They are said to diminish the secretion of the bronchial mucous membrane.
- Syrinx muscles entirely lateral or attached to the dorsal or ventral corners of the bronchial semi-rings.
In the north, however, the hot lowlands are malarial and unsuited to north European settlement, while the dry, elevated plateaus are celebrated for their healthiness, those of Catamarca having an excellent reputation as a sanatorium for sufferers from pulmonary and bronchial diseases.
External tympaniform membranes exist, with great variations, between the specialized one or two last tracheal and some of the first bronchial rings.
According to the position of the chief sound-producing membranes, three types of syrinx are distinguishable: - (i) Tracheo-bronchial, by far the commonest form, of which the two others are to a certain extent modifications.
The outer membranes are spread out between two or more successive bronchial semi-rings, a distance from the trachea which is, in typical cases, devoid of sounding membranes; some Cuculi, Caprimulgi, and some owls.
Omitting the paired tracheo-clavicular muscles, we restrict ourselves to the syringeal proper, those which extend between tracheal and bronchial rings.
Their numbers vary from one pair to seven, and they are inserted either upon the middle portion of the bronchial semi-rings (Mesomyodi), or upon the ends of these semi-rings where these pass into the inner tympaniform membrane (Acromyodi).
The climate is characterized by hot days and cool nights, and is considered healthy, though the daily change tends to provoke bronchial, catarrhal and inflammatory diseases.
Sulphur is of use in chronic bronchial affections, ridding the lungs of mucus and relieving cough.
There is much malaria in the wooded districts of the east and on the higher campos, where the daily extremes of temperature are great, lung and bronchial diseases are common.
The days are usually hot and the nights cold, the variations in temperature being a fruitful cause of bronchial and pulmonary diseases.
For several years Cobden had been suffering severely at intervals from bronchial irritation and a difficulty of breathing.
Sodium nitrite, ethyl nitrite, amyl nitrite) cause relaxation of involuntary muscular fibre and therefore relieve the asthmatic attacks, which depend upon spasm of the involuntary muscles in the bronchial tubes.
It possesses only slight influence over the heart and respiration, but it has a specific effect on mucous membranes as the elimination of the drug takes place largely through the lungs, where it aids in loosening bronchial secretions.
On the Bade Insel is the Kurhaus (1872) and also the chief spring, the Elisabethquelle, impregnated with iodine and bromine, and prescribed for scrofulous, bronchial and rheumatic disorders.
The final arrest is due to paralysis of the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata, hastened by a quasi-asthmatic contraction of the non-striped muscular tissue in the bronchial tubes, and by a "water-logging" of the lungs due to an increase in the amount of bronchial secretion.
Benzoic acid is also excreted by the bronchi and tends to disinfect and stimulate the bronchial mucous membrane.
As it is largely excreted by the lungs it may be found useful in bronchial asthma.
The climate is beneficial for those afflicted with bronchial and pulmonary troubles; the average mean annual temperature for eleven years ending with 1907 was 51° F.
The tincture often known as " paregoric " is also largely used in bronchial conditions, and morphine shows no sign of displacing it in favour.
The name Weissenburg occurs in three other places; the town of Weissenburg-am-Sand in Bavaria; a Swiss invalid resort in the Niedersimmental, above Lake Thun, with sulphate of lime springs, beneficial for bronchial affections; also a Hungarian comitat (Magyar Fejervar), with Stuhlweissenburg as capital.
The physiological action of stramonium resembles that of belladonna, except that stramonium relaxes to a greater extent the unstriped muscle of the bronchial tubes; for this reason it is used in asthma to relieve the bronchial spasm.
Expectorants increase the bronchial secretions; antispasmodics relax the spasm of the muscular coat of the bronchial tubes, e.g.
The essential feature is that the proximal end of the inner membranes is attached to the last pair of tracheal rings; outer tympaniform membranes exist generally between the 2nd, 3rd and 4th bronchial semi-rings.
This treatment is frequently very successful indeed in relaxing the bronchial spasm upon which the most obvious features of an attack depend.
Thus as it passes out by the bronchial mucous membrane it increases the amount of secretion and so acts as an expectorant.