During the Buddhist period Muttra became a centre of the new faith.
it is not an outcome of Japanese nature nor yet of Buddhist teaching, but is due to the stress of endeavouring to reach the standards of Western acquirement with grievously inadequate equipment, opportunities and resources.
400; his successor Hsiian Tsang, about 650, states that it then contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Brahmanical temples.
for the dim light of the Buddhist temple.
The royal history traces the lineage of the kings to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of India.
All later Buddhist accounts, whether Pali or Sanskrit, repeat the same story.
They are ancient Buddhist caves dating from the 3rd century before Christ to the 6th century after.
Ujjain, known as Avanti in the Buddhist period and as Ozene to the Greeks, is one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus and the traditional capital of King Vikramaditya, at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskirt literature are said to have flourished.
It probably means "row, line, canon," and is used, in its exact technical sense, of the language of the canon, containing the documents of the Buddhist faith.
Professor Rhys Davids has put forward similar views with respect to the Jatakas and the Sutta Nipata in his Buddhist India, and with respect to the Nikayas in general in the introduction to his Dialogues of the Buddha.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.
The Buddhist law is contained in certain sacred books called Dhammathats.
An account of these translations will be found in The Principles of Buddhist Law by Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), which is the first attempt to present those principles in something approaching to a systematic form.
The introduction to this translation, published under the title of Buddhist Psychology, contains the fullest account that has yet appeared of the psychological conceptions on which Buddhist ethics are throughout based.
The Buddhist religion believes in separating oneself from the torrent of human emotions.
highly civilized centres of Buddhist art and industry in the now sand-strewn wastes of the Turkestan desert has been clearly demonstrated by the same great explorer and by Dr M.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
The NO, however, owed its development mainly to Buddhist infltience.
These scholars (most of them members of the Buddhist Order, but many of them laymen) not only copied and recopied the Indian Pali books, but wrote a very large number themselves.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
They are partially Buddhist, and have a peculiar monosyllabic, uninflected language, with writing consisting of symbols, which represent words, not letters.
The Kalmucks are a Buddhist and Mongolian people who originated in a confederacy of tribes dwelling in Dzungaria, migrated to Siberia, and settled on the Lower Volga.
The Buddhist influence is not merely religious, for it is always accompanied by Indian art and literature, and often by an Indian alphabet.
He was a zealous Buddhist and gave the first example of a missionary religion, for by his exertions the faith was spread over all India and Ceylon.
Mr Peppe's article, reproduced in Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, p. 89.
The account of the death and cremation of the Buddha, preserved in the Buddhist canon, states that one-eighth portion of the ashes was presented to the Sakiya clan, and that they built a thupa, or memorial mound, over it.'
This is the Song of Nalaka (the Buddhist Simeon), and the words put in the mouth of the angels who announce the birth to him are: "The Wisdom-child, that jewel so precious, that cannot be matched, has been born at Lumbini, in the Sakiya land, for weal and for joy in the world of men."
810, a celebrated Buddhist priest, Kkai, who had spent several years studying in China, compounded out of Buddhism, Confucianism and ShintO a system of doctrine called Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto), the prominent tenet of which was that the ShintO deities were merely transmigrations of Buddhist divinities.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
He left a line of descendants extending far into the I5th century, all famous for Buddhist pictures, and some engaged in establishing a native style, the Wa-gwa-ryu.
At the end of the 9th century there were two exotic styles of painting, Chinese and Buddhist, and the beginning of a native style founded upon these.
The chief motives were landscapes of a peculiarly wild and romantic type, animal life, trees and flowers, and figtire compositions drawn from Chinese and Buddhist history and Taoist legend; and these, together with the grand aims and strange shortcomings of its principles and the limited range of its methods, were adopted almost without change by Japan.
It was a noble art, but unfortunately the rivalry of the Buddhist and later native styles permitted it to fall into comparative neglect, and it was left for a few of the faithful, the most famous of whom was a priest of the I 4th century named Kawo, to preserve it from inanition till the great Chinese renaissance that lent its stamp to the next period.
The Buddhist style was probably even more ancient than the Chinese, for the scheme of coloring distinctive of the Buddhist picture was almost certainly of Indian origin; brilliant fi ddhi and decorative, and heightened by a lavish use of S~ t.
The style was applied only to the representations of sacred personages and scenes, and as the traditional forms and attributes of the Brahmanic and Buddhist divinities were mutable only within narrow limits, the subjects seldom afforded scope for originality of design or observation of nature.
The principal Buddhist painters down to the 14th century were members of the Kos, Takuma and Kasuga lines, the first descended from Kanaoka, the second from Takuma Tamuji (ending 10th century), and the third from Fujiwara no Motomitsu (I 11 century).
Talented representatives of the Kose, Takuma Thhd and Tosa lines maintained the reputation of the Period, native and Buddhist schools, and the long-neglected Chinese school was destined to undergo a vigorous revival.
The qualities of the new Chinese schools were essentially those of the older dynasties: breadth, simplicity, a daringly calligraphic play of brush that strongly recalled the accomplishments of the famous scribes, anti a coloring that varied between sparing washes of flat local tints and a strength and brilliancy of decorative effort that rivalled even that of the Buddhist pictures.
Setting aside rude prehistoric essays in stone and metal, which have special interest for the antiquary, we have examples of sculpture in wood and metal, magnificent in conception and technique, dating from the earliest periods of what we may term historical Japan; that is, from near the beginning of the great Buddhist propaganda under the emperor Kimmei (540571) and the princely hierarch, ShOtoku Taishi (573621).
Buddhist sculpture was by no means neglected during this period, but there are few works that call for special notice.
The Buddhist sculptors, however, tended to grow more conventional and the metal-workers more naturalistic as the 18th century began to wane.
Massive, towering roofs, which impart an air of stateliness even to a wooden building and yet, by their graceful curves, avoid any suggestion of ponderosity, were still confined to Buddhist edifices.
The Buddhist temple underwent little change at Japanese hands except in the matter of decoration.
Such as it was in Buddhist outline when first erected in accordance with Chinese Temple models, such it virtually remained, though in later A,vhitecture.
None of the magnificence of the Buddhist temple belongs to the Shinto shrine.
Among the benevolent acts attributed to renowned Buddhist priests posterity specially remembers their efforts to encourage the building of roads and bridges.
In the later heresy of Manichaeism there were affinities to Gnosticism, but it was a mixture of many elements, Babylonian-Chaldaic theosophy, Persian dualism and even Buddhist ethics (p. 126).
The most interesting of them are the Assa range, with its sandal trees and Buddhist remains; Udayagiri (Sunrise-hill), with its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruins; and Assagiri, with its mosque of 1719.
The people nominally profess the Buddhist religion, but in reality their religious exercises are confined to the propitiation of evil spirits, and the mechanical recital of a few sacred sentences.
123-53), who is celebrated throughout eastern Asia as a patron of the Buddhist church and convener of the third Buddhist council.
The importance of the Gandharan influence on the art of India and all Buddhist Asia is now recognized.
Kanishka and other monarchs were zealous but probably by no means exclusive Buddhists, and the conquest of Khotan and Kashgar must have facilitated the spread of Buddhist ideas to China.
All over the town are scattered beautiful Buddhist temples, which with their coloured tile roofs and gilded spires give it a peculiar and notable appearance.
Buddhist and Shinto temples are numerous.
Thus for example the scholia on Jarir furnished him with a remarkable notice of the prevalence of Buddhist doctrine and asceticism in `Irak under the Omayyads.
There are over 60 Buddhist monasteries.
As to (a), it is obvious that atheism from the standpoint of the Christian is a very different conception as compared with atheism as understood by a Deist, a Positivist, a follower of Euhemerus or Herbert Spencer, or a Buddhist.
The Kotahena temple is the chief Buddhist temple in Colombo.
BONZE (from Japanese bonze, probably a mispronunciation of Chinese fan sung, " religious person"), the European name for the members of the Buddhist religious orders of Japan and China.
The word is loosely used of all the Buddhist priests in those and the neighbouring countries.
Ancient cuttings on the hills west of Bezwada have been held by some to mark the site of a Buddhist monastery; by others they are considered to have been quarries.
They are Buddhist topes (Pali.
The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
C. Maisey, Sanchi and its Remains (London, 1892); Rhys Davids, Buddhist India (London, 1902).
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
Meat is eaten, but, as the slaughter of animals is against Buddhist tenets, is not often obtainable, with the exception of pork, killed by Chinese.
There is a close connexion between the laity and priesthood, as the Buddhist rule, which prescribes that every man should enter the priesthood for at least a few months, is almost universally observed, even young princes and noblemen who have been educated in Europe donning the yellow robe on their return to Siam.
Some of the priests are learned in the Buddhist scriptures, and most of the Pali scholarship in Siam is to be found in monasteries, but there is no learning of a secular nature.
As in Burma, the Buddhist monasteries scattered throughout the country carry on almost the whole of the elementary education in the rural districts.
The Buddhist religion, then beginning to decay in India, was working its way to a new growth in China, and contemporaneously the Nestorian Christians were establishing bishoprics at Herat, Mer y and Samarkand, whence they subsequently proceeded to Kashgar, and finally to China itself.
The population is mainly Mahommedan, and there are only two Buddhist pagodas.
Among his other works are his edition of Hariri (1822, 2nd edition by Reinaud, 1847, 1855), with a selected Arabic commentary, and of the Alfiya (1833), and his Calila et Dimna (1816), - the Arabic version of that famous collection of Buddhist animal tales which has been in various forms one of the most popular books of the world.
They were used as chapter-houses for the meetings of the Buddhist Order.
Hsiian Tsang informs us that Dinnaga, the celebrated Buddhist philosopher and controversialist, author of well-known books on logic, resided there.
Very few of the frescoes have been identified, but two are illustrations of stories in Arya Sura's Jataka Maid, as appears from verses in Buddhist Sanskrit painted beneath them.
Under an intelligent teacher they meanwhile studied the Tibetan language and Buddhist.
Granting then that some foreign influence was at work in Essenism, we have four theories offered to us - that this influence was Persian, Buddhist, Pythagorean, or lastly, as maintained by Lipsius, that of the surrounding Syrian heathenism.
The first serious European student of Tibetan was Csoma de Koros (1784-1842), an indefatigable Hungarian, who devoted his life to the study of this language and the ancient Buddhist records enshrined in its unknown literature.
In 1861 Lepsius published his paper Ueber chinesische and tibetische Lautverhdltnisse; and after 1864 Leon Feer brought out in Paris many translations of texts from Tibetan Buddhist literature.
investigations to the language as a whole, and provided Europeans for the first time with the means of making a practical study of modern Tibetan and the speech of the people His Tibetan-English Dictionary and Tibetan Grammar are models of scientific precision and important sources of our knowledge of the structure and development of the language, and the former is not superseded by Chandra Das's Dictionary.3 The language was first reduced to writing with the assistance of Indian Buddhist monks in the middle of the 7th century A.
Their author Milaraspa (unless the work should be attributed to his disciples), often called Mila, was a Buddhist ascetic of the I ith century, who, during the intervals of meditation travelled through the southern part of middle Tibet as a mendicant friar, instructing the people by his improvisations in poetry and song, proselytizing, refuting and converting heretics, and working manifold miracles.
According to tradition - a tradition of which the, details are still open to criticism - the alphabet was introduced from India by Tonmi, a lay Tibetan minister who was sent to India in 632 by King Srong-btsan to study the Sanskrit language and Buddhist literature.
These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
It was during his reign that the first Buddhist objects are reputed to have reached Tibet, probably from Nepal.
She gave birth in 730 to Khri srong lde tsan, in the Buddhist annals the most illustrious monarch of his country, because of the strenuous efforts he made in favour of that religion during his reign of fortysix years (743-789).
Nothing of importance occurred during the following reigns, until that of Ralpachen, who won glory by his care for the translations of the Buddhist scriptures which he caused to be completed, or rewritten more accurately when required.
Khorre left his throne to his son Lhade, who was himself succeeded by his three sons, the youngest of whom invited the celebrated Indian Buddhist, Atisha, to leave his monastery Vikramashila for Tibet, where he settled in the great lamaserai of Thoding in Nari.
The Sacred Order, or the Nine Precious Stones, was founded in 1869, in one class only, for the Buddhist princes of the royal house.
However much or (if you will) little a Buddhist or a Christian and non-Protestant peoples.
DHAMMAPALA, the name of one of the early disciples of the Buddha, and therefore constantly chosen as their name in religion by Buddhist novices on their entering the brotherhood.
At a later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north.
NAGARJUNA, a celebrated Buddhist philosopher and writer.
The Greeks do not mention him and the Brahmin books ignore him, but the Buddhist chronicles and legends tell us much about him.
It is purely ethical, independent alike of theology and ritual, and is the code of morals as laid down in the Buddhist sacred books for laymen.
He further tells us that in the ninth year of his reign he formally joined the Buddhist community as a layman, in the eleventh year he became a member of the order, and in the thirteenth he "set out for the Great Wisdom" (the Sambodhi), which is the Buddhist technical term for entering upon the well-known, eightfold path to Nirvana.
One of the edicts is addressed to the order, and urges upon its members and the laity alike the learning and rehearsal of passages from the Buddhist scriptures.
At the same time it is probable that, like Constantine's patronage of Christianity, his patronage of Buddhism, then the most rising and influential faith in India, was not unalloyed with political motives, and it is certain that his vast benefactions to the Buddhist cause were at least one of the causes that led to its decline.
Rhys Davids's Buddhism (20th ed.,London, 1903), and Buddhist India (London, 1903); V.
It was in the reign of Bimbisara that Vardhamana Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, and Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, preached in Magadha, and Buddhist missionaries issued thence to the conversion of China, Ceylon, Tibet and Tatary.
Even to this day Behar, where there are extensive remains of Buddhist buildings, remains a sacred spot in the eyes of the Chinese and other Buddhist nations.
After the death of the great Buddhist king, Asoka (c. 231), the Maurya empire began to break up, and it was finally destroyed about fifty years later when Pushyamitra Sunga murdered the Maurya king Brihadratha and founded the Sunga dynasty.
They were zealous Buddhists, and under their rule Magadha became once more an active centre of Buddhist influence.
King Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. sent Buddhist missionaries from India to the Mediterranean lands; their preaching has, it is true, left little or no trace in our Western records.
Alexandria " under the Caucasus " commanded the road from Bactria over the Hindu-Kush; it lay somewhere among the hills to the north of Kabul, perhaps at Opian near Charikar (MacCrindle, Ancient India, p. 87, note 4); that it is the city meant by " Alasadda the capital of the Yona (Greek) country " in the Buddhist Mahavanso, as is generally affirmed, seems doubtful (Tarn, loc. cit.
The stream of Buddhist art which went out eastwards across Asia had its rise in North-West India, and the remains of architecture and sculpture unearthed in this region enable us to trace its development back to pure Greek types.
Smith, Early History of India (1904); Grunwedel, Buddhist Art in India (Eng.
Of these two again the Impermanence has become an Indian rather than a Buddhist idea, and we are to a certain extent familiar with it also in the West.
Both in Europe, and in all Indian thought except the Buddhist, souls, and the gods who are made in imitation of souls, are considered as exceptions.
So important is this position in Buddhism that it is put in the forefront of Buddhist expositions of Buddhism.
It places this question of "soul" at the head of all the points it deals with, and devotes to it an amount of space quite overshadowing all the rest s So also in the earliest Buddhist book later than the canon - the very interesting and suggestive series of conversations between the Greek king Menander and the Buddhist teacher Nagasena.
8 See article on "Buddhist Schools of Thought," by Rhys Davids, in the J.R.A.S.
It is the Buddhist analogue to the Christian precept:" Whether therefore ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God."Under the head of Right Conduct the two most important points are Love and Joy.
And gladness springs up within him on his realizing that, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is stayed."9 To have realized the Truths, and traversed the Path; to have broken the Bonds, put an end to the Intoxications, and got rid of the Hindrances, is to have attained the ideal, the Fruit, as it is called, of Arahatship. One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pali poetry and prose, lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the Buddhist faith.
Perhaps the most frequent in the Buddhist text is Arahatship," the state of him who is worthy "; and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the" dying out "; that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins - sensuality, ill-will and stupidity.'° The choice of this term by European writers, a choice made long before anyof the Buddhist canonical texts had been published or translated, has had a most unfortunate result.
In India, before Buddhism, conflicting and contradictory views prevailed as to the precise mode of action of Karma; and we find this confusion reflected in Buddhist theory.
In the Buddhist adaptation of this theory no soul, no consciousness, no memory, goes over from one body to the other.
And the Buddhist adaptation of it, avoiding some of the difficulties common to it and to the allied European theories of fate and predestination, tries to explain the weight of the universe in its action on the individual, the heavy hand of the immeasurable past we cannot escape, the close connexion between all forms of life, and the mysteries of inherited character.
For as the Arahat had conquered the cravings that were supposed to produce the new body, his actions were no longer Karma, but only Kiriya, that led to no rebirth.4 Another point of Buddhist teaching adopted from previous belief was the practice of ecstatic meditation.
It is clear from the Dialogues, and other of the most ancient Buddhist records, 5 that the belief was in full force when Buddhism arose, and that the practice was followed by the Buddha's teachers.
It was quite impossible for him to ignore the question; and the practice was admitted as a part of the training of the Buddhist Bhikshu.
On the Buddhist side see Rhys Davids' Hibbert Lectures, pp. 73120, and Dahlke, Aufscitze rum Versteindnis des Buddhismus (Berlin, 1903), i.
Sanskrit was not used for any Buddhist works till long afterwards, and never used at all, so far as is known, for the canonical books.
In the first of these, called the Anguttara Nikaya, all those points of Buddhist doctrine capable of expression in classes are set out in order.
It was precisely as a help to memory that they were found so useful in the early Buddhist times, when the books were all learnt by heart, and had never as yet been written.
It is the longest book in the Buddhist Bible, and fills 1840 pages 8vo.
The next, and last, of these four collections contains again the whole, or nearly the whole, of the Buddhist doctrine; but arranged this time in order of subjects.
This is very suggestive as to the way in which the earliest Buddhist records were gradually built up. The suttas came first embodying, in set phrases, the doctrine that had to be handed down.
As a general rule such a framework in prose is actually preserved in the old Buddhist literature.
And we may safely draw the conclusion that if the great Indian epics, the Maha-bharata and the Ramayana, had been in existence when the formation of the Buddhist canon began, the course of its development would have been very different from what it was.
It will throw very useful light upon the intellectual level in the Buddhist community just after the earliest period, and upon literary life in the valley of the Ganges in the 4th or sth century B.C., if we briefly explain what the tractates in this collection contain.
For that is simply a few of the most beautiful poems to be found in the Buddhist scriptures..
Here are brought together from ten to twenty stanzas on each of twenty-six selected points of Buddhist self-training or ethics.
The Buddhist Dhammapada has been edited by Professor Fausbbll (2nd ed., 1900), and has beenfrequently translated.
Where the stanzas are full of the technical terms of the Buddhist system of self-culture and self-control, it is often impossible, without expansions that spoil the poetry, or learned notes that distract the attention, to convey the full sense of the original.
In all these distinctively Buddhist verses the existing translations (of which Professor Max Miller's is the best known, and Dr Karl Neumann's the best) are inadequate and sometimes quite erroneous.
These outbursts, very terse and enigmatic, are charged with religious emotion, and turn often on some subtle point of Arahatship, that is, of the Buddhist ideal of life.
These are really 550 of the folk-tales current in India when the canon was being formed, the only thing Buddhist about them being that the Buddha, in a previous birth, is identified in each case with the hero in the little story.
A full account of this curious migration will be found in the introduction to the present writer's Buddhist Birth Stories.
The translator, Mrs Caroline Rhys Davids, estimates the date of this ancient manual for Buddhist students as the 4th century B.C.
It is mainly religious and philosophical, and purports to give the discussion, extending over several days, in which a Buddhist elder named Nagasena succeeds in converting Milinda, that is Menander, the famous Greek king of Bactria, to Buddhism.
The former, in Pali, discusses a number of questions then of importance in the Buddhist community; and it relies throughout, as does the Milinda, on the canonical works, which it quotes largely.
On the other hand, the comparison we are now able to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism and the later texts of the following centuries, shows a continual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approximation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philosophies and religions of India.
i., by Rhys Davids, under the title Buddhist Birth Stories, 1880; vols.
Lieder der Manche and Nonnen, 1899, by the same; Dialogues of the Buddha, by Rhys Davids, 1899; Die Reden Gotamo Buddhas, by Neumann, 3 vols., 1899-1903; Buddhist Psychology, by Mrs Rhys Davids, 1900.
Manuals, Monographs, &c. - Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 12mo, 10th thousand, 1903; Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre and seine Gemeinde, by Oldenberg, 5th edition, 1906; Der Buddhismus and seine Geschichte in Indien, by Kern, 1882; Der Buddhismus, by Edmund Hardy, 1890; American Lectures, Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 1896; Inscriptions de Piyadasi, by Senart, 2 vols., 1881-1886; Mara and Buddha, by Windisch, 1895; Buddhist India, by Rhys Davids, 1903.
povaxos, one living alone, a solitary; µovos, alone), a member of a community of men living a life under vows of religious observance; the term is properly confined to a member of a Christian community, but is sometimes applied to members of Buddhist and Mahommedan religious brotherhoods.
Kaotsung (650-683, the devout patron also of the Buddhist traveller and doctor, Hstlan Ts'ang), it is added, continued to favour the new faith.
Dasaratha was the father of Rama Chandra, the hero of the epic. A period of Buddhist supremacy followed the death of the last king of the Solar dynasty.
The Chinese traveller, Hsuan Tsang, in the 7th century, found 20 Buddhist temples with 3000 monks at Ajodhya among a large Brahmanical population.
There are hundreds of caves in this neighbourhood, all pointing to a line of Buddhist occupation connecting Balkh with Kabul.
That the idols of Bamian, about which so many conjectures have been uttered, were Buddhist figures, is ascertained from the narrative of the Chinese pilgrim, Hsiian-Tsang, who saw them in their splendour in A.D.
630, and was verified by the officers above named, who discovered other Buddhist caves and excavations in the valleys of the Balkhab and Sarikol.
That this has for centuries been regarded as the main route northward from Kabul, the Buddhist relics of Bamian and Haibak bear silent witness; but it may be doubted whether Abdur Rahman's talent for roadmaking has not opened out better alternative lines.
Bamian is famous for its wall-cut figures, and at Haibak (on the route between Tashkurghan and Kabul) there are some most interesting Buddhist remains.
Mahommedan (62,458,077), Buddhist (9,476,759), Sikh R (2,195,339), Jain (1,334,148), Christian (2,923,241), Parsee (94,190), and Animist (8,584,148).
Even at the present day knowledge of reading and writing is, owing to the teaching of Buddhist monks, as widely diffused throughout Burma as it is in some countries of Europe.
The earliest written records in India, however, are Buddhist.
The earliest written books are in Pali and Buddhist Sanskrit.
The Buddhist Period.
He is said to have supported 64,000 Buddhist priests; he founded many religious houses, and his kingdom is called the Land of the Monasteries (Vihara or Behar) to this day.
In 246 B.C. Asoka is said 1 to have convened at Pataliputra (Patna) the third Buddhist council of one thousand elders (the tradition that he actually convened it rests on no actual evidence that we possess).
This council, which consisted of five hundred members, compiled three commentaries on the Buddhist faith.
He found Brahman priests equally honoured with Buddhist monks, and temples to the Indian gods side by side with the religious houses of his own faith.
The monuments of the great Buddhist monarchs, Asoka and Kanishka, confronted him from the time he neared the Punjab frontier; but so also did the temples of Siva and his " dread " queen Bhima.
Throughout north-western India he found Buddhist convents and monks surrounded by " swarms of heretics."
The political power was also divided, although Buddhist sovereigns predominated.
A Buddhist monarch ruled over ten kingdoms in Afghanistan.
Megasthenes draws a distinction between the Brahmans (Bpaxµ.aves) and the Sarmanae (Iap,u6.pat), from which some scholars have inferred that the Buddhist Sarmanas were a recognized class fifty years before the council of Asoka.
The inspectors or sixth class of Megasthenes have been identified with Asoka's Mahamatra and his Buddhist inspectors of morals.
The Buddhist dynasty of Chandragupta profoundly modified the religion of northern India from the east; the Seleucid empire, with its Bactrian and later offshoots, deeply influenced the science and art of Hindustan from the west.
Greek faces and profiles constantly occur in ancient Buddhist statuary, and enrich almost all the larger museums in India.
In 272 B.C. he in turn was succeeded by Asoka, the Buddhist emperor, the religious side of whose reign has already been described.
It is not, however, as a conqueror that Kanishka mainly lives on in tradition, but as a Buddhist monarch, second in reputation only to Asoka, and as the convener of the celebrated council of Kashmir already mentioned.
He had plundered the temples at Bhilsa in central India, which are admired to the present day as the most interesting examples of Buddhist architecture in the country.
Rhys Davids, Buddhist India (1903); Imperial Gazetteer of India (1907-1909); Sir J.
AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century of Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend).
Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, they are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas do towards Brahminism.
The society's theory of universal brotherhood was, however, of far wider scope, being based upon a mystical conception of "the One Life" - an idea derived from and common to various forms of Eastern thought, Vedic and Buddhist.
The theosophic "Path" to the final goal of emancipation or Nirvana, is in a great measure derived from the Buddhist literature, available to the English-speaking peoples through numerous excellent translations, more especially those of Professor T.
Theosophic teachings on this subject are not, however, exclusively Oriental, for following their contention that they are the exponents of the universal and unchangeable "Wisdom Religion" of all the ages, theosophists have selected from various sources - Vedic, Buddhist, Greek and Cabalistic - certain passages for the purpose of exposition and illustration.
Along the Path are ranged ten great obstacles, or fetters, the Buddhist Sanyojanas, which have to be successively overcome before the final goal is reached.
The Maghs, who form nearly the whole population of the province, follow the Buddhist doctrines, which are universally professed throughout Burma.
The qualifications for entering into the priestly order are good conduct and a fair measure of learning - such conduct at least as is good according to Buddhist tenets, and such learning as is esteemed among their votaries.
The evidence from modern India can be supplemented by the medieval and ancient Indian sources, and, in particular, by the representations of the adoration of snake-deities on the Buddhist topes of Sanchi and Amravati.
This is said also of the villages and districts of Armenia, and Buddhist legends affirm it for India.
There is an obvious development from the serpent qua reptile to the deity or the devil, and that the original theriomorphic form is not at once forgotten can be seen in Zeus Meilichios, Aesculapius Amynos, in the Cretan snake-goddesses, or in the Buddhist topes illustrated by Fergusson.
Thus in Buddhism the presuppositions which Buddha uncritically took over work out their logical results in the Mahayana, so that great sects calling themselves " Buddhist " affirm what the Master denied and deny what he taught.
But, by this as it may, the institution of caste, when once established, certainly appears to have gone on steadily developing; and not even the long period of Buddhist ascendancy, with its uncompromising resistance to the Brahman's claim to being the sole arbiter in matters of faith, seems to have had any very appreciable retardant effect upon the progress of the movement.
Nor do Buddhist places of worship appear as a rule to have been destroyed by Hindu sectaries, but they seem rather to have been taken over by them for their own religious uses; at any rate there are to this day not a few Hindu shrines, especially in Bengal, dedicated to Dharmaraj," the prince of righteousness,"as the Buddha is commonly styled.
Whilst the Saiva philosophers do not approve of the notion of incarnations, as being derogatory to the dignity of the deity, the Brahmans have nevertheless thought fit to adopt it as apparently a convenient expedient for bringing certain tendencies of popular worship within the pale of their system, and probably also for counteracting the Buddhist doctrines; and for this purpose Vishnu would obviously offer himself as the most attractive figure in the Brahmanical trinity.
It is time to pass on to Buddhist asceticism, in its essence a more ethical and philosophical product than some of the forms so far considered.
The keynote of Buddhist asceticism is deliverance from life and its inevitable suffering.
In practice the lives of Buddhist monks are not so squalid as these rules would lead us to suppose.
In the East, however, this and other forms of asceticism have always flourished more freely; and the Buddhist monastic system is not only far older than that of Christendom, but also proportionately more extensive.
The portico is composed of forty-eight pillars, the whole enclosed in an oblong courtyard about 140 feet by 90 feet, surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pillars, forming porticos to a range of fifty-five cells, which enclose it on all sides, exactly as they do in a Buddhist monastery (vihara).
It is supposed that these kings were Buddhist and belonged to the Pal dynasty of Bengal.
And this world he is not to eschew, like the Brahman and the Buddhist, but to work in it, enjoying existence and life to the full.
The desire which he entertained to visit India, in order to penetrate all the doctrines of the Buddhist philosophy, and to perfect the collections of Indian books which existed in China, grew irresistible, and in August 629 he started upon his solitary journey, eluding with difficulty the strict prohibition which was in force against crossing the frontier.
The pilgrim next entered on a circuit of the most famous sites of Buddhist and of ancient Indian history, such as Ajodhya, Prayaga (Allahabad), Kausambhi, Sravasti, Kapilavastu, the birth-place of Sakya, Kusinagara, his death-place, Pataliputra (Patna, the Palibothra of the Greeks), Gaya, Rajagriha and Nalanda, the most famous and learned monastery and college in India, adorned by the gifts of successive kings, of the splendour of which he gives a vivid description, and of which traces have recently been recovered.
There he again spent nearly two years in mastering Sanskrit and the depths of Buddhist philosophy.
I, p. 476; Travels of Fah-hian and Sung- Yan, Buddhist Pilgrims, &c., by Sam.
Soon after that time there arose a school of Buddhist teachers who called their doctrine the " Great Vehicle."
It was of no avail that they adhered in other respects in the main to the older teaching, that they professed to hold to the same ethical system, that they adhered, except in a few unimportant details, to the old regulations of the order of the Buddhist mendicant recluses.
Of the authors of these nine works, as of all the older Buddhist works with one or two exceptions, nothing has been ascertained.
In the opening words of each Mahayana treatise a list is given of such Bodhisats, who were beginning, together with the historical Bodhisats, to occupy a position in the Buddhist church of those times similar to that occupied by the saints in the corresponding period of the history of Christianity in the Church of Rome.
The former was afterwards identified with the mythical first Buddhist missionary, who is supposed to have introduced civilization into Tibet about two hundred and fifty years after the death of the Buddha.
The acute minds of the Buddhist pandits, no longer occupied with the practical lessons of Arahatship, turned their xvi.
He is also very probably the author of another very ancient standard work of Tibetan Buddhism, the Samatog, a short digest of Buddhist morality, on which the civil laws of Tibet have been founded.
This monarch again sent to India to replace the sacred books that had been lost, and to invite Buddhist pandits to translate them.
But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.
850, in a civil war, is called in the Buddhist books " the first introduction of religion."
It was followed by more than a century of civil disorder and wars, during which the exiled Buddhist monks attempted unsuccessfully again and again to return.
The long period of depression seems not to have been without a beneficial influence on the persecuted Buddhist church, for these teachers are reported to have placed the Tantra system more in the background, and to have adhered more strongly to the purer forms of the Mahayana development of the ancient faith.
For about three hundred years the Buddhist church of Tibet was left in peace, subjecting the country more and more com pletely to its control, and growing in power and in wealth.
He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.
Under Kublai's successors in China the Buddhist cause flourished greatly, and the Sakya Lamas extended their power both at home and abroad.
The dignity of abbot at Sakya became hereditary, the abbots breaking so far the Buddhist rule of celibacy that they remained married until they had begotten a son and heir.
But rather more than half a century afterwards their power was threatened by a formidable rival at home, a Buddhist reformer.
This last institution indeed is not found in the ancient Vinaya, but was almost certainly modelled on the traditional account of the similar assemblies convoked by Asoka and other Buddhist sovereigns in India every fifth year.
The political authority of the Dalai Lama is confined to Tibet itself, but he is the acknowledged head also of the Buddhist church throughout Mongolia and China.
The district of Chitral is called Kashgar (or Kashkar) by the people of the country; and as it was under Chinese domination in the middle of the 18th century, and was regarded as a Buddhist centre of some importance by the Chinese pilgrims in the early centuries of our era, it is possible that it then existed as an outlying district of the Kashgar province of Chinese Turkestan, where Buddhism once flourished in cities that have been long since buried beneath the sand-waves of the Takla Makan.
The great pilgrim route of Buddhist days was that which connects the ancient Buddhist cities of the Takla Makan in Chinese Turkestan with Chitral (Kashkar), by the Baroghil Pass across the Hindu Kush.
This was but one link in a chain of devout peregrination which stretched from China to India, and which included every intervening Buddhist centre of note which existed in the early centuries of our era.
He has been called the beloved disciple of the Buddhist story.
38); but it is the panegyric of an unselfish man, kindly, thoughtful for others and popular; not of the intellectual man, versed in the theory and practice of the Buddhist system of self-culture.
The earlier Buddhist constructions have proved more durable than the Mahommedan buildings.
From the Memoirs of Hsiian Tsang, we learn that, at the time of his visit in the 7th century, there were in the city, or its vicinity, about a hundred Buddhist convents, with 3000 devotees, and that there was a large number of stupas, and other religious monuments.
The Chinese travellers, Fa Hien in the 5th century, and Hsiian Tsang in the 7th century, found the Buddhist religion prevailing throughout Bengal, but already in a fierce struggle with Hinduism - a struggle which ended about the 9th or 10th century in the general establishment of the latter faith.
The Buddhist population consists of Maghs or the people of Arakan, who first settled in Backergunje about 1800, and have made themselves very useful in the clearing of the Sundarbans.
About 250 B.C. Diodotus (Theodotus), governor of Bactria under the Seleucidae, declared his independence, and commenced the history of the Greco-Bactrian dynasties, which succumbed to Parthian and nomadic movements about 126 B.C. After this came a Buddhist era which has left its traces in the gigantic sculptures at Bamian and the rock-cut topes of Haibak.
But a Buddhist convert thinking "she does not understand," said to her, "My good girl, I myself have no such medicine as you ask for, but I think I know of one who has."
See the authorities quoted in Buddhist India, pp. 141, 142.
The translation is in Rhys Davids' Buddhist Suttas.
pp. 72-168, translated by Rhys Davids in Buddhist Suttas (Oxford, 1881), pp. 1-136.
Buddhist Sanskrit Texts: (1) Mahavastu (probably 2nd century B.C.); edited by Senart (3 vols., Paris, 1882-1897), summary in French prefixed to each volume; down to the end of first year of the teaching.
(London, 1877), pp. 1-94; translated by Rhys Davids in Buddhist Birth Stories (London, 1880), pp. 1-133.
The curious will find in them many reminiscences of Hindu and Buddhist legend; and the antiquary must notice the distinctive symbols assigned to each, in order to recognize the statues of the different Jinas, otherwise identical, in the different Jain temples.
The latter have only as yet been traced, and that doubtfully, as far back as the 5th century after Christ; the former are almost certainly the same as the Niganthas, who are referred to in numerous passages of the Buddhist Pali Pitakas, and must therefore be at least as old as the 6th century B.C. In many of these passages the Niganthas are mentioned as contemporaneous with the Buddha; and details enough are given concerning their leader Nigantha Nata-putta (that is, the Nigantha of the Jnatrika clan) to enable us to identify him, without any doubt, as the same person as the Vaddhamana Maha-vira of the Jain books.
Unfortunately the account of the teachings of Nigantha Nata-putta given in the Buddhist scriptures are, like those of the Buddha's teachings given in the Brahmanical literature, very meagre.
Like the Buddhist scriptures, the earlier Jain books are written in a dialect of their own, the so-called Jaina Prakrit; and it was not till between A.D.
The older part may go back as early as the 3rd century B.C., and it sets out more especially the Jain doctrine of tapas or self-mortification, in contradistinction to the Buddhist view, which condemned asceticism.
The Jain views of life were, in the most important and essential respects, the exact reverse of the Buddhist views.
The two orders, Buddhist and Jain, were not only, and from the first, independent, but directly opposed the one to the other.
The Buddhist theory, as is well known, is put together without the hypothesis of "soul" at all.
.it is the ethical element that gives to the Buddhist writings their superiority over those of the Jains.
In the neighbourhood of Haibak are some very typical Buddhist ruins.
The excavators also brought to light a vast number of human corpses in the garb of Buddhist monks.
(ii.) North-east of Khotan, where a large Buddhist temple, with relievos derived from Graeco-Buddhist models, were investigated and numerous MSS.
(iii.)At Niya, east of Keriya, where many Kharoshti documents on wood were `recovered, sometimes retaining their clay seals of Greek type and wooden covers as envelopes, together with implements, furniture, &c. (iv.)At Miran, near the western extremity of Lop-nor, where Buddhist shrines with frescoes, &c., were investigated.
Long after Buddhism had spread to Chitral, Gilgit, Dir and Swat; whilst Ningrahar was still full of monasteries and temples, and the Peshawar valley was recognized as the seat of Buddhist learning, the Kafirs or Nysaeans held their own in Bajour and in the lower Kunar valley, where Buddhism apparently never prevailed.
NIRVANA, the term in Buddhist theology, meaning literally " blowing out " or " dying out," Skt.
It has been suggested that these hymns bear traces of Buddhist and Indian influence; in any case, they are rather metaphysical than mystical.
Ricci's pointed attacks on Buddhism, and the wide circulation of his books, called forth the opposition of the Buddhist clergy.
One of the ablest who took their part was Chu-hang, a priest of Hang-chow, who had abandoned the literary status for the Buddhist cloister.
This letter, with Ricci's reply, the three Buddhist declamations and Ricci's confutation, were published in a collected form by the Christian Sen-Kwang-K'e.
But a handsome Buddhist temple of cut stone, belonging to some remote period, is suggestive of a civilization which had disappeared before historic times.
The Buddhist monasteries, in particular, occupy wide spaces in very central portions of the town and cantonments.
See Buddhist Psychology by Caroline Rhys Davids (London, 1900), a translation of the Dhamma Sangani, with valuable introduction; "Schools of Buddhist Belief," by T.
I need not tell scholars of Buddhism how rare it is for a Western Buddhist organization to seek active affiliation with an Asian parent.
As mentioned earlier, Keown also identifies ahimsa as a basic concept at the foundation of Buddhist bioethics.
ahimsa Non-injury to living beings must, I think, be central to any Buddhist medical ethical system.
alms giving is an integral part of the Buddhist ritual across south east Asia.
The Journal of Buddhist Ethics will be the final arbiter in all cases.
Underlying the diversity of Buddhist belief and practice is a controlling purpose.
But Buddhist clergy continue to reject him as a fake or pay only lip service to Beijing's demands to recognize him.
The problem here is how much ground can Buddhist cosmology concede to modern science before it ceases to be Buddhist?
deitygo Name Origin: A generic name for a class of Buddhist deities.
His Buddhist mother became even more devout to encourage Buddha to protect him.
I would've turned into the Californian hippy in the Buddhist cafe, eating dhal and awaiting his guru.
This opinion is, no doubt, due to a comparison with the Buddhist doctrine of nirvana.
drumstick used in Zen Buddhist Temples.
It is a kind of buddhist ending to what is a very eastern piece of literature.
Their general comments are very apt as well for Buddhist health care ethics.
They cannot proceed to a straightforward comparison between Buddhist and western ethicists, but must first construct the studied object.
In line with the Buddhist faith, people are given new names when they die.
Keyes, C. F. " Buddhist Economics and Buddhist fundamentalism in Burma and Thailand.
hagiography to Wilson's analysis, the male gaze is normative in the Indian Buddhist hagiographies and sets the standard for all meditators.
herdsmanted by nomadic herdsmen who are Buddhist, the region is in reality an unspoiled area of Tibet just miles from the Chinese border.
On a nearby hilltop, a Buddhist temple stands watch.
Those who seriously infringed their Buddhist vows during the Cultural Revolution are not even allowed to stay (p. 65 ).
The ruling junta allows renovations of the Buddhist temples.
For the Chinese Buddhist laity, this fit in well with social expectations for behavior.
In reality it's the home of the re-incarnated Tibetan Buddhist lamas who guard some of the eternal truths.
The Liao had five capitals in all, based on the principles of a Tantric Buddhist mandala.
Buddhist mandalas are diagrams that represent the environments of deities from a bird's eye perspective.
The best-known Buddhist mantra is ' Om Mane Padme Hom ' which means ' Hail the jewel in the lotus ' .
There she engaged in twelve years of intense Buddhist meditation.
Response to Buddhism Panels on: Transnational Exchange and Buddhist modernism in Asia.
A progressive Buddhist monastery in Thailand; founded 1932.
The Western Buddhist milieu may also require a heuristic recovery of the Vinaya tradition of Buddhist monastic regulation.
What do these remains tell us about the operation of early Buddhist monasticism?
He told me he was going to be a Buddhist monk in a remote temple some 150 miles north.
Download his teachings on " Buddhist morality " in MP3 audio format.
nascent engaged Buddhist movement may well be just the amalgam we now need.
An important national monument is the 16th-century That Luang (Royal Stupa) that symbolizes Buddhist and Lao union.
nomadic herdsmen who are Buddhist, the region is in reality an unspoiled area of Tibet just miles from the Chinese border.
She was a healer and friend who had taken ordination as a Buddhist nun.
ordination ceremonies for Buddhist monks, nuns, and lay people.
Many crosses have been destroyed and replaced with Buddhist pagodas.
Accordingly, prayers of supplication or thanksgiving were offered up to the Buddhist pantheon painted and sculpted in the myriad caves.
penetrable jungle, cool highlands, Buddhist treasures and an idyllic tropical coast.
According to Buddhist philosophy, contact with ' other ' can be a source of great confusion and pain.
Example of filial piety The early Buddhist texts not only teach filial piety as a duty, but also show some examples of it.
For centuries Ladakh has been on the Buddhist pilgrimage trail linking Kashmir and Tibet through the Himalaya.
practise the first year of my self-analysis I still practiced Buddhist meditation.
Mixing American pragmatism with Buddhist philosophy, the goal of Soka education is the lifelong happiness of the learner.
And what about the Buddhist precept of not taking life?
preceptive literatures written in that period equated Buddhist morality and the Confucian cardinal virtues.
The sky's darkening - it's getting late in the day.] 2 [Two Buddhist priests are walking through some tall grass.
proximate goals are the most common pattern of validation in traditional Buddhist communities.
Nowhere was the chaos more apparent than in the country's past, which witnessed wholesale political purges and the slaughter of Buddhist monks.
It is important to the Buddhist religion as it is carved to represent the stages of Buddhist life.
reliquarylass="ex">Buddhist Reliquaries from Ancient India (London, 2000) Michael Willis.
What a cracking hill, and it's a Buddhist retreat as well.
It is said that Siamese were once sacred cats, guarding the Buddhist temples.
At the time I was studying Buddhism, and one of the early Buddhist saints was named Chandrakirti.
How did the samurai square their occupations with the general Buddhist principle of nonviolence?
Jamyang Buddhist Center provides a peaceful drop-in sanctuary for local people.
Buddhist scholar Joanna Macy writes of visiting a group of monks in Tibet.
Introduction to the Buddhist scriptures By Nina van Gorkom General Aspects of Buddhism Chapter 8 The Impact of the Dhamma on Daily Life.
He had also been a leader in a reformed Buddhist sect.
Gentler tones reflect the calm serenity of the Buddhist religious life.
A cyber reconstruction of the world's largest Buddhist shrine.
soteriology be summarized as follows: (1) Buddhist soteriologies affect Buddhist economic ethics in fundamental ways.
Cash and gilded Buddhist statues were left at the scene, ruling out robbers.
Less a city in the European sense than a conglomeration of neighborhoods an...[more] Wonders - Borobudur Borobudur is the worlds largest Buddhist stupa.
The remains of ancient Buddhist stupas, a large number of heads and other fragments were excavated from the site in 1916.
The VRML model of the 9th-century Buddhist stupa on the Borobudur island, Java took two years to build.
Leaving Langtang, you ascend gradually to a chorten (a small Tibetan Buddhist stupa) behind which is a very long mani wall.
He also studied ancient sutras (Buddhist teachings written in Sanskrit ).
Apart from the books printed with wooden plates, there were many hand-painted and embroidered books or Buddhist sutras woven with silk.
The pack is... £ 18.20 Qty Wheel Of Life Poster This poster contains a wealth of information, rich in Buddhist symbolism.
This amulet would have been valued for exuding divine energy and was probably worn as a protective talisman by a pious Buddhist.
In this book he skilfully and poetically explains the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and other basic Buddhist teachings.
They are arranged following a Buddhist tradition, which is to display the flowers, as if they are in nature.
A more constructive approach to Buddhism can begin with those statements of BahÃ¡'u'llÃ¡h that are most akin to Buddhist viewpoints.
wearis amulet would have been valued for exuding divine energy and was probably worn as a protective talisman by a pious Buddhist.
Only a presentation of the BahÃ¡'Ã Faith that is fully congruent with the Buddhist worldview is likely to succeed in any mayor way.
An outline of the history of the Pali alphabet has been given, with illustrations and references to the authorities, in Rhys Davids's Buddhist India, pp. 107-140.
Andersen, Pati Reader (London, 1904-1907) History (of the alphabet, language and texts): Rhys Davids, American Lectures (London, 3rd ed., 1908); Buddhist India (London, 1903); E.
The countries lying between India and the Mongolian are occupied by populations chiefly of the Mongolian and Chinese type, having languages fundamentally monosyllabic, but using letters derived from India, and adopting their religion, which is almost everywhere Buddhist, from the Indians.
Proc. R.G.S., 1885; Samuel Beal, Buddhist Records of the Western World (Boston, 1885); Charles Doughty, Travels in Northern Arabia (Cambridge, 1886); Travels in Arabia Deserta (Cambridge, 1888); Venukoff, " Explorations," vol.
We have in bas-reliefs of the 3rd century representations of what these ornaments were like - small 2 An illustration from a photograph is given in Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, p. 131.
A collection of legends about Asoka, included in the Divyavadana, a work composed probably in the ist or 2nd century A.D., tells us (pp. 3 8 9, 39 0) how Asoka, the Buddhist emperor, visited the traditional site of this grove, under the guidance of Upagupta.
The makers of Buddhist images and of sword ornaments Thhd carried on their work with undiminished industry Pesiod.
Interiors were then divided into smaller rooms by means of sliding doors covered with thin rice-paper, which permitted the passage of light while obstructing vision; the hanging lattices were replaced by wooden doors which could be slid along a groove so as to be removable in the daytime, and an alcove was added in the principal chamber for a sacred picture or Buddhist image to serve as an object of contemplation for a devotee while practising the rite of abstraction.
Roads constructed for the benefit of Shinto shrines, Buddhist temples, or to facilitate the cultivation of rice-fields and arable land.
Griffiths, Paintings in the Buddhist Cave Temples of Ajanta (London, 2 vols., 1896-1897).
the Persian tadjik was transcribed staggzig or " tiger-leopard," because the foreign term left untouched would have been meaningless for Tibetan readers); (b) the addition for the sake of uniformity of prefixed letters to words etymologically deprived of them; (c) the probable addition of letters by the Buddhist teachers from India to Tibetan words in order to make them more similar to Sanskrit expressions (for instance rje- for " king," written in imitation of raja, though the original word was je or she, as is shown by cognate languages).
The town is of great interest for the antiquary as one of the chief centres of the Buddhist kingdom of Vengi, and for its stupa (sepulchral monument).
ASOKA, a famous Buddhist emperor of India who reigned from 264 to 228 or 227 B.C. Thirty-five of his inscriptions on rocks or pillars or in caves still exist (see Inscriptions: Indian), and they are among the most remarkable and interesting of Buddhist monuments (see Buddhism).
The reign of Pushyamitra, who held his own against Menander and succeeded in establishing his claim to be lord paramount of northern India, is mainly remarkable as marking the beginning of the Brahmanical reaction and the decline of Buddhism; according to certain Buddhist writers the king, besides reviving Hindu rites, indulged in a savage persecution of the monks.
Perhaps the most frequent in the Buddhist text is Arahatship," the state of him who is worthy "; and the one exclusively used in Europe is Nirvana, the" dying out "; that is, the dying out in the heart of the fell fire of the three cardinal sins - sensuality, ill-will and stupidity.'Ã‚° The choice of this term by European writers, a choice made long before anyof the Buddhist canonical texts had been published or translated, has had a most unfortunate result.
The whole process, from the simple anecdote in mixed prose and verse, the so-called akhyana, to the complete epic, comes out with striking clearness in the history of the Buddhist canon.
Vinaya Texts, by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 3 vols., 1881-1885; Dhammapada, by Max Muller, and Sutta Nipata, by Fausboll, 1881; Questions of King Milinda, by Rhys Davids, 2 vols., 1890-1894; Buddhist Suttas, by Rhys Davids, 1881; Saddharma Pundarika, by Kern, 1884; Buddhist Mahayana Texts, by Cowell and Max Muller, 1894 - all the above in the "Sacred Books of the East"; Jataka, vol.
His name and legends still filled the land, or at least the Buddhist portion of it, 600 years later, when the Chinese pilgrim, Hsiian Tsang, travelled in India; they had even reached the great Mahommedan philosopher, traveller and geographer, Abu-r-Raihan Muhammad al-Biruni (see Biruni), in the i, th century; and they are still celebrated in the Mongol versions of Buddhist ecclesiastical story.
These tribes were the Sakas, a horde of pastoral P established his own paramountcy over northern India; but his reign is mainly memorable as marking the beginning of the Brahmanical reaction against Buddhism, a reaction which Pushyamitra is said to have forwarded not only by the peaceful revival of Hindu rites but by a savage persecution of the Buddhist monks.
If the general tenderness towards animals, based on the principle of ahimsa, or inflicting no injury on sentient beings, be due to Buddhist teaching, that influence must have made itself felt at a comparatively early period, seeing that sentiments of a similar nature are repeatedly urged in the Code of Manu.
Nichiren taught a philosophical monism in the 13th century which is the basis of a vigorous sect at the present day; and the " True Sect of the Pure Land," founded by his older contemporary Shin-ran, and now the most numerous, wealthy and powerful of the Buddhist denominations, has dropped the original Gotama altogether out of sight, and permits worship to Amida alone, the sublime figure of " Boundless Light," whose saving power is appropriated by faith.
According to the Buddhist theory (see Buddhism), a "Buddha" appears from time to time in the world and preaches the true doctrine.
The crisis culminated on a day, each event of which is surrounded in the Buddhist accounts with the wildest legends, on which the very thoughts passing through the mind of Buddha appear in gorgeous descriptions as angels of darkness or of light, To us, now taught by the experiences of centuries how weak such exaggerations are compared with the effect of a plain unvarnished tale, these legends may appear childish or absurd, but they have a depth of meaning to those who strive to read between the lines of such rude and inarticulate attempts to describe the indescribable.
ABHIDHAMMA, the name of one of the three Pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Buddhist scriptures (see Buddhism) are divided.
Buddhist Reliquaries from Ancient India (London, 2000) Michael Willis.
What a cracking hill, and it 's a Buddhist retreat as well.
Introduction to the Buddhist Scriptures By Nina van Gorkom General Aspects of Buddhism Chapter 8 The Impact of the Dhamma on Daily Life.
A cyber reconstruction of the world 's largest Buddhist shrine.
These can be summarized as follows: (1) Buddhist soteriologies affect Buddhist economic ethics in fundamental ways.
He also studied ancient sutras (Buddhist teachings written in Sanskrit).
It is only in the Buddhist theories that we come across the absolute unreality of the objects of error.
While planning their trip to Japan, Kate made sure they had time to visit a Buddhist Zen garden and meditate.
Buddhist teachings refer to tridosha as the three poisons, and it is on these three attributes that many Tibetan diagnoses and remedies are based.
Jingzhu Bencao consists of two sections. the first is more theoretical and theological in nature, praising the nature of the medicines in the style of Buddhist teachings, while the second half gives descriptions of medicines.
The WON Buddhist Temple of Philadelphia offers free meditation sittings for everyone.
Moving meditation - Shipsand Meditation, created by the Won Buddhist Minister Song Daesung is the type of moving meditation practiced.
Add Buddhist elements to your ceremony for a cultural element.
This site also has a variety of Buddhist jewelry pieces for all ages.
Shakya Jewelry: This site features Buddhist jewelry designs, including Buddha, a lotus flower, and other religious symbols.
Bugaku spread beyond the court during the 8th century and began to be performed at the Shinto temples alongside kagura as a traditional Buddhist ceremonial dance.
Bon Odori is a style of dance that is usually prevalent during Obon, a Buddhist holiday honoring ancestors.
Since large portions of Japan are not Buddhist today, these Japanese dance moves are used more for public entertainment at the Bon Festival, and usually is performed in the summertime.
Black Hat Sect Tantric Buddhist feng shui was created for the Western world as a cookie-cutter approach to what classical feng shui experts call fast food feng shui.
There are several Buddhist temples adorned with dragon motifs, and dragons also decorate Shinto shrines.
With the relatively small Christian population and large Buddhist and Confucianism following, you may be wondering how Christmas started in China.
According to Buddhist teachings, Buddha had a large party and invited hundreds of guests.
Japanese Christmas traditions are more secular than religious, since the vast majority of the population identifies themselves as Buddhist.