Like most of the invaders of India at this period they adopted Buddhism, at least partially.
In Burma the quarterly Buddhism appeared in 1904.
Even more than Buddhism Islam has carried with it a special style of art and civilization.
Hinduism has now supplanted Buddhism, and the Brahman fills the place of the monk.
Thus Greece excelled the Eastern countries from whom she may have derived her civilization, and Buddhism had a far more brilliant career outside India than in it.
Curiously, Buddhism itself is ruled by the ghost or shadowy remainder of belief in transmigration - Karma.
The revival of Buddhism began with the two sons of the last-named, the elder of whom became a monk.
Oriental pessimism, at least as understood by Europeans, is best exemplified in Buddhism, which finds in human life sorrow and pain.
Authentic history does not begin till about the 6th century A.D., when Chinese civilization and Buddhism were introduced.
p. 535; Kern, Manual of Buddhism, p. 99, Mahavagga, ii.
But Buddhism did not formerly produce suc]
It appears partly blended with Buddhism, partly overgrown with a belief in Kalas, or evil spirits.
Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, or Lamaism (London, 18 95); " The Falls of the Tsangpo," Geog.
The real beginnings of the study of painting and sculpture in their higher branches must be dated from the introduction of Buddhism from China in the middle of the 6th century, and for three centuries after this event there is evidence that the practice of the arts was carried on mainly by or under the instruction of Korean and Chinese immigrants.
Thus, Buddhism offers the striking case of the praying-wheel.
These countries all received Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and Japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers.
Confucianism is an ethical rather than a religious system, and hence was able to co-exist, though not on very friendly terms, with Buddhism, which reached China about the 1st century A.D.
The learned hold the doctrine of Confucius, and Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some influence.
A certain amount of scepticism prevails among the educated classes, and political motives may ' contribute to their apparent orthodoxy, but there is no open dissent from Buddhism, and those who discard its dogmas still, as a rule, venerate it as an ethical system.
Khri lde gtsug-brtan-mesag-ts'oms, the grandson of Mang-srong and second in succession from him, promoted the spread of Buddhism and obtained for his son, Jangts'a Lhapon, who was famous for the beauty of his person, the hand of the accomplished princess Kyimshang, daughter, otherwise kung-chu, of the Chinese emperor Juy- (?
introduction of Sinhalese Buddhism, with its literature and art.
12 a religion,"Confucianism and Taoism, while the" heterodox (sic),"Buddhism especially, is" partly tolerated, but generally forbidden, and even cruelly persecuted "(Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religionsgeschichte, i.
They were Buddhists, and it is probable that the Mahayana or northern form of Buddhism was due to an amalgamation of Gotama's doctrines with the ideas (largely Greek and Persian) which they brought with them.
Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.
(b) Indian influence may be defined as Buddhism, if it is understood that Buddhism is not at all periods clearly distinguishable from Hinduism.
Fielding, The Soul of a People (Buddhism in Burma) (London, 1898), Thibaw's Queen (London, 1899), A People at School (1906); Capt.
These Chinese scholars made no secret of their contempt for Buddhism, and in their turn they were held in aversion by the Buddhists and the Japanese scholars (wagakusha), so that the second half of the i8th century was a time of perpetual wrangling and controversy.
The country was converted to Buddhism and probably ruled by Indo-Scythian or Kushan kings.
Both China and Japan have felt through Buddhism the influence of Indian art, which contains at least two elements - one indigenous and the other Greco-Persian.
Yet Buddhism has never made much impression west of India, and Islam is clearly repugnant to Europeans, for even when under Moslem rule (as in Turkey) they refuse to accept it in a far larger proportion than did the Hindus in similar circumstances.
The Lao, who descended from the mountain districts of Yunnan, Szechuen and Kweichow to the highland plains of upper Indo-China, and drove the wilder Kha peoples whom they found in possession into the hills, mostly adopted Buddhism, and formed small settled communities or states in which laws were easy, taxes light and a very fair degree of comfort was attained.
The name Buddha (Buddas) which occurs in the legendary account of Mani, and perhaps in the latter's own writings, indicates further that he had occupied his attention with Buddhism when engaged in the work of founding his new religion.
Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
and Japan themselves may be said to fall within this sphere, in view of the part which Buddhism has played in their development.
C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations (Cambridge, Mass., 1896); Mrs Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology (London, 1900); K.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
Indian influence is predominant as far as Cambodia (though with a Chinese tinge), Indian alphabets being employed and the Buddhism being of the Sinhalese type, but in Annam and Tongking the Chinese script and many Chinese institutions are in use.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist Buddhism and Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier Brahmanism).
The religion of Cambodia is Buddhism, and involves great respect towards the dead; the worship of spirits or local genii is also wide-spread, and Brahmanism is still maintained at the court.
Bali, the ancient language of the kingdom of Magadha, in which the sacred writings of Buddhism were made, was largely instrumental in forming all the languages of Further India, including Siamese - a fact which accounts for the numerous connecting links between the Mon, Burmese and Siamese languages of the present time, though these are of quite separate origin.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
The reign of his illustrious son, Srong tsan gam-po, opened up a new era; he introduced Buddhism and the art of writing from India, and was the founder (in 639) of Lha-ldan, afterwards Lha-sa.
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
Of this group of people, among whom may be named the Yao, Yao Yin, Lanten, Meo, Musur (or Muhso) and Kaw, perhaps the best known and most like the Lao are the Lu - both names meaning originally "man" - who have in many cases adopted a form of Buddhism (flavoured strongly by their natural respect for local spirits as well as tattooing) and other relatively civilized customs, and have forsaken their wandering life among the hills for a more settled village existence.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
It is an ancient town, mentioned by Fa Hien as a centre of Buddhism about A.D.
The latter were often little more than historical novels founded on facts; and the former, though nominally intended to engraft the doctrines of Buddhism and Shinto upon the philosophy of China, were really of rationalistic tendency.
After the Christian era it was accompanied by Chinese Buddhism.
Seagal is currently in serious study of Buddhism and studies and meditates deeply so he can eventually become a teacher and healer in Buddhism.
A detailed comparison shows the difference between Buddhism and Manichaeism in all their principal doctrines to be very great, while it becomes evident that the points of resemblance are almost everywhere accidental.
In the 10th century Buddhism, which had existed for centuries in Cambodia, began to become powerful and to rival Brahmanism, the official religion.
810, a celebrated Buddhist priest, Kkai, who had spent several years studying in China, compounded out of Buddhism, Confucianism and ShintO a system of doctrine called Ryobu Shinto (Dual Shinto), the prominent tenet of which was that the ShintO deities were merely transmigrations of Buddhist divinities.
This form of mansion underwent little modification until the 12th century, when the introduction of the Zen sect of Buddhism with its contemplative practice called for greater privacy.
Buddhism is a wide departure in doctrine and practice from Brahmanism, and hence after a swift unfolding and quick spread it was driven out of India and had to find a home in other lands.
Besides the works mentioned, Liddon published several volumes of Sermons, a volume of Lent lectures entitled Some Elements of Religion (1870), and a collection of Essays and Addresses on such themes as Buddhism, Dante, &c.
While the pure-blooded Malays of the Peninsula are Mahommedans, the Siamese and Lao profess a form of Buddhism which is tinged by Cingalese and Burmese influences, and, especially in the more remote country districts, by the spirit-worship which is characteristic of the imaginative and timid Ka and other hill peoples of Indo-China.
For many centuries the culture and development of the Hindus depended mainly on the interaction of the old Brahmanical religion and Buddhism.
This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
The pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann does not, however, exclude a certain ultimate mysticism, which bears some analogy to that of Buddhism.
The first part of Mihiragula seems to be the name of the Persian deity Mithra, but his patron deity was Siva, and he left behind him the reputation of a ferocious persecutor of Buddhism.
It cannot be doubted that Mani, who undertook long journeys as far as India, knew of Buddhism.
This is also true of the ethics and the asceticism of the two systems. There is not a single point in Manichaeism which demands for its explanation an appeal to Buddhism.
He obtained a commanding influence over the Dalai Lama, impressed upon him the dangers which threatened Tibet from England, and suggested the desirability of securing Russian protection and even the possibility of converting the tsar and his empire to Buddhism.
The Gupta dynasty appears to have fostered a revival of Brahmanism at the expense of Buddhism, and to have given an impulse to art and literature.
Denying the continuance of the soul, Buddhism affirmed a continuity of moral consequences (Karma), each successive life being determined by the total moral result of the preceding life.
The results of these explorations were made public in a long series of separate publications comprising several on Buddhism, and on the psychological problems presented by native superstitions.
He is constantly quoted in the literature of the later schools of Buddhism, and a very large number of works in Sanskrit is attributed to him.
At the same time it is probable that, like Constantine's patronage of Christianity, his patronage of Buddhism, then the most rising and influential faith in India, was not unalloyed with political motives, and it is certain that his vast benefactions to the Buddhist cause were at least one of the causes that led to its decline.
Rhys Davids's Buddhism (20th ed.,London, 1903), and Buddhist India (London, 1903); V.
It was in the reign of Bimbisara that Vardhamana Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, and Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, preached in Magadha, and Buddhist missionaries issued thence to the conversion of China, Ceylon, Tibet and Tatary.
Under Mahipala (c. 1026), the ninth of his line, and his successor Nayapala, missionaries from Magadha succeeded in firmly re-establishing Buddhism in Tibet.
Buddhism in Magadha never recovered from this blow; it lingered in obscurity for a while and then vanished.
Thus there have always been two kinds of Sufis, and, though the course of history and the wandering habits which various orders borrowed from Buddhism Zaid and `Amr are the Caius and Sempronius of Arabian law.
123-153), the great protector of Buddhism.
Even Buddhism - originally destitute of ceremonial - has adopted the pilgrimage; and the secondary tradition makes Buddha himself determine its goals: the place where he was born, where he first preached, where the highest insight dawned on him, and where he sank into Nirvana.
BUDDHISM, the religion held by the followers of the Buddha, and covering a large area in India and east and central Asia.
There is not a word about God or the soul, not a word about the Buddha or Buddhism.
So important is this position in Buddhism that it is put in the forefront of Buddhist expositions of Buddhism.
This portion of the Path is indeed quite simple, and would require no commentary were it not for the still constantly repeated blunder that Buddhism teaches the suppression of all desire.
This is not only insisted upon elsewhere in countless passages, but of the three cardinal sins in Buddhism (raga, dosa, moha) the last and worst is stupidity or dullness, the others being sensuality and ill-will.
of the S.B.E., and by Rhys Davids, Buddhism, p. 209.
It should be added that the belief in salvation in this world, in this life, has appealed so strongly to Indian sympathies that from the time of the rise of Buddhism down to the present day it has been adopted as a part of general Indian belief, and Jivanmukti, salvation during this life, has become a commonplace in the religious language of India.
the original Buddhism.
In India it had already, before the rise of Buddhism, been raised into an ethical conception by the associated doctrine of Karma, according to which a man's socialpositioninlife and hisphysicaladvantages, or the reverse, were the result of his actions in a previous birth.
It was because it thus provided a moral cause that it was retained in Buddhism.
In India, before Buddhism, conflicting and contradictory views prevailed as to the precise mode of action of Karma; and we find this confusion reflected in Buddhist theory.
The prevailing views are tacked on, as it were, to the essential doctrines of Buddhism, without being thoroughly assimilated to them, or logically incorporated with them.
It is clear from the Dialogues, and other of the most ancient Buddhist records, 5 that the belief was in full force when Buddhism arose, and that the practice was followed by the Buddha's teachers.
These then are our authorities for the earliest period of Buddhism.
Between them these first two collections contain 186 dialogues, in which the Buddha, or in a few cases one of his leading disciples, is represented as engaged in conversation on some one of the religious, or philosophic, or ethical points in that system which we now call Buddhism.
It is to it, above all, that we shall always have to go for our knowledge of the most ancient Buddhism.
This practically includes most of the psychology and ethics of Buddhism.
There was a great love of poetry in the communities in which Buddhism arose.
It is mainly religious and philosophical, and purports to give the discussion, extending over several days, in which a Buddhist elder named Nagasena succeeds in converting Milinda, that is Menander, the famous Greek king of Bactria, to Buddhism.
And as the Mahavastu was a standard work of a particular sect, or rather school, called the Maha-sanghikas, it has thus preserved for us the theory of the Buddha as held outside the followers of the canon, by those whose views developed, in after centuries, into the Mahayana or modern form of Buddhism in India.
These three works deal only quite briefly and incidentally with any point of Buddhism outside of the Buddha legend.
Of greater importance for the history of Buddhism are two later works, the Netti Pakarana and the Saddharma Pundarika.
But we can even now obtain a full and accurate idea of the earliest Buddhism, and are able to trace the main lines of its development through the first eight or nine centuries of its career.
We have learnt that the division of Buddhism, originating with Burnouf, into northern and southern, is misleading.
He found that the Buddhism in his Pali MSS., which came from Ceylon, differed from that in his Sanskrit MSS., which came from Nepal.
The use of the terms northern and southern as applied, not to the existing MSS., but to the original books, or to the Buddhism they teach, not only does not help us, it is the source of serious misunderstanding.
What we have to consider is Buddhism varying through slight degrees, as the centuries pass by, in almost every book.
The use, therefore, of the inaccurate and misleading terms northern and southern ought no longer to be followed in scholarly works on Buddhism.
There is no evidence to show that at the time of the rise of Buddhism there was any substantial difference, as regards the barriers in question, between the peoples dwelling in the valley of the Ganges and their contemporaries, Greek or Roman, dwelling on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
They only succeeded, long afterwards, when the power of Buddhism had declined.
It had been supposed on the authority of late priestly texts, where boasts of persecution are put forth, that the cause of the decline of Buddhism in India had been Brahmin persecution.
On the other hand, the comparison we are now able to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism and the later texts of the following centuries, shows a continual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approximation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philosophies and religions of India.
i.-vi., by Chalmers, Neil, Francis, and Rouse, 1895-1897; Buddhism in Translations, by Warren, 1896; Buddhistische Anthologie, by Neumann, 1892.
Manuals, Monographs, &c. - Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 12mo, 10th thousand, 1903; Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre and seine Gemeinde, by Oldenberg, 5th edition, 1906; Der Buddhismus and seine Geschichte in Indien, by Kern, 1882; Der Buddhismus, by Edmund Hardy, 1890; American Lectures, Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 1896; Inscriptions de Piyadasi, by Senart, 2 vols., 1881-1886; Mara and Buddha, by Windisch, 1895; Buddhist India, by Rhys Davids, 1903.
Buddhism eventually spread widely over the Oxus countries, and almost entirely displaced the religion of Zoroaster in its very cradle.
630-644, found Termez, Khulm, Balkh, and above all Bamian, amply provided with monasteries, stupas and colossal images, which are the striking characteristics of prevalent Buddhism; even the Pamir highlands had their monasteries.
For the corresponding devotion among Buddhists, consult Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet, or Lamaism (London, 1895), and an article by Monier Williams in the Athenaeum, 9th of Feb.
In the end of the century Buddhism got the upper hand, but under Yuen-tsung (713-755) the church recovered its prestige, and Kiho, a new missionary, arrived.
Kosala is also famous as the early home of Buddhism, and of the kindred religion of Jainism, and claims to be the birthplace of the founders of both these faiths.
They are sunk in a paganism which seems to embrace some faint reflexion of Greek mythology, Zoroastrian principles and the tenets of Buddhism, originally gathered, no doubt, from the varied elements of their mixed extraction.
The basin of the Kabul river especially abounds in remains of the period when Buddhism flourished.
It is doubtful if Buddhism, and still more so if Jainism and Sikhism, all of which are commonly recognized as distinct religions, ever differed from Hinduism to a greater extent than did the tenets of the earlier followers of Chaitanya in Bengal or those of the Lingayats in Mysore; and yet these latter two are regarded only as sects of Hinduism.
Considerations of their history and past political importance have led to the elevation of Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism to the rank of independent religions, while the numerous other schismatic bodies are held to be only sects.
In this way both Buddhism (q.v.) and Jains have almost been swallowed up by Hinduism; Sikhism (q.v.) is only preserved by the military requirements of the British, and even the antagonism between Hindu and Mahommedan is much less acute than it used to be.
Buddhism had disappeared from India long before the East India Company gained a foothold in the country, and at the present day there are very few Buddhists in India proper.
We only know that the Vedic religion had been at work long before the rise of Buddhism in the 6th century B.
During the next two hundred years Buddhism spread over northern India, perhaps receiving a new impulse from the Greek kingdoms in the Punjab.
About the middle of the 3rd century B.C. Asoka, the king of Magadha or Behar, who reigned from 264 B.C. to 227 B.C., became a zealous convert to Buddhism.
He did for Buddhism what Constantine effected for Christianity; he organized it on the basis of a state religion.
Such heresies were now corrected; and the Buddhism of southern Asia practically dates from Asoka's council.
They shall mix equally with Brahmans and beggars, with the 1 The historicity of this convention, not now usually admitted by scholars, is maintained by Bishop Copleston of Calcutta in his I Buddhism, Primitive and Present (1908).
This character of a proselytizing faith which wins its victories by peaceful means has remained a prominent feature of Buddhism to the present day.
Buddhism never ousted Brahmanism from any large part of India.
Buddhism 800) and modern Hinduism is the joint product of and Brahma both.
But the downfall of Buddhism 'De cline seems to have resulted from natural decay, and from h ismdd- new movements of religious thought, rather than from any general suppression by the sword.
In the r Ith century, only outlying states, such as Kashmir and Orissa, remained faithful; and before the Mahommedans fairly came upon the scene Buddhism as a popular faith had disappeared from India.
During the last ten centuries Buddhism has been a banished religion from its native home.
During twenty-four centuries Buddhism has encountered and outlived a series of powerful rivals.
The noblest survivals of Buddhism in India are to be found, not among any peculiar body, but in the religion of the people; in that principle of the brotherhood of man, with the reassertion of which each new revival of Hinduism starts; in the asylum which the great Hindu sects afford to women who have fallen victims to caste rules, to the widow and the out-caste; in the gentleness and charity to all men, which takes the place of a poor-law in India, and gives a high significance to the half satirical epithet of the " mild " Hindu.
On the east, in the Gangetic valley, Chandragupta (320-296 B.C.) firmly consolidated the dynasty which during the next century produced Asoka (264-228 or 227 B.C.), and established Buddhism throughout India.
At the time that Buddhism was being crushed out of India.
Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, they are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas do towards Brahminism.
Buddhism, which swayed Korea from the 10th to the 14th century, has been discredited for three centuries, and its priests are ignorant, immoral and despised.
384, and from it the sutras and images of northern Buddhism were carried to Japan, as well as Chinese letters and ethics.
Internecine wars were terminated about 913 by Wang the Founder, who unified the peninsula under the name Korai, made Song-do its capital, and endowed Buddhism as the state religion.
He revived the name Ch'ao-Hsien, changed the capital from Song-do to Seoul, organized an administrative system, which with some modifications continued till 1895, and exists partially still, carried out vigorous reforms, disestablished Buddhism, made merit in Chinese literary examinations the basis of appointment to office, made Confucianism the state religion, abolished human sacrifices and the burying of old men alive, and introduced that Confucian system of education, polity, and social order which has dominated Korea for five centuries.
The doctrine of Karma is with modification common to both Buddhism and Brahminism, and in their expositions theosophists have apparently drawn from both sources.
It has followed Buddhism in deprecating any reliance upon ritual.
According to a second classification, Christianity maybe placed among the " individual " religions, since it traces its origin, like Islam and Buddhism, to an individual as its founder.
Thus in Buddhism the presuppositions which Buddha uncritically took over work out their logical results in the Mahayana, so that great sects calling themselves " Buddhist " affirm what the Master denied and deny what he taught.
This doctrine is at once the assertion and the denial of the self, and furnishes a striking parallel between European thought in its earliest stages and the fundamental principles of Buddhism.
The actual proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for 1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans, Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale of the Brahmanical community.
Though this doctrine is especially insisted upon in Buddhism, and its designation as a specific term (Pali, Kamma) may be due to that creed, the notion itself was doubtless already prevalent in pre-Buddhist times.
During the early centuries of our era, whilst Buddhism, where countenanced by the political rulers, was still holding its own by the side of Brahmanism, sectarian belief in the Hindu gods seems to have made steady progress.
Whilst Sankara's chief title to fame rests on his philosophical works, as the upholder of the strict monistic theory of Vedanta, he doubtless played an important part in the partial remodelling of the Hindu system of belief at a time when Buddhism was rapidly losing ground in India.
That the tenets and practices of so characteristic a faith as Buddhism, so long prevalent in India, cannot but have left their marks on Hindu life and belief may readily be assumed, though it is not so easy to lay one's finger on the precise features that might seem to betray such an influence.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Buddhism.
But long before the advent of Buddhism, the hermit, or wandering beggar, was a familiar figure in India.
The Christian apologists of the 2nd century, however, found plenty of testimony to their doctrine of the unity of God in the writings of Greek poets and philosophers; it was a commonplace in the revival under the Empire; and among the group of religions embraced under the name Buddhism more than one form must be ranked as monotheistic. The idealist philosophy of the Prajiia Paramita in the system of the " Great Vehicle " declared that " every phenomenon is the manifestation of mind " (Beal, Catena, p. 303).
Carpenter, " Japanese Buddhism," in Hibbert Journal, April 1906, p. 522.
Why should philosophical Brahmanism, or the Buddhism which reacted against it, be associated with so undeveloped a form as the religion of the ancient Latin settlers in mid-Italy?
On this foundation the higher religions were classed as national or universal, the latter group being formerly supposed to include Buddhism, Christianity and Mahommedanism.
Universalistic Religious Communions(Buddhism,Christianity: Islam with its particularistic and nomistic elements only partially belongs to this group).4 7.
Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians,: Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Greek religion in the highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world negation, and, positively, Christianity.
(1907) reckons Platonism along with Buddhism.
Buddhism repudiated the authority of the Veda, but found it needful to supply its place; and the word of the omniscient Teacher, faithfully reported by his disciples and guaranteed by concurrent traditions, became the rule of belief for the new Order.
Buddhism conceived men as constantly making their own world for good and ill; it took over from Brahmanism a whole series of heavens and hells to provide an exact adjustment in the future for the virtue or vice of the present; and its eschatologic confidence was one of the potent instruments of its success in countries which, like China and Japan, had developed no theories of retribution or reward beyond the grave.
Jastrow, beginning with Hopkins on India (1895); American Lectures on the History of Religions, beginning with Rhys Davids on Buddhism (1896); Constable's series, Religions, Ancient and Modern (London, beginning 1905), brief and popular; Freeman Clarke, Ten Great Religions (Boston, 1871); S.
Kanishka, as is well known, had embraced Buddhism, and many of his coins bear the image and name of Buddha.
Buddhism and Zoroastrianism have been wedded in the state religion, and, in characteristic rndian fashion, are on the best of terms with one another, precisely as, in the Chinese Empire at the present day, we find the most varied religions, side by side, and on an equal footing.
Hstian Tsang was born in the district of Keu-Shi, near HonanFu, about 605, a period at which Buddhism appears to have had a powerful influence upon a large body of educated Chinese.
Religiously it is the corrupt form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia.
It stands in a relationship to primitive Buddhism similar to that in which Roman Catholicism, so long as the temporal power of the pope was still in existence, stood to primitive Christianity.
The central point of primitive Buddhism was the doctrine of "Arahatship " - a system of ethical and mental self-culture, in which deliverance was found from all the mysteries and sorrows of life in a change of heart to be reached The here on earth.
By thus laying stress upon Bodhisatship, rather than upon Arahatship, the new school, though they doubtless merely thought themselves to be carrying the older orthodox doctrines to their I logical conclusion, were really changing the central point of Buddhism, and were altering the direction of their mental vision.
The home of early Buddhism was round about Kosala and Magadha; in the district, that is to say, north and south of the Ganges between where Allahabad now lies on the west and Rajgir on the east.
Buddhism arose in countries where Sanskrit was never more than a learned tongue, and where the exclusive claims of the Brahmins had never been universally admitted.
The way was now open to a rapid fall from the simplicity of early Buddhism, in which men's attention was directed to the various parts of the system of self-culture, to a belief in a whole pantheon of saints or angels The five Y ?
4 attention, as far as it was not engaged upon their hierarchy of mythological beings, to questions of metaphysical speculation, which, in the earliest Buddhism, are not only discouraged but forbidden.
The animism common alike to the untaught Huns and to their Hindu conquerors, but condemned in early Buddhism, was allowed to revive.
As in India, after the expulsion of Buddhism, the degrading worship of Siva and his dusky bride had been incorporated into Hinduism from the savage devil worship of Aryan and of non-Aryan tribes, so, as pure Buddhism died away in the north, the Tantra system, a mixture of magic and witchcraft and sorcery, was incorporated into the corrupted Buddhism.
Asanga managed with great dexterity to reconcile the two opposing systems by placing a number of Saivite gods cr devils, both male and female, in the inferior heavens of the then prevalent Buddhism, and by representing them as worshippers and supporters of the Buddha and of Avalokitesvara.
In his own country and Nepal, the new wine, sweet and luscious to the taste of savages, completely disqualified them from enjoying any purer drink; and now in both countries Saivism is supreme, and Buddhism is even nominally extinct, except in some outlying districts of Nepal.
Such had been the decline and fall of Buddhism considered as an ethical system before its introduction into Tibet.
He was the founder of the present capital of Tibet, now known as Lhasa; and in the year 622 (the same year as that in which Mahomet fled from Mecca) he began the formal introduction of Buddhism into Tibet.
And, aided by the king, who is represented to have been an industrious student and translator, he wrote the first books by which Buddhism became known in his native land.
He is also very probably the author of another very ancient standard work of Tibetan Buddhism, the Samatog, a short digest of Buddhist morality, on which the civil laws of Tibet have been founded.
King Srong Tsan Gampo's zeal for Buddhism was shared and supported by his two queens, Bribsun, a princess from Nepal, and Wen Ching, a princess from China.
For after the death of himself and of his wives Buddhism gradually decayed, and was subjected by succeeding kings to cruel persecutions; and it was not till more than half a century afterwards, under King Kir Song de Tsan, who reigned 740-786, that true religion is acknowledged by the ecclesiastical historians to have become firmly established in the land.
These volumes contain about a dozen works of the oldest school of Buddhism, the Hinayana, and about 300 works, mostly very short, belonging to the Tantra school.
But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.
He is described in the church chronicles as an incarnation of the evil spirit, and is said to have succeeded in suppressing Buddhism throughout the greater part of the land.
After the reintroducton of Buddhism into the " kingdom of snow," the ancient dynasty never recovered its power.
Meanwhile Jenghiz Khan had founded the Mongol empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan became a convert to the Buddhism of the Tibetan Lamas.
Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet (London, 1895); A.
With some modifications this conception is taken over by Buddhism.
The Soyotes, or Soyons, of the Sayan mountains (estimated at 8000), who are Finns mixed with Turks the Uryankhes of north-west Mongolia, who are of Turkish origin but follow Buddhism, and the Karagasses, also of Turkish origin and much like the Kirghizes, but reduced now to a few hundreds, are akin to the above.
The district of Chitral is called Kashgar (or Kashkar) by the people of the country; and as it was under Chinese domination in the middle of the 18th century, and was regarded as a Buddhist centre of some importance by the Chinese pilgrims in the early centuries of our era, it is possible that it then existed as an outlying district of the Kashgar province of Chinese Turkestan, where Buddhism once flourished in cities that have been long since buried beneath the sand-waves of the Takla Makan.
His idealistic scheme of history, which makes religion the keynote of progress, and describes the function of each - Judaism to typify duty, Confucianism order, Mahommedanism justice, Buddhism patience, and Christianity love - does not account for the facts of the history enacted by the devotees.
It should be noticed in passing that the idea of a priesthood with mystical powers is altogether repugnant to Buddhism; every one's salvation is entirely dependent on the modification or growth of his own inner nature, resulting from his own exertions.
The confused and legendary notices of the journeyings of 1 These were at first simple huts, built for the mendicants in some grove of palm-trees as a retreat during the rainy season; but they gradually increased in splendour and magnificence till the decay of Buddhism set in.
(2) Sinhalese; episodes collected and translated by Spence Hardy from Sinhalese texts of the 12th and later centuries, in Manual of Buddhism (London, 1897, 2nd edition), pp. 138-359.
For many centuries Jainism was so overshadowed by that stupendous movement, born at the same time and in the same place, which we call Buddhism, that it remained almost unnoticed by the side of its powerful rival.
But when Buddhism, whose widely open doors had absorbed the mass of the community, became thereby corrupted from its pristine purity and gradually died away, the smaller school of the Jains, less diametrically opposed to the victorious orthodox creed of the Brahmans, survived, and in some degree took its place.
Buddhism penetrated into the country at an early date, and possessed famous monasteries there in the 5th and 7th centuries.
By this time Buddhism had reached its culminating point: in Khotan there were ioo monasteries and 5000 monks, and the Indian sacred literature was widely diffused.
Women again acquired greater independence, and the religious toleration then established permitted Christianity and Buddhism to spread freely.
Long after Buddhism had spread to Chitral, Gilgit, Dir and Swat; whilst Ningrahar was still full of monasteries and temples, and the Peshawar valley was recognized as the seat of Buddhist learning, the Kafirs or Nysaeans held their own in Bajour and in the lower Kunar valley, where Buddhism apparently never prevailed.
It is probable that the invader Baber (who has much to say about Bajour) fought them there in the early years of the 26th century, when on his way to found the Mogul dynasty of India centuries after Buddhism has been crushed in northern India by the destroyer Mahmud.
The teachings of Buddhism are vigorously attacked, whilst the author tries to draw a parallel between Christianity and the teachings of the Chinese literati."
Ricci's pointed attacks on Buddhism, and the wide circulation of his books, called forth the opposition of the Buddhist clergy.
I need not tell scholars of Buddhism how rare it is for a Western Buddhist organization to seek active affiliation with an Asian parent.
alleviation of suffering is a vital precept of Buddhism.
ascetic ideal, in a more uncomplicated form than Buddhism.
birthplace of Buddhism.
For example, in certain strands of Buddhism, Buddhists chant for their deceased friends and family.
Modern forms of Buddhism are essentially contiguous with traditional forms despite different social arenas and cultural contexts.
Engaged Buddhism would then become a cop-out for frustrated meditators, a kind of Buddhism Lite.
degenerate form of Buddhism Ceremony and ritual are emphasized.
Where does Buddhism stand in regard to genetic determinism, whether hard or soft?
Buddhism and organ donation Hindu Dharma and organ donation Could I be a living kidney donor?
Perhaps then Buddhism's role in the shaping of song dynasty Chinese society will be better appreciated.
engaged Buddhism In America about to appear shortly.
exemplify modes of behavior exemplified in the lives of the two elders has been persisting throughout the history of Buddhism.
This, unfortunately, brings us to one of the book's few weaknesses in that it presupposes a basic familiarity with Buddhism.
There is no divine fatherhood proclaimed by the Son in Buddhism.
founder of the Yellow sect of tibetan Buddhism, originated the Geat Prayer Festival.
For our purposes here, the crucial importance of the bodhisattva ideal in Mahāyāna Buddhism is that the bodhisattva cures himself by curing others.
The right and the good in Buddhism are inseparably intertwined.
The book presents a fascinating kaleidoscope of all aspects of Buddhism, including Tantra, Zen and the Pure Land beliefs of Japan.
lugs pa understanding of Buddhism.
Response to Buddhism Panels on: Transnational Exchange and Buddhist modernism in Asia.
In short, when it comes to individual identity, Buddhism takes a similar position to philosophical nominalism.
Buddhism and organ donation Hindu Dharma and organ donation Hindu Dharma and organ donation Could I be a living kidney donor?
In this paper, I shall argue that Process Buddhism is indeed a liberating praxis.
presupposes a basic familiarity with Buddhism.
This coverage can provide the reader with at least one systematic approach to the sometimes bewildering profusion of ideas under the umbrella of Buddhism.
recitations of the religious texts and teachings by the great masters of Buddhism.
At the time I was studying Buddhism, and one of the early Buddhist saints was named Chandrakirti.
scholars of Buddhism in Tibet.
Introduction to the Buddhist scriptures By Nina van Gorkom General Aspects of Buddhism Chapter 8 The Impact of the Dhamma on Daily Life.
sects of Buddhism.
Everyone is welcome to drink beer and discuss spirituality, buddhism, paganism, spiritualism, tarot, ghosts and anything else.
In solitary confinement for nine years, he practiced Buddhism primarily by practicing sati (mindfulness) and reciting sutras in Pali.
other sutras found there illustrate various features characteristic of Chinese Buddhism.
I loved hearing many different voices presenting Buddhism, there were some really top-drawer teachings.
I should also state that my comments about Buddhism may imply uniformity within the religion.
uprising against the Chinese occupation, the practice of Buddhism was banned.
relic veneration, as Gombrich and Obeyesekere pointed out in 1988, is part of the changing face of Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
A more constructive approach to Buddhism can begin with those statements of BahÃ¡'u'llÃ¡h that are most akin to Buddhist viewpoints.
This allows many westerners to practice Buddhism today without renouncing their cultural heritage or radically changing their lifestyles.
of the sacrifice was called upavasatha, and in Buddhism the same word (uposatha) has come to denote a Sabbath observed on the full moon, on the day when there is no moon, and on the two days which are eighth from the full and the new moon respectively, with fasting and other religious exercises.'
Passing by Buddhism, which, though teaching the periodic destruction of our world by fire, &c., does not seek to determine the ultimate origin of the cosmos, we come to those early Greek physical philosophers who distinctly set themselves to eliminate the idea of divine interference with the world by representing its origin and changes as a natural process.
Not only the great religions of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Islam - but those of secondary importance, such as Judaism, Parseeism, Taoism, are all Asiatic. No European race left to itself has developed anything more than an unsystematic paganism.
The most striking feature is the religion, a corrupt form of late Indian Buddhism, known as Lamaism, which, largely in consequence of the favour shown by Jenghiz Khan and his successors, has attained temporal power and developed into an ecclesiastical state curiously like the papacy.
He who will cast aside the "Bonds," the "Intoxications," the "Hindrances," and tread the Noble Eightfold Path (see Buddhism) which leads to Nirvana, will attain the ideal, the "Fruit of Arahatship," which is described in terms of glowing praise in the Pali hymns.
Some observers lay the blame at th door of Buddhism, a creed which promotes pessimism by beget ting the anchorite, the ascetic and the shuddering believer ii seven hells.
By this device Japanese conservatism was effectually conciliated, and Buddhism became in fact the creed of the nation, its positive and practical precepts entirely eclipsing the agnostic intuitionahism of Shinto.
The Chinese style (Kara-ryu), the fundamental essence of all Japanese art, has a fairly distinct history, dating back to the jntrodtiction of Buddhism into China (A.
The best example, however, of a full-blown priestly system with a monastic hierarchy grafted in this way on a religion originally not priestly is found in Tibetan Buddhism (see LAMAisM), and similar causes undoubtedly had their share in the development of sacerdotalism in the Christian Church.
The origin of the doctrine cannot be traced with certainty, but there is little doubt that it is post-vedic, and that it was readily accepted by Buddha in the 6th century B.C. As he did not believe in the existence of soul he had to modify the doctrine (see Buddhism).
Lang-dharma instituted a violent persecution of Buddhism; but he was soon assassinated in his turn and the kingdom divided into a western and an eastern part by his two sons.
Buddhism is at its best at Siam, and this and the enervating climate are responsible for the comparatively small direct success of Christian propaganda in Siam proper.
(See the articles on Brahmanism; Buddhism; and Lhasa.) Pre-Christian Monasticism.
ASOKA, a famous Buddhist emperor of India who reigned from 264 to 228 or 227 B.C. Thirty-five of his inscriptions on rocks or pillars or in caves still exist (see Inscriptions: Indian), and they are among the most remarkable and interesting of Buddhist monuments (see Buddhism).
The reign of Pushyamitra, who held his own against Menander and succeeded in establishing his claim to be lord paramount of northern India, is mainly remarkable as marking the beginning of the Brahmanical reaction and the decline of Buddhism; according to certain Buddhist writers the king, besides reviving Hindu rites, indulged in a savage persecution of the monks.
But the ancient Buddhism, the party of reform, was overwhelmed also in its fall; and modern Hinduism arose on the ruins of both.
(See YUE-CHI.) Buddhism had already acquired influence over the people of the Kabul basin, and some of the barbaric invaders adopted that system.
The systems called Jainism (see Jains) and Buddhism (q.v.) had their roots in prehistoric philosophies, but were founded respectively by Vardhamana Mahavira and Gotama Buddha, both of whom were preaching in Magadha during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 520 B.C.).
These tribes were the Sakas, a horde of pastoral P established his own paramountcy over northern India; but his reign is mainly memorable as marking the beginning of the Brahmanical reaction against Buddhism, a reaction which Pushyamitra is said to have forwarded not only by the peaceful revival of Hindu rites but by a savage persecution of the Buddhist monks.
Flesh-meat cannot be procured without injury to animals, and the slaughter of animals is not conducive to heavenly bliss: from flesh-meat, therefore, let man abstain."Moreover, in view of the fact that Jainism, which originated about the same time as Buddhism, inculcates the same principle, even to an extravagant degree, it seems by no means improbable that the spirit of kindliness towards living beings generally was already widely diffused among the people when these new doctrines were promulgated.
The most famous of the works ascribed to him is the Mani Kambum, " the Myriad of Precious Words " - a treatise chiefly on religion, but which also contains an account of the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet, and of the closing part of the life of Srong Tsan Gampo.
According to the Buddhist theory (see Buddhism), a "Buddha" appears from time to time in the world and preaches the true doctrine.
Buddha replies by explaining to them the principles of his new gospel, in the form of noble truths, and the Noble Eightfold Path (see Buddhism).
nirva, " to blow,"fora calm or sinless state or condition of the mind reached by a dying out or extinction of sin (see Buddhism).
ABHIDHAMMA, the name of one of the three Pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Buddhist scriptures (see Buddhism) are divided.
The music consists of chants and recitations of the religious texts and teachings by the great masters of Buddhism.
The Drepung Monastery used to nourish a lot of scholars of Buddhism in Tibet.
Introduction to the Buddhist Scriptures By Nina van Gorkom General Aspects of Buddhism Chapter 8 The Impact of the Dhamma on Daily Life.
Amida is a central figure in the ' Pure Land ' sects of Buddhism.
Other sutras found there illustrate various features characteristic of Chinese Buddhism.
However, in 1959 following a Tibetan uprising against the Chinese occupation, the practice of Buddhism was banned.
Relic veneration, as Gombrich and Obeyesekere pointed out in 1988, is part of the changing face of Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Known as Ayurveda, Indian medicine exerted its most profound influence on the development of Tibetan herbalism with the visit of two Indian doctors who introduced Buddhism to the region along with the concept of tridosha, or three faults.
The real question becomes who gets custody of the Buddist altar recently added to Bloom's London home where the couple were so recently reported to practice Nichiren Buddhism?
The complex philosophies of the yin yang concepts may change based on Daoism, Buddhism or the western culture, but the basic concepts of polarity, duality, infinity and balance of yin yang theory remains the same throughout belief systems.
One of the Eight Auspicious Symbols of Buddhism, an eternal knot, also called an eternity symbol, symbolizes eternal love, long life and the interconnection of all things in the universe.
Founded in 1986 by His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Thomas Lin-Yun, The Black Hat Sect of feng shui follows the principles of Tantric Buddhism combined with many different practices and beliefs.
One good resource for true seekers in search for past life information is the study of Buddhism and consultation with Buddhist teachers.
Buddhism embraces the concept of rebirth.
For the most part, the majority of historians believe that the first doctrines noting reincarnation began in the Eastern religion of Buddhism.
The very first mention of reincarnation came from the Puranas' form of Buddhism in 300 B.C.
Buddhism also incorporates references to achieving astral projection in enlightened states.
Religious iconography can be included in tribal art, but often artwork of currently existing religions, such as Islam, Christianity and Buddhism, is instead put into the category of religious art.
Every religion, from Christianity to Buddhism, has one or more symbols or images that represent items in the belief system.
Many religions and cultures (Christianity and Buddhism especially) relate this process to spiritual evolution.
Tantra is a collection of techniques culled from esoteric schools of Buddhism and Hinduism.
These four Nikayas, sixteen volumes in all, are the main authorities for the doctrines of early Buddhism.
Later Buddhism has, however, a doctrine of many heavens and hells.
The missionary activity of Buddhism is a thing of the past, and no characteristic rite distinguishing it has found its way into a second continent.
Subsequent to the disappearance of Buddhism from this region the town became a centre of the Sivaite faith.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.