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budding

budding

budding Sentence Examples

  • And yet, according to Katie, she ran a budding goat dairy on a run-down farm in Northwest Arkansas.

  • As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.

  • A, A hydriform person giving rise to medusiform person by budding from th margin of the disk; B, free swimming medusa (Steenstrupia of Forbes) detached from the same, with manubrial genitali.

  • - All known hydropolyps possess the power of reproduction by budding, and the buds produced may become either polyps or medusae.

  • on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.

  • Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.

  • After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.

  • Budding from the hydrocaulus may be combined with budding from the hydrorhiza, so that numer ous branching colonies arise from a common basal stolon.

  • - Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.

  • - Diagrams of the monopodial method of budding, shown in five stages (1-5).

  • In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.

  • In this method of budding F s there are two types.

  • - Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).

  • by uniserial budding.

  • The pinnules never branch again, since in the uniserial mode of budding a polyp never forms a second polyp-bud.

  • - Diagram of sympodial budding, system, from which simple unbranched Plumularia-type.

  • The laws of branch formed by similar budding from 1; budding in hydroids a 2 -d 2 from 2, and so forth.

  • Such are the " guard-polyps " (machopolyps) of Plumularidae, which are often regarded as individuals of the nature of dactylozoids, but from a study of the mode of budding in this hydroid family Driesch concluded that the guard-polyps were not true polyp-individuals, although each is enclosed in a small protecting cup of the perisarc, known as a nematophore.

  • - Diagram of sympodial budding, biserial type, shown in five stages (1-5).

  • The non-sexua 1 reproduction takes the form of fission, budding or sporogony, the details of which are described below.

  • In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.

  • If the germ-cells are undifferentiated, the offspring may arise from many cells or from a single cell; the first type is (4) germinal budding, the second is (5) sporogony.

  • (3) Vegetative budding is almost universal in the Hydromedusae.

  • By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.

  • - Direct Budding of Cunina.

  • Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.

  • The direct type of budding is rare, but is seen in Cunina and Millepora.

  • The indirect mode of budding (figs.

  • - Diagrams of Medusa budding with the formation of an entocodon.

  • - Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.

  • It is seen from the foregoing account of medusa - budding that the entocodon is a very important constituent of the bud, furnishing some of the most essential portions of the medusa; its cavity becomes the subumbral cavity, and its lining furnishes the ectodermal epithelium of the manubrium and of the sub-umbral cavity as far as the edge of the velum.

  • Hence the budding of medusae exemplifies very clearly a common phenomenon in development, a phylogenetic series of events completely dislocated in the ontogenetic time-sequence.

  • The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.

  • Germinal Budding.

  • - This method of budding is commonly described as budding from a single body-layer, instead of from both layers.

  • From these facts,, and from those of the sporogony, to be described below, we may regard budding to this type as taking place from the germinal epithelium rather than from ordinary ectoderm.

  • (a) The Polyp. - Budding from the ectoderm alone has been described by A.

  • The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.

  • Seeliger [52] who went to the opposite extreme and regarded the type of budding described by Lang as non-existent.

  • however, both of the statements and figures of Lang and of the facts to be described presently for medusae (Margellium), it is at least theoretically possible that both germinal and vegetative budding may occur in polyps as well as in medusae.

  • The clearest instance of germinal budding is furnished by Margellium (Rathkea) octopunctatum, one of the Margelidae.

  • The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, [1]), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.

  • Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.

  • Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.

  • - Budding from the Ectoderm (germinal epithelium) in Margellium.

  • The medusa arises direct from the actinulastage and there is no entocodon formed, as in the budding described above.

  • In Cunina parasitica, however, the ovum develops into an actinula, which buds actinulae as before, but only the daughter-actinulae develop into medusae, while the original, parent-actinula dies off; here, therefore, larval budding has led to a true alternation of generations.

  • founder-polyp) nor its offspring by budding (polyps of the colony) have the power of becoming medusae, but only of producing medusae by budding.

  • Brooks, on the other hand, as stated above, regards the medusa as the older type and looks upon both polyp and medusa, in the Hydromedusae, as derived from a free-swimming or floating actinula, the polyp being thus merely a fixed nutritive stage, possessing secondarily acquired powers of multiplication by budding.

  • The polyp may be solitary, but more usually produces polyps by budding and forms a polyp-colony.

  • - Trophosome without hydrothecae or gonothecae, with monopodial type of budding.

  • The polyps may be solitary, or form colonies, which may be of the spreading or encrusting type, or arborescent, and then always of monopodial growth and budding.

  • The typical genus is the well-known hydroid Podocoryne, budding the medusa known as Dysmorphosa; Thamnostylus, Cytaeis, &c., are other medusae with unknown hydroids.

  • Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.

  • Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.

  • are produced by direct budding, without an entocodon in the bud.

  • The supposed hydrothecae may be present on one side of the axis only (monoprionid) or on both sides (diprionid); the first case may be conjectured to be the result of uniserial (helicoid) budding, the second to be produced by biserial (scorpioid) budding.

  • without a hydroid phase; the medusa develops directly from the actinula larva, which may, however, multiply by budding.

  • The actinula, when free, may multiply by larval budding, but in all cases both the original actinula and all its descendants become converted into medusae, so that there is no alter nation of generations.

  • In Gonionemus the actinula becomes attached and polyp-like and reproduces by budding.

  • The buds become medusae by the direct method of budding described above.

  • In both cases the hydranth is extremely reduced and has no tentacles, and the polyp forms a colony by budding from the base.

  • Gonostyles, appendages which produce by budding medusae or gonophores, like the blastostyles of a hydroid colony.

  • It may be regarded as derived from floating polyps similar to Nemopsis or Pelagohydra, which by budding produce a colony of polyps and also form medusa-buds.

  • It may also take place where rapid proliferation of the cell is going on, as in the budding of the Yeast plant.

  • Cell budding takes place in yeast and in the formation of the conidia of Fungi.

  • No specialized system of spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction by budding also occurs.

  • - As is the case with the Oligochaeta, the Polychaeta furnish examples of species which multiply asexually by budding.

  • There is a further resemblance between the two orders of Chaetopoda in that this budding is not a general phenomenon, but confined to a few forms only.

  • Budding, in fact, among the Polychaetes is limited to the family Syllidae.

  • - Dasychone zooids are formed from a zone of budding 4.

  • The well-known Syllid, discovered during the voyage of the "Challenger," shows a modification of this form of budding.

  • Here, however, the buds are lateral, though produced from a budding may be defective upon one or other of the noto a b FIG.

  • Quite recently, another mode of budding has been described in Trypanosyllis gemmipara, where a crowd of some fifty buds arising symmetrically are produced at the tail end of the worm.

  • b.z, Budding zone; p, anterior region of the parent worm; 1-5, buds.

  • of the parent in a regular line, and develop in situ; this process, which has been attributed to budding, is an "external gestation," and occurs in a number of species.

  • Reproduction by budding also occurs.

  • The air-tubes, like the food-canal, are formed by invaginations of the ectoderm, which arise close to the developing appendages, the rudimentary spiracles appearing soon after the budding limbs.

  • It is propagated by seeds, and occasionally by budding, grafting or inarching for the perpetuation of special varieties.

  • They may be defined as aquatic animals, forming colonies by budding; with ciliated retractile tentacles and a U-shaped alimentary canal.

  • The ancestrula (After Allman.) inaugurates a process of budding, conFIG.

  • Even the ectoderm can rarely be recognized as an obvious epithelium except in regions where budding is taking place, while muscular layers are always absent and a coelomic epithelium can seldom be observed.

  • In other cases small portions of the stem or leaves give rise to new plants by budding, as in Bryophyllum, where buds develop at the edges of the leaf and form new plants.

  • Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).

  • In the second place, the power of non-sexual reproduction by budding is practically of universal occurrence among the Hydrozoa, and by the buds failing to separate from the parent stock, colonies are produced, more or less complicated in structure and often of great size.

  • Hence we have a primary subdivision of the colonies of Hydrozoa into those produced by budding of polyps and those produced by budding of medusae.

  • Medusae often have the power of budding, and the buds are formed either on the manubrium, or at the margin of the umbrella, or on an outgrowth or "stolon" produced from the exumbral surface.

  • Medusae, when they reproduce themselves by budding, always produce medusae, but when they reproduce by the sexual method the embryos produced from the egg grow into medusae in some cases, in other cases into polyps which bud medusae in their turn.

  • - Unequal Division and " Budding " process in T.

  • In some instances buds form on the roots, and may be used for purposes of propagation, as in the Japan quince, the globe thistle, the sea holly, some sea lavenders, Bocconia, Acanthus, &c. Of the tendency in buds to assume an independent existence gardeners avail themselves in the operations of striking " cuttings," and making " layers " and " pipings," as also in budding and grafting.

  • In budding, as with roses and peaches, a single bud only is implanted.

  • The Stanwick nectarine, so apt to crack and not to ripen when worked in the ordinary way, is said to be cured of these propensities by being first budded close to the ground, on a very strong-growing Magnum Bonum plum, worked on a Brussels stock, and by then budding the nectarine on the Magnum Bonum about a foot from the ground.

  • - Budding is the inserting of a bud of a choice variety cut with a portion of bark into the bark of the stock of an inferior nature where it is bound gently but firmly.

  • In the propagating house budding may be done at any season when the sap is in motion; but for fruit trees, roses, &c., in the open air, it is usually done in July or August, when the buds destined for the following year are completely formed in the axils of the leaves, and when the bark separates freely from the wood it covers.

  • The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called shield-budding or T-budding (fig.

  • provided with a sharp budding knife having a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock.

  • Propagate the different sorts of stone fruit trees by budding on other trees or on prepared stocks.

  • Increase roses and American shrubs, by layering, budding or cuttings, and go on with the layering of carnations and picotees.

  • Baltet, The Art of Grafting and Budding; W.

  • Plums are propagated chiefly by budding on stocks of the Mussel, Brussels, St Julien and Pear plums. The damson, wine-sour and other varieties, planted as standards, are generally increased by suckers.

  • The yeast-conidia, which bud off from the conidia or their resulting mycelium when sown in nutrient solutions, are developed in successive crops by budding exactly as in the yeast plant, but they cannot ferment sugar solutions.

  • They are characterized by their unicellular nature, their power of rapid budding, their capacity for fermenting various sugars, and their power of forming endogenous From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

  • A typical yeast is able to develop b new cells by budding when submerged in a saccharine solution, and to ferment the sugar - i.e.

  • Brefeld regards the budding process as the formation of conidia.

  • In the process of budding the nucleus divides apparently by a process of direct division.

  • The modern orange industry practically began with the introduction into Southern California in 1873 of two seedless orange trees from Brazil; from their stock have been developed by budding millions of trees bearing a seedless fruit known as the " Washington navel," which now holds first rank in American markets; other varieties, mainly seedlings, are of great but secondary importance.

  • The post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of Egypt, represent him as high-priest, and confirm his position by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of the other tribes (Num.

  • The development from the egg may be direct, or may take place with an alternation of generations (metagenesis), in which a non-sexual individual, the so-called scyphistoma or scyphopolyp, produces by budding the sexual medusae.

  • No adult Scyphomedusae are known to reproduce themselves by budding or by any method other than the sexual one.

  • The animal may produce its like by lateral budding, or by budding from a basal stolon.

  • The comparison of the metagenetic type of development, such as that of Aurelia, with the more primitive genera of Scyphomedusae, indicates clearly that the scyphistoma and ephyra are recapitulative larval stages which are represented by the adult forms of primitive genera, making such allowances as are necessary when comparing adult and larval forms. The metagenesis has arisen through the scyphistoma-larva acquiring the power of larval proliferation by budding.

  • Hence the familiarity of the poet's well-known "cooling-card" to the budding genius of his kinsman Jonathan: "Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet."

  • It is an almost universal attribute of polyps to possess the power of reproducing themselves non-sexually by the method of budding.

  • Slight differences in the method of budding produce great variations in the form of the colonies, which may be distinguished in a general way as spreading, massive or arborescent.

  • mm, Mesenteries; budding from a single mb muscle banners; sc, sulcus; st, parent zooid.

  • The most simple form of budding is found in the genus Cornularia, in which the mother zooid gives off from its base one or more simple radiciform outgrowths.

  • Further complications arise when the lower walls of the mother zooid become thickened and interpenetrated with solenia, from which buds are developed, so that lobose, tufted, or branched colonies are formed.The chief orders of the Synalcyonacea are founded upon the different architectural features of colonies produced by different modes of budding.

  • They resemble and are closely allied to certain families of the Cornulariidae, differing from them only in mode of budding and in the disposition of the daughter zooids round a central, much-elongated mother zooid.

  • D, Diagram illustrating the process of budding by unequal division.

  • The colonies are produced by either budding or division.

  • This coenenchyme'may be scanty, or may be so abundant that the individual corallites produced by budding seem to be immersed in it.

  • Each zooid buds from the one immediately preceding it in the series, and intercommunication is effected by all the budding orifices (including that in the wall of the sicula) remaining permanently open.

  • Internally, there existed a third set of thecae, held to have been inhabited by the budding individuals.

  • But in striking contrast to what obtains among the Graptoloidea in general, the budding orifices in the Dendroidea become closed,, and all the various cells shut off from each other.

  • b, Budding theca.

  • product of the normal or sexual mode of propagation in the group, but owes its origin to a peculiar type of budding or non-sexual reproduction, in which, as temporary resting or protecting structures, the vesicular bodies may have had a share.

  • Ehrenberg), a genus of suctorial Infusoria characterized by the possession of a stalk and cupshaped sheath or theca for the body, and endogenous budding.

  • Reproduction by budding does not occur, although spontaneous fragmentation of the body, followed by complete regeneration of each of the pieces, is known to take place.

  • From these females are born parthenogenetically, that is to say without the intervention of males, and by a process that has been compared to internal budding, large numbers of young resembling their parents in every particular except size, which themselves reproduce their kind in the same way.

  • And yet, according to Katie, she ran a budding goat dairy on a run-down farm in Northwest Arkansas.

  • A simply designed, recycled cardboard play house will bring hours of fun to a budding homemaker.

  • Stageworks Youth Theater is an opportunity for budding actors, designers, writers, directors and stage managers to create unique shows.

  • Here you will find plenty of information for budding astronomers: A guide to the current month's.. .

  • Other news For all you budding botanists out there (excuse the pun ), the Garden Picture Library might be for you.

  • budding young entrepreneurs?

  • budding film-makers to create a 30-second film that reflected the quirky nature of the project.

  • budding yeasts in anaerobic conditions but as mycelia in the presence of even low concentrations of oxygen.

  • budding archeologists and children with family ties to the region.

  • budding card sharks.

  • budding social entrepreneurs looking for support or advice to contact our office.

  • budding Thespians can tread the boards with Keele's Drama Society.

  • budding yeast S. cerevisiae [above] .

  • budding romance.

  • budding pool shark out there.

  • budding photographer, let us have your pictures for the photography section.

  • bulk of the wagers win a couple budding card sharks.

  • Find a budding amateur cameraman willing to do this for you.

  • Filipino american men straight will impress budding card sharks.

  • Suzuki the husband adobo and sweating budding card sharks.

  • To avoid such catastrophes who can the budding business entrepreneur turn to for help?

  • For budding chefs, an interest in food preparation is important.

  • We have a loyal customer base that enjoys sampling the creations of our budding new chefs.

  • tribal chieftain who was located in budding skier to to science the.

  • Or maybe you're a budding comedy genius with an idea for a comedy genius with an idea for a comedy show?

  • The simple and secure website has already been tried and tested by budding designers, from infants to arts students and foreign visitors.

  • A crime scene, as any budding detective might inform you, must be secured lest the DNA and forensic evidence be contaminated.

  • drought resistant plants can be grown by budding young gardeners.

  • Evening course options include car maintenance, repair and restoration - ideal for beginners, budding enthusiasts and more serious DIY'ers.

  • What advice would you have for budding young entrepreneurs?

  • Sinclair also had advice on where the budding entrepreneur should seek backing.

  • Budding of Rous sarcoma virus and vesicular stomatitis virus from localized lipid regions in the plasma membrane of chicken embryo fibroblasts.

  • Boys on Boys and Girls on Girls are our fresh and loud short films where budding new filmmakers round off the program.

  • These grow by binary fission or budding, creating new individuals from the parent cell.

  • His Swann is my falcon; his budding grove my deep green fjord.

  • frustratenally don't understand astrology but I can't help feeling that I am already frustrating the ambitions of a budding ethicist.

  • Drought resistant plants can be grown by budding young gardeners.

  • Or maybe you're a budding comedy genius with an idea for a comedy show?

  • An immensely useful video for both the budding and established mentalist.

  • But what do Bach and Tchaikovsky mean to the budding musicians of today?

  • The weather had also seen a marked improvement and as a result the deck was much more well patronized by budding photographers.

  • If you are a budding photographer, let us have your pictures for the photography section.

  • budding poets at Rush Green Primary School (31/05/2006) Pupils from Rush Green Primary School won their first ever poetry competition.

  • Call for Sessional meeting rapporteurs Calling all budding Ernest Hemingways.

  • The program culminated on 5 May 2002 with the budding reporters ' coverage of London Wasps ' match against Northampton Saints at Loftus Road.

  • drought resistant plants can be grown by budding young gardeners.

  • A contemporary, Michael Flanders, then a budding schoolboy actor, penned a school revue GO TO IT!

  • I'm also enjoying the budding romance between Harry and Susan.

  • Commissioned by the UK Film Council, the course allows budding screenwriters to develop their own screenplays, with guidance from experienced screenwriters.

  • includes a useful screenwriter 's resource for all you budding writers!

  • The familiar lightbulb sea squirt also multiplies by budding, with the zooids remaining attached at the base to form colonies.

  • serenaded by a budding musician.

  • Filipino american men straight will impress budding card sharks.

  • Suzuki the husband adobo and sweating budding card sharks.

  • Travel photographer Simon Kirwan shares some tips for budding mountain snappers!

  • This seems an excellent and very practical plan of action to be recommended to budding songwriters of whatever musical persuasion.

  • starter kit for the budding aquatic lover.

  • When it finds a suitable substratum, the adult polyp develops, growing by budding.

  • The budding tips of the plant contain the most THC of all.

  • tribal chieftain who was located in budding skier to to science the.

  • Obviously, this could happen but I very much doubt that legions of illegals are budding property tycoons.

  • Its branches are budding and the apple blossoms slowly unfold.

  • Assembly occurs during budding, characteristically into cytoplasmic vacuoles rather than at the cell surface.

  • Being an autodidactic pedagogue, what advice do you have for budding writers?

  • They grow as budding yeasts in anaerobic conditions but as mycelia in the presence of even low concentrations of oxygen.

  • Left: the common budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, viewed by phase-contrast microscopy.

  • 715; " Cephalodiscus: Budding," &c., Trans.

  • It is beyond the scope of the present article to attempt to describe the different forms of budding fungi (Saccharomyces), mould fungi and bacteria which are capable of fermenting sugar solutions.

  • As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.

  • A, A hydriform person giving rise to medusiform person by budding from th margin of the disk; B, free swimming medusa (Steenstrupia of Forbes) detached from the same, with manubrial genitali.

  • - All known hydropolyps possess the power of reproduction by budding, and the buds produced may become either polyps or medusae.

  • on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.

  • Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.

  • After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.

  • Budding from the hydrocaulus may be combined with budding from the hydrorhiza, so that numer ous branching colonies arise from a common basal stolon.

  • - Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.

  • - Diagrams of the monopodial method of budding, shown in five stages (1-5).

  • In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.

  • In this method of budding F s there are two types.

  • In a colony formed by sympodial budding, a polyp always produces first a bud, which contributes to the system to which it belongs, i.e.

  • - Diagram of sympodial 18) there is formed a main stem budding, uniserial type, shown on tithe i ma in t emeafh r m s polyp in four stages (1-4).

  • by uniserial budding.

  • The pinnules never branch again, since in the uniserial mode of budding a polyp never forms a second polyp-bud.

  • On the other hand, a polyp on the main stem may form a second bud which, instead of forming a pinnule by uniserial budding, produces by biserial budding a branch, from which pinnules arise as from the main stem (fig.

  • - Diagram of sympodial budding, system, from which simple unbranched Plumularia-type.

  • F, uniserial pinnules arise founder; 1 -8, main axis formed by biserial as from the main stem budding from founder; a-e, pinnule formed - type of Aglaophenia by uniserial budding from founder; a l -d i, (fig.

  • The laws of branch formed by similar budding from 1; budding in hydroids a 2 -d 2 from 2, and so forth.

  • Such are the " guard-polyps " (machopolyps) of Plumularidae, which are often regarded as individuals of the nature of dactylozoids, but from a study of the mode of budding in this hydroid family Driesch concluded that the guard-polyps were not true polyp-individuals, although each is enclosed in a small protecting cup of the perisarc, known as a nematophore.

  • - Diagram of sympodial budding, biserial type, shown in five stages (1-5).

  • The non-sexua 1 reproduction takes the form of fission, budding or sporogony, the details of which are described below.

  • Allman, however, regarded this type of gonad as equivalent to a sporosac, and considered the medusa bearing them as a non-sexual organism, a " blastocheme " as he termed it, producing by budding medusoid gonophores.

  • In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.

  • If the germ-cells are undifferentiated, the offspring may arise from many cells or from a single cell; the first type is (4) germinal budding, the second is (5) sporogony.

  • (3) Vegetative budding is almost universal in the Hydromedusae.

  • By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.

  • - Direct Budding of Cunina.

  • Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.

  • The direct type of budding is rare, but is seen in Cunina and Millepora.

  • The indirect mode of budding (figs.

  • - Diagrams of Medusa budding with the formation of an entocodon.

  • - Modifications of the method of becomes reduced budding shown in fig.

  • The process of budding as above described may be varied or complicated in various ways; thus a secondary, amnion-like, ectodermal covering or ectotheca (fig.

  • It is seen from the foregoing account of medusa - budding that the entocodon is a very important constituent of the bud, furnishing some of the most essential portions of the medusa; its cavity becomes the subumbral cavity, and its lining furnishes the ectodermal epithelium of the manubrium and of the sub-umbral cavity as far as the edge of the velum.

  • The nearest approach to the phylogenetic sequence is seen in the budding of Cunina, where the manubrium and mouth appear first, but the umbrella is formed before the tentacles (fig.

  • In the indirect or coenogenetic method of budding, the first two members of the sequence exhibited by Cunina change places, and the umbrella is formed first, the manubrium next, and then the tentacles; the actual mouthperforation being delayed to the very last (fig.

  • Hence the budding of medusae exemplifies very clearly a common phenomenon in development, a phylogenetic series of events completely dislocated in the ontogenetic time-sequence.

  • The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.

  • Germinal Budding.

  • - This method of budding is commonly described as budding from a single body-layer, instead of from both layers.

  • From these facts,, and from those of the sporogony, to be described below, we may regard budding to this type as taking place from the germinal epithelium rather than from ordinary ectoderm.

  • (a) The Polyp. - Budding from the ectoderm alone has been described by A.

  • The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.

  • Seeliger [52] who went to the opposite extreme and regarded the type of budding described by Lang as non-existent.

  • however, both of the statements and figures of Lang and of the facts to be described presently for medusae (Margellium), it is at least theoretically possible that both germinal and vegetative budding may occur in polyps as well as in medusae.

  • The clearest instance of germinal budding is furnished by Margellium (Rathkea) octopunctatum, one of the Margelidae.

  • The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, [1]), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.

  • Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.

  • IV, a, b, c, budding with an entocodon (cf.

  • V, Budding with a solid entocodon (cf.

  • Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.

  • - Budding from the Ectoderm (germinal epithelium) in Margellium.

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