Corals, both reef-builders and others, flourished in the clearer waters; rugose forms are represented by Amplexoid, Zaphrentid and Cyathophyllid types, and by Lithostrotion and Phillipsastraea; common tabulate forms are Chaetetes, Chladochonus, Michelinia, &c. Amongst the echinoderms crinoids were the most numerous individually, dense submarine thickets of the long-stemmed kinds appear to have flourished in many places where their remains consolidated into thick beds of rock; prominent genera are Cyathocrinus, Woodocrinus, Actinocrinus; sea-urchins, Archaeocidaris, Palaeechinus, &c., were present; while the curious extinct Blastoids, which included the groups of Pentremitidae and Codasteridae, attained their maximum development.
Manson, Builders of our Law (ed.
"Omigod. So I'm going to a planet of models and body builders," Kiera said.
Alex had the foresight to have the builders install a gas range.
Whittemore, The Founders and Builders of the Oranges (Newark, 1896).
Builders carpentering 94,900.
Probably owing to the same cause, there is less cut stone in the walls, the Palenque builders using plaster to obtain smooth surfaces.
The Palenque builders apparently used nothing but stone tools in their work.
One of the greatest builders among them was Untas -GAL (the pronunciation of the second element in the name is uncertain).
He was succeeded by his son who was followed on the throne by his brother, one of the great builders of Elam.
Of the Norman kings at Palermo and Monreale and Cefalu and Messina are in style simply Saracenic; they were most likely the work of Saracen builders; they were beyond doubt built after Saracenic models.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The problem of the early railway builders in the United States was to conquer the wilderness, to build an empire, and at the same time to bind the East to the West and the North to the South.
The Master Car Builders' Association, a great body of mechanical officers organized especially to being about improvement and uniformity in details of construction and operation, expressed its sense of the importance of " self-coupling " so far back as 1874, but no device of the kind that could be considered useful had then been invented.
The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.
But when Venice took possession of the mainland her builders were able to employ a strong hydraulic dark lime from Albettone, which formed a durable cement, capable of resisting salt water and the corrosive sea air.
The ruins of Palmyra greatly interested the Arabs, and are commemorated in several poems quoted by Yaqut and others; they are referred to by the early poet Nabigha as proofs of the might of Solomon and his sovereignty over their builders the Jinn (Derenbourg, Journ.
In the earliest mosque at old Delhi, they adopted the piers and bracketed capitals of the Jaina builders, whom they probably employed to build their mosque.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The dolmen-builders of the New Stone Age are now known to have long occupied both Korea and Japan, from which advanced Asiatic lands they may have found little difficulty in spreading over the Polynesian world, just as in the extreme west they were able to range over Scandinavia, Great Britain and Ireland.
E-Saggila, the great temple of Bel, however, still continued to be kept in repair and to be a centre of Babylonian patriotism, until at last the foundation of Seleucia diverted the population to the new capital of Babylonia and the ruins of the old city became a quarry for the builders of the new seat of government.'
Munich contains several gymnasia or grammar-schools, a military academy, a veterinary college, an agricultural college, a school for architects and builders, and several other technical schools, and a conservatory of music. The general prison in the suburb of Au is considered a model of its kind; and there is also a large military prison.
In October 1861 Captain John Ericsson, an engineer, and a Troy (N.Y.) firm, as builders, began the construction of the iron-clad "Monitor" for the Federals, at Greenpoint, Long Island.
The earliest inhabitants of Malta (Melita) and Gozo (Gaulos) belonged to a culture-circle which included the whole of the western Mediterranean, and to a race which perhaps originated from North Africa; and it is they, and not the Phoenicians, who were the builders of the remarkable megalithic monuments which these islands contain, the Gigantia in Gozo, Hagiar Kim and Mnaidra near Crendi, the rock-cut hypogeum of Halsaflieni,' and the megalithic buildings on the hill of Corradino in Malta, being the most noteworthy.
By this new standard the Romans seem our contemporaries in latter-day civilization; the "Golden Age" of Greece is but of yesterday; the pyramid-builders are only relatively remote.
The original foundation of the temple must date back to a remote time: the work of some of the early builders is in fact referred to in the inscriptions on the present structure.
Here the stone that the builders rejected was made the head of the corner.
It not unfrequently happens that some of the larger houses have one or more partitions, but these are only posts of the main building left by the builders to support the roof, for the apartments have usually no communication with each other except by water.
Moreover, the mound-builders in the eastern half of this vast plain, being sedentary, were excellent potters.
The mound builders, Pueblo tribes, middle Americans and Peruvians, were potters of many schools; gorgeous colour fascinated the Amazonians, the Patagonians delighted in skins, and even the Fuegians saw beauty in the pretty snail shells of their desolate island shores.
The builders were "ignorant of some of the most essential principles of construction, and are to be regarded as hardly more than novices in the art" (Holmes, Archaeological Studies, &c.).
The principal manufactures are builders' hardware, locks and keys (the works of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company are here), woollen goods, dye stuffs, &c. The township of Stamford, known until 1642 by the Indian name of Rippowam, was settled in 1641 by twenty-nine persons who for religious reasons seceded from the Wethersfield church and joined the colony of New Haven.
English bridge-builders are somewhat hampered in adopting rational limits of working stress by the rules of the Board of Trade.
The Cincinnati Society of Natural History (incorporated 1870) has a large library and a museum containing a valuable palaeontological collection, and bones and implements from the prehistoric cemetery of the mound-builders, at Madisonville, Ohio.
Builders' rites >>
They were the builders of the pyramids of Cholula and Teotihuacan, near the city of Mexico, and of Papantla, Huatusco and Tuzapan, in Vera Cruz.
Another and perhaps a better supposition is that they belonged to the Maya group, and represented a much earlier civilization than that of the builders of Palenque, Quirigua and Copan.
The builders of Casas Grandes, in Chihuahua, evidently belonged to the Pueblo tribes of Arizona and New Mexico.
As for the builders of Quemada, in Zacatecas, nothing positive is known.
The wood is highly valued by carriage-builders, upholsterers and turners, on account of its toughness and tenacity, and in Russia it is prized as firewood and a source of charcoal.
High; the city convention hall, the chamber of commerce, the builders' exchange, the Masonic temple, two state armouries, the Prudential, Fidelity Trust, White and Mutual Life buildings, the Teck, Star and Shea's Park theatres, and the Ellicott Square building, one of the largest office structures in the world; and, in Delaware Park, the Albright art gallery, and the Buffalo Historical Society building, which was originally the New York state building erected for the Pan-American Exposition held in 1901.
But as a rule, and especially in the great periods of church architecture, their builders were untrammelled by any utilitarian considerations; they built for the glory of God, for their own glory perhaps, in honour of the saints; and their work, where it survives, is (as it were) a petrification of their beliefs and ideals.
In considering the origins of medieval churches, moreover, it must be borne in mind that as a general rule their builders were not actuated by the motives usual in modern times, at least among Protestants.
In general, however, Protestant builders have been content to preserve or to adapt the traditional models.
This turf wall is certainly older than the stone wall, and, as our ancient writers mention two wall-builders, Hadrian and Septimius Severus, the natural inference is that Hadrian built his wall of turf and Severus reconstructed it in stone.
In the beginning of the Lug .,(Ca Carlisle ".; xe/loduJr u m 'Aber/l ava Yinovro (8tne/uster)t 4th century the skilled artisans and builders, and the cloth and corn of Britain were equally famous on the continent.
On account of these properties, builders have come to give it a distinct preference over stone, brick, timber and other building materials.
These three were all built by the same builders in.
A third class of Cyclopes are the builders of the so-called "Cyclopean" walls of Mycenae and Tiryns, giants with arms in their belly, who were said to have been brought by Proetus from Lycia to Argos, his original home (Pausanias ii.
In 1905 and subsequent years, however, the degree of employment in German yards increased to such an extent, principally owing to the placing of the Admiralty contracts with private builders, that the more urgent orders for mercantile vessels were placed abroad.
The most striking effect of the development of this antagonism was the gradual disappearance as a factor in politics of the Liberals, the chief builders of the Empire.
Was one of the great builders of Egypt, and much remains of his work, at about forty different sites.
Whittemore, The Founders and Builders of the Oranges, (Newark, 1896).
The pottery accompanying the remains is often elaborately ornamented, and the mound builders were evidently possessed of a higher development of taste and skill than is evinced by any of the modern aboriginal races, by whom the mounds and their contents are regarded as utterly mysterious.
It was well known to builders in the earliest historic times that certain limes would, when set, resist the action of water, i.e.
House-cleanings and struggles with builders during the construction of a " soundproof room " taxed her energy, while Carlyle was hiding himself with his family in Scotland or staying at English country houses.
He added a reminder that the stone which the builders refused was, after all, the Divine choice.
So, with the parable of the two builders, the discourse reached its formal close.
Whittemore, The Founders and Builders of the Oranges; (Newark, 1896).
The upper class are the keepers of traditions, boat-builders, leaders of expeditions; tattooing is generally done by them, the amount increasing with a man's rank; the custom here still has definite religious associations.
As for the religion and love of art of the builders, it is much the same all the world over, whether the building be an Egyptian temple or the United States Bank.
In addition to the miners, railroad builders and cattlemen populated the area.