Bronze sentence example

bronze
  • She wore a flowing, diaphanous gown and had long, wavy, bronze colored hair.
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  • A half, fifth and tenth of a peso are coined in silver, in addition to bronze coins.
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  • His pupils were contracted by the bright sunlight and his light green eyes contrasted sharply with his bronze tan.
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  • The city contains a fine statue of Schiller, designed by Thorvaldsen; a bronze statue of Christopher, duke of Wurttemberg; a monument to the emperor William I.; an equestrian statue of King William I.
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  • A soft moan sounding nothing like her reached his ears, and then slowly, out from under the cover, emerged a huge wolf with bronze colored fur.
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  • A bronze statue, erected by public subscription, in the Kerepes cemetery,.
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  • The bronze features were smooth and perfectly formed - almost too perfect, and yet, not effeminate.
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  • Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
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  • This opisthodomus was completely fenced in with bronze gratings; and the excavators believe it to have been adapted for use as an adytum (shrine).
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  • He wasn't chasing the bronze haired beauty, but running through the woods with her, laughing.
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  • The parks are the Domain, with a botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree.
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  • General Loring kindly showed me a copy of one of the wonderful bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence, and I felt of the graceful pillars, resting on the backs of fierce lions.
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  • Thick, bronze skin coated layers of roped, rippling muscles.
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  • He signed the paper with a flourish and returned the pen to its elaborate bronze holder.
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  • The plane surfaces and XX are composed of a bronze of very close texture, which appears capable of receiving a finish having almost the truth and polish of an optical surface.
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  • Two brightly lit, massive bronze chandeliers dangled at even distances across the ceiling.
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  • She shook her head, feeling giddy as she gazed up at his smooth bronze features.
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  • The smooth bronze features were sober as he spoke.
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  • The counterspell took the form of a bronze image of the serpent-demon; see Frazer, Golden Bough, ii.
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  • Repositories also came to light containing treasure in the shape of bronze ingots.
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  • Cuirasses of bronze scales were worn by the kings and other leaders.
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  • Jackson took a lock of her hair in his hand, carefully combing through all the colors for the bronze.
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  • The use of iron for arms and implements now finally triumphed over bronze.
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  • The cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal and three apses decorated with small arches and pilasters, and contains a fine pulpit and episcopal throne in marble mosaic. Near it are two grottos 1 To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the legend Caleno.
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  • A statue in bronze was placed on the Thames Embankment, and there is a good portrait by Watts (a copy of which, by Watts himself, was hung in the National Gallery).
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  • Artificers' implements of many kinds were in use, bronze succeeding obsidian and other hard stones as the material.
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  • After 2000 B.C. all these arts revived, and sculpture, as evidenced by relief work, both on a large and on a small scale, carved stone vessels, metallurgy in gold, silver and bronze, advanced farther.
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  • We are now in the beginning of the Bronze Age, and the first of Evans's "Minoan" periods (see Crete).
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  • These periods fill the whole Bronze Age, with whose close, by the introduction of the superior metal, iron, the Aegean Age is conventionally held to end.
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  • We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
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  • He goes so far as to pronounce the latter to be Cretan importations, their fabric and forms being unlike anything Nilotic. If that be so, the period at which stone implements were beginning to be superseded by bronze in Crete must be dated before 4000 B.C. But it will be remembered that below all Evans's "Minoan" strata lies the immensely thick Neolithic deposit.
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  • Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.
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  • In the centre of this gallery stand the four colossal bronze horses which belonged to some Graeco-Roman triumphal quadriga, and were brought to Venice by the Doge Enrico Dandolo after the fall of Constantinople in 1204; they were carried off by Napoleon to Paris in 1797, and restored by Francis of Austria in 1815.
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  • Leopardo was also the creator (1505) of the three handsome bronze sockets in front of St Mark's which held the flagstaffs of the banners of Cyprus, Morea and Crete, when the republic was mistress of those territories.
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  • The grey column is surmounted by a fine bronze lion of Byzantine style, cast in Venice for Doge Ziani about 1178 (this was carried off to Paris by Napoleon in 1797, and sent back in pieces in 1816; but in 1893 it was put together again); and in 1329 a marble statue of St Theodore, standing upon a crocodile, was placed on the other column.
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  • Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C. The town certainly dates back to the close of the Mycenaean Bronze age, and had a king Eteandros among the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C.'
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  • From the inner exit of the Propylaea a passage led towards the east along the north side of the Parthenon; almost directly facing the entrance was the colossal bronze statue of Athena (afterwards called Athena Promachos) by Pheidias, probably set up by Cimon in commemoration of the Persian defeat.
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  • On both sides of the passage were numerous statues, among them that of Athena Hygeia, set up by Pericles to commemorate the recovery of a favourite slave who was injured during the building of the Parthenon, a colossal bronze image of the wooden horse of Troy, and Myron's group of Marsyas with Athena throwing away her flute.
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  • Adjoining it to the east are the remains of a large rectangular building, which was apparently fronted by a colonnade; this has been identified with the XaXKO011Ki, a storehouse of bronze implements and arms, which was formerly supposed to lie against the north wall near the Propylaea.
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  • The building was surmounted by a weathercock in the form of a bronze Triton; it contained a water-clock to record the time when the sun was not shining.
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  • During the golden age she remained among men distributing blessings, but when the iron (or bronze) age came on, she was forced to withdraw, being the last of the goddesses to quit the earth.
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  • One has hitherto supposed that he was related to the Mediterraneans, the race to which the Bronze Age Greeks and Italians belonged; but this supposed connexion may well break down in the matter of skull form, as the Hittite skull, like that of the modern Anatolian, probably inclined to be brachycephalic. whereas that of the Mediterranean inclined in the other direction, And now the Bohemian Assyriologist Prof. Hrozny has brought forward evidence s that the cuneiform script adopted by the Hittites from the Mesopotamians expressed an Indo-European tongue, nearly akin to Latin!
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  • This, by the way, points to the conclusion that Babylonian (Sumerian) culture and art were considerably older than the Egyptian; but we have no definite evidence yet on this point.24 Later points of artistic connexion may be seen when we compare the well-known bronze statues of Pepi I.
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  • We see however the similarity of the metal-working of both countries at approximately the same time; both are in the same style of artistic development, the Egyptian perhaps the more advanced of the two, and (if the published analysis by Mosso is to be relied upon) with the additional technique of the alloy with tin, making the metal bronze, and so easier for the heads to be cast.
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  • The great bronze head of Augustus Caesar, now in the British Museum, is one of the trophies of this excavation, and is very interesting as being either a trophy of war carried off perhaps from Syene, or was actually set up at Meroe by the independent native ruler in honour of the Emperor.
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  • Money was also struck in their own name by the cities in the several dynasties' spheres of power, but in most cases only bronze or small silver for local use.
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  • All these globes are of metal (bronze), or they might not have survived so many years.
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  • As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 B.C. (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century B.C. defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law.
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  • At any rate it was a notable trading-place and emporium as early as the Stone Age, and continued to enjoy its importance as such through the Bronze and Iron Ages, as is proved, inter alia, by the large number of Arabic, Anglo-Saxon and other coins which have been found on the island..
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  • Around the foot of the obelisk (besides an heroic statue of Lincoln) are four groups of figures in bronze, symbolizing the army and navy of the United States.
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  • He died on the 2nd of April 1872, at New York, where his statue in bronze now stands in the Central Park.
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  • Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
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  • A bronze statue of the Prince Consort by Joseph Durham adorns the front terrace.
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  • Bronze implements have been found here, but no notice of Romford occurs till the 12th century.
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  • In glaring contrast to the bold and simple forms of the architecture, which belongs to the Doric style, were the bronze and marbles and pictures of the high altar, the masterpiece of the Milanese Giacomo Trezzo, almost ruined by the French in 1808.
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  • In the Public Square is a soldiers' and sailors' monument consisting of a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft., and surmounted with a figure of Liberty; in the same park, also, is a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city.
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  • Directly west of the town hall is the new Stadthaus, the chief police station of the town, in front of which is a bronze statue of the burgomaster Karl Friedrich Petersen (1809-1892), erected in 1897.
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  • Facing the judiciary building is an heroic statue in bronze of Kamehameha the Great., About 2 m.
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  • The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.
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  • Other alloys may be produced, such as bronze, or German silver, by selecting solutions (usually cyanides) from which the current is able to deposit the constituent metals simultaneously.
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  • To them must be assigned the very numerous remains dating from the Bronze period which are scattered all over southern Siberia.
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  • Iron was unknown to them; but they excelled in bronze, silver and gold work.
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  • Their bronze ornaments and implements, often polished, evince considerable artistic taste; and their irrigated fields covered wide areas in the fertile tracts.
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  • They were acquainted with iron, and learned from their subjects the art of bronze-casting, which they used for decorative purposes only, and to which they gave a still higher artistic stamp. Their pottery is much more perfect and more artistic than that of the Bronze period, and their ornaments are accounted among the finest of the collections at the St Petersburg museum of the Hermitage.
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  • The two last statues were of bronze.
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  • According to tradition the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony was sent here.
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  • Although its convenient harbour was probably used before Saxon times, and bronze weapons and Roman interments have been found, there is no evidence that Weymouth (Waimue, Waymuth) was a place of early settlement.
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  • The arches of the Romanesque portal are beautifully ornamented, in a manner suggestive of Arab influence; the bronze doors, executed by Barisanus of Trani in 1175, rank among the best of their period in southern Italy.
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  • Petronio, the massive Palazzo Comunale, dating from 1245, the Palazzo del Podesta, completed in the same year, and the fine bronze statue of Neptune by Giovanni da Bologna (Jean Bologne of Douai).
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  • Of the more recent erections in the town, mention may be made of the granite obelisk in memory of General Sir 'Thomas Picton (1758-1815) and the bronze statue of General Sir William Nott (1784-1846).
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  • In front of the county hall is a bronze statue of the Hungarian poet Alexander Petofi (1823-1849), erected in 18 9 7.
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  • Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
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  • Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).
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  • Playfair (1789-1857), but it was not till 1883 that the building was completed by the dome, crowned by the bronze figure of Youth bearing the torch of Knowledge, on the facade in South Bridge Street.
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  • F.," in letters once filled in with bronze, is well preserved.
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  • This memorial is built principally of Milford (Mass.) granite, with a bronze statue of the president, and with sarcophagi containing the bodies of the president and Mrs McKinley, and has a total height, from the first step of the approaches to its top, of 163 ft.
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  • In consequence of the breaking away of the lower part of "Cleopatra's Needles" when removed to Alexandria and re-erected, the Roman engineers supported the angles on bronze crabs, one of which with three reproductions now supports the angles of the obelisk on the Thames Embankment.
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  • Then one of the king's concubines and his cup-bearer, cook, groom, messenger and horses were strangled and laid by him, and round about offerings of all his goods and cups of gold - no silver or bronze.
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  • Store of wine was contained in six amphorae, and in two bronze cauldrons were mutton-bones.
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  • This style and the types of dagger, cauldron, bit and twolooped socketed axehead run right across from Hungary to the upper Yenisei, where a special Bronze Age culture seems to have developed them.
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  • We cannot place Ariantas, who made a kind of census of the nation by exacting an arrow-head from each warrior and cast a great cauldron out of the bronze, nor Taxacis and Scopasis, the under-kings in the time of Idanthyrsus.
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  • Being a component of bronze, it was used as a metal thousands of years prior to the dawn of history; but it does not follow that prehistoric bronzes were made from metallic tin.
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  • Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
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  • Let them therefore not adore a cross of gold or silver or bronze or stone.
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  • Numerous bronze images of a kneeling god at Telloh give him only a loin-cloth, and often the deity, like the monarch, has only a skirt.
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  • Ear-rings (Evwrta, X¦o13ta, Exckt'7pES) of gold, silver, or bronze plated with gold, and frequently ornamented with pearls, precious stones, or enamel, were worn attached to the lobes of the ear.
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  • He accordingly returned in 1871 to England from Italy, where he was studying, and modelled the figures of Shakespeare, Fame and Clio, which were rendered in marble and in bronze.
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  • He was thereupon elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and more than justified the selection by his "Teucer" of the following year, a bronze figure of extraordinary distinction which, bought for the Chantrey collection, is now in the National (Tate) Gallery of British Art.
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  • Among the sculptor's principal statues are " The Bishop of Carlisle " (1895; Carlisle Cathedral), " General Charles Gordon " (Trafalgar Square, London), " Oliver Cromwell " (Westminster), " Dean Colet " (a bronze group - early Italianate in feeling - outside St Paul's School, Hammersmith), " King Alfred " (a colossal memorial for Winchester), the " Gladstone Monument " (in the Strand, London) and " Dr Mandell Creighton, Bishop of London " (bronze, erected in St Paul's Cathedral).
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  • One of the bronze plates which decorated the exterior of the war-chest of the legio III.
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  • The censer used was a hemispherical cup or bowl of bronze, supported by a long handle, fashioned at one end like an open hand, in which the bowl was, as it were, held, while the other end within which the pastils of incense were kept was shaped into the hawk's head crowned with a disk, as the symbol of Re.'
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  • The Nelson Column, the central feature of Trafalgar Square, is from the designs of William Railton (1843), crowned with a statue of Nelson by Baily, and has at its base four colossal lions in bronze, modelled by Sir Edwin Landseer.
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  • The duke of York's Column, Carlton House Terrace (1833), an Ionic pillar, is surmounted by a bronze statue by Sir Richard Westmacott.
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  • When mine water is acid the working parts of the pump must be lined with or made of bronze or other non-corrosive material; or the acid may be neutralized by adding lime in the sump.
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  • The city has 95 acres of boulevards and avenues under park supervision and several fine parks (17, with 307 acres in 1907), notably Washington (containing Calverley's bronze statue of Robert Burns, and Rhind's "Moses at' the Rock of Horeb"), Beaver and Dudley, in which is the old Dudley Observatory - the present Observatory building is in Lake Avenue, south-west of Washington Park, where is also the Albany Hospital.
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  • Glass, in flat pieces, such as might be employed for windows, has been found in the ruins of Roman houses, both in England and in Italy, and in the house of the faun at Pompeii a small pane in a bronze frame remains.
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  • When the window openings were large, as was the case in basilicas and other public buildings, and even in houses, the pieces of glass were, doubtless, fixed in pierced slabs of marble or in frames of wood or bronze.
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  • They are found with Roman bronze vessels and other articles.
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  • Originally applied to gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, lead and bronze, i.e.
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  • Thus, for instance, to% aluminium bronze is scratched by an ordinary steel knife-blade, yet the sets of needles used for perforating postage stamps last longer if made of aluminium bronze than if made of steel.
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  • Such an alloy can be cast like ordinary bronze, but excels the latter in hardness, elasticity, toughness and tensile strength.
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  • When diluted down to 4.8%, it assumes the colour and fusibility of bronze, but, unlike it, is tenacious and ductile like iron.
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  • From the latter came the bronze gates with hammered reliefs, which are now in the British Museum.
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  • Section Of Bronze Sheathing From Gates Of Shalmaneser Ii.
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  • The walls were brilliantly coloured, and sometimes plated with bronze or gold as well as with tiles.
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  • The Nymphi (Kara Bel) and Niobe sculptures near Smyrna are probably memorials of that extension, Certainly some inland Anatolian power seems to have kept Aegean settlers and culture away from the Ionian coast during the Bronze Age, and that power was in all likelihood the Hatti kingdom of Cappadocia.
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  • This act by tradition happened on the market-place, where in 1895, at the foot of an old tower (with rude frescoes commemorating the feat), there was set up a fine bronze statue (by Richard Kissling of Zurich) of Tell and his son.
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  • Opposite is the Baptistery built by Arnolfo di Cambio in the 13th century on the site of an earlier church, and adorned with beautiful bronze doors by Ghiberti in the 15th century.
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  • There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podesta, itself one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware.
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  • Grape-stones have been found among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near Montpellier, not long before the historic era.
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  • These inscriptions are generally on limestone or marble or on tablets of bronze, and vary from a few inches to some feet in length and height.
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  • Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.
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  • The staple productions are machinery, railway engines and carriages, steel, tin and bronze wares, pottery, bent and carved wood furniture, textiles and chemicals.
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  • TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
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  • He was said to have built the labyrinth for Minos, to have made a wooden cow for Pasiphae and to have fashioned a bronze man who repelled the Argonauts.
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  • The values of the coinage are pieces of 5 and 10 centimes in bronze, of 50 centimes, 1 franc and 2 francs in silver, of 10 francs and 20 francs in gold.
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  • The use of bronze also shows that they must have worked, perhaps superficially, some of the great copper deposits.
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  • Bronze figures of deities are now the most interesting objects to be found at Sa el hagar.
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  • They are small portable braziers (foculi) of bronze or sometimes of silver and of highly ornate design.
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  • The large double doors of cedar wood, covered with bronze showing a geometric interlaced pattern, have been compared with those of Ghiberti at the Baptistery of Florence.
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  • Zeno are especially interesting as being among the earliest important examples in Italy of cast bronze reliefs.
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  • They are frequently stated to be of beaten bronze, but they are really castings, apparently by the cire perdue process.
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  • Parts of these doors are covered with bronze reliefs of scenes from the Bible, which are of still earlier date, and were probably brought to Verona from the Rhine provinces.
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  • The bronze image of the same divinity at Horyu-ji, said to have been cast at the beginning of the 7th century by Tori Busshi, the grandson of a Chinese immigrant, is of good technical quality, but much inferior in design to the former.
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  • The most noteworthy effort was the casting by Ono Goroymon in 1252 of the well-known bronze image, the Kamakura Daibutsu.
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  • Bronze is called by the Japanese kara-kane, a term signifying Chinese metal and showing clearly the source from which knowledge of the alloy was obtained.
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  • Japanese bronze is well suited for castings, not only because of its low melting-point, great fluidity and capacity for taking sharp impressions, but also because it has a particularly smooth surface and readily develops a fine patina.
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  • It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.
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  • From the time when they began to cast bronze statues, Japanese experts understood how to employ a hollow, removable core round which the metal was run in a skin just thick enough for strength without waste of material; and they also understood the use of wax for modelling purposes.
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  • The art of casting bronze reached its culmination in the hands of a group of great expertsSeimin, TOun, Masatune, TeijO, SOmin, Keisai, Takusai, Gido, Zenryusai and Hotokusaiwho flourished during the second half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th.
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  • Among the artists of early times it is often difficult to distinguish between the carver of wood and the caster of bronze.
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  • In 1902 a bronze statue was erected to his memory at Friesack, and there is also a marble one of the elector in the "Siegesallee" at Berlin.
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  • We learn also that solid solutions which exist at high temperatures often break up into two materials as they cool; for example, the bronze of fig.
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  • An immense number of inscriptions have been found in the excavations, and many works of art, including a bronze charioteer, which is one of the most admirable statues preserved from ancient times.
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  • Cornelius Sulla for the payment of his soldiers; Nero removed no fewer than 500 bronze statues from the sacred precincts; Constantine the Great enriched his new city by the sacred tripod and its support of intertwined snakes dedicated by the Greek cities after the battle of Plataea.
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  • Matthiessen and Bose obtained large crystals of the alloy Au 2 Sn 5, having the colour of tin, which changed to a bronze tint by oxidation.
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  • The museum of the Accademia Etrusca, a learned body founded by Ridolfino Venuti in 1726, is situated in the Palazzo Pretorio; it contains some Etruscan objects, among which may be specially noted a magnificent bronze lamp with 16 lights, of remarkably fine workmanship, found in 1740, at the foot of the hill, two votive hands and a few other bronzes, and a little gold jewellery.
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  • As an industrial centre Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were widely exported over the Mediterranean.
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  • This arch appears on Roman coins from Augustus to Commodus; according to Pausanias it bore two four-horse chariots, one driven by Helios and the other by Phaethon, his son, all in gilded bronze.
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  • The bronze was plunged into the water in a red hot condition, and thus acquired its peculiar excellence.
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  • Near the middle of the long side is an opening; and from it a flight of seven steps led down to a trapezoidal chamber, on the back wall of which are two lions' heads of bronze, through which water, conducted in long semi-cylindrical channels of bronze, from behind the wall, poured out into pitchers for which holes are cut in the floor.
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  • There is no hope of finding the great bronze Athena, which stood in the middle of the agora.
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  • The head of the crozier, which is of silver-gilt with a smaller crozier of bronze inclosed within it, is now deposited in the National Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
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  • The excavations in the other larger mound resulted in the discovery of the remains of buildings containing objects of all sorts in bronze and stone, dating from the earliest Sumerian period onward, and enabling us to trace the art history of Babylonia to a date some hundreds of years before the time of Gudea.
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  • At its southern end, by the quay, is a bronze statue of Thiers, and at the northern end, the cathedral of St Augustine, a large church built in quasi-Byzantine style.
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  • An altar surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint has also been erected among the ruins.
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  • The present Palazzo Comunale, a Renaissance edifice, contains a fine museum, chiefly remarkable for the contents of prehistoric tombs found in the district (including good bronze fibulae, necklaces, amulets, &c., often decorated with amber), and a large collection of acorn-shaped lead missiles (glandes) used by slingers, belonging to the time of the siege of Asculum during the Social War (89 B.C.).
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  • A bronze statue of Luther by Rudolf Siemering (1835-1905) was unveiled in 1883.
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  • Among the last-mentioned are the square at the railway station - the Ernst August-Platz - with an equestrian statue of King Ernest Augustus in bronze; the triangular Theater-Platz, with statues of the composer Marschner and others; and the Georgs-Platz, with a statue of Schiller.
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  • At intervals are circular spaces, called " glorietas," with statues (the famous bronze equestrian statue of Charles IV., and monuments to Columbus, Cuauhtemoc the last of the Aztec emperors, and Juarez).
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  • The atmosphere of the whole town is, indeed, dominated by the memory of Goethe and Schiller, whose bronze statues, by Rietschel, grouped on one pedestal (unveiled in 1857) stand in front of the theatre.
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  • These include the bronze doors executed by Bishop Bernward, with reliefs from the history of Adam and of Jesus Christ; a brazen font of the 13th century; two large candelabra of the 11th century; the sarcophagus of St Godehard; and the tomb of St Epiphanius.
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  • In the cathedral also there is a bronze column 15 ft.
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  • The church of St Michael, founded by Bishop Bernward early in the 11th century and restored after injury by fire in 1186, contains a unique painted ceiling of the 12th century, the sarcophagus and monument of Bishop Bernward, and a bronze font; it is now a Protestant parish church, but the crypt is used by the Roman Catholics.
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  • There is another mint in Birmingham worked by a private company (" The Mint, Birmingham, Limited "), where coinages for foreign governments are executed and in addition silver and bronze colonial coins are occasionally manufactured under the supervision of the London Mint.
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  • Silver bullion, and the copper, tin and zinc required to make up bronze, are bought by the Mint and manufactured into coin, which is kept in stock and issued as it may be required.
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  • Coinage bronze consists of copper 95 parts, tin 4 parts and zinc I part, and a ton yields X44 8 in pence or £ 373, 6s.
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  • The difference between the nominal value of silver and bronze coin and its intrinsic value is retained by the state to cover the expenses of manufacture and as a source of profit.
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  • In spite of the cost of this recoinage, however, the profit on the issue of new silver and bronze usually exceeds in each year the total expenditure of the Mint.
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  • In the case of very large silver coins only one blank is cut in the width of the fillet, but bronze fillets are made wider so that three penny blanks are cut out at each stroke of the machine.
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  • The counting or telling is now carried out in the case of bronze and silver coins by ingenious machines introduced in 1891.
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  • A full account of the work of the Mint, with valuable tables giving the amount of the coinage of gold and silver and bronze in the United Kingdom and the colonies in detail, and a résumé of the coinages of foreign countries, will be found in the Annual Reports of the Deputy Master and Comptroller of the Mint, which have been published since 1870.
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  • Among its other industries are cotton printing and dye works, brewing, and the making of metal and bronze goods.
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  • These, with other inscriptions on stone and on bronze plates brought home by Englishmen, found a cautious and sound interpreter in Osiander.
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  • The character of the relics shows that in some cases the settlements have been the dwellings of a people using no materials but stone, bone and wood for their implements, ornaments and weapons; in others, of a people using bronze as well as stone and bone; and in others again the occasional use of iron is disclosed.
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  • The settlement of Robenhausen, in the moor which was formerly the bed of the ancient Lake of Pfaffikon, seems to have continued in occupation after the introduction of bronze.
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  • Of clay and earthenware there were many varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining the drossy coating of the melted bronze.
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  • The settlement of Auvernier in the Lake of Neuchatel is one of the richest and most considerable stations of the Bronze age.
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  • It has yielded four bronze swords, ten socketed spear-heads, forty celts or axe-heads and sickles, fifty knives, twenty socketed chisels, four hammers and an anvil, sixty rings for the arms and legs, several highly ornate torques or twisted neck rings, and upwards of two hundred hair pins of various sizes up to 16 in.
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  • The Lac de Bourget, in Savoy, has eight settlements, all of the Bronze age.
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  • These have yielded upwards of 4000 implements, weapons and ornaments of bronze, among which were a large proportion of moulds and founders' materials.
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  • A few stone implements suggest the transition from stone to bronze; and the occasional occurrence of iron weapons and pottery of Gallo-Roman origin indicates the survival of some of the settlements to Roman times.
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  • Keller, "in an age when iron and bronze had been long known, but had not come into our districts in such plenty as to be used for the common purposes of household life, at a time when amber had already taken its place as an ornament and had become an object of traffic."
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  • The forms and the ornamentation of the implements and weapons of stone and bronze found in the lake dwellings are the same as those of the implements and weapons in these materials found in the soil of the adjacent regions, and both groups must therefore be ascribed to the industry of one and the same people.
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  • There is no indication of an abrupt change from the use of stone to the use of metal such as might have occurred had the knowledge of copper and bronze, and the methods of working them, been introduced through the conquest of the original inhabitants by an alien race of superior culture and civilization.
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  • The contents of the relic beds indicate that they belong for the most part to the age of bronze, although in some cases they may be referred to the latter part of the Stone age.
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  • The central tower terminates in a Gothic spire surmounted by a gilded bronze statue of St Michael.
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  • Congress, in a joint resolution, tendered its thanks to Commodore Dewey, and to the officers and men under his command, and authorized "the secretary of the navy to present a sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and cause to be struck bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic squadron of the United States."
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  • The inside of the vault was ornamented with attached bronze ornaments, but not, as is sometimes stated, entirely lined with bronze.
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  • Opposite the cathedral is a fountain with bronze ornamentation of 1583-1621.
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  • The Tatar zodiac is not unfrequently found engraven on Chinese mirrors in polished bronze or steel of the 7th century, and figured on the " plateau of the twelve hours "' 5 " Orat.
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  • The graceful bell-tower, erected in 1224-1319, named La Ghirlandina from the bronze garland surrounding the weathercock, is 335 ft.
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  • The means at his disposal were inadequate, his excavations were incomplete and also unscientific in that his prime object was the discovery of inscriptions and museum objects; but he was wonderfully successful in achieving the results at which he aimed, and the numerous statues, monuments, inscribed stones, bronze objects and the like found by him in the ruins of Calah are among the most precious possessions of the British Museum.
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  • In it were found the winged lions, now in the British Museum, the fine series of sculptured bas-reliefs glorifying the deeds of Assur-nasir-pal in war and peace, and the large collection of bronze vessels and implements, numbering over 200 pieces; (b) the Central palace, in the interior of the mound, toward its southern end, erected by Shalmaneser II.
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  • While the ruins of Calah were remarkably rich in monumental material, enamelled bricks, bronze and ivory objects and the like, they yielded few of the inscribed clay tablets found in such great numbers at Nineveh and various Babylonian sites.
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  • On a plateau above the river, the favourite promenade of the citizens, stands the Vladimir monument (1853) in bronze.
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  • Bartholdi, stands in front of the castle; and in the Place d'Armes is the bronze group "Quand Meme" by Antonin Mercie, in memory of Thiers and of Colonel Pierre Marie Aristide Denfert-Rochereau (1823-1878), commandant of the place during the siege.
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  • One of the most noted pieces of monumental art in the United States is the beautiful Tyler Davidson bronze fountain in Fountain Square (Fifth Street, between Walnut and Vine streets), the business centre of the city, by which (or within one block of which) all car lines run.
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  • The design, by August von Kreling (1819-1876), embraces fifteen bronze figures, all cast at the royal bronze foundry in Munich, the chief being a female figure with outstretched arms, from whose fingers the water falls in a fine spray.
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  • At Crannon in Thessaly there was a bronze chariot, which in time of drought was shaken and prayers offered for rain (Antigonus of Carystus, Historiae mirabiles, 15).
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  • Buckingham, a bronze statue by Karl Gerhardt of Nathan Hale, a bronze tablet (also by Karl Gerhardt) in memory of John Fitch (1743-1798), the inventor; a portrait of Washington, purchased by the state in 1800 from the artist, Gilbert Stuart; and a series of oil portraits of the colonial and state governors.
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  • His flight on the shoulders of Aeneas is frequently represented on engraved gems of the Roman period; and his visit from Aphrodite is rendered in a beautiful bronze relief, engraved in Millingen's Unedited Gems.
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  • Both in the town and neighbourhood there are numerous foundries and works for iron, brass, steel and bronze goods, while other manufactures include wire, needles and pins, fish-hooks, machinery, umbrella-frames, thimbles, bits, furniture, chemicals, coffee-mills, and pinchbeck and britanniametal goods.
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  • The pulpit itself has beautiful reliefs of dancing children; beneath it is a splendid bronze capital.
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  • A secondary standard measure for dry goods is the bushel of 1824, containing 8 imperial gallons, represented by a hollow bronze cylinder having a plane base, its internal diameter bring double its depth.
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  • And a strange division of the shekel in 10 (probably therefore connected with this decimal mina) is shown by a series of bronze weights (44) with four curved sides and marked with circles (British Museum, place unknown), which may be Romano-Gallic, averaging 125/10.
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  • From Phoenicia this naturally became the main Punic unit; a bronze weight from Iol (18), marked 100, gives a drachma of 56 or 57 (224-228); and a Punic inscription (18) names 28 drachmae = 25 Attic, and therefore 57 to 59 grains (228-236); while a probably later series of 8 marble disks from Carthage (44) show 208, but vary from 197 to 234.
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  • This last conception lay beyond the horizon of Caesar, as of all ancient statesmen, but his first act on gaining control of Italy was to enfranchise the Transpadanes, whose claims he had consistently advocated, and in 45 B.C. he passed the Lex Julia Municipalis, an act of which considerable fragments are inscribed on two bronze tables found at Heraclea near Tarentum.3 This law deals inter alia with the police and the sanitary arrangements of the city of Rome, and hence it has been argued by Mommsen that it was Caesar's intention to reduce Rome to the level of a municipal town.
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  • In 1892 a bronze statue of Semper, by Johannes Schelling, was unveiled on the.
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  • The coinage of Mexico, now concentrated at the mint in the capital (all others having been closed) is based (since November 28, 1867) on the decimal system - the peso being divided into 100 centavos - and consists of gold, silver, nickel and bronze coins, whose weight and fineness are determined by the monetary law of 1904.
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  • Fractional silver coin is not legal tender above 20 pesos, and bronze and nickel coins not above 1 peso, but the government maintains conversion offices where such coins can be converted into silver pesos without loss.
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  • From the palaces and retinues of thousands of servants attached to the royal service may be inferred at once the despotic power of the Mexican rulers and the heavy taxation of the people; in fact some of the most remarkable of the picture-writings are tribute-rolls enumerating by hundreds and thousands the mantles, ocelot-skins, bags of gold-dust, bronze hatchets, loads of chocolate, &c., furnished periodically by the towns.
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  • The archers shot well and with strong bows, though their arrows were generally tipped only with stone or bone; their shields or targets, mostly round, were of ordinary barbaric forms; the spears or javelins had heads of obsidian or bronze, and were sometimes hurled with a spear-thrower or atlatl, of which pictures and specimens still exist, showing it to be similar in principle to those used by the Australians and Eskimo.
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  • Iron was not known, but copper and tin ores were mined, and the metals combined into bronze of much the same alloy as in the Old World, of which hatchet blades and other instruments were made, though their use had not superseded that of obsidian and other sharp stone flakes for cutting, shaving, &c. Metals had passed into a currency for trading purposes, especially quills of gold-dust and T-shaped pieces of copper, while coco-beans furnished small change.
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  • The brass and bronze industries are carried on at Iserlohn and Altena, those of tin and Britannia metal at Ludenscheid; needles are made at Iserlohn and wire at Altena.
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  • There is a bronze statue of the duke of Wellington (erected in 1854) by John Evan Thomas, a native of the town.
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  • Two bronze doors, those on the north and west of the church, are of great interest in the history of art.
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  • The cathedrals at Trani and Ravello also have bronze doors by the same sculptor.
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  • The western door at Monreale, inferior to the northern one both in richness of design and in workmanship, is by Bonannus of Pisa, for the cathedral of which place he cast the still existing bronze door on the south, opposite the leaning tower.
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  • The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek XaXKOS (copper, bronze), though there is no trace of any mines in the neighbourhood.
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  • Its rich library is now housed in the old university buildings, erected in the 15th century, in the beautiful Gothic court of which a bronze statue of Copernicus was placed in 1900.
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  • The 16th-century Fortezza Vecchia, guarding the harbour, is picturesque, and there is a good bronze statue of the grand duke Ferdinand I.
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  • There is a portrait of her in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, and a bronze medal in the British Museum representing the bringing back of her ashes to Rome by order of Caligula.
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  • Inscriptions, beautiful mosaics and other traces of comfortable houses have been found, with many potsherds, coins and bronze, iron and other objects; and a large part of the town walls, several mosaics and parts of buildings, can be seen.
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  • In the Neustadt are the market square, with a bronze equestrian statue of Augustus the Strong; the Kaiser Wilhelmplatz; and the Aibertplatz.
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  • The public monuments of Dresden also include the Moritz Monument, a relief dedicated by the elector Augustus to his brother Maurice, a statue of Weber the composer by Rietschel, a bronze statue of Theodor Korner by Hahne', the Rietschel monument on the Briihl Terrace by Schilling, a bust of Gutzkow, and a statue of Bismarck on the promenade.
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  • Within the plaza are a monument to the soldiers who fell in New Mexico during the Civil War and the Indian wars, a stone marking the spot where the first American flag was raised by General Kearny in 1846, and a bronze drinking fountain erected as a memorial to John Baptist Lamy (1814-1888), the first Roman Catholic bishop (1853) and archbishop (1815) of Santa Fe.
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  • This work was refused; the jury alleged that a statue of Diana demanded drapery; without drapery, they said, the goddess became a "suivante de Venus," and not even the proud and frank chastity of the attitude and expression could save the Diana of Houdon (a bronze reproduction of which is in the Louvre) from insult.
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  • For this reason some observers use a thin strip of phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty in handling the more fragile metallic suspension.
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  • During the Neolithic and Bronze Ages we can dimly trace further immigrations.
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  • Real knowledge begins with two Celtic invasions, that of the Goidels in the later part of the Bronze Age, and that of the Brythons and Belgae in the Iron Age.
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  • Its finest products were in bronze, but the artistic impulse spread to humbler work in wood and pottery.
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  • Smaller objects abound - coins, pottery, window and bottle and cup glass, bronze ornaments, iron tools, &c. - and many belong to the beginnings of Calleva, but few pieces are individually notable.
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  • The nature of the imports during the heathen period may be learned chiefly from the graves, which contain many brooches and other ornaments of continental origin, and also a certain number of silver, bronze and glass vessels.
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  • No bronze coins were current except in Northumbria, where they were extremely common in the 9th century.
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  • As to the value of the bronze coins we are without information The purchasing power of money was very great.
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  • But the last-mentioned type varies greatly, from rude and almost plain disks of bronze to magnificent gold specimens studded with gems. No.
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  • The evil reputation of these festivals, at which the grossest debaucheries took place, and all kinds of crimes and political conspiracies were supposed to be planned, led in 186 B.C. to a decree of the senate - the so-called Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, inscribed on a bronze tablet discovered in Calabria (1640), now at Vienna - by which the Bacchanalia were prohibited throughout the whole of Italy, except in certain special cases, in which the senate reserved the right of allowing them, subject to certain restrictions.
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  • Boreas carrying off Oreithyia is the subject of a beautiful bronze relief in the British Museum, found in the island of Calymna.
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  • The doors had pivots of bronze revolving in well-fitted bronze cup-like sockets let into the thresholds.
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  • As no Teutonic inscriptions are extant from before the 3rd or 4th centuries, it cannot be stated with absolute certainty what types of objects are characteristic of Teutonic civilization in the bronze and earliest iron ages.
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  • Yet throughout the bronze age it is possible to trace a fairly well-defined group of antiquities covering the basin of the Elbe, Mecklenburg, Holstein, Jutland, southern Sweden and the islands of the Belt, and archaeologists have conjectured with much probability that these antiquities represent the early civilization of the Teutonic peoples.
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  • We have evidence, both archaeological and linguistic, that the cultivation of cereals in Teutonic lands goes back to a very remote period, while the antiquity even of the ox-plough is attested by the rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan (Sweden), which are believed to date from early in the bronze age.
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  • Cremation makes its appearance first in the earlier part of the bronze age, and in the latter part of that age practically displaces the older rite.
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  • Laurentius, archbishop of Sipontum; the bronze doors, made in Constantinople, bear the date 1076.
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  • Titian painted Paul's portrait, and Guglielmo della Porta cast the bronze statue which now adorns his grave in St Peter's.
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  • In memory of the victory several monuments have been erected in the town and its vicinity, of which the most noticeable are the bronze statue of the Danish Land Soldier by Bissen (one of Thorvaldsen's pupils), and the great barrow over 50o Danes in the cemetery of the Holy Trinity Church, with a bas-relief by the same sculptor.
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  • The old wooden doors, burnt in 1760, were replaced in 1858 by bronze doors, bearing the Latin text of the theses.
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  • It is said that the shadow of Mount Athos fell at sunset on a bronze cow in the agora of Myrina.
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  • Within the grounds, which comprise nearly 1500 acres, is the mausoleum erected by the 10th duke, a structure resembling in general design that of the emperor Hadrian at Rome, being a circular building springing from a square basement, and enclosing a decorated octagonal chapel, the door of which is a copy in bronze of Ghiberti's gates at Florence.
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  • Aristotle saw in the temple of Hera at Olympia a bronze disk, recording the traditional laws of the festival, on which the name of Lycurgus stood next to that of Iphitus, king of Elis.
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  • The Zanes were bronze images of Zeus, the cost of making which was defrayed by the fines exacted from competitors who had infringed the rules of the contests at Olympia.
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  • This has been much crossed with the American Bronze, the largest of all, which has the beautiful metallic plumage of the wild bird, with the 1 The French Coq and Poule d'Inde (whence Dindon) involve no contradiction, looking to the general idea of what India then was.
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  • In front is a beautiful quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work.
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  • In the crypt is a bronze statue of St Matthew.
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  • Owing to proximity to the magnetic compass the whole of the tube must be non-magnetic. High-strength bronze was used in the earlier practice in the British navy.
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  • Krupp for use for the outer tube of the German navy periscope used before the war, and a similar steel was developed and used in the British service, but it is costly and more difficult to machine to the required accuracy than is the case with bronze.
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  • The plumage is white, except the primaries, which are black, and a black plume, formed by the secondaries, tertials and lower scapulars, and richly glossed with bronze, blue and green, which curves gracefully over the hind-quarters.
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  • About ioo lb of bronze, containing from 15 to 20 lb of aluminium, were obtained from each run, the yield of the alloy being reported at about 1 lb per 18 e.h.p.-hours.
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  • The large bronze candelabrum in the left transept is said to be 13th century work.
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  • In front of the cathedral rises a colossal bronze equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel II.
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  • House industry is still widely diffused in Milan itself, especially as regards working in gold, silver, vulcanite, bronze and leather.
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  • No objects have been discovered belonging to the period intermediate between the 7th and 3rd centuries B.C.; but "from about 250 B.C. onwards we have a series of Praenestine graves surmounted by the characteristic ` pine-apple ' of local stone, containing stone coffins with rich bronze, ivory and gold ornaments beside the skeleton.
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  • Behind the exchange is the great market-place, built on vaulting over a canal, and containing a bronze statue of Erasmus, who was born in Rotterdam in 1467.
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  • In 1900 the association for the preservation of Virginia antiquities, to which the site was deeded in 1893, induced the United States government to build a wall to prevent the further encroachment of the river; the foundations of several of the old buildings have since been uncovered, many interesting relics have been found, and in 1907 there were erected a brick church (which is as far as possible a reproduction of the fourth one built in 1639-1647), a marble shaft marking the site of the first settlement, another shaft commemorating the first house of burgesses, a bronze monument to the memory of Captain John Smith, and another monument to the memory of Pocahontas.
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  • If iron thus preceded copper in many places, still more must it have preceded bronze, an alloy of copper and tin much less likely than either iron or copper to be made unintentionally.
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  • It is not improbable that, once bronze became known, it might replace iron in a measure, perhaps even in a very large measure, because it is so fusible that it can be cast directly and easily;into many useful shapes.
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  • The absence of iron and the abundance of bronze in the relics of a prehistoric people is a piece of evidence to be accepted with caution, because the great defect of iron, its proneness to rust, would often lead to its complete disappearance, or conversion into an unrecognizable mass, even though tools of bronze originally laid down beside it might remain but little corroded.
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  • That the ancients should have discovered an art of hardening bronze is grossly improbable, first because it is not to be hardened by any simple process like the hardening of steel, and second because, if they had, then a large proportion of the ancient bronze tools now known ought to be hard, which is not the case.
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  • With this method of making molten cast iron in the hands of a people already familiar with bronze founding, iron founding, i.e.
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  • Numerous isolated palaeolithic objects of the Mousterian type have been found in the neighbourhood of Rome in the quaternary gravels of the Tiber and Anio; but no certain traces of the neolithic period have come to light, as the many Pre" flint implements found sporadically round Rome pro- historic bably belong to the period which succeeded neolithic (called by Italian archaeologists the eneolithic period) inasmuch as both stone and metal (not, however, bronze, but copper) were in use.
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  • Objects of the Bronze age too have only been found sporadically.
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  • There are also preserved the bronze statues which stood over the portal of the palace before the fire - figures of Strength, Wisdom, Health and Justice, designed by Thorvaldsen.
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  • Over the principal entrance is the chariot of Victory drawn by four horses, executed in bronze from a model by Bissen.
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  • The Norrevold Gade leads through the N6rretor y past the Folketeatre and the technical school to the Orsteds park, and from its southern end the Vestervold Gade continues through the Raadhus Plads, a centre of tramways, flanked by the modern Renaissance town hall (190,), ornamented with bronze figures, with a tower at the eastern angle.
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  • There are several quaint old houses, with high gables, in the market-place, in the middle of which stand a Roland column, of about 1445, and a bronze figure known as the Butterjungfer (butter-girl), of uncertain origin and meaning, but now regarded as the palladium of the town.
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  • The city has four parks, in one of which is a soldiers' and sailors' monument of granite and bronze, and not far away, along the shore of lake and bay, are several attractive summer resorts.
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  • The most remarkable edifice was a celebrated temple, adorned with 250 lofty pillars of gilt wood, and containing a colossal bronze statue of Buddha.
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  • It contains a famous bronze statue of Victory, found in 1826.
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  • Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admiration - more especially when it is considered that these are the casual results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Herculaneum had not) after the eruption of 79.
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  • Nickel coins are 10 and 5 pfennige pieces, and there are bronze coins of 2 and I pfennige.
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  • As regards north Germany, Muller puts the Northern Bronze age 500 years later than the Southern, but a recent find in Sweden bears out Monteliuss view that southern influence made itself rapidly felt in the North.
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  • Bronze Age (in south Germany from c. 2000-1000 B.C.).In the later StOne age we note the occasional use of copper, and then the gradual appearance of bronze.
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  • The bronze civilization of the Aegean seems to have had direct influence along the basins of the Danube and Elbe, while the culture of the western parts of central Germany was transmitted through Italy and France.
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  • Bronze is cast, whereas at a later time it shows signs of the hammer.
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  • The women wore two bronze pins, a bracelet on each arm, amber ornaments and a necklace of bronze tubes in spirals.
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  • In Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia, Posen and Saxony, where there was no strong Bronze age tradition, Hallstatt influence is very noticeable.
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  • Fibulae, often of the kettle-drum form, take the place of the Bronze age pin.
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  • Immense booty was secured, the Venetians obtaining among other treasures the four bronze horses which adorn the facade of St Mark's.
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  • The vases were of the last red figure style, and were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) from Gaul.
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  • The second period (150o-l000 B.C.) shows a great increase in the use of bronze, and the introduction of gold and silver, and of imported Mycenaean vases.
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  • There are signs of settlement at Halstead (Halsteda,Halgusted, Halsted) in the Bronze Age; but there is no evidence of the causes of its growth in historic times.
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  • This people had dwelt in the Aegean from the Stone Age, and, though still in the Bronze Age at the Achaean conquest, had made great advances in the useful and ornamental arts.
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  • They introduced a special style of ornament ("geometric") instead of that of the Bronze Age, characterized by spirals and marine animals and plants.
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  • We now find a sudden issue of bronze money by a large number of the cities of the kingdom in their own name - an indication of liberties extended or confirmed.
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  • There is a bronze statue to John Fielden (1784-1849), to whose energy in developing the cotton manufacture the town owes much of its prosperity.
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  • The birds include the ostrich, marabout, vultures, kites, hawks, ground hornbill, great bustard, guinea fowl, partridge, lesser bustard, quail, snipe, duck, widgeon, teal, geese of various kinds, paraquets, doves, blue, bronze and green pigeons, and many others.
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  • Egyptian silver money is minted at Birmingham, and nickel and bronze money at Vienna.
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  • The Cairenes and the inhabitants of Lower Egypt generally have a clear complexion and soft skin of a light yellowisb color; those of Middle Egypt have a tawny skin, and the dwellers in Upper Egypt a deep bronze or brown complexion.
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  • Stone mace-heads are found in the earliest cemeteries, together with flint implements that may be the heads of lances, &c, and thin leaf-shaped daggers of bronze.
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  • Rings of metal, gold, silver and bronze played some part in exchange, and from the Hyksos period onwards formed the usual standards by which articles of all kinds might be valued.
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  • Chisels of bronze began of very small size (33) at S.D.
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  • The socketed or mortising chisel (38) is unknown till the Italian bronze of the 8th century s.c., and the Naucratis iron of the 6th century.
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  • Rasps of conical form (45), made of a sheet of bronze punched and coiled round, were common in the XVI1Ith Dynasty, apparently as personal objects, possibly used for rasping dried bread.
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  • The saw is first found as a notched bronze knife of the IHrd Dynasty.
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  • There are no dated specimens till the Assyrian iron saws (48) of the 7th century B.C. Drills were of flint (49) for hard material and bead-making, of bronze for woodwork.
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  • The drill brace appears to have been used by Assyrians in the 7th century B.C. Piercers of bronze tapering (58), to enlarge holes in leather, &c., were common in all ages.
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  • Fine ones of bronze are common in the XVIIIth Dynasty, and some with two eyes at right angles, one above the other, to carry two different threads.
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  • Casting bronze over iron rods was also done, to gain more stiffness for thin parts.
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  • Metal seems to be entirely absent from the earliest type of graves, but immediately thereafter copper begins to appear (bronze is hardly to be found before the XIIth Dynasty).
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  • The wheels and body of the chariot were usually of wood, strengthened in places with bronze or iron; the wheels had from four to eight spokes and tires of bronze or iron.
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  • The degradation of the chamber naturally produced a corresponding degradation of the mound which covered it, and the barrows of the Bronze Age, in which cremation was common, are smaller and less imposing than those of the Stone Age, but often surprisingly rich in the relics of the life and of the art workmanship of the time.
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  • In addition to the varied and beautiful forms of implements and weapons - frequently ornamented with a high degree of artistic taste - armlets and other personal ornaments in gold, amber, jet and bronze are not uncommon.
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  • The barrows of the bronze period, like some of those of the Stone Age, appear to have been used as tribal or family cemeteries.
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  • The obsequies of Achilles, as described in the Odyssey, were also celebrated with details which are strikingly similar to those observed in tumuli both of the Bronze and Iron Ages.
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  • He built Castelfranco on the northern frontier; fortified the port of Civita Vecchia; and strengthened the Castel Sant' Angelo, equipping it with cannon made from the bronze of the Pantheon, an act of vandalism which the Romans punished by the epigram, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini."
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  • Remains of an ancient bronze furnace, discovered near the town, tend to prove that tinsmelting was practised here at an early period.
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  • Tubal may be the eponymous ancestor of the people of that name mentioned in Ezekiel in connexion with "vessels of bronze."
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  • In view of the connexion, the poem is interpreted as expressing Lamech's exultation at the advantage he expects to derive from Tubal-Cain's new inventions; the worker in bronze will forge for him new and formidable weapons, so that he will be able to take signal vengeance for the least injury.
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  • This consisted of bronze swords and vases, gold jewellery with agate and other gems, bracelets, collars, a seal cylinder and two engraved gold rings, one of which, the largest known, bears a religious scene.
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  • Another new bronze from Crete had been lately acquired (1921) by an English collector.
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  • They had been plundered and were destroyed to within a metre of the ground, but still contained some pottery and stone vases, bronze blades, seals, and ivory fragments.
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  • Many bronze mirrors were found.
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  • A cemetery at Locri yielded large numbers of poor Greek vases, and some exceptionally fine bronze mirrors.
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  • Afterwards a population to whom bronze was known left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the Bay of Aniva.
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  • Here was found the bronze statue of Mars, now in the Vatican, so that the building is sometimes erroneously called the temple of Mars.
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  • In Africa, where there has been no Bronze Age, the use of iron succeeded immediately the use of stone.
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  • The dead were buried in an extended position, while in the preceding Bronze Age cremation had been the rule.
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  • A good deal of local self-government was permitted; the cities struck their own bronze coins, inscribed on them the names of their own magistrates, 2 and probably administered their own laws in matters purely local.
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  • A bronze statue of the reformer was erected in the Anger, the chief street of the town, in 1890.
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  • Here a colossal statue of him was set up in bronze by the Greeks after their victory over the Persians.
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  • Ganymede being carried off by the eagle was the subject of a bronze group by the Athenian sculptor Leochares, imitated in a marble statuette in the Vatican.
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  • The names generally given to the three prehistoric periods of man's life on the earth - the Stone, the Bronze and the Iron age - imply the vast importance of the progressive steps from the flint knife to the bronze celt, and lastly to the keen-edged elastic iron weapon or tool.
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  • The metals chiefly used in the arts have been gold, silver, copper and tin (the last two generally mixed, forming an alloy called bronze), iron and lead (see the separate articles on these metals).
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  • The great fluidity of bronze when melted, the slightness of its contraction on solidifying, together with its density and hardness, make it especially suitable for casting, and allow of its taking the impress of the mould with extreme sharpness and delicacy.
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  • In many specimens of ancient bronze, small quantities of silver, lead and zinc have been found, but their presence is probably accidental.
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  • In modern times brass has been much used, chiefly for the sake of its cheapness as compared with bronze.
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  • In beauty, durability and delicacy of surface it is very inferior to bronze, and, though of some commercial importance, has been of but little use in the production of works of art.
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  • Among the Assyrians, Egyptians and Greeks the use of iron, either cast or wrought, was very limited, bronze being the favourite metal almost for all purposes.
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  • The difficulty of smelting the ore was probably one reason for this, as well as the now forgotten skill which enabled bronze to be tempered to a steel-like edge.
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  • The first of these, casting is chiefly adapted for bronze, or ' Analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the interesting fact that many of these earliest specimens of iron manufacture contain a considerable percentage of nickel.
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  • The next stage was, in the case of bronze, to introduce an iron core, probably to save needless expenditure of the more valuable metal.
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  • It is a bronze statuette from Sessa on the Volturno, about 2 ft.
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  • Their exact method is not certainly known, but it appears probable that they were acquainted with the process now called a cire perdue - the same as that employed by the great Italian artists in bronze.
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  • If a statue was to be cast, the figure was first roughly modelled in clay - only rather smaller in all its dimensions than the future bronze; all over this a skin of wax was laid, and worked by the sculptor with modelling tools to the required form and finish.
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  • Thus a hollow was left, corresponding to the skin of wax between the core and the mould, the relative positions of which were preserved by various small rods of bronze, which had previously been driven through from the outer mould to the rough core.
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  • The mould was now ready, and melted bronze was poured in till the whole space between the core and the outer mould was full.
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  • The projecting rods of bronze were then cut away, and the whole finished by rubbing down and polishing over any roughness or defective places.
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  • The most skilful sculptors, however, had but little of this after-touching to do, the final modelling and even polish which they had put upon the wax being faithfully reproduced in the bronze casting.
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  • In the most primitive method thin plates of bronze were hammered over a wooden core, rudely cut into the required shape, the core serving the double purpose of giving shape to and strengthening the thin metal.
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  • This process was chiefly applied by medieval artists to the precious metals, but by the Assyrians, Greeks and other early nations it was largely used for bronze.
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  • They are a pair of shoulderpieces from a suit of bronze armour, and each has in very high relief a combat between a Greek warrior and an Amazon.
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  • Copper in its pure state may be worked by the same methods as bronze, but it is inferior to it in hardness, strength and beauty of surface.
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  • As in almost all the arts, the ancient Egyptians excelled in their metal-work, especially in the use of bronze and the precious metals.
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  • The description of the great gold lions of Solomon's throne, and the laver of cast bronze supported on figures of oxen, shows that the artificers of that time had overcome the difficulties of metal-working and founding on a large scale.
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  • The numerous objects of bronze and other metals brought to light by the excavations in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, though mostly on a small scale, bear witness to the great skill and artistic power of the people who produced them; while the discovery of some bronze statuettes, shown by inscriptions on them to be not later than 2200 B.C., proves how early was the development of this branch of art among the people of Assyria.
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  • The early history of metal-working in Greece is extremely obscure, and archaeologists are divided in opinion even on so important a question as the relative use of bronze and iron in the Homeric age.
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  • The poems of Homer are full of descriptions of elaborate works in bronze, gold and silver, which, even when full allowance is made for poetic fancy, show clearly enough very advanced skill in the working and ornamenting of these metals.
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  • Homer's description of the shield of Achilles, made of bronze, enriched with bands of figure reliefs in gold, silver and tin, could hardly have been written by a man who had not some personal acquaintance with works in metal of a very elaborate kind.
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