Aside from a wasted 20 minutes searching for gas in New Brunswick and a missed exit on the Garden State Parkway, the trip was uneventful.
There is more than one meaning of Brunswick discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Hettner (Brunswick, 1877).
The presbytery of New Brunswick declined to yield (1739).
The northern part of the city was the village of Lansingburg (pop. 1900, 12,595) until 1901, when with parts of the towns of Brunswick and North Greenbush it was annexed to Troy.
In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.
He studied at the Polytechnic institute of Brooklyn, graduated at Rutgers College in 1870, and was admitted to the bar in 1875 in New Brunswick, New Jersey, where he taught in the Rutgers College grammar school from 1876 to 1879.
Dessau, Die Telegraphie ohne Draht (Brunswick, 1903); G.
When Robert of Anjou died in 1343, he was succeeded by his grand-daughter Joan, the childless wife of four successive husbands, Andrew of Hungary, Louis of Taranto, Th ~James of Aragon and Otto of Brunswick.
When, therefore, in 1850, Mr Stowe was elected to a professorship in Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, and removed his family thither, Mrs Stowe was prepared for the great work which came to her, bit by bit, as a religious message which she must deliver.
Henry II., duke of Brunswick, then took command of the troops of the league, and after Albert had been placed under the imperial ban in December 1553 he was defeated by Duke Henry, and compelled to fly to France.
In 1528 he arranged the church affairs of Brunswick and Hamburg; in 1530 those of Lubeck and Pomerania.
Having no male issue, she chose as her successor the infant son of her niece, Anna Leopoldovna, duchess of Brunswick, and at her death the child was duly proclaimed emperor, under the name of Ivan VI., but in little more than a year he was dethroned by the partisans of the Princess Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine I.
from Brunswick, by rail.
It is noteworthy that a similar bone bed has been traced on the same geological horizon in Brunswick, Hanover and Franconia.
In 1759 he became lieutenant-general, and served under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in the campaigns of 1761-1763.
Other published correspondence is Lettres de Mirabeau a Chamfort (1796); Lettres du comte de Mirabeau b Jacques Mauvillon (Brunswick, 1792); Lettres originates de Mirabeau, ecrites du donjon de Vincennes, 1777-178Q, published by L.
To the brilliant court of Marienburg, not only a school of chivalry, but under Winrich's predecessor Luther of Brunswick, a literary centre,(fn3) men came from all over Europe to win their spurs.
The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.
The Devonian rocks of Canada (New Brunswick) have yielded several fossils which are undoubtedly wings of Hexapods.
Holland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Westphalia, Brunswick, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, (German) Silesia, Poland, Kutais, Uralsk, Turkestan, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Tunis, Egypt, West Africa, British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, Athabasca, Manitoba, New Jersey, South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, California, New Mexico, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mexico, Hayti, Trinidad, Colombia, Argentina [?], New Zealand.
Sussex, France, Switzerland, Spain, Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, Galicia, Hesse, Baden, Hanover, Brunswick, California, Texas, Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
Scotland, Devonshire, Spain, Hanover, Archangel, Vitebsk, Athabasca, Mackenzie, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Kentucky.
It possesses a Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, a palace, which from 1524 to 1642 was the residence of the Harburg line of the house of Brunswick, a high-grade modern school, a commercial school and a theatre.
The help sought from James came only in the shape of useless embassies and negotiations; the two Palatinates were soon occupied by the Spaniards and the duke of Bavaria; and the romantic attachment and services of Duke Christian of Brunswick, of the 1st earl of Craven, and of other chivalrous young champions who were inspired by the beauty and grace of the "Queen of Hearts," as Elizabeth was now called, availed nothing.
(I) A town and health resort of Germany, in the duchy of Brunswick, at the N.
Having qualified as a medical man in 1721, he practised at Brunswick and afterwards at Wolfenbiittel.
He published Magnalia Dei in locis subterraneis (Brunswick, 1727), Historia naturalis curiosa lapidis (1727), and Thesaurus subterraneus Ducatus Brunsvigii (1728).
Stevenson's Maps Illustrating the early Discovery and Exploration of America, 1502-1530 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1906).
But at the critical moment the duke of Brunswick fell mortally wounded, and Scharnhorst, his chief of the staff, was at the time absent on another part of the field.
On the 1st of October 1643 Frederick wedded Sophia Amelia of Brunswick Luneburg, whose .energetic, passionate and ambitious character was profoundly to affect not only Frederick's destiny but the destiny of Denmark.
A fortnight later he wrote to Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, "The sky begins to clear.
died in 1046 it was divided, and Meissen proper was given successively to William and Otto, counts of Weimar, and Egbert II., count of Brunswick.
Brunswick, 1848) is as follows: Type 1.
FREDERICTON, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, Canada, capital of the province, situated on the St John river, 84 m.
Philip William, however, gave equal rights to all his subjects, but under his son and successor, the elector John William, the Protestants were deprived of various civil rights until the intervention of Prussia and of Brunswick in 1705 gave them some redress.
In 1526 he had married Dorothea, daughter of Frederick I., king of Denmark, and after her death in 1547, Anna Maria, daughter of Eric I., duke of Brunswick.
After spending a short time at Woolwich to complete his military education, he made a tour through Spain in 1787; and then, dejected by unrequited love for his cousin Georgina Lennox (afterwards Lady Bathurst), he sailed for New Brunswick to join the 54th regiment with the rank of major.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
(Brunswick, 1862); H.
Benrath, Die Glasfabrikation (Brunswick, 1875); J.
HANS AXEL FERSEN, COUNT VON (1755-1810), Swedish statesman, was carefully educated at home, at the Carolinum at Brunswick and at Turin.
In the borough are a public library, Greenwich Academy (1827; co-educational), the Brunswick School for boys (1901), with which Betts Academy of Stamford was united in 1908, and a hospital.
of Hanover, on the line to Altenbeken, which here effects a junction with railways to Lohne and Brunswick.
It existed as a town as early as the 11th century, and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden, afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick.
It is first recorded as a town in 127 4, and in the 1 4 th century was the seat of the princes of Grubenhagen, a branch of the ducal house of Brunswick.
Nolde, Reise nach inner Arabien (Brunswick, 1895); a.
A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.
In 1402 he married Catherine of Brunswick, by whom he left four sons and two daughters.
JULIUS AUGUST LUDWIG WEGSCHEIDER (1771-1849), German theologian, was born at ktibelingen, Brunswick, on the 17th of September 1771, studied theology at Helmstedt, was tutor in a Hamburg family 1795-1805, Repetent at Gottingen, professor of theology at Rinteln in Hesse (1806-1815), and at Halle from 1815.
He dealt also with the geology and mineralogy of New Brunswick and Prince Edward's Island.
and of Louise Amalie of Brunswick, sister of the wife of Frederick the Great, was born at Berlin on the 25th of September 1744, and became heir to the throne on his father's death in 1757.
His marriage with Elisabeth Christine, daughter of Duke Charles of Brunswick, contracted in 1765, was dissolved in 1769, and he soon afterwards married Frederika Louisa, daughter of the land grave Louis IX.
Frederick William, who had no taste for military matters, put his authority as "War-Lord" into commission under a supreme college of war (Oberkriegs-Collegium) under the duke of Brunswick and General von Mollendorf.
His lectures were thronged, and a university career of great influence lay before him, when he accepted a call to become coadjutor at Brunswick to the superintendent, Joachim Morlin, who had known him at Konigsberg.
He removed to Brunswick on the 15th of December 1554, and there spent the remainder of his life, refusing subsequent offers of important offices from various Protestant princes of Germany.
In the year of its publication he became superintendent of Brunswick, and in effect the director of his church throughout Lower Saxony.
CHARLES CARROLL EVERETT (1829-1900), American divine and philosopher, was born on the 19th of June 1829, at Brunswick, Maine.
Wolfenbuttel, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Brunswick, situated on both banks of the Oker, 7 m.
of Brunswick on the railway to Harzburg.
When this began in 1267 to be the residence of the early Brunswick or Wolfenbuttel line of counts, a town gradually grew up around it.
In 1754, however, Duke Charles transferred the ducal residence to Brunswick.
Benrath (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1892), translated into English by Helen Zimmern (London, 1876).
He found an asylum in Quedlinburg (1590), and afterwards was transferred to St Martin's church at Brunswick (1599).
In 1589 he became duke of Brunswick, and two years later he abolished the Catholic rites in Halberstadt.
Immediately after Brunswick's manifesto followed the storming of the Tuileries and the removal of the royal family to the Temple (Aug.
Belloc,Marie-Antoinette, pp. 311-312, states that clause of Brunswick's manifesto was "drafted" by Marie Antoinette, i.e.
from Brunswick, 78 S.E.
It belonged to the family of Welf, then to the bishops of Hildesheim, and then, in 1369, it came again into the possession of the Welfs, now dukes of Brunswick.
Semon, Im Australischen Busch and an den Kasten des Korallen Meeres (Leipzig, 1899); Nachrichten fiber Kaiser Wilhelmsland (Berlin, 1887-1899); Joachim Graf von Pfeil, Studien and Beobachtungen aus der Siidsee (Brunswick, 1899); M.
the county of Waldeck, embedded in Prussian territory between the provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the principality of Pyrmont, farther to the north, between Lippe, Brunswick, Westphalia and Hanover.
Wildungen, in the extreme south of Waldeck, is the terminus of a branch line from Wabern, and a light railway runs from Warburg to Marburg; Pyrmont is intersected by the trunk line running from Cologne,via Paderborn, to Brunswick and Berlin.
(1740-1764), emperor of Russia, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick, and the princess Anna Leopoldovna of Mecklenburg, and great-nephew of the empress Anne, who adopted him and declared him her successor on the 5th of October 1740, when he was only eight weeks old.
A little more than twelve months later, a coup d'etat placed the tsesarevna Elizabeth on the throne (December 6, 1741), and Ivan and his family were imprisoned in the fortress of Diinamtinde (Ust Dvinsk) (December 1 3, 1742) after a preliminary detention a Riga, from whence the new empress had at first decided to send them home to Brunswick.
This included Luther's old enemy, Duke George of Saxony, the electors of Bran- denburg and Mainz, and two princes of Brunswick.
(Brunswick, 1877), Band v.
There are several handsome public monuments, notably that to Duke Leopold of Brunswick, who was drowned in the Oder while attempting to save life, on the 27th of April 1785.
The Brunswick contingent now reached the field, but their duke whilst leading a charge received a mortal wound and the attack failed.
The most celebrated of these struggles is the one known as the Hildesheimer Stiftsfehde, which broke out early in the 16th century when John, duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was bishop. At first the bishop and his allies were successful, but in 1521 the king of Denmark and the duke of Brunswick overran his lands and in 1523 he made peace, surrendering nearly all his possessions.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
George William based his claim upon a treaty of mutual succession made in 1369 between his ancestor Magnus II., duke of Brunswick, and the reigning dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
This law was followed in Brunswick by a law of the 2nd of July 1896, and in Baden by a law of the 16th of April 1886.
Henry sought for peace, and the conditions were settled at Erfurt in November 1181, when he was granted the counties of Luneburg and Brunswick, but was banished under oath not to return without the emperor's permission.
was obliged to take the field against him, after which the duke's cause declined, and in July 1190 a peace was arranged at Fulda, by which he retained Brunswick and Luneburg, received half the revenues of Lubeck, and gave two of his sons as hostages.
Henry passed his later years mainly at his castle of Brunswick, where he died on the 6th of August 1195, and was buried in the church of St Blasius which he had founded in the town.
In 1874 a colossal statue was erected to his memory at Brunswick.
His early years (from 1627) were spent at Uelzen, where his father was court preacher to the duke of Brunswick.
wide, from Newfoundland, Gaspe Peninsula and New Brunswick, 1500 m.
The Institutionum historiae ecclesiasticae libri appeared in 1726, and in the same year he was appointed by the duke of Brunswick abbot of Marienthal, to which dignity and emolument the abbacy of Michaelstein was added in the following year.
The early days of the war being unsuccessful, the proclamation of the duke of Brunswick excited all hearts; who could go to save France on the frontiers and leave Paris in the hands of his enemies?
He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
Lang is best known through his Memoiren, which appeared at Brunswick in two parts in 1842, and were republished in 1881 in a second edition.
"WILLIAM MAXWELL AITKEN BEAVERBROOK, 1ST Baron (1879-), British politician, was born at Newcastle, New Brunswick, on May 25 1879, the son of the Rev. William Aitken, Presbyterian minister of Newcastle.
Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhone (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the tie Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues.
In 1758, under the duke of Marlborough, he shared in the ineffective raid on Cancale Bay, and the troops, after a short sojourn in the Isle of Wight, were sent to join the allied army of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick in Germany.
Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.
In the end, the greater proportion adopted the Book of Concord (1577), drafted chiefly by Jacob Andreae of Tubingen, Martin Chemnitz of Brunswick and Nicolas Selnecker of Leipzig.
It was at first adopted and then rejected by Brunswick, the Palatinate and Brandenburg.
Galloway declined a second election to Congress in 1775, joined the British army at New Brunswick, New Jersey (December 1776), advised the British to attack Philadelphia by the Delaware, and during the British occupation of Philadelphia (1777-1778) was superintendent of the port, of prohibited articles, and of police of the city.
GEORGE EULAS FOSTER (1847-), Canadian politician and financier, was born in New Brunswick on the 3rd of September 1847, of U.E.
After a brilliant university career at the university of Brunswick, at Edinburgh and Heidelberg, he returned to Canada and taught in various local schools, eventually becoming professor of classics and history in the local university.
aus der Siidsee (Brunswick, 1899); Robert Louis Stevenson, In the South Seas (London, 1900); A.
These were increased in 1815 by the Brunswick, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Strassburg and Eichsf eld (Saxony) Bible Societies, and the Icelandic Bible Society.
JOHANN GOTTLIEB BUHLE (1763-1821), German scholar and philosopher, was born at Brunswick, and educated at Gottingen.
He became professor of philosophy at Gottingen, Moscow (1840) and Brunswick.
radius is another circle - to the east Kew (9469) and Hawthorne (21,430), to the south-east St Kilda (20,542) and Brighton (10,047), to the south-west Williamstown (14,052) and Footscray (18,318), to the north-west Essenden (17,426), and Flemington and Kensington (10,946), and to the north Brunswick (24,141).
(Brunswick, 1890); G.
Of these O'Connell bridge (formerly known as Carlisle) is the principal, as it connects the chief thoroughfare on the north side, namely Sackville (or O'Connell) Street, with Great Brunswick Street and others on the south.
Crossing O'Connell bridge, the short Westmoreland Street strikes into a thoroughfare which traverses the entire city parallel with the river, and is known successively (from west to east) as James, Thomas, High, Castle, Dame, College and Great Brunswick streets.
by Schaumburg-Lippe, Hanover, LippeDetmold, Brunswick, Hesse-Nassau and Waldeck, S.
It included the present governmental department of Minden, but by far the larger part of the kingdom lay outside and chiefly to the east of the modern province, and comprised the Hanoverian department of Hildesheim and in part that of Arensberg, Brunswick, the northern part of the province of Saxony as far as the Elbe, Halle, and most of Hesse-Cassel.
of Brunswick, on the railway to Hanover and Hamburg.
The son graduated in 1824 at Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Maine, where he formed a friendship with Nathaniel Hawthorne.
CALENBERG, or Kalenberg, the name of a district, including the town of Hanover, which was formerly part of the duchy of Brunswick.
The district was given to various cadets of the ruling house of Brunswick, one of these being Ernest Augustus, afterwards elector of Hanover, and the ancestor of the Hanoverian kings of Great Britain and Ireland.
theyare the Connecticut, Merrimack, Kennebec, Penobscot and St John, the last being shared with the province of New Brunswick.
There I d is also a coalfield in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, bryan.
(the Fowler) in 9 2 9, passed later to the monastery of Quedlinburg, and then to Brunswick.
The Gulf of St Lawrence with its much indented shores and the coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick supply endless harbours, the northern ones closed by ice in the winter, but the southern ones open all the year round; and on the Pacific British Columbia is deeply fringed with islands and fjords with well-sheltered harbours everywhere, in strong contrast with the unbroken shore of the United States to the south.
The " maritime provinces " of eastern Canada, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, may be considered together; and to these provinces as politically bounded may be added, from a physical point of view, the analogous south-eastern part of Quebec - the entire area being designated the Acadian region.
The province of New Brunswick exhibits approximately parallel but subordinate ridges, with wide intervening areas of nearly flat Silurian and Carboniferous rocks.
The peninsula of Nova Scotia, connected by a narrow neck with New Brunswick, is formed by still another and more definite system of parallel ridges, deeply fretted on all sides by bays and harbours.
In New Brunswick the Carboniferous rocks occupy a large area, but the coal seams so far developed are thin and unimportant.
In New Brunswick the western flora begins to appear as well as immigrants from the south, while in the next eastern province, Quebec, the flora varies considerably.
2 The areas assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec' is exclusive of the Gulf of St Lawrence (though including the islands lying within it), and that to Ontario is exclusive of the Canadian portion of the Great Lakes.
In 1867 the Dominion was formed by the union of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada).
m.; in Nova Scotia it is 22.3; New Brunswick, 11.8; Ontario, 9.9; Manitoba, 4.9; Quebec, 4.8; Saskatchewan, 1 oi; Alberta, o 72; British Columbia, o 4; the Dominion, 1 8.
English, Irish and Scots and their descendants form the bulk of the population of Ontario, French-Canadians of Quebec, Scots of Nova Scotia, the Irish of a large proportion of New Brunswick.
Numerous smaller canals bring Ottawa into connexion with Lake Champlain and the Hudson river via Montreal; by this route the logs and sawn lumber of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick find their destination.
The principal fisheries are those on the Atlantic coast, carried on by the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the eastern section of Quebec. Cod, herring, mackerel and lobsters are the fish chiefly caught, though halibut, salmon, anchovies and so-called sardines are also exported.
In 1871, the New Brunswick legislature abolished the separate school system, and a contest arose which was finally settled by the authority of the legislature being sustained, though certain concessions were made to the Roman Catholic dissentients.
New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba support provincial universities at Fredericton, Toronto and Winnipeg.
(1818); the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B.
One of the four branch farms then established is at Nappan, Nova Scotia, near the boundary between that province and New Brunswick, where it serves the farmers of the three maritime provinces.
To Nova Scotia, to what are now New Brunswick (q.v.) and Ontario (q.v.) they fled in numbers not easily estimated, but probably reaching about 40,000.
Until this time the present New Brunswick and Ontario had contained few European settlers; now they developed, largely under the influence of the loyalists of the Revolution.
In 1864 came the opportunity for change, when New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island were considering a federal union.
W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
it from provincial politics the premiers of Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia the public schools are strictly undenominational.
This position was only established in New Brunswick and Manitoba after violent political struggles, and frequent appeals to the highest courts of the empire for decisions on questions of federal or provincial jurisdiction.
In 1152 Frederick received the duchy of Swabia from his cousin the German king Frederick I., and on his death in 1167 it passed successively to Frederick's three sons Frederick, Conrad and Philip. The second Hohenstaufen emperor was Frederick Barbarossa's son, Henry VI., after whose death a struggle for the throne took place between Henry's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, and Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
Means of transportation for these products are furnished by the rivers, which are generally navigable as far north as the " fall line " passing through Augusta, Milledgeville, Macon and Columbus; by ocean steamship lines which have piers at St Mary's, Brunswick, Darien and Savannah; and by railways whose mileage in January 1909 was 6,871.8 m.
In 1900 the other cities in the state with a population of more than 5000 were: Macon (23,272), Columbus (17,614), Athens (10,245), Brunswick (9081), Americus (7674), Rome (7291), Griffin (6857), Waycross (5919), Valdosta (56,3), and Thomasville (5322).
Toward the close of the same year, however, Federal warships blockaded Georgia's ports, and early in 1862 Federal forces captured Tybee Island, Fort Pulaski, St Mary's, Brunswick and St Simon Island.
of Brandenburg gained, in 1343, a victory over Otto the Mild of Brunswick.
by Prussian Saxony and the duchy of Brunswick, S.W.
A small portion of the province in the south is separated from Hanover proper by the interposition of part of Brunswick.
The early history of Hanover is merged in that of the duchy of Brunswick (q.v.), from which the duchy of Brunswick-Liineburg and its offshoots, the duchies of LUneburg-Celle and Luneburg-Calenberg have sprung.
English money, however, came to the rescue; in 1758 Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, cleared the electorate of the invader; and Hanover suffered no loss of territory at the peace of 1763.
Owing to this attitude the German imperial government refused to allow him to take possession of the duchy of Brunswick, which he inherited on the extinction of the elder branch of his family in 1884, and again in 1906 when the same subject came up for settlement on the death of the regent, Prince Albert of Prussia.
Bar, bersicht fiber die Bestcinde des koniglichen Staatsarchivs zu Hannover (Leipzig, 1900); Hannoversches Portfolio (Stuttgart, 1839-1841); and the authorities given for the history of Brunswick.
JOHN RUSKIN (1819-1900), English writer and critic, was born in London, at Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, on the 8th of February 1819, being the only child of John James Ruskin and Margaret Cox.
From 1385 it was the seat of the bishop of Lebus, whose bishopric was incorporated with the electorate of Brunswick in 1595.
deutschen Altertumskunde (Brunswick, 1880); S.
In 1828 the erection of an organ in Brunswick Chapel, Leeds, led to a violent agitation and a small body of "Protestant Methodists" was formed.
For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
Not until 1210, when Otto of Brunswick turned against the pope to whom he owed his crown, was Innocent compelled to open hostilities; and the struggle ended in a victory for the Curia.
This revolution could already be foreseen with tolerable certainty, when Urban embroiled himself even with his political friends - the queen of Naples and her husband, Duke Otto of Brunswick.
His relations with Madame de Stael became more and more difficult, and in 1808 he secretly married Charlotte von Hardenberg, whom he had known at Brunswick, and whose divorce from her second husband, General Dutertre, he had secured.
CHRISTIAN OF BRUNSWICK (1599-1626), bishop of Halberstadt and a general during the earlier part of the Thirty Years' War, a younger son of Henry Julius, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, was born at Groningen on the 10th of September 1599.
Retiring to Denmark, he obtained military assistance from King Waldemar II., and a visit to E (gland procured monetary aid from King John, after which he ma aged to maintain his position in Brunswick.
His former supporters hastened to recognize Frederick; and in 1216 he left Cologne for Brunswick, which he had received in 1202 by arrangement with his elder brother Henry.
On the 19th of May 1218 he died at the Harzburg after being loosed from the ban by a Cistercian monk, and was buried in the church of St Blasius at Brunswick.
This action was opposed by the church of New York City, and partly through this difference and partly because of quarrels over the denominational control of King's College (now Columbia), five members of the Coetus seceded, and as the president of the Coetus was one of them they took the records with them; they were called the Conferentie; they organized independently in 1764 and carried on a bitter warfare with the Coetus (now more properly called the American Classis), which in 1766 (and again in 1770) obtained a charter for Queen's (now Rutgers) College at New Brunswick.
The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago (1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, numbering, in 1906, 659.
The colleges and institutions of learning connected with the Church are: Rutgers, already mentioned; Union College (1795), the outgrowth of Schenectady Academy, founded in 1785 by Dirck Romeyn, a Dutch minister; Hope College (1866; coeducational) at Holland, Michigan, originally a parochial school (1850) and then (1855) Holland Academy; the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick (q.v.); and the Western Theological Seminary (1869) at Holland, Michigan.
The badge is a blue enamelled cross dependent from a lion surmounted by the ducal crown; the angles of the cross are filled by crowned W's and the centre bears the arms of Brunswick, a crowned pillar and a white horse, between two sickles.
Among other treasures it contains the silver coffin of St Liborius, a substitute for one which was coined into dollars in 1622 by Christian of Brunswick, the celebrated freebooter.
It underwent the same fate at the hands of Christian of Brunswick during the Thirty Years' War.
On the British side, the naval force in American waters under Sir John Borlase Warren, who took up the general command on the 26th of September 1812, consisted of ninety-seven vessels in all, of which eleven were of the line and thirty-four were frigates, a power much greater than the national navy of America, but inadequate to the blockade of the long coast from New Brunswick to Florida.
By Bona he had five children - one son, Sigismund Augustus, who succeeded him, and four daughters, Isabella, who married John Zapolya, prince of Transylvania, Sophia, who married the duke of Brunswick, Catherine, who as the wife of John III.
74 (Brunswick, 1898).
The son graduated at Yale in 1748; studied theology with his father; studied medicine at Edinburgh in 1752-1753; was ordained deacon by the bishop of Lincoln and priest by the bishop of Carlisle in 1753; was missionary in New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1754-1757, and was rector in Jamaica, New York, in 1757-1766; and of St.
Quitzmann, Abstammung, Ursitz, and dlteste Geschichte der Bairwaren (Munich, 1857), and Die alteste Geschichte der Baiern bis gi (Brunswick, 1873); S.
Instead of settling in Italy, as he intended, Lessing accepted in 1770 the office of librarian at Wolfenbiittel, a post which was offered to him by the hereditary prince of Brunswick.
In 1775 he travelled for nine months in Italy with Prince Leopold of Brunswick, and in the following year he married Eva KOnig, the widow of a Hamburg merchant, with whom he had been on terms of intimate friendship. But their happiness lasted only for a brief period; in 1778 she died in childbed.
His health had been undermined by excessive work and anxiety, and after a short illness he died at Brunswick on the 15th of February 1781.
man, without energy or resolution, and he allowed W himself to be entirely led by his old guardian the duke of Brunswick, and by his wife Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia, a woman of marked ability, to whom he entirely deferred.
Various rabbinical conferences were held, at Brunswick (1844),(1844), Frankfort-on-theMain (1845) and Breslau (1846).
A part of his work was undertaken by Johann Conrad Wirtz, who was ordained by the New Brunswick (New Jersey) Presbytery in 1750, and in 1761-63 was pastor at York, Pennsylvania.
The first of these was fought on August 19/29, 1622, between the forces of Count Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick and the Spaniards under Cordovas, the latter being defeated.
died in 1198 Hermann's support was purchased by the late emperor's brother Philip, duke of Swabia, but as soon as Philip's cause appeared to be weakening he transferred his allegiance to Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV.
He was educated at the University of the City of New York (now New York University) and at the Reformed Dutch Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, N.J., from which he was graduated in 1856.
Political Divisions.The empire is composed of the following twenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wtirttemberg; the grand-duchies of Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin,, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg and Saxe-Weimar; the duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen; the principalities of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, SchwarzburgSondershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the, free towns of Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
of the mountain ranges (as Duchies Schwarzwald, Thuringerwald, Brunswick &c.).
Brunswick - Brunswick - 136,423
There are two centres of the beet sugar production: Magdeburg for the districts Prussian Saxony, Hanover, Brunswick, Anhalt and Thuringia, and Frankfort-on-Oder at the centre of the group Silesia, Brandenburg and Pomerania.
Central Germany (especially Gotha and Brunswick) exports sausages and hams largely, as well as Westphalia, but here again considerable importation takes place from other countries.
The jute manufacture, the principal centres of which are Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg, has of late attained considerable dimensions.
Duchy of Brunswick -..
The lesser states also have chambers of representatives numbering from 12 members (in Reuss-Greiz) to 48 members (in Brunswick), and in most states the different classes, as well as the cities and the ru~aI districts, are separately represented.
Oldenburg 309,550 86,920 Ii Brunswick 436,976 24,175 1,;
These schools are as follows: Berlin (Charlottenburg), Munich, Darmstadt, Karlsruhe, Hanover, Dresden, Stuttgart, Aix-la-Chapelle, Brunswick and Danzig; in 1908 they were attended by 14,149 students (2531 foreigners), and had a teaching staff of 753.
near Stuttgart, Brunswick, Eisenach, Giessen and Books - 229 Karlsruhe, Other technical schools are again the five veterinary academies of Berlin, Hanover, Munich, Dresden and Stuttgart, the commercial colleges (Handclshochschulen) of Leipzig, Aix-la-Chapelle, Hanover, Frankfurt-on-Main and Cologne, in addition to 424 commercial schools of a lesser degree, ioo schools for textile manufactures and numerous schools for special metal industries, wood-working, ceramic industries, naval architecture and engineering and navigation.
In conseqtienc of this regulation numerous banks resigned the privilege of issuinf notes, and at present there are in Germany but the following privat note banks, issuing private notes, viz, the Bavarian, the Saxon the Wurttemberg, the Baderi and the Brunswick, in addition to th Imperial Bank.
Also articles by the above and others, chiefly in Zeitschrift fr Ethnologie (Berlin); Archin fr Anthropotogie (Brunswick); Globus (Brunswick); Westdeutsche Zeitschrift (Trier); Schriften der physikalischkonomischen Gesellschaft (Konigsberg); Nachrichten ber deutsche Altertumskunde (Berlin); Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fr Ant hropologie, &c.; Beitrdge zur Ant hropologie Bayerns (Munich); and Zeitschrift fr deutsches Altertum (Berlin).
For some time he resisted, but at length the emperor in person marched against him and he was forced to submit; the only favor he could secure when peace was made at Erfurt in November 1181 was permission to retain Brunswick and Lneburg, which have remained in the possession of his descendants until our own day.
Henry the Lions son, Otto of Brunswick, who was also chosen German king.
Deserted by Ottakar and even by Adolph of Cologne and his own brother Henry, count palatine of the Rhine, Otto was forced to take refuge in Brunswick, his last line of defence, and was only saved by Philips murder, which occurred at Bamberg in June 1208.
To save himself from the consequences of his double marriage, which had provided him with powerful enemies, Philip in June 1541 came to terms with the emperor, who thus managed to spike the guns of the league of Schmalkalden, although the strength of this confederation did not fail until after the campaign against Henry of Brunswick.
Having restored Roman Catholicism in the archbishopric of Cologne and seen Henry of Brunswick settled in his duchy early in 1547, Charles led his men against his principal enemies, Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, who had quickly succeeded in driving ~iIaurice from his electorate.
The Spanish troops and the army of the League invaded the Rhenish Palatinate, which was defended by Fredericks remaining adherents, Christian of Brunswick and Count Ernst von Mansfeld, but after several battles it passed completely into the possession of the imperialists.
In Hanover, Brunswick, Saxony and Hesse-Cassel popular movements led to the granting i&~o.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
Outside this, though not in hostility to it, Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe formed a separate customs-union, (Steuerverein) by treaties signed on the 1st of May 1834 and the 7th of May 1836, and to this certain Prussian and Hessian enclaves were attached.
Baden and Nassau (1836), Frankfort and Luxemburg (1842), joined the Prussian Zollverein, to which certain of the members of the Steuerverein also transferred themselves (Brunswick and Lippe, 1842).
She was supported by Bavaria, but on the other side were Prussia, Brunswick, Baden, Nassau, Meckleftburg and various other countries, besides the Hanseatic towns.
In the federal council Prussian policy nearly always prevails, for though Prussia has only seventeen votes out of fifty-eight, the smaller states of the North nearly always support her; practically she controls the vote of Waldeck and since 1885 those of Brunswick.
It is only as regards the house of Brunswick that the older dynastic questions still have some political importance.
The attitude of passive resistance is, however, still maintained, and has affected the position of the duchy of Brunswick.
In 1884 William, duke of Brunswick, died after a reign of fifty-four years.
The claim of the duke of Cambridge as the only male heir of full age was referred to the Bundesrat, but the duke refused to bring it before that body, and after a year the Brunswick government elected as regent Prince Albert of Hohenzollern, to hold office so long as the true heir was prevented from entering on his rights.
On the death of Prince Albert in September 1906, the Brunswick diet petitioned the Bundesrat to allow the youngest son of the duke of Cumberland to succeed to the duchy on renouncing his personal claims to the crown of Hanover.
All submitted to the conditions except the Brunswick Bank, which remained outside the banking system of the empire until the Bank Act of June 5, 1906, was passed, when it surrendered its right to issue notes.
The last was that with Brunswick, which was arranged in 1885; Duke William had always refused to surrender the separate existence of his army.
More than this, Bismarck was able to obtain Prussian control of the neighboring states; in 1886 the Brunswick railways were acquired by the Prussian government, and in 1895 the private lines in Thuringia.
GANDERSHEIM, a town of Germany in the duchy of Brunswick, in the deep valley of the Gande, 48m.
of Brunswick, on the railway BSissum-Holzminden.
Protestantism was introduced in 1568, and Magdalena, the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant abbesses were appointed to the foundation, and continued to enjoy their imperial privileges till 1803, when Gandersheim was incorporated with Brunswick.
The last abbess, Augusta Dorothea of Brunswick, was a princess of the ducal house, and kept her rank till her death.
New Brunswick, Canada >>
Besides many memoirs in the Transactions of learned societies, he published Acadian Geology: The geological structure, organic remains and mineral resources of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (1855; ed.
Hutter, Wanderungen and Forschungen im Nord-Hinterland von Kamerun (Brunswick, 1902); F.
His parents were from the British province of New Brunswick.
the Raritan river at New Brunswick.
Souchon, Die Papstwahlen (Brunswick, 1888); G.
Thus began the Seven Years' War, in which, supported by England, Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel, he had for a long time to oppose Austria, France, Russia, Saxony and Sweden.
From this time the French were kept well employed in the west by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, who defeated them at Crefeld in 1758, and at Minden in 1759.
Salt occurs in the Muschelkalk at Friedrichshall and some other localities in Wurttemberg and Thuringia; and in the Bunter at Schoningen near Brunswick.
Sarrazin, Germanische Heldensage in Shakespere's Titus Andronicus (Herrig's Archiv, xcvii., Brunswick, 1896); P. Maurus, Die Wielandsage in der Literatur (Erlangen and Leipzig, 1902); C. B.
from its mouth, opposite Saint Stephens, New Brunswick, with which it is connected by bridges.
from Berlin and at the junction of main lines to Leipzig, Brunswick, Cassel and Hamburg.
LUTHER MARTIN (1748-1826), American lawyer, was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, on the 9th of February 1748.
The battle of Minden was fought on the 1st of August 1759 between the Anglo-Allied army commanded by duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and the French under Marshal Coutades, the latter being defeated.
Treaties to enforce the public peace were concluded in 1291 and 1338 with the dukes of Brunswick, Mecklenburg and Pomerania, and the count of Holstein.
Gebhard, Pankultus (Brunswick, 1872); P. Wetzel, De Jove et Pane dis arcadiens (Breslau, 1873); W.
Having belonged to the extensive duchy of Saxony it was the capital of the duchy of Brunswick-Luneburg from 1235 to 1369; later it belonged to one or other of the branches of the family of Brunswick, being involved in the quarrels, and giving its name to cadet lines, of this house.
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke Of Brunswick >>
(Brunswick, 1877), J.
In Germany, Otto of Brunswick, afterwards the emperor Otto IV., allied himself with Richard, while Philip was supported by Otto's rival, Philip of Swabia.
Viereck (Brunswick, 1906).
Certain places near Brunswick (10° E.) marked the western limit of the epidemic; and cholera was arrested at the same spot in later years (Haser).
(Brunswick, 18 77); H.
A supposed Thysanuran from the Silurian of New Brunswick has been described by G.
1775), son of Ferdinand Albert, duke of Brunswick, and their son Ivan was adopted in 1740 by the empress and proclaimed heir to the Russian throne.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.