In recent years attempts have been made by Albanians resident abroad to propagate the national idea among their compatriots at home; committees have been formed at Brussels, Bucharest, Athens and elsewhere, and books, pamphlets and newspapers are surreptitiously sent into the country.
Small vessels carry cargo to Braila and Galatz, and a branch railway from Calarashi traverses the Steppe from south to north, and meets the main line between Bucharest and Constantza.
In 1809 the town was again captured by the Russians; and, when in 1812 it was assigned to them by the Bucharest peace, they chose it as the central station for their Danube fleet.
In the following year a conference, from which the Austrian and Prussian representatives were excluded, was opened at Bucharest (November 1772).
The conference of Bucharest now broke up, and the war continued.
Accordingly, though France made every attempt to induce Turkey to adopt her side, the young Stratford Canning succeeded in causing the resumption of the peace negotiations at Bucharest, broken off through Russia's terms being considered too onerous, and followed by the capture of Izmail and Bender.
The British diplomatist secured his first triumph in the signature of the treaty of Bucharest (May 28, 1812) whereby Khotin, Bender, Kilia and Akkerman were left to Russia; the frontier was fixed at the Pruth; the Asiatic boundary was slightly modified.
The affairs of Servia, however, were not the only question left unsettled by the treaty of Bucharest.
Wishing to make this important privilege permanent, Russia by secret articles of the Treaty of Bucharest had secured the cession of this district, in return for an undertaking to destroy the forts of Kilia and Izmail on the Danube.
But nothing could be done until the Porte should have come to terms with Russia as to the Treaty of Bucharest; for, as the British ambassador, Sir Robert Liston, was instructed to point out to the Ottoman government, " it is impossible to guarantee the possession of a territory of which the limits are not determined."
But the idea of liberation continued to grow, and about 1780 the Society of Friends (`ETaepia Twv 4 c uK'v) was founded at Bucharest by the fervent patriot and poet, Constantinos Rhigas (q.v.).
In spite of the emperor Alexander's engagements to the Grand Alliance and the ideal of European peace, this was no easy matter; for the murder of the patriarch was but the culmination of a whole series of grievances accumulated since the Treaty of Bucharest.
Its terms were: the confirmation of the Treaty of Bucharest and the opening of the navigation of the Black Sea to the Russian flag; a stipulation that the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia should be elected by the boyars for seven years, their election being confirmed by the Porte which, however, had no power to dismiss them without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople; finally, Servia's autonomy was recognized, and, save in the fortresses, no Mussulman might reside there.
He cut the wood blocks for the books which he printed in Tirgovishtea, Ramnicu, Snagov and Bucharest.
Meanwhile the empire seemed in danger of breaking up. Not till 1812 was the war with Russia closed by the treaty of Bucharest, which restored Moldavia and the greater part of Wallachia to the Ottoman government.
Mateiu Bassarab (1633-1654) established the first printing-press in Rumania, and under his influence the first code of laws was compiled and published in Bucharest in 1654.
Cuvinte Sufletesci, religious meditations in Rumanian (Bucharest, 1888), was also translated into German (Bonn, 1890), under the name of Seelen-Gespreiche.
Several of the works of "Carmen Sylva" were written in collaboration with Mite Kremnitz, one of her maids of honour, who was born at Greifswald in 1857, and married Dr Kremnitz of Bucharest; these were published between 1881 and 1888, in some cases under the pseudonyms Dito et Idem, and includes the novel Aus zwei Welten (Leipzig, 1884), Anna Boleyn (Bonn, 1886), a tragedy, In der Irre (Bonn, 1888), a collection of short stories, &c. Edleen Vaughan, or Paths of Peril, a novel (London, 1894), and Sweet Hours, poems (London, 1904), were written in English.
He finally found a permanent post in Bucharest as secretary to the prince of Walachia, Alexander Mavrocordato, whose work Hepc TWV KaefKOVTwv (De Of ciis) he had previously translated for Fritzsch, the Leipzig bookseller, by whom he had been employed as proof-reader and literary hack.
He died in Bucharest, and was buried at his patron's expense.
from Bucharest by rail.
The chief local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.
As for the Greeks, the emperor said bluntly that he took no interest in "ces messieurs," whom he regarded as "rebels"; his own particular quarrel with Turkey, arising out of the non-fulfilment of the treaty of Bucharest, was the concern of Russia alone; the ultimatum to Turkey had, indeed, been prepared before Wellington's arrival, and was despatched during his visit.
After holding various diplomatic posts, among them that of Prussian minister to Hamburg, he was sent to Bucharest in 1900 and remained there for 10 years, when he was recalled to occupy the post of Foreign Secretary under the somewhat inexperienced Chancellor, Herr von Bethmann Hollweg.
No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis embraced Catholicism, and a colony of Pavlikeni in the village of Cioplea near Bucharest followed the example of their brethren across the Danube.
(Bucharest, 1871); B.
(Bucharest, 1879); F.
BUCHAREST (Bucuresci), also written Bucarest, Bukarest, Bukharest, Bukorest and Bukhorest, the capital of Rumania, and chief town of the department of Ilfov.
Although Bucharest is the conventional English spelling, the forms Bucarest and Bukarest more nearly represent the correct pronunciation.
From a distance, the multitude of its gardens, and the turrets and metal-plated or gilded cupolas of its many churches give Bucharest a certain picturesqueness.
The plague visited Bucharest in" 1718, 1 73 8, 1 793, when an earthquake destroyed a number of old buildings, and in 1813, when 70,000 of the inhabitants died in six weeks.
Bucharest is often called " The Paris of the East," partly from a supposed social resemblance, partly from the number of its boulevards and avenues.
Three main thoroughfares, the Plevna, Lipscani, and Vacaresci, skirt the left bank of the river; the Elizabeth Boulevard, and the Calea Victories, or " Avenue of Victory," which commemorates the Rumanian success at Plevna, in 1877, radiate east and north, respectively, from the Lipscani, and meet a broad road which surrounds all sides of Bucharest, except the north-west.
By the peace of Bucharest (1812) the Turks retained the right of garrisoning Braila.
CRAIOVA, or Krajova, the capital of the department of Doljiu, Rumania, situated near the left bank of the river Jiu, and on the main Walachian railway from Verciorova to Bucharest.
Craiova is the chief commercial town west of Bucharest; the surrounding uplands are very rich in grain, pasturage and vegetable products, and contain extensive forests.
This was done in the teeth of the expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St Petersburg (1896).
The rich corn-lands on the north are traversed by a railway to Bucharest, the first line opened in Rumania, which was built in 1869 and afterwards extended to Smarda.
After rising to the rank of counsellor of legation, h'e was in 1887 made minister at Bucharest, where he remained till 1893.
In 1771 he received the supreme command in Walachia and routed the Turks at Bucharest.
at Tilsit (1807) marked a new phase, which culminated in 1812 in the treaty of Bucharest, in which Russia definitely appeared as the protector of the Christian nationalities subject to the Ottoman sultan.
In 1813 a severe plague at Bucharest is supposed to have been brought from Constantinople.
PLOESCI (Ploescii), the capital of the department of Prahova, Rumania; at the southern entrance of a valley among the Carpathian foothills, through which flows the river Prahova; and at the junction of railways to Buzeu, Bucharest and Hermannstadt in Transylvania.
In May 1812 he mediated a peace between Russia and Turkey, so as to enable Russia to use all her forces against France (peace of Bucharest); and on the 18th of July, at Orebro, peace was also concluded between Great Britain on one side and Russia and Sweden on the other.
As secretary of the academy he was instrumental in assisting the publication of the collections of historic documents made by Hurmuzaki (30 vols., Bucharest, 1876-1897), and other acts and documents (Bucharest, 1900 sqq.), besides a number of minor political pamphlets of transitory value.
Recalled in 1894 to service in the Foreign Office, he undertook important duties, and in the following year went to Bucharest as ambassador.
Here he succeeded in strengthening the relations between the courts of Vienna and Bucharest, the secret alliance which King Charles had concluded in 1883 with the Central European Powers being renewed on Sept.
Jo was signed the Peace of Bucharest.
On the union of the two principalities under Alexander Couza (December 1861) the Church was declared autocephalous under a metropolitan at Bucharest; and the fact was recognized by the patriarchs, as it was in the case of Servia, after the treaty of Berlin had guaranteed their independence.
Deposed in 1805, he escaped to St Petersburg, and in 1806, at the head of some 20,000 Russians, returned to Bucharest, where he set to work on a fresh attempt to liberate Greece.
At Bucharest, whither he advanced after some weeks' delay, it became plain that he could not rely on the Vlach peasantry to rise on behalf of the Greeks; even the disconcerting expedient of his Vlach ally Theodore Vladimiresco, who called on the peasants to present a petition to the sultan against Phanariot misrule, failed to stir the people from their apathy.
from its outflow into the Danube, and at a terminus of a branch railway from Bucharest.
Sinaia soon became the favourite summer resort of Bucharest society, and rapidly developed in all its equipment.
East of Bucharest, a chain of lagoons and partially drained marshes stretches inland for 45 m.
Sturdza, La Roumanie n'appartient pas a la peninsule balkanique (Bucharest, 1904).
Spring at Bucharest has a mean temperature of 53°; summer, i See L.
Further instruction was given at various horticultural institutes in the towns, notably the Botanic Gardens and Institute of Bucharest, where the experiments in planting figs, almonds, hops and cotton yielded favourable results.
Silkworm-rearing is taught in the monasteries and agricultural schools, especially in the College of Agriculture and Sylviculture, at Ferestriu, near Bucharest.
The chief .towns, with their estimated population in 1910, are Bucharest, the capital (300,000); Jassy, the capital of Moldavia (80,000); Galatz (66,000), Braila (60,000), Ploesci (50,000), Craiova (46,000), Botoshani (34,000), Berlad (25,000), Focshani (25,000), Tulcea (20,000), [Constantza (16,000), Giurgevo (15,000).
In 1869, the first Rumanian railway was opened, between Bucharest and Giurgevo, its port.
Russians of the Lipovan sect live in exile in Bucharest and other cities, earning a livelihood as cab-drivers, and wearing the long coats and round caps of their countrymen.
Any appeal from the departmental courts is brought before the appeal courts of Bucharest, Craiova, Galatz or Jassy; and thence, if necessary, to the supreme tribunal, or court .of cassation (Curtea de Casatie), which sits in Bucharest.
In time of peace the field army consists of four complete army corps, with headquarters at Craiova, Bucharest, Jassy and Galatz; besides an independent brigade in the Dobrudja, and a separate cavalry division with headquarters at Bucharest.
from Galatz to Focshani, and intended to cover an army of defence against invaders from the north-east, and of the outworks which make Bucharest the largest fortified camp in the world, except Paris.
The metropolitan archbishop of Bucharest, officially styled metropolitan primate of Rumania, presides over the Holy Synod; the other members being the metropolitan of Jassy (primate of Moldavia), the six bishops of Ramnicu Valcea, Roman, Hushi, Buzeu, Curtea de Argesh and the Lower Danube (Galatz); together with eight bishops in partibus, their coadjutors.
Technical instruction is given in the agricultural schools; in various arts and crafts institutes, such as those of Bucharest and Jassy; in the veterinary and engineering colleges of Bucharest; in numerous commercial schools, and in schools of domestic economy for girls.
At Bucharest and Jassy there are universities with faculties of law, philosophy, science and medicine and theology.
The Tropaeum Trajani, or Adam Klissi monument (found near Rassova in the Dobrudja and removed to Bucharest museum), is a round stone structure of 100 ft.
Medieval tapestries, with ecclesiastical vestments, ornaments and some fine pieces of early woodwork, are also preserved in Bucharest museum.
1-5, Bucharest, 18 991902); A.
(Bucharest, 1907); G.
Creanga, Grundbesitzverteilung and Bauernfrage in Rumanien (Leipzig, 1907); C. Baicoianil, Histoire de la politique douaniere de la Roumanie de 1870 -1903 (2 vols., Bucharest, 1904).
Michael withdrew to the mountains before this overwhelming force, but, being joined by Báthory with a Transylvanian contingent, the voivode resumed the offensive, stormed Bucharest, where Sinan had entrenched a Turkish detachment, and, pursuing the main body of his forces to the Danube, overtook the rearguard and cut it to pieces, capturing enormous booty.
The old capital, Tirgovishtea, was considered by the Divan to be too near the Transylvanian frontier, and the voivodes were accordingly compelled to transfer their residence to Bucharest, which was finally made the seat of government in 1698.
This peaceful state of the country gave the voivode leisure to promote its internal culture, and in the year of his death he had the satisfaction of seeing the first part of a Walachian Bible issue from the first printingpress of the country, which he had established at Bucharest.
The Turkish envoy then in Bucharest was persuaded to invest Brancovan with the caftan, or robe of office, in token of Turkish approval, and the patriarch of Constantinople, who was also present, and the archbishop of Walachia, Theodosius, consecrated him together at the high altar of the cathedral, where he took the coronation oath to devote his whole strength to the good of his country and received the boiars' oath of submission.
The principal Walachian city was Bucharest, containing a population of about 50,000; but, except for two large p ans or merchants' halls built by Brancovan and his XXIII.
From the Bucharest press, besides a variety of ecclesiastical books, there were issued in the Ruman tongue a translation of a French work entitled The Maxims of the Orientals and The Romance of Alexander the Great.
Brancovan was accused of secret correspondence with the emperor, the tsar, the king of Poland and the Venetian republic, of betraying the Porte's secrets, of preferring Tirgovishtea to Bucharest as a residence, of acquiring lands and palaces in Transylvania, of keeping agents at Venice and Vienna, in both of which cities he had invested large sums, and of striking gold coins with his effigy.'
An envoy arrived at Bucharest on the 4th of April 1714, and proclaimed Brancovan mazil, i.e.
The seat of the president was at Jassy, and General Engelhart was appointed as vice-president at Bucharest.
By the peace of Bucharest, however, in 1812, the principalities were restored to the sultan under the former conditions, with the exception of Bessarabia, which was ceded to the tsar.
About 1780 Riga Velestiniul, a Hellenized Vlach from Macedonia who is also known by the purely Greek name of Rigas Phereos, had founded in Bucharest a patriotic and revolutionary association known as the Society of Friends (e'Taepia 7c;'v 4LXcvv) which gradually attained great in- The fiuence.
In 181 o Ignatius, the metropolitan of Walachia, " founded a Greek literary society in Bucharest which 1st" soon developed into a political association, and many similar bodies were formed throughout the Greek world, and finally united into one powerful secret society, the Hetairia.
To secure Walachian help, Ypsilanti advanced on Bucharest, but the prince, Theodore Vladimirescu, who represented the national Ruman reaction against the Phanariotes, repulsed his overtures with the remark " that his business was not to march against the Turks, but to clear the country of Phanariotes."
The internal constitution of the countries was to be regulated by an " Organic Law," which was drawn up b y assemblies of bishops and boiars at Jassy and Bucharest, acting, however, under Russian control.
From 1834 to 1848 the Russian consul at Bucharest was all-powerful.
The people assembled at Bucharest, and demanded a constitution.
The existing laws and statutes of both principalities were to be revised by a European Commission, sitting at Bucharest, and their work was to be assisted by a Divan or national council which the Porte was to convoke for the purpose in each of the two provinces, and in which all classes of Walachian and Moldavian society were to be represented.
In accordance with this convention the deputies of Moldavia and Walachia met in separate assemblies at Bucharest and Jassy, but the choice of both fell unanimously on Prince Alexander John Cuza (January 1859).
The two assemblies and the central commission were preserved till 1862, when a single assembly met at Bucharest and a single ministry was formed for the two countries.
Up to this point the prince had ruled wisely; he had founded the universities of Bucharest and Jassy; his reforms had swept away the last vestiges of feudalism and created a class of peasant freeholders.
He reached Bucharest on the 22nd, and on the same day, in the presence of the provisional government, took the oaths to respect the laws of the country and to maintain its rights and the integrity of its territory.
The new ministry, of which Bratianu was the leading spirit, showed considerable energy: a concession was granted for the construction of the first Rumanian railway, from Bucharest to Giurgevo, and the reorganization of the army was undertaken.
Bitter indignation prevailed against everything German, and culminated in an attack on the German colony in Bucharest on the 22nd of March 1871.
A few days later two secret envoys arrived at Bucharest, the one M.
But the proposed exchange of territory aroused the most bitter indignation at Bucharest.
The prince accepted the resolution; within ten days the new kingdom was recognized by all the Great Powers, and the coronation took place at Bucharest on the 22nd of May 1881.
Austria and Russia alike resented the decision to fortify Bucharest with and the Sereth line, adopted by the Rumanian govern which prohibited foreigners from holding lands.
The agitation culminated in street riots at Bucharest.
Expenses which ought to have been defrayed out of the ordinary budget, such as the erection of magnificent public offices at Bucharest, were frequently defrayed out of the loans; and the custom had arisen when money was scarce of issuing treasury bonds.
de Hurmuzaki's Documente privitore relative la istoria Romdnilor (Bucharest, 1876, &c.).
Urechia (Bucharest, 1886); A.
Cantemirii, issued by the Academy (Bucharest, 1872, &c.); N.
lorga, Acte si fragmente cu privire la istoria Romdnilor (Bucharest, 1895-97) M.
Kogalniceanu, Cronicele Romeinii (Bucharest, 1872-74); J.
Ypsilanti 1787 (Bucharest, 1902); D.
Sturdza, Acte si documente relative la istoria renascerei Romdnii (Bucharest, 1900, &c.); ibid., Scrierile si cuvintarile lui I.
C. Bratianu (Bucharest, 1903, &c.).
Urechia, Istoria Romdnilor (Bucharest, 1891, &c., 8 vols.); A.
Hodos (Bucharest, 1903, &c.); and D.
Onciul, Originile principatelor romdne (Bucharest, 1898).
P. Hasdeu, Etymologicum magnum Romaniae (Bucharest, Academia Romana, 1887, &c.); F.
Densusianu, Dictionar general al limbei romdne (Bucharest, 1909, &c.); I.
Dalametra, Dictionar Macedoromdn (Bucharest, Academia Romana, 1906).
Cipariu, Gramatec'a limbei romdne (Bucharest, 1870-77); I.
Nadejde, Gramateca limbei romdne (Bucharest, 1884), id., Istoria limbei si literaturei romdne (Jassy, 1886); B.
(See under Literature.) din bdtrdni (Bucharest, 1878-79); L.
Saineanu, Istoria filologiei rom¢ne (Bucharest, 1895), id., Influenlaorientala asupra limbei culturei romdne (3 vols., Bucharest, 1900); S.
C. Mandrescu, Elemente unguressi in limba romcinci (Bucharest, 1892); S.
Upon this version, no doubt, are based the editions of Iordache Cantacuzene(Bucharest, 1682), and that of §erban Greceanu (1693), in which for the first time the Greek text is printed side by side with the Rumanian; and the edition of Anthim the Iberian (1703).
Of special interest is the next publication of homilies Cheea inielesului, " the Key of understanding," by the Walachian metropolitan Varlaam, translated from the Russian and printed at Bucharest in 1678.
This, the first book printed in Bucharest, begins the long series of editions which have issued from the press of the " Mitropolie " in Bucharest.
The only collection of original sermons is the Didahii delivered by the metropolitan Anthim the Iberian (q.v.), the scholar, artist, translator, printer and great linguist, who was the first to issue books in Arabic and even in Georgian from his printing-presses in Bucharest.
The Didahii were published at Bucharest in 1888.
Greceanu translated the formulary from Greek into Rumanian under the title Pravoslavnica mcirturisire (Bucharest, 1692).
Of a more decided polemical character is the Lumina of Maxim of Peloponnesus, translated from the Greek (Bucharest, 1699).
In 1652 there appeared in Bucharest a complete code of laws, translated from the Greek and Slavonic and adapted to local needs under the direction of the prince of Walachia, Matthias Bassaraba.
The latter was translated from the Russian, appeared in Neamtzu (1809-12), and was reprinted in Bucharest (1835-36).
Some of these translations were printed much later; thus the Hexaemeron of Basil the Great (andof Epiphanius) translated inthe middle of the 18th century, was printed at Bucharest in 1827.
The homilies of Theodor Studites (MS. of 1712) were edited by Bishop Filaret and published at Ramnicu Valcea in 1784; a translation of Gregory of Nazianzus appeared at Bucharest in 1727.
The great polemical work of Simeon of Thessalonica, the Greek original of which was published by Dositheiu (Jassy, 1683), had been translated into Rumanian long before it was printed (Bucharest, 1756).
The Lafsaikon, mentioned above, was printed at Bucharest in 1754.
A certain Aristia, of Greek origin, but soon acclimatized to his surroundings as teacher at the high school in Bucharest, was the first to adapt foreign dramas for the Rumanian stage.
In 'his Caractere (Bucharest, 1828) Latin forms are common.
Lazar was appointed teacher at the St Sava school of Bucharest, where he spread the new doctrine of the Latin origin of the Rumanians; Latinizing tendencies were, however, not yet imported into the language.
This was Anton Pann, who was born in 1797 at Slivden, of Bulgarian parentage, and died at Bucharest in 1854.
Teodorescu, Poesii populare romane (Bucharest, 1885).
Gaster, Chrestomathie roumaine (2 vols., Leipzig, 1891); id., Literatura populara romanei (Bucharest, 1883); id., " Geschichte der rumdnischen Litteratur," in Gruber, Grundriss der romanischen Philologie, ii.
Saineanu, Autorii roman moderni (Bucharest, 1891).
From 1884 he was first secretary to the embassy at St Petersburg, and acted as charge d'affaires; in 1888 he was appointed envoy at Bucharest, and in 1893 to the post of German ambassador at Rome.
It finally passed to Russia with Bessarabia in 1812 by the peace of Bucharest.
But when in 1812 Russia, attacked by Napoleon, had in great haste to conclude at Bucharest a treaty of peace with Turkey, and omitted to make sufficient provision for the security of her allies the Serbs, the Turkish army invaded and reconquered Servia, occupying all its fortresses.
His wayward and independent nature, however, rebelled against the discipline of school life; he was expelled from the seminary on the ground of his association with Nihilists, and, making his way to Rumania, he entered into close relations with the Bulgarian revolutionary committees at Bucharest, Giurgevo and Galatz.
For the loss caused to the city in 1861 by the removal of the seat of government to Bucharest the constituent assembly voted X 148,150, to be paid in ten annual instalments, but no payment was ever made.
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In these two incidents the tsar perceived a diminution of Russian prestige and influence in Turkey, and Prince Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Constantinople to obtain reparation in the form of a treaty which should guarantee the rights of the Orthodox Church with regard to the Holy Places and confirm the protectorate of Russia over the Orthodox rayahs, established by the treaties of Kainarji, Bucharest and Adrianople.
At the age of 20 he received his first diplomatic appointment at Rome, and was thence transferred to Philippopolis and Bucharest, where, by the patronage of Princess Urussov (wife of a future Russian ambassador at Paris), he made his reputation.
With its outlying parts, Bucharest covers more than 20 sq.
In a few of the older districts, too, where land is least valuable, there are antique one-storeyed houses, surrounded by poplars and acacias; while the gipsies and Rumans, wearing their brightly coloured native costumes, the Russian coachmen, or sleighdrivers, of the banished Lipovan sect, and the pedlars, with their doleful street cries, render Bucharest unlike any western capital.
From that time he pursued a successful career in home and foreign policy, and greatly improved the financial amd military position of his country; while his appreciation of the fine arts was shown by his formation of an important collection of paintings of all schools in his palaces at Sinaia and Bucharest.
Spring at Bucharest has a mean temperature of 53Ã‚°; summer, i See L.
The celebrated treasure of Petroasa (commonly written Petrossa), preserved in Bucharest museum, consists of embossed and jewelled gold plate, and probably dates from the 6th century (see Plate).
- A list of the numerous statistical and other official publications issued at Bucharest in Rumanian or French is given yearly in Annual statistic al Romdniei.
Michael withdrew to the mountains before this overwhelming force, but, being joined by BÃ¡thory with a Transylvanian contingent, the voivode resumed the offensive, stormed Bucharest, where Sinan had entrenched a Turkish detachment, and, pursuing the main body of his forces to the Danube, overtook the rearguard and cut it to pieces, capturing enormous booty.
The country, however, was again ravaged by the retiring troops, quarters of Jassy and Bucharest burnt, and the complete evacuation delayed till 1824, when the British government again remonstrated with the Porte (see Eastern Question; Greece; Ypsilanti; Alexander).
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