Both he and his brother Ananda, who were considerably younger than the Buddha, joined the brotherhood in the twentieth year of the Buddha's ministry.
1 That is by the Arahat, the title the Buddha always uses of himself.
Buddha lived in the centre of Hindu India and among the many gods of the Brahmans.
Heracleitus, who was a generation or two later than the Buddha, had very similar ideas; s and similar ideas are found in post-Buddhistic Indian works.
It is necessary to remember that the Buddha, like other Indian teachers of his period, taught by conversation only.
All the others continued loyal disciples, but Devadatta, fifteen years afterwards, having gained over the crown prince of Magadha, Ajatasattu, to his side, made a formal proposition, at the meeting of the order, that the Buddha should retire, and hand over the leadership to him, Devadatta (Vinaya Texts, iii.
Two others are proclamations commemorating visits paid by the king, one to the dome erected over the ashes of Konagamana, the Buddha, another to the birthplace of Gotama, the Buddha.
The most interesting of them are the Assa range, with its sandal trees and Buddhist remains; Udayagiri (Sunrise-hill), with its colossal image of Buddha, sacred reservoir, and ruins; and Assagiri, with its mosque of 1719.
The Buddha himself is stated in the books to have devoted to it the very first discourse he addressed to the first converts.'
Another interesting collection is the Jataka book, a set of verses supposed to have been uttered by the Buddha in some of his previous births.
The so-called pagoda of the Great Buddha is the chief native building.
This proposal was rejected, and Devadatta is said in the tradition to have successfully instigated the prince to the execution of his aged father and to have made three abortive attempts to bring about the death of the Buddha (Vinaya Texts, iii.
The great image of Lochana Buddha at Nara, for example, would measure 138 ft.
But as the Buddha did not acknowledge a soul, the link of connexion between one life and the next had to be found somewhere else.
==Elephant== In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one is taken the capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the king to be kept ever afterwards; it cannot be bought or sold.
According to Kessler, Mani made use of the teaching of Buddha, at least as far as ethics was concerned.
DHAMMAPALA, the name of one of the early disciples of the Buddha, and therefore constantly chosen as their name in religion by Buddhist novices on their entering the brotherhood.
He does not call himself the Buddha, and his followers never address him as such.
The peaceful progress of Brahmanism was hindered by the doctrine of the Indian prince Gotama, called the Buddha, which grew into one of the greatest religions of the world.
52, S4), and on a parallel passage in the ZVlajjhima (J.R.A.S., 18 95, p. 767), tell us that the mother of the future Buddha was on her way from Kapilavastu (Kapilavatthu), the capital of the Sakiyas, to her mother's home at Devadaha, the capital of the adjoining tribe, the Koliyas, to be confined there.
Mani, following the example of the gnostic Jewish Christians, appears to have held Adam, Noah, Abraham (perhaps zoroaster and Buddha) to be such prophets.
The name Buddha (Buddas) which occurs in the legendary account of Mani, and perhaps in the latter's own writings, indicates further that he had occupied his attention with Buddhism when engaged in the work of founding his new religion.
DEVADATTA, the son of Suklodana, who was younger brother to the father of the Buddha (Mahavastu, iii.
There is no mention in the canon as to how or when Devadatta died; but the commentary on the Jataka, written in the 5th century A.D., has preserved a tradition that he was swallowed up by the earth near Savatthi, when on his way to ask pardon of the Buddha (Jataka, iv.
There is not a word about God or the soul, not a word about the Buddha or Buddhism.
Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, i.
But the Buddha, while rejecting the sacrifices and the ritualistic magic of the brahmin schools, the animistic superstitions of the people, the asceticism and soultheory of the Jains, and the pantheistic speculations of the poets of the pre-Buddhistic Upanishads, still retained the belief in transmigration.
The Buddha found it (as Plato also found it) 1 in the influence exercised upon one life by a desire felt in the previous life.
The most ancient form these exercises took is recorded in the often recurring paragraphs translated in Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha (i.
When the Buddha died these sayings were collected together by his disciples into what they call the Four Nikayas, or "collections."
Other sayings and verses, most of them ascribed, not to the Buddha, but to the disciples themselves, were put into a supplementary Nikaya.
These are really 550 of the folk-tales current in India when the canon was being formed, the only thing Buddhist about them being that the Buddha, in a previous birth, is identified in each case with the hero in the little story.
The story is the one of chief importance to the Buddhists - the story, namely, of how the Buddha won, under the Bo Tree, the victory over ignorance, and attained to the Sambodhi, "the higher wisdom," of Nirvana.
And as the Mahavastu was a standard work of a particular sect, or rather school, called the Maha-sanghikas, it has thus preserved for us the theory of the Buddha as held outside the followers of the canon, by those whose views developed, in after centuries, into the Mahayana or modern form of Buddhism in India.
LUMBINI, the name of the garden or grove in which Gotama, the Buddha, was born.
To left and right, and at the back, dormitories are excavated opening on to this hall, and in the centre of the back, facing the entrance, an image of the Buddha usually stands in a niche.
Even Buddhism - originally destitute of ceremonial - has adopted the pilgrimage; and the secondary tradition makes Buddha himself determine its goals: the place where he was born, where he first preached, where the highest insight dawned on him, and where he sank into Nirvana.
And Professor Windisch has discussed the legends of the temptation in his Mara and Buddha, and those relating to the Buddha's birth in his Buddha's Geburt.
The subjects are taken from the Buddhist sacred books, more especially from the accounts given in them of the life of the Buddha in his last or in his previous births.
The account of the death and cremation of the Buddha, preserved in the Buddhist canon, states that one-eighth portion of the ashes was presented to the Sakiya clan, and that they built a thupa, or memorial mound, over it.'
Sakya Muni, the Buddha, came here from Gaya in the 6th century B.C. (from which time some of the remains may date), in order to establish his religion, which shows that the place was even then a great centre.
Wisdom Tree, under which the Buddha had attained wisdom) to Ceylon in the 3rd century s.c. The Bodhi Vamsa quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources; and it has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known to us.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
If the essence of Christianity is winnowed down to a bare imitation of the Man Jesus, and his religion is accepted as Buddhists accept the religion of Buddha, still it cannot be denied that the early Christians put their trust in Christ rather than his religion.
The story begins with his previous births, in which also he was accumulating the Buddha qualities.
When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
But the Buddha is now forgotten there, and the bas relief is reverenced only for the figure of the mother, who has been turned into a tutelary deity of the place.
71-73, translated by Rhys Davids in Dialogues of the Buddha, i.
Architects, turners, tilemakers, decorative artists and sculptors, coming from China and from Korea, erected grand temples for the worship of Buddha enshrining images of much beauty and adorned with paintings and carvings of considerable merit.
It is a striking example of the way in which such legends grow, that it is only the latest of these authorities, Hsiian Tsang, who says that, though ostensibly approaching the Buddha with a view to reconciliation, Devadatta had concealed poison in his nail with the object of murdering the Buddha.
BUDDHISM, the religion held by the followers of the Buddha, and covering a large area in India and east and central Asia.
And the Buddha is elsewhere (Vinaya ii.
Between them these first two collections contain 186 dialogues, in which the Buddha, or in a few cases one of his leading disciples, is represented as engaged in conversation on some one of the religious, or philosophic, or ethical points in that system which we now call Buddhism.
After a profession of faith in the Buddha, the doctrine and the order, there follows a paragraph setting out the thirty-four constituents of the human body - bones, blood, nerves and so on - strangely incongruous with what follows.
The Buddha is represented, on various occasions during his long career, to have been so much moved by some event, or speech, or action, that he gave vent, as it were, to his pent-up feelings in a short, ecstatic utterance, couched, for the most part, in one or two lines of poetry.
These ecstatic utterances and deep sayings are attributed to the Buddha himself, and accompanied by the prose framework.
Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts (3 vols., Oxford, 1881-1885); Rhys Davids, Milinda (2 vols., Oxford, 1890-1894), Dialogues of the Buddha (Oxford, 1899} H.
It is a poem, of no great interest, on the life of the Buddha.
When, in the generations after the Buddha's death, his disciples compiled the documents of the faith, the form they adopted became dominant.
Professor Rhys Davids has put forward similar views with respect to the Jatakas and the Sutta Nipata in his Buddhist India, and with respect to the Nikayas in general in the introduction to his Dialogues of the Buddha.
It seems probable that the Vinaya and the four Nikayas were put substantially into the shape in which we now have them before the council at Vesali, a hundred years after the Buddha's death; that slight alterations and additions were made in them, and the miscellaneous Nikaya and the Abhidhamma books completed, at various times down to the third council under Asoka; and that the canon was then considered closed.
6 in.; and this has been consecrated as the footprint of Buddha.
And we need have no hesitation in accepting this as a monument put up over a portion of the ashes from the funeral pyre of Gotama the Buddha.
There is a small shrine at the spot, containing a bas-relief representing the birth of the Buddha.
Spurs of the Chin hills run down the whole length of the Lower Chindwin district, almost to Sagaing, and one hill, Powindaung, is particularly noted on account of its innumerable cave temples, which are said to hold no fewer than 446,444 images of Buddha.
The latter give the names of the donors of particular portions of the architectural ornamentation, and most of them are written in the characters used before and after the time of Asoka in the middle of the 3rd century B.C. The monuments are Buddhist, the bas-reliefs illustrate passages in the Buddhist writings, and the inscriptions make use of Buddhist technical terms. Some of the smaller topes give us names of men who lived in the Buddha's time, and others give names mentioned among the missionaries sent out in the time of Asoka.
A considerable proportion of the romances are founded upon episodes in the final life, or in one of the innumerable former existences, of the Buddha.
The Pattama Sompothiyan is the standard Siamese life of the Buddha.
Its elaborate carvings illustrate the life of Buddha.
The most remarkable edifice was a celebrated temple, adorned with 250 lofty pillars of gilt wood, and containing a colossal bronze statue of Buddha.
These being refused, he appealed to the people, started an order of his own, and gained over 500 of the Buddha's community to join in the secession.
We are fortunate in having preserved for us the official report of the Buddha's discourse, in which he expounded what he considered the main features of his system to the five men he first tried to win over to his new-found faith.
It is clear from the Dialogues, and other of the most ancient Buddhist records, 5 that the belief was in full force when Buddhism arose, and that the practice was followed by the Buddha's teachers.
Shortly after the Buddha's time the Brahmins had their sutras in Sanskrit, already a dead language.
About one hundred years after the Buddha's death there was a schism in the community.
This contains 120 short passages, each of them leading up to a terse deep saying of the Buddha's, and introduced, in each case, with the words Iti vuttam Bhagavata - " thus was it spoken by the Exalted One."
These works of the oldest period, the two centuries and a half, between the Buddha's time and that of Asoka, were followed by a voluminous literature in the following periods - from Asoka to Kanishka, and from Kanishka to Buddhaghosa, - each of about three centuries.
Two other works, the Lalita Vistara and the Buddha Carita, give us - but this, of course, is later - Sanskrit poems, epics, on the same subject.
These three works deal only quite briefly and incidentally with any point of Buddhism outside of the Buddha legend.
To about the same age belongs also the Divyavadana, a collection of legends about the leading disciples of the Buddha, and important members of the order, through the subsequent three centuries.
Pre-eminent among these is the discovery, by Mr William Peppe, on the Birdpur estate, adjoining the boundary between English and Nepalese territory, of the stupa, or cairn, erected by the Sakiya clan over their share of the ashes from the cremation pyre of the Buddha.
to the north-east of this spot has been found an inscribed pillar, put up by Asoka as a record of his visit to the Lumbini Garden, as the place where the future Buddha had been born.
There had been no interruption of the tradition; and it is probable that the place was then still occupied by the descendants of the possessors in the Buddha's time.
North-west of this another Asoka pillar has been discovered, recording his visit to the cairn erected by the Sakyas over the remains of Konagamana, one of the previous Buddhas or teachers, whose follower Gotama the Buddha had claimed to be.
Our ideas as to the social conditions that prevailed, during the Buddha's lifetime, in the eastern valley of the Ganges have been modified.
The Buddha's father was not a king.
What we find in the Buddha's time is caste in the making.
Senart, 3 vols., 1882-1897; Buddha Carita, ed.
Lieder der Manche and Nonnen, 1899, by the same; Dialogues of the Buddha, by Rhys Davids, 1899; Die Reden Gotamo Buddhas, by Neumann, 3 vols., 1899-1903; Buddhist Psychology, by Mrs Rhys Davids, 1900.
Manuals, Monographs, &c. - Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 12mo, 10th thousand, 1903; Buddha, sein Leben, seine Lehre and seine Gemeinde, by Oldenberg, 5th edition, 1906; Der Buddhismus and seine Geschichte in Indien, by Kern, 1882; Der Buddhismus, by Edmund Hardy, 1890; American Lectures, Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 1896; Inscriptions de Piyadasi, by Senart, 2 vols., 1881-1886; Mara and Buddha, by Windisch, 1895; Buddhist India, by Rhys Davids, 1903.
- lv.), with Cyrus and Zoroaster, with Buddha and Confucius, and with Phocylides and Socrates.
east of Bamian, representing Sakya Buddha entering Nirvana, i.e.
six great cities of India in the time of Buddha: archaeologists differ as to its position.
Rajagriha (Rajgir), the capital of Magadha, was built by Bimbisara, the contemporary of Buddha.
Evil men, taking on them the yellow robe of the order, had given forth their own opinions as the teaching of Buddha.
1 In 1909 the excavation of a ruined stupa near Peshawar disclosed a casket, with an inscription of Kanishka, and containing fragments of bones believed to be those of Buddha himself.
Five hundred millions of men, or 35% of the inhabitants of the world, still follow the teaching of Buddha.
Here Buddha was born, preached and died.
The temple was originally devoted to the worship of Brahma, but afterwards to that of Buddha; its construction is assigned by Aymonier to the first half of the 12th century A.D.
Thus in Buddhism the presuppositions which Buddha uncritically took over work out their logical results in the Mahayana, so that great sects calling themselves " Buddhist " affirm what the Master denied and deny what he taught.
The Mahayana systems are the union of Buddha's teaching with the forms of the Brahman philosophy.
The historic Buddha - the man Gautamais taught as only one of a limitless series of incarnations or (better) appearances.
For his life on earth with his material body was only an appearance, a seeming, a phenomenon, and simultaneously with its activities the true Buddha existed unmoved and eternal.
Thus the way was opened for other apparitional Buddhas, and different sects take different ones as the objects of faith and worship. Moreover, our true nature is also Buddha.
Inscription on Buddha Vase, perhaps 4th century B.C.
" This casket of relics of the blessed Buddha is the pious foundation (so Pischel, no doubt rightly, Zeitsch.
In later times, the strict adherence to caste duties would naturally receive considerable support from the belief in the transmigration of souls, already prevalent before Buddha's time, and from the very general acceptance of the doctrine of karma (" deed "), or retribution, according to which a man's present station and manner of life are the result of the sum-total of his actions and thoughts in his former existence; as his actions here will again, by the same automatic process of retribution, determine his status and condition in his next existence.
It would even seem to be necessarily and naturally implied in Brahmanical belief in metempsychosis; whilst in the doctrine of Buddha, who admits no soul, the theory of the net result or fruit of a man's actions serving hereafter to form or condition the existence of some new individual who will have no conscious identity with himself, seems of a peculiarly artificial and mystic character.
Certain it is that mixed castes are found referred to at a comparatively early period; and at the time of Buddha - some five or six centuries before the Christian era - the social organization would seem to have presented an appearance not so very unlike that of modern times.
The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards - particularly the two epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana - still show us in the main the personnel of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely mythological figures.
Nor do Buddhist places of worship appear as a rule to have been destroyed by Hindu sectaries, but they seem rather to have been taken over by them for their own religious uses; at any rate there are to this day not a few Hindu shrines, especially in Bengal, dedicated to Dharmaraj," the prince of righteousness,"as the Buddha is commonly styled.
It is the note of every great religious reformer, Moses, Buddha, Paul, Mani, Mahomet, St Francis, Luther, to enlighten and direct it to higher aims, substituting a true personal holiness for a ritual purity or taboo, which at the best was viewed as a kind of physical condition and contagion, inherent as well in things and animals as in man.
Once at a village where he rested the Blessed One (Buddha) addressed his brethren and said: "It is through not understanding and grasping four Noble Truths, 0 brethren, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of transmigration, both you and I."
The Buddha believed he had a way of Truth, which if an elect disciple possessed he might say of himself, "Hell is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe.
Such was the Buddha's gospel, as his most ancient scriptures enunciate it.
" the Good Mind " of Ahura Mazda; or the Bodhisattva Avalokitegvara, who vowed not to enter into final peace till every creature had received the saving truth; sometimes supreme, like Brahma, or Prajapati (" lord of creatures ") in the early Brahmanic theology; or Adi Buddha, or the Zervan Akarana, " boundless time," of a kind of Persian gnosticism; or the Oths whose worship appears among other syncretistic cults of the Roman empire.
xxi.) the Buddha is the " Father of the World," " Self-born " or Uncreate (like the eternal Brahma of the Hindu theology), the protector of all 'creatures, the Healer (Saviour) of the sickness of their sins.
Kanishka, as is well known, had embraced Buddhism, and many of his coins bear the image and name of Buddha.
His work, called Fo-Kwo-Ki, or Memoirs on the Buddha Realms, has been translated by Abel-Remusat and Landresse, and again into English by the Rev. S.
In 1560 a supposed tooth of Buddha was brought to Goa; the raja of Pegu offered ioo,000 for the relic, and as Portuguese India was virtually bankrupt the government wished to accept the offer; but the archbishop intervened and the relic was destroyed.
BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT, one of the most popular and widely disseminated of medieval religious romances, which owes its importance and interest to the fact that it is a Christianized version of the story of Gautama Siddharta, the Buddha, with which it agrees not only in broad outline but in essential details.
Now this story is, mutatis mutandis, the story of Buddha.
It will suffice to recall the Buddha's education in a secluded palace, his encounter successively with a decrepit old man, with a man in mortal disease and poverty, with a dead body, and, lastly, with a religious recluse radiant with peace and dignity, and his consequent abandonment of his princely state for the ascetic life in the jungle.
More than that, the very word Joasaph or Josaphat (Arabic, Yudasatf) is a corruption of Bodisat due to a confusion between the Arabic letters for Y and B, and Bodisatva is a common title for the Buddha in the many birth-stories that clustered round the life of the sage.
Thus unwittingly Gautama the Buddha has come to official recognition as a saint in two great branches of the Catholic Church, and no one will say that he does not deserve the honour.
The identity of the stories of Buddha and St Josaphat was recognized by the historian of Portuguese India, Dipgo do Couto (1542-1616), as may be seen in his history (Dec. v.
The older school had taught that Gotama, who had propounded the doctrine of Arahatship, was a Buddha, that only a Buddha is capable of discovering that doctrine, and that a Buddha is a man who by self-denying efforts, continued through many hundreds of different births, has acquired the so-called Ten Paramitas or cardinal virtues in such perfection that he is able, when sin and ignorance have gained the upper hand throughout the world, to save the human race from impending ruin.
The link of connexion between the various Bodhisats in the future Buddha's successive births is not a soul which is transferred from body to body, but the karma, or character, which each successive Bodhisat inherits from his predecessors in the long chain of existences.
Now the older school also held, in the first place, that, when a man had, in this life, attained to Arahatship, his karma would not pass on to any other individual in another life - or in other words, that after Arahatship there would be no rebirth; and, secondly, that four thousand years after the Buddha had proclaimed the Dhamma or doctrine of Arahatship, his teaching would have died away, and another Buddha would be required to bring mankind once more to a knowledge of the truth.
The former is legendary work, partly in verse, on the life of Gotama, the historical Buddha; and the latter, also partly in verse, is devoted to proving the essential identity of the Great and the Little Vehicles, and the equal authenticity of both as doctrines enunciated by the master himself.
As the newer school did not venture so far as to claim as Bodhisats the disciples stated in the older books to have been the contemporaries of Gotama (they being precisely the persons known as Arahats), they attempted to give the appearance of age to the Bodhisat theory by representing the Buddha as being surrounded, not only by his human companions the Arahats, but also by fabulous beings, whom they represented as the Bodhisats existing at that time.
Among the Bodhisats mentioned in the Saddharma Pundarika, and not mentioned in the Lalita Vistara, as attendant on the Buddha are Manju-sri and Avalokitesvara.
These were supposed to be celestial beings who, inspired by love of the human race, had taken the so-called Great Resolve to become future Buddhas, and who therefore descended from heaven when the actual Buddha was on earth, to pay reverence to him, and to learn of him.
The former was afterwards identified with the mythical first Buddhist missionary, who is supposed to have introduced civilization into Tibet about two hundred and fifty years after the death of the Buddha.
But, being Buddhas, they were supposed to have their Bodhisats; and thus out of the five last Buddhas of the earlier teaching there grew up five mystic trinities, each group consisting of one of these five Buddhas, his prototype in heaven the Dhyani Buddha, and his celestial Bodhisat.
Hsuan Tsang, who travelled in the first half of the 7th, found the monastery where Asanga had lived in ruins, and says that he had lived one thousand years after the Buddha.'
Asanga managed with great dexterity to reconcile the two opposing systems by placing a number of Saivite gods cr devils, both male and female, in the inferior heavens of the then prevalent Buddhism, and by representing them as worshippers and supporters of the Buddha and of Avalokitesvara.
The Hindus believe he has appeared (I) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Rama for the purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, (8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha.
ANANDA, one of the principal disciples of the Buddha.
He was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devotedly attached to him.
Ananda entered the Order in the second year of the Buddha's ministry, and became one of his personal attendants, accompanying him on most of his wanderings and being the interlocutor in many of the recorded dialogues.
He is the subject of a special panegyric delivered by the Buddha just before his death (Book of the Great Decease, v.
This explains why he had not attained to arahatship; and in the earliest account of the convocation said to have been held by five hundred of the principal disciples immediately after the Buddha's death, he was the only one who was not an arahat (Cullavagga, book xi.).
The most remarkable was the Nau Behar, Nava Bihara or New Convent, which possessed a very costly statue of Buddha.
400 it was a city of some magnificence, and the seat of a flourishing cult of Buddha, with temples rich in paintings and ornaments of the precious metals; but from the 5th century it seems to have declined.
After a certain lapse of time this teaching is corrupted and lost, and is not restored till a new Buddha appears.
In Europe, Buddha is used to designate the last historical Buddha, whose family name was Gotama, and who was the son of Suddhodana, one of the chiefs of the tribe of the Sakiyas, one of the republican clans then still existent in India.
The Buddha has not escaped the fate which has befallen the founders of other religions; and as late as the year 1854 Professor Wilson of Oxford read a paper before the Royal Asiatic Society of London in which he maintained that the supposed life of Buddha was a myth, and "Buddha himself merely an imaginary being."
The circumstances under which the future Buddha was born were somewhat as follows.'
While hoping for a better fate in their next birth, the poor turned for succour and advice in this to the aid of astrology, witchcraft and animism - a belief in which seems to underlie all 1 Note on the Date of the Buddha.
- The now generally accepted date of the Buddha is arrived at by adding together two numbers, one being the date of the accession of Asoka to the throne, the second being the length of the interval between that date and that of the death of the Buddha.
The dates of these last are approximately known; and arguing from these dates the date of Asoka's accession has been fixed by various scholars (at dates varying only by a difference of five years more or less) at about 270 B.C. The second figure, the total interval between Asoka's accession and the Buddha's death, is given in the Ceylon Chronicles as 218 years.
Adding these two together, the date of the Buddha's death would be 488 B.C., and, as he was eighty years old at the time of his death, the date of his birth would be 568 B.C. The dates for his death and birth accepted in Burma, Siam and Ceylon are about half a century earlier, namely, 543 and 623 B.C., the difference being in the date of Asoka's accession.
In due time she started with the intention of being confined at her parents' home, but the party halting on the way under the shade of some lofty satin-trees, in a pleasant garden called Lumbini on the river-side, her son, the future Buddha, was there unexpectedly born.
At last the fear of awakening Yasodhara prevailed; he tore himself away, promising himself to return to them as soon as his mind had become clear, as soon as he had become a Buddha, - i.e.
The next seven days were spent alone in a grove of mango trees 2 The various legends of Mara are the subject of an exhaustive critical analysis in Windisch's Mara and Buddha (Leipzig, 1895).
He had attained to Nirvana, had become clear in his mind, a Buddha, an Enlightened One.
90) tells us how the Buddha, rapt with the idea of his great mission, meets an acquaintance, one Upaka, a wandering sophist, on the way.
"I am now on my way," says the Buddha, "to the city of Benares, to beat the drum of the Ambrosia (to set up the light of the doctrine of Nirvana) in the darkness of the world!"
and he proclaims himself the Buddha who alone knows, and knows no teacher.
The Buddha says: "Those indeed are conquerors who, as I have now, have conquered the intoxications (the mental intoxication arising from ignorance, sensuality or craving after future life).
It is nearly certain that Buddha had a commanding presence, and one of those deep, rich, thrilling voices which so many of the successful leaders of men have possessed.
The later books say that they were all converted at once; but, according to the most ancient Pali record - though their old love and reverence had been so rekindled when the Buddha came near that their cold resolutions quite broke down, and they vied with each other in such acts of personal attention as an Indian disciple loves to pay to his teacher, - yet it was only after the Buddha had for five days talked to them, sometimes separately, sometimes together, that they accepted in its entirety his plan of salvation.'
The Buddha then remained at the Deer-forest near Benares until the number of his personal followers was about threescore, and that of the outside believers somewhat greater.
He warned his hearers against the fires of concupiscence, anger, ignorance, birth, death, decay and anxiety; and taking each of the senses in order he compared all human sensations to a burning flame which seems to be something it is not, which produces pleasure and pain, but passes rapidly away, and ends only in destruction.3 Accompanied by his new disciples, the Buddha walked on to Rajagaha, the capital of King Bimbisara, who, not unmindful of their former interview, came out to welcome him.
Seeing Kassapa, who as the chronicle puts it, was as well known to them as the banner of the city, the people at first doubted who was the teacher and who the disciple, but Kassapa put an end to their hesitation by stating that he had now given up his belief in the efficacy of sacrifices either great or small; that Nirvana was a state of rest to be attained only by a change of heart; and that he had become a disciple of the Buddha.
The raja invited him and his disciples to eat their simple mid-day meal at his house on the following morning; and then presented the Buddha with a garden called Veluvana or Bamboo-grove, afterwards celebrated as the place where the Buddha spent many rainy seasons, and preached many of his most complete discourses.
There he taught for some time, attracting large numbers of hearers, among whom two, Sariputta and Moggallana, who afterwards became conspicuous leaders in the new crusade, then joined the Sangha or Society, as the Buddha's order of mendicants was called.
The Buddha accordingly started for Kapilavastu, and stopped according to his custom in a grove outside the town.
Startled at such news he rose up, seizing the end of his outer robe, and hastened to the place where Gotama was, exclaiming, "Illustrious Buddha, why do you expose us all to such shame ?
From this time they simply narrate disconnected stories about the Buddha, or the persons with whom he was brought into contact, - the same story being usually found in more than one account, but not often in the same order.
They are mostly told to show the occasion on which some memorable act of the Buddha took place, or some memorable saying was uttered, and are as exact as to place as they are indistinct as to time.
At another time a rich farmer held a harvest home, and the Buddha, wishing to preach to him, is said to have taken his almsbowl and stood by the side of the field and begged.
"The Buddha can give you medicine; go to him," was the answer.
At last, not being able to find a single house where no one had died, her mind began to clear, and summoning up resolution she left the dead body of her child in a forest, and returning to the Buddha paid him homage.
In the twentieth year his cousin Ananda became a mendicant, and from that time seems to have attended on the Buddha, being constantly near him, and delighting to render him all the personal service which love and reverence could suggest.
The account of the manner in which the Buddha is said to have overcome the wicked devices of this apostate cousin and his parricide protector is quite legendary; but the general fact of Ajatasattu's opposition to the new sect and of his subsequent conversion may be accepted.
Chunda prepared for the mendicants a mid-day meal, and after the meal the Buddha started for Kusinara.
Towards the end of this conversation, when it was evening, Ananda broke down and went aside to weep, but the Buddha missed him, and sending for him comforted him with the promise of Nirvana, and repeated what he had so often said before about the impermanence of all things, - "0 Ananda!
About midnight Subhadra, a brahmin philosopher of Kusinara, came to ask some questions of the Buddha, but Ananda, fearing that this might lead to a longer discussion than the sick teacher could bear, would not admit him.
Then turning to his disciples he said, "When I have passed away and am no longer with you, do not think that the Buddha has left you, and is not still in your midst.
You have my words, my explanations of the deep things of truth, the laws I have laid down for the society; let them be your guide; the Buddha has not left you."
Towards the morning he asked whether any one had any doubt about the Buddha, the law or the society; if so, he would clear them up. No one answered, and Ananda expressed his surprise that amongst so many none should doubt, and all be firmly attached to the law.
These were the last words the Buddha spoke; shortly afterwards he became unconscious, and in that state passed away.
Authorities ON THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
p. 115, translated by Rhys Davids in Dialogues of the Buddha (Oxford, 18 99), pp. 1 471 49.
(3) Buddha Carita, by Asvaghosha, probably 2nd century A.D.
Modern Works: (I) Tibetan; Life of the Buddha; episodes collected and translated by W.
This man was born of a Saivite family about 1825, but in early manhood grew dissatisfied with idolworship. He undertook many pilgrimages and studied the Vedic philosophy in the hope of solving the old problem of the Buddha, - how to alleviate human misery and attain final liberation.
Jainism purports to be the system of belief promulgated by Vaddhamana, better known by his epithet of Maha-vira (the great hero), who was a contemporary of Gotama, the Buddha.
The latter have only as yet been traced, and that doubtfully, as far back as the 5th century after Christ; the former are almost certainly the same as the Niganthas, who are referred to in numerous passages of the Buddhist Pali Pitakas, and must therefore be at least as old as the 6th century B.C. In many of these passages the Niganthas are mentioned as contemporaneous with the Buddha; and details enough are given concerning their leader Nigantha Nata-putta (that is, the Nigantha of the Jnatrika clan) to enable us to identify him, without any doubt, as the same person as the Vaddhamana Maha-vira of the Jain books.
Unfortunately the account of the teachings of Nigantha Nata-putta given in the Buddhist scriptures are, like those of the Buddha's teachings given in the Brahmanical literature, very meagre.
Against this custom, Gotama, the Buddha, especially warned his followers; and it is referred to in the well-known Greek phrase, Gymnosophist, used already by Megasthenes, which applies very aptly to the Niganthas.
And through the rest of his life, till he died at Pava, shortly before the Buddha, he followed the same habit of continual self-mortification.
The Buddha, on the other hand, obtained Nirvana in his 35th year, under the Bo tree, after he had abandoned penance; and through the rest of his life he spoke of penance as quite useless from his point of view.
Professor Jacobi, who is the best authority on the history of this sect, thus sums up the distinction between the Maha-vira and the Buddha: "Maha-vira was rather of the ordinary class of religious men in India.
He may be allowed a talent for religious matters, but he possessed not the genius which Buddha undoubtedly had..
The Buddha's philosophy forms a system based on a few fundamental ideas, whilst that of Maha-vira scarcely forms a system, but is merely a sum of opinions (pannattis) on various subjects, no fundamental ideas being there to uphold the mass of metaphysical matter.
In 1896 Dr Sven Hedin discovered in the desert not far from the town of Khotan, in a locality known as Borasan, objects in terra-cotta, bronze images of Buddha, engraved gems, coins and MSS.; the objects, which display artistic skill, give indications of having been wrought by craftsmen who laboured to reproduce Graeco-Indian ideals in the service of the cult of Buddha, and consequently date presumably from the 3rd century B.C., when the successors of Alexander the Great were founding their kingdoms in Persia, Khwarezm (Khiva), Merv, Bactria (Afghanistan) and northern India, and from that date to the 4th or 5th century A.D.
There he found mural paintings, some of which represented local lake or river scenes, carved woodwork, fragments of pottery, gypsum images of Buddha, and traces of gardens.
As the scene of many incidents in the life of Gautama Buddha, it was a holy land.
Buddha's teachings can be divided into the Hinayana, or Lesser Vehicle, and the Mahayana, or Greater Vehicle.
The story of Buddha: Buddha's original name was Siddhartha.
Leshan is a beautify city, celebrated by having the largest Buddha in the world.
Dimensions: 7 inches, 180 mm tall. £ 20.00 / $ 37.40 Fat Buddha A simple but utterly charming little Buddha at prayer.
The chinese influence is still prevalent with various Buddha 's and Japanese wood figures positioned around the room.
Buddha mind bequeathed by our parents?
Buddha images in many styles.
With all the grace of a stone Buddha, he palms and launches the ball into the meringue at water's edge.
His Buddhist mother became even more devout to encourage Buddha to protect him.
Being compassionate for all living beings the Buddha decided to teach the dharma.
Go on to tell the story of how the Buddha reached enlightenment.
The Buddha and the disciples who had attained supreme perfect enlightenment felt no grief about anything, whatever happened to them.
enwrapped in the symbolism of sailing on the raft of Buddha to the shores of Nirvana.
fruitwood Buddha 1 These fruitwood carvings have to be the best quality we have ever offered.
grungy bar named " Buddha.
The second part of the course will be held at Buddha Land Center in Keighley and will explain the actual method to attain liberation.
For spiritual nourishment there were halls of worship filled with statues of the Buddha.
We should feel that we are actually in the presence of the living Buddha and make prostrations and offerings accordingly.
This is why Buddha thought that no actual entity reincarnated; in his view only bundles of psychological characteristics were being endlessly recycled.
The most treasured item in the procession is a copy of a golden reliquary said to hold a tooth of the Buddha.
But the Buddha shines resplendent all day and all night.
Buddha allowed only " the miracles of the revelation of man's inner self.
Buddha died at the age of eighty in peaceful serenity.
The dialog does not sound stylistically like either the Jesus in various Gospels nor Buddha in various sutras.
Like a medieval time capsule, the contents of this seated Buddha have revealed hidden details of its production and worship in Tibet.
The ' Buddha ' died aged 80 of a stomach upset whilst reclining between two trees.
A carved wooden Buddha overlooks the shaded central garden courtyard, which is surrounded by eight rooms with canopy beds and colonial-style interiors.
Thus more than human honour is paid to Zoroaster and Buddha and even to the founders of systems not strictly religious, e.g.
In his masterly analysis of the Vinaya, in the introduction to his edition of the text, Professor Oldenberg has shown that there are at least three strata in the existing presentation of the Rules of the Order, the oldest portions going back probably to the time of the Buddha himself.
This, the original doctrine of the Buddha, though not adopted in the full sense by all his followers, is in fact at least as optimistic as any optimism of the West.
The village is celebrated as the site of the following discovery: In 1896 interest having been aroused by the discovery, only twelve miles away, of the Buddha's birthplace (see LuMBINI), William Peppe, then resident manager of the Birdpur estate, opened a ruined tope or burial mound situate at Piprawa, but nothing of importance was found.
4 The words mean: This shrine for ashes of the Buddha, the Exalted One, is the pious work of the Sakiyas, his brethren, associated with their sisters, and their children, and their wives.
And on the ground that the Buddha, the Sakiya sage, was born here, he (the king) had a flawless stone cut, and put up a pillar.
..1581-1606Nanak, like Buddha, revolted against a religion overladen with ceremonial and social restrictions, and both rebelled against the tyranny of the priesthood.
The origin of the doctrine cannot be traced with certainty, but there is little doubt that it is post-vedic, and that it was readily accepted by Buddha in the 6th century B.C. As he did not believe in the existence of soul he had to modify the doctrine (see Buddhism).
We hear nothing further about the success or otherwise of the new order, but it may possibly be referred to under the name of the Gotamakas, in the Anguttara (see Dialogues of the Buddha 1.222), for Devadatta's family name was Gotama.
2 Mahali Suttanta; translated in Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, vol.
The systems called Jainism (see Jains) and Buddhism (q.v.) had their roots in prehistoric philosophies, but were founded respectively by Vardhamana Mahavira and Gotama Buddha, both of whom were preaching in Magadha during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 520 B.C.).
Even since Buhler wrote, the vase, the top of which is reproduced (see Plate), has been discovered on the borders of Nepal in a stupa where some of the relics of Buddha were kept.
9 Or, again, maternity disappears, while parenthood survives, and causation is embodied in a universal " Father of all that are and are to be," like the Indian Brahma in the days of Gotama the Buddha."
According to the Buddhist theory (see Buddhism), a "Buddha" appears from time to time in the world and preaches the true doctrine.
The crisis culminated on a day, each event of which is surrounded in the Buddhist accounts with the wildest legends, on which the very thoughts passing through the mind of Buddha appear in gorgeous descriptions as angels of darkness or of light, To us, now taught by the experiences of centuries how weak such exaggerations are compared with the effect of a plain unvarnished tale, these legends may appear childish or absurd, but they have a depth of meaning to those who strive to read between the lines of such rude and inarticulate attempts to describe the indescribable.
Buddha replies by explaining to them the principles of his new gospel, in the form of noble truths, and the Noble Eightfold Path (see Buddhism).
But the Buddha laid stress on the final perseverance of the saints, saying that even the least among the disciples who had entered the first path only, still had his heart fixed on the way to perfection, and constantly strove after the three higher paths.
Buddha 's account of the reincarnation process is inadequate.
Buddha allowed only the miracles of the revelation of man 's inner self.
The dialog does not sound stylistically like either the Jesus in various Gospels nor Buddha in various Sutras.
Shine Buddha I will not die an unlived life.
All the prophets of the world, except Buddha, had external motives to move them to unselfish action.
The cause for rebirth into these various realms the Buddha locates in kamma, our own willed actions.
Mahakala embroidered Billy jeans feature a stitched emblem of the Buddha of compassion and special protector of the Dalai Lamas on the back pocket.
Religious symbols: Religious symbols such as Christian crosses, Buddha figures and praying hands are examples of available pendants.
Shakya Jewelry: This site features Buddhist jewelry designs, including Buddha, a lotus flower, and other religious symbols.
Items come in most precious metals, and you'll find hand-carved wooden lockets featuring Buddha seated on a lotus.
The inside of the pockets on a pair of True Religion jeans has the Buddha playing guitar on the material.
You can drive around a big statue of Buddha, while tearing up the landscape around an ancient village.
A laughing Buddha riding an elephant with children on his lap or running beside him is an excellent symbol for family happiness and prosperity.
Buddha stautes - These always bring auspicious energy to any environment and are a great symbol of guidance.
For example, a goldfish, which is a member of the carp family, is one of Buddha's Eight Sacred Symbols representing abundance, fertility and harmony in life.
Laughing Buddha: Happiness is bestowed upon your home along with abundant spiritual insight and material wealth when you place a statue of the Laughing Buddha in your most auspicious sector.
Be sure to give Buddha an elevated location and place of honor.
Awesome and totally cute, the Buddha Belly Maternity T Shirt by Preggers n' Proud comes in tank, short, and long sleeve and notes "Lovin' My Buddha Belly."
Kate Hudson made "Buddha belly" a pregnancy buzzword after wearing a tee shirt that read, "Loving my Buddha Belly."
According to Buddhist teachings, Buddha had a large party and invited hundreds of guests.
To show them honor for attending, Buddha named a year after each one.
Each mandala is a prayer wheel that basically symbolizes the universe, but it also represents the heart and spiritual enlightenment of Buddha, the great teacher of eastern philosophy.
The most prominent legend states that all of the animals were among those Buddha invited to his Chinese New Year's celebration.
Chinese legend states Buddha invited all of the animals in his kingdom to his New Year's Party.
Another legend claims Buddha held a race, and the order was determined by the first twelve as they crossed the finish line.
The most popular myth is the story of Buddha inviting all of the animal kingdom to his Chinese New Year's celebration.
The legend states that Buddha assigned each animal to a place on the zodiac wheel based on the order of the animal's arrival to his party.
Another story surrounding the rat's ascension to the number one slot begins with Buddha sending out an invitation to the animals to attend a convention.
Within the invitation, Buddha reveals his plans to assign an animal to each of the twelve years based on the order of arrival to his convention.
The Buddha tells us: "Through previous associations or present advantage, that old love springs up again like the lotus in the water".
On the other side, people have reported being greeted by a deceased relative, friend, Jesus, Buddha or an angel.
Among Hong Kong's most famous sights are the Tian Tan Buddha on Lantau Island; the star ferry, which traverses Hong Kong harbor every seven minutes; and the horse racing at Happy Valley.
Gorp Travel Trail of the Buddha: Still looking for a travel company?
Why not check out Gorp Travel's "Trail of the Buddha"?
The Dharma Shop features pendants with Buddha, the Star of David, Manjushree, prayer wheels, and other images of spiritual significance.
Windisch, Mara and Buddha.
(Leipzig, 1895), and Buddha's Geburt (Leipzig, 1908); W.
The Pali versions of Buddha's discourses are among the most remarkable products of Asia.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.