regulated by the Great Powers, or some of them, in the treaties of London, 1832, 1863, 1864, and of Constantinople, 1881, with reference to Greece; and by the treaties of Paris, 1856; London, 1871; Berlin, 1878;1878; London, 1883, with reference to Montenegro, Rumania, Servia, Bulgaria and the navigation of the Danube.
According to Professor Leskien (Grammatik der altbulgarischen (altkirchenslavischen) Sprache, Heidelberg, 1909, p. xxi.), Cyril had probably made a prolonged and careful study of Slavonic before proceeding on his missionary journey, and probably in the first instance with a view to preaching the Gospel to the Sla y s of Macedonia and Bulgaria, who were much nearer his own home, Thessalonica, than were those of Moravia.
The struggle proceeded for more than twenty-five years, the difficulties of Stephen being materially increased by the assistance rendered to the rebels by the Greek emperors, his neighbours since their reconquest of Bulgaria.
For nine years he ruled in Constantinople, and in 1235, with a few troops, he repelled a great siege of the city by Vataces of Nicaea and Azen of Bulgaria.
The United States produces roughly 50, Bulgaria and Rumania each 4 o and Servia 10 million gallons.
The average yield of Bulgaria and Rumania is probably some 30 to 40 million gallons for each country, but in some years it is much larger.
Thus in 1896 Rumania produced no less than 101 million gallons and Bulgaria 81 million gallons.
He stood firm, however, on the other two points which had long been contested between the Eastern and Western Churches, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Bulgaria and the introduction of the "filioque" clause into the creed.
This was subsequently divided into Dacia Ripensis on the Danube, with capital Ratiaria (Arcar in Bosnia), and Dacia Mediterranea, with capital Sardica (Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria), the latter again being subdivided into Dardania and Dacia Mediterranea.
This category contains articles in the Calssic Encyclopaedia dealing with Bulgaria.
He spent a part of his boyhood in captivity in Bulgaria, whither his family was carried by the Bulgarian prince Krum in 813.
On June 19 1912 a military agreement was made between the general staffs of Serbia and Bulgaria, in accordance with the previous political treaty of alliance signed on Feb.
After a new survey of the situation in 1909-10 by Marshal von der Goltz it was decided to treat Macedonia as a self-contained theatre of war garrisoned at all times by a large army with Shtip (tip) as its area of war concentration, and to constitute in Thrace a covering army which would be reinforced by the troops from Asia as they successively arrived, up to the strength adequate for offensive operations against Bulgaria.
With regard to the proportioning of effort between the two theatres of war, contemporary military opinion, impressed by a sort of primacy which Bulgaria assumed in the league, by the more regular character of her army and her civil administration, and by the nearness of Constantinople to her eastern frontier, argued a priori that Thrace was not only the" principal "theatre, but the single important theatre in which practically all military effort should have been concentrated by both sides - a judgment which ignored the relation of strategy to war policy, and one for which in the sequel Bulgaria was destined to pay heavil y.
Bulgaria cherished ambitions in Thrace which extended even to Constantinople, and she had to consider the fact that sooner or later the Turkish forces in Thrace would be reenforced not only by their own allotted reserves but also by those, above alluded to, which the Greek navy prevented from going to Macedonia.
Further, Bulgaria coveted not only a coast-line on the Aegean but the great port of Salonika itself.
And Bulgaria, by evading at the last moment an obligation that was not merely part of a military scheme but was included in the basic political treaty of Feb.
Already Serbia had drawn her western forces into the Ovche Polye area, to dispute possession of the debatable region which Bulgaria claimed, and the II.
The origin of the war, as between Bulgaria and Serbia, lay in the non-observance by Bulgaria of the original treaty stipulation that she should aid the Serbian campaign in Macedonia with 100,000 men.
As between Bulgaria and Greece, the former's claim to Salonika seems to have had no better basis than a desire to possess it.
On all these matters bargaining might possibly have reached satisfactory solutions, since there was much to justify Bulgaria's claim in Macedonia.
Army of interposing between Ivanov and Bulgaria led to a regrouping of the Serbian forces for the benefit of this army, which, pursuing its advantage, drove back its opponents towards the line of mountains in the upper Bregalnitsa bend (Obozna-1340-Grlena).
At this stage, indeed, bolder strategy was hardly required, for already Rumania had declared war on Bulgaria and had begun an unopposed march on Sofia, while the Turks at Chatalja and Bulair, ignoring the Treaty of London, reoccupied Adrianople without firing a shot.
Surrounded by hostile columns converging on Sofia from every quarter, Bulgaria yielded on July 31, and on Aug.
Such are Egypt and Bulgaria.
The position is further complicated by the fact that many Bulgarians, both within and without the kingdom of Bulgaria, still remain subject to the patriarch.
Nevertheless, the Bulgarian Church has made great headway both in Bulgaria itself and in Macedonia.
Opium is also grown in Bulgaria, but almost entirely for home consumption; any surplus produce is, however, bought by Jews, and Turks at low prices and sent to Constantinople, where it is sold as Turkish opium.
But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), king of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been unwisely rejected by the emperor.
Kagul, on the Pruth, and Reni on the Danube (the place to which Alexander of Bulgaria was carried when kidnapped by the Russians in 1886), are small, but lively, river-ports.
Lumber is floated down the rivers of the Carpathian watershed to the Danube, and so exported to Turkey and Bulgaria; casks, shaped planks and petroleum drums go chiefly to Austria and Russia.
The revolt of Pasvan Oglu in Bulgaria was the cause of great injury to Walachia.
The insurrection in Russo- Bulgaria, with its accompanying horrors, followed by Turkish the deposition of sultan Murad and the succession of w ar of 1877-78.
The Danube question became acute in 1881, 1883 and 1899; the national question is a more permanent source of trouble, affecting Austria-Hungary, Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.
From 1888 to 1893 he was consul-general at Budapest, in 1894 secretary of embassy at Constantinople, from 1894 to 1895 agent in Bulgaria, and from 1895 to 1904 minister in Morocco.
The sultan Abdul Aziz, thought unequal to the crisis, was hastily deposed; he was either murdered or led to commit suicide; and insurrection in Bulgaria was stamped out by massacre.
The second son, Alexander Joseph, was prince of Bulgaria from 1879 to 1886.
The greatest achievement of the reign was the subjugation of Bulgaria.
After the death of Tzimisces (who had reduced only the eastern part of the Bulgarian kingdom), the power of Bulgaria was restored by the Tsar Samuel, in whom Basil found a worthy foe.
Eastern Bulgaria was finally recovered in 1000; but the war continued with varying successes till 1014, when the Bulgarian army suffered an overwhelming defeat.
In 1268 he undertook an expedition against the Bulgarians, conquering the land as far as Tirnova and styling himself henceforth king of Bulgaria.
Various mountain ranges mark the frontiers of Bosnia, on the west, Turkey on the south-west and south, and Bulgaria on the south and south-east.
Elsewhere east of the Morava the prevailing rocks belong to the Cretaceous series, which enters Servia from Bulgaria.
The fasts of the Orthodox Church are strictly kept; while the festivals, which are hardly less numerous, are celebrated even by the Servian Moslems. As in Bulgaria and Rumania, the slava, or patron saint's day, is set aside for rejoicing.
This was the real cause of the Turkish attacks on Bulgaria and Servia in 1389, which resulted in the complete subjugation of Bulgaria and in the defeat of the Serb army in the battle of Kossovo (15th of June 1389).
By that treaty Russia, desiring to create a great Bulgaria, took within its limits districts inhabited by Servians, and considered by the Servian politicians and patriots as the natural and legitimate inheritance of their nation.
The union of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia inspired King Milan and his government with the notion that either that union must be prevented, or that Servia should obtain some territorial compensation, so that the balance of power in the Balkan Peninsula might be maintained.
He seems to have been working for joint action with Bulgaria for the liberation of Macedonia from Turkish rule.
In the same year a convention was concluded by Servia and Bulgaria as a preliminary to a customs union between the two states.
Under Turkish rule it was impossible to obtain a liberal education in Bulgaria, and young Stambolov, after attending the communal school in his native town, was apprenticed to a tailor.
In 1875, though only twenty years of age, he led an insurrectionary movement at Nova Zagora in Bulgaria, and in the following year organized another rising at Orekhovitza.
His force of character, his undoubted patriotism, his brilliant eloquence, and his disinclination to accept office - a rare characteristic in a Bulgarian politician - combined to render him one of the most influential men in Bulgaria.
In his capacity as president of the Sobranye he established a loyal government at Trnovo, issued a manifesto to the nation, nominated his brother-in-law, General Mutkurov, commander-inchief of the army, and invited the prince to return to Bulgaria.
He succeeded in frustrating the mission of General Kaulbars, whom the Tsar despatched as special commissioner to Bulgaria; in suppressing a rising organized by Nabokov, a Russian officer, at Burgas; in quelling military revolts at Silistra and Rustchuk; in holding elections for the Grand Sobranye, despite the interdict of Russia, and in securing eventually the election of Prince Ferdinand of Coburg to the vacant throne (July 7, 1887).
Under the newly-elected ruler he became prime minister and minister of the interior, and continued in office for nearly seven years (see Bulgaria).
The aim of his foreign policy was to obtain the recognition of Prince Ferdinand, and to win the support of the Triple Alliance and Great Britain against Russian interference in Bulgaria.
With the assistance of Austria-Hungary and Great Britain he negotiated large foreign loans which enabled him to develop the military strength of Bulgaria.
But even so, the Balkan League would never have sprung into being but for Venizelos' higher vision, and his supreme courage in consenting to an alliance with Bulgaria, without a preliminary agreement as to the division of the Turkish spoils in case of victory.
In the preceding spring Serbia had driven back the Austrian armies out of her territory; but now a fresh Austrian invasion was imminent, and Bulgaria was plainly bent on revenging herself for her disasters of 1913 by preparing to attack Serbia in the flank.
Bulgaria mobilized her army in Sept.
Two days later, Venizelos made an important statement in the Greek Chamber, declaring that, if Bulgaria attacked Serbia, she would have to face the Greek army as well.
The Croats formed the western division of the great migratory horde of Serbo-Croats which colonized the lands between Bulgaria and the Adriatic. Contemporary chroniclers called them Chrovati, Belochrobati (" White Croats"), Chrovati, Horvati, or by some similar Latin or Byzantine variant of the Slavonic Khrvaty.
In 112 7 Syrmia, which had been annexed to Bulgaria from about 700 to 1018, and to the Eastern empire from 1019, was united to Slavonia.
The river now flows south, separating Servia from Rumania down to its junction with the Timok, after which as far as Silistria, a distance of 284 m., it separates Rumania from Bulgaria.
After the change in tiry u- Russian policy and the failure of the powers to secure reforms, the advanced party amongst the Armenians, some of whom had been educated in Europe and been deeply affected by the free thought and Nihilistic tendencies of the day, determined to secure their object by the production of disturbances such as those that had given birth to Bulgaria.
The impatience of the king and the severity of the winter then compelled him (February 1444) to return home, but not before he had utterly broken the sultan's power in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Servia, Bulgaria and Albania.
It was the attempt made to transfer the whole Bulgarian trade to Thessalonica that in the close of the 9th century caused the invasion of the empire by Simeon of Bulgaria.
In 1204 Baldwin, conqueror of Constantinople, conferred the kingdom of Thessalonica on Boniface, marquis of Montferrat; but in 1222 Theodore, despot of Epirus, one of the natural enemies of the new kingdom, took the city and had himself there crowned by the patriarch of Macedonian Bulgaria.
The rose oil industry, which had been for centuries located in the valleys of Bulgaria, has now been taken up in Germany (near Leipzig), where roses are specially cultivated for the production of rose oil.
Moreover, two years afterwards a Catharist synod, in which heretics from Languedoc, Bulgaria and Italy took part, was held at St Felix de Caraman, near Toulouse, and their deliberations were undisturbed.
By the spring of 1912 Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia had concluded an alliance.
On 30th May 2005, Michael Shields, now 19, was arrested in Bulgaria for an attack on a local barman.
Two years later he moved back to Bulgaria where he led a worker's revolt that was brutally crushed by the capitalist government.
Other notable rising markets in the survey included Bulgaria which rose by 20.5 per cent and Denmark which has experienced 15.4 per cent growth.
The tourism industry in Bulgaria increased by 18% in 2003, the highest figure in Europe.
Meanwhile the determined royal personage made her way to Sofia in Bulgaria.
Can you recommend any places to stay in Bulgaria or at any other skiing resort.
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The expedition visits two distinct and equally spectacular regions of Bulgaria.
Bulgaria's parliament, elected by male suffrage, could veto royal legislation.
In 81 r Nicephonis invaded Bulgaria and drove Krum to ask for terms, but in a night attack he allowed himself to be surprised and was slain along with a large portion of his army.
Before proceeding to Bulgaria, Prince Alexander paid visits to the tsar at Livadia, to the courts of the great powers and to the sultan; he was then conveyed on a Russian warship to Varna, and after taking the oath to the new constitution at Tirnova (July 8, 1879) he repaired to Sofia, being everywhere greeted with immense enthusiasm by the people.
The revolution of Philippopolis (September 18, 1885), which brought about the union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria, was carried out with his consent, and he at once assumed the government of the revolted province.
This arrangement, however, cost him much of his popularity in Bulgaria, while discontent prevailed among a certain number of his officers, who considered themselves slighted in the distribution of rewards at the close of the campaign.
Bela reached the apogee of his political greatness in 1264 when, shortly after his crushing defeat of the Servian king, Stephen Urosh, he entertained at his court, at Kalocsa, the ambassadors of the newly restored Greek emperor, of the kings of France, Bulgaria and Bohemia and three Tatar mirzas.
The result was perceived first in Montenegro and Servia, and then in Bulgaria.
Both Servia and Bulgaria were by this time split up into half a dozen principalities which, as much for religious as for political reasons, preferred paying tribute to the Turks to acknowledging the hegemony of Hungary.
Its strained and inharmonious chords are Carinthia, Gorizia, Istria, Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, Ragusa, Bosnia, Montenegro, Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria and Lower Hungary," and " on the great lyre of Europe they must harmonize once more."
The name of Cathari (see CATHAxs), taken by the adherents of this new teaching, sufficiently shows the Oriental origin of their opinions, which spread from Bulgaria amongst the Sla y s, and followed the routes of commerce into central Europe.
The Balkan States - Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro - regarded themselves as the dispossessed owners of Ottoman territory in Europe.
For the execution of their purpose, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro had already formed an alliance.
The Church in Bulgaria also tried to extirpate Bogomilism.
The principal summits are Olympus overlooking the Gulf of Salonica; Musalla (9631) and Popova Shapka (8855), both in the Rhodope system; Liubotrn in the Shar Dagh (8989); Elin, in the Perin Planina (8794); Belmeken in southern Bulgaria (chain of Dospat, 8562); Smolika in the Pindus range (8445); Dormitor in northern Montenegro (8294); Kaimakchalan in central Macedonia (8255); and Kiona in Aetolia (8235).
For full details as to the physical features, natural products, population, customs, trade, finance, government, religion, education, language, literature, antiquities, history, politics, &c., of the Balkan lands, see Albania, Bosnia And Herzegovina,Bulgaria,Croataslavonia, Dalmatia, Dobrudja, Greece, Illyria, Macedonia, Montenegro, Novibazar, Servia and Turkey.
The revival of the various Balkan nationalities was in every case accompanied or preceded by a literary movement; in Servian literature, under the influence of Obradovich and Vuk Karajich, the popular idiom, notwithstanding the opposition of the priesthood, superseded the ecclesiastical RussianSlavonic; in Bulgaria the eastern dialect, that of the Sredna Gora, prevailed.
At the same time the frontiers of Servia and Montenegro were enlarged so as to become almost contiguous, and Montenegro received the ports of Antivari and Dulcigno on the Adriatic. From a strategical point of view the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty threatened Salonica, Adrianople and Constantinople itself; and the great powers, anticipating that the new state would become a Russian dependency, refused their sanction to its provisions.
Miller, The Balkans (London, 1896), sketches the history of Bulgaria, Montenegro, Rumania and Servia.
The title of exarch has been borne by the head of the Bulgarian Church (see BULGARIA), since in 1872 it repudiated the jurisdiction of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople.
The formation of a military alliance between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Montenegro in 1912 was the final step in an evolution which began in 1909, and in its last stages was hastened by the Italo-Turkish War of 1911.
All these things were, in their varying degrees, elements of policy upon which the Allied strategy must base itself if its war aims were to be obtained, and accordingly the military treaty between Bulgaria and Serbia provided for a Serbo-Bulgarian army of 7 Serbian and 3 Bulgarian divisions to invade Macedonia, moving concentrically against the front Uskub - Kumanovo - Kratovo - Kochana, forming the outer contour of the plain known as Ovche Polye which was assumed on both sides to be the natural concentration area of the Turks.
On Dec. 3, Serbia and Montenegro joined in the armistice signed that day between Bulgaria and Turkey.
Servia received financial assistance; a large consignment of arms was sent openly from St Petersburg to the prince of Montenegro; Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria became ostensibly reconciled with the Russian emperor, and his son Boris was received into the Eastern Orthodox Church; the Russian embassy at Constantinople tried to bring about a reconciliation between the Bulgarian exarch and the oecumenical patriarch; Bulgarians and Servians professed, at the bidding of Russia, to lay aside their mutual hostility.
The national dances and music closely resemble those of the Southern Sla y s (see Montenegro and Bulgaria).
Slavonic had been the language of the Church from the early middle ages, and was therefore hallowed in the eyes of the people and the clergy; through the political connexion with the Slavonic kingdoms of the south, Bulgaria and Servia, it had also been the language of the chancellories and of the court.
Prince Michael organized the national army, armed it and drilled it, and entered into understandings with Greece, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Albania, for an eventful general rising against the Turks.
This view, which did not find support anywhere outside Servia, led to war between Servia and Bulgaria (see Servo-Bulgarian War); the Servians were defeated at Slivnitza and had to abandon Pirot, whilst the farther advance of the Bulgarian army on Nish was stopped by the intervention of Austria-Hungary.
The revolution of Philippopolis, which brought about the union of Bulgaria with eastern Rumelia, took place on the 18th of September 1885, and it was largely owing to Stambolov's advice that Prince Alexander decided to identify himself with the movement.
Why should you invest in real estate in Bulgaria?
Bulgaria 's parliament, elected by male suffrage, could veto royal legislation.
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Throughout the first half of the 1990s, Bulgaria was wracked by political instability and strikes.
Originally born in Sofia, Bulgaria, Ms. Neshev came to the U.S in 1996 where she now lives.
The company prides itself on its use of ethical ingredients (such as rose geranium from South Africa and rose and lavender from Bulgaria), innovative, easy-to-decipher packaging, and support of ecosystem projects around the world.
My name is Rumyana Ivanova and I am from Bulgaria.
Born in Bulgaria, Dobrev immigrated to Canada with her parents at a very young age.
The Vampire Diaries took advantage of her fluency in Bulgarian by writing her character Katherine's history as being set in early Bulgaria.
Tepes ruled Wallachia (in Romania and borders Transylvania to the north and Bulgaria to the south) for only 2 months until he lost power.
Forsaking the priesthood about 1864, he was employed as a diplomatist by the British government in Egypt, Asia Minor, the West Indies, and Bulgaria, being appointed resident minister in Uruguay in 1884; he died at Montevideo on the 30th of September 1888.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).
The independence of Bulgaria was proclaimed on the 5th.