Valuable brooches and other ornaments are often found.
The ornaments are beads, earrings, brooches, rings, bracelets, &c., thickly studded with precious stones.
Aegina), the details of which are to all appearance legendary, in order to account for a change in the fashion of female dress which took place at Athens in the course of the 6th century B.C. Up to that time the " Dorian dress " had been universal, but the Athenians now gave up the use of garments fastened with pins or brooches, and adopted the linen chiton of the Ionians.
The chiton, xcrcww, was formed by sewing together at the sides two pieces of linen, or a double piece folded together, leaving spaces at the top for the arms and neck, and fastening the top edges together over the shoulders and upper arm with buttons or brooches; more rarely we find a plain sleeveless chiton.
Women's ornaments consisted of brooches (fibulae), bracelets (armillae), armlets (armillae, bracchialia), ear-rings (inliures), necklaces (monilia), wreaths (coronae) and hair-pins (crinales).
It was a very richly decorated object of coloured threads interwoven with gold, worn outside the luxurious mantle or robe; it was kept in place by a girdle, and by shoulder-pieces (?), to which were attached brooches of onyx (fastened to the robe) and golden rings from which hung the "breastplate" (or rather pouch) containing the sacred lots, Urim and Thummim.
The dress of the upper classes must have been of a somewhat gorgeous character, especially when account is taken of the brooches and other ornaments which they wore.
The nature of the imports during the heathen period may be learned chiefly from the graves, which contain many brooches and other ornaments of continental origin, and also a certain number of silver, bronze and glass vessels.
In later times we hear of brooches worth as much as six mancusas, i.e.
They brought with them iron, which they used for their long swords and for their cutting implements; the costume of both sexes was distinct from that of the Pelasgians; they used round shields with a central boss instead of the 8-shaped or rectangular shields of the latter; they fastened their garments with brooches, and burned their dead instead of burying them as did the Pelasgians.
The graves at Hallstatt were partly inhumation partly cremation; they contained swords, daggers, spears, javelins, axes, helmets, bosses and plates of shields and hauberks, brooches, various forms of jewelry, amber and glass beads, many of the objects being decorated with animals and geometrical designs.
Brooches are found in great numbers, both those derived from the primitive safety-pin ("Peschiera" type) and the "spectacle" or "Hallstatt" type found all down the Balkans and in Greece.
The latter are formed of two spirals of wire, sometimes four such spirals being used, whilst there were also brooches in animal forms, one of the latter being found with a bronze sword.
Besides the implements and weapons of iron there are fibulae and brooches of bronze, weaving combs and spindle-whorls, a bronze mirror and tweezers, wheel-made pottery as well as hand-made, ornamented with Late Celtic patterns, a bowl of thin bronze decorated with bosses, the nave of a wooden wheel with holes for twelve spokes, and a dug-out canoe.
Among the places where these have been found, special mention should be made of the large cremation cemetery at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and EckernfOrde, which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England.
Of bronze (the chief material) axes, daggers, swords, razors and knives are found, as also minor implements, such as sickles, needles, pins, brooches, &c. There are also objects of bone and wood, besides pottery (both coarse and fine: see Ceramics), amber and glass-paste.
Brooches (fibulae), pins, razors, tweezers, &c., often found as dedications to a deity, e.g.
George Low (1747-1795), the naturalist and historian of Orkney, who made a tour through Shetland in 1774, described a Runic monument which he saw in the churchyard of Crosskirk, in Northmavine parish (Mainland), and several fragments of Norse swords, shield bosses and brooches have been dug up from time to time.
The back and front were then pulled up over the shoulders and fastened together with brooches like safety-pins (irepovat).
For necklaces (ip,uoc), bracelets Was), brooches (irEpovac), and fingerrings (baKTUAtm.
It was fastened with brooches (fibulae) anch appears to have been worn by the equites, e.g.
The vases were of the last red figure style, and were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) from Gaul.
It is significant that the first iron swords in Cyprus are of a type characteristic of the lands bordering the Adriatic. Gold and even silver become rare; 5 foreign imports almost cease; engraved cylinders and scarabs are replaced by conical and pyramidal seals like those of Asia Minor, and dress-pins by brooches (fibulae) like those of south-eastern Europe.
- Of these the most interesting are the brooches which were worn by both sexes and of which large numbers have been found in heathen cemeteries.