How to use Bromine in a sentence
From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.
It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.
It combines directly with fluorine at Ordinary temperature, and with chlorine, bromine and sulphur on heating.
For instance, 35'45 parts of chlorine and 79.96 parts of bromine combine with 107.93 parts of silver; and when chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35'45 parts of the former to 79.96 parts of the latter.Advertisement
Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable resemblance, may be explained in the following manner.
Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.
A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.Advertisement
Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabromdichloracetone (5).
The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
Caoutchouc, like other "unsaturated" molecules, forms compounds with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur.
The Ivanhoe baths, erected in 1826, are frequented for their saline waters, which, as containing bromine, are found useful in scrofulous and rheumatic complaints.
The hydrogen in the primary and secondary nitro compounds which is attached to the same carbon atom as the nitro group is readily replaced by bromine in alkaline solution.Advertisement
It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.
Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
In 1830 he published in the Philosophical Transactions a paper on the iodine and bromine of mineral waters.
Sometimes reagents are placed in the combustion tube, for example lead oxide (litharge), which takes up bromine and sulphur.Advertisement
It crystallizes in small colourless needles and is easily soluble in water; the concentrated aqueous solution dissolves bromine and iodine readily.
The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.
Skey showed that in substances which contain small quantities of gold the precious metal may be removed by the solvent action of iodine or bromine in water.
Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.Advertisement
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
Oxidation gives formaldehyde, formic acid and carbonic acid; chlorine and bromine react, but less readily than with ethyl alcohol.
It combines directly with two and four atoms of bromine.
With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.Advertisement
It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.
Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
For sodii bromidum, iodidum and salicylatum see Bromine, Iodine and Salicylic Acid respectively.
Fittig (Ann., 1876, 180, p. 23) readily explains the formation of the monoand di-oximes of quinone and also that it readily combines with bromine.Advertisement
For the oxyhalogen salts see Chlorate, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
The action of potassium bromide and potassium iodide has been treated under bromine and iodine (q.v.).
Commercial iodine may be purified by mixing it with a little potassium iodide and then subliming the mixture; in this way any traces of bromine or chlorine are removed.
Iodine possesses a characteristic penetrating smell, not so pungent, however, as that of chlorine or bromine.
Its chemical properties closely resemble those of chlorine and bromine; its affinity for other elements, however, is as a rule less than that of either.Advertisement
Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
Potassium ferricyanide, K 3 Fe(NC)s, red prussiate of potash, is obtained by oxidizing potassium ferrocyanide with chlorine, bromine, &c., 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + C1 2 = 2K 3 Fe(NC) 6 + 2KC1.
On the Bade Insel is the Kurhaus (1872) and also the chief spring, the Elisabethquelle, impregnated with iodine and bromine, and prescribed for scrofulous, bronchial and rheumatic disorders.
When there is appreciable absorption as in the case of the vapours of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, selenium and arsenic, luminosity begins at a red heat.
Such spectra seem to be characteristic of complex molecular structure, as they appear when compounds are raised to incandescence without decomposition, or when we examine the absorption spectra of vapours such as iodine and bromine and other cases where we know that the molecule consists of more than one atom.Advertisement
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
The detection of the presence of chlorine or bromine or iodine in a compound is at present undecided, and it may be well that we may have to look for its effects in a different part of the spectrum.
When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed.
By the addition of potassium bromide and bromine water to diazonium salts they are converted into a perbromide, e.g.
Consequently, of each pair of isomers we may establish beforehand which is the more stable; either in particular circumstances, a direct change taking place, as, for instance, with maleic acid, which when exposed to sunlight in presence of a trace of bromine, yields the isomeric fumaric acid almost at once, or, indirectly, one may conclude that the isomer which forms under greater heat-development is the more stable, at least at lower temperatures.Advertisement
It burns in air, and also in chlorine and bromine, and is readily oxidized by nitric acid.
It combines readily with fluorine, chlorine and bromine, and also with sulphur, selenium, phosphorus, &c.
In 1826 he discovered in sea-water a substance which he recognized as a previously unknown element and named bromine.
While the discovery of bromine and the preparation of many of its compounds was his most conspicuous piece of work, Balard was an industrious chemist on both the pure and applied sides.
It yields a nitroso derivative, is nitrated by nitric acid to dilituric acid and brominated by bromine.
Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.
Chlorine acts on it readily in the cold, bromine not so easily, and iodine only when the mixture is heated.
Tungsten combines directly with bromine to give, when the bromine is in excess, the pentaand not a hexabromide.
It slowly evolves bromine on standing, and is at once decomposed by water into the blue oxide and hydrobromic acid.
By passing bromine vapour over red-hot tungsten dioxide a mixture of WO 2 Br 2 and WOBr4 is obtained, from which the latter can be removed by gently heating when it volatilizes.
The term is applied to the four elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, on account of the great similarity of their sodium salts to ordinary sea-salt.
Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
Compounds of fluorine and oxygen, and of bromine and oxygen, have not yet been isolated.
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
By the action of bromine in alkaline solution it is converted into /3-aminopropionic acid.
Barium bromate, Ba(Br03)2, can be prepared by the action of excess of bromine on barytawater, or by decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of loo parts of potassium bromate with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride.
Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen, except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known.
Antimony tribromide, SbBr 3, and tri-iodide, SbI 31 may be prepared by the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon bisulphide.
Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution a dark violet, and bromine water precipitates tribromresorcin.
The nature of the substituent exerts a specific influence on the reaction; thus with chlorine or bromine, ortho-semidines and the diphenyl bases are the chief products; the dimethylamino, -N(CH 3) 2, and acetamino, -NHCOCH3, groups give the diphenyl base and the para-semidine respectively.
This test answers with a solution containing only 1 part of quinine in 5000, or in a solution containing not more than part if bromine be used instead of chlorine.
Bromine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with various metals is very widely but sparingly distributed.
The chief centres of the bromine industry are Stassfurt and the central district of Michigan.
Any uncondensed bromine vapour is absorbed by moist iron borings, and the resulting iron bromide is used for the manufacture of potassium bromide.
The crude bromine is purified by repeated shaking with potassium, sodium or ferrous bromide and subsequent redistillation.
Stas, in his stoichiometric researches, prepared chemically pure bromine from potassium bromide, by converting it into the bromate which was purified by repeated crystallization.
Bromine at ordinary temperatures is a mobile liquid of fine red colour, which appears almost black in thick layers.
Bromine is readily soluble in chloroform, alcohol and ether.
Bromine and bromine water both bleach organic colouring matters.
Bromine is used extensively in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent and also for the preparation of addition compounds.
Reactions in which it is used in the liquid form, in vapour, in solution, and in the presence of the so-called "bromine carriers."
Some reactions, which are only possible by the aid of nascent bromine, are carried out by using solutions of sodium bromide and bromate, with the amount of sulphuric acid calculated according to the equation 5NaBr NaBr03-1-6H2S04= 6NaHSO 4 3H 2 O 6Br.
Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.
The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
For oxidizing purposes bromine is generally employed in aqueous and in alkaline solutions, one of its most important applications being by Emil Fischer (Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 362) in his researches on the sugars.
This acid, HBr, the only compound of hydrogen and bromine, is in many respects similar to hydrochloric acid, but is rather less stable.
It may be prepared by passing hydrogen gas and bromine vapour through a tube containing a heated platinum spiral.
It cannot be prepared with any degree of purity by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on bromides, since secondary reactions take place, leading to the liberation of free bromine and formation of sulphur dioxide.
The usual method employed for the preparation of the gas consists in dropping bromine on to a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and water, when a violent reaction takes place and the gas is rapidly liberated.
Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.
They are decomposed by chlorine, with liberation of bromine and formation of metallic chlorides; concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes them, with formation of a metallic sulphate and liberation of bromine and sulphur dioxide.
Hydrobromic acid and its salts can be readily detected by the addition of chlorine water to their aqueous solutions, when bromine is liberated; or by warming with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, the same result being obtained.
No oxides of bromine have as yet been isolated, but three oxy-acids are known, namely hypobromous acid, HBrO, bromous acid, HBr02, and bromic acid, HBrO 3.
It is a very unstable compound, breaking up, on heating, into bromine and oxygen.
Bromic acid is obtained by the addition of the calculated amount of sulphuric acid (previously diluted with water) to the barium salt; by the action of bromine on the silver salt, in the presence of water, 5AgBrO, 3Br 2 3H 2 O = 5AgBr 6HBrO 3, or bypassing chlorine through asolution of bromine in water.
The salts of bromine are widely used in photography, especially bromide of silver.
For antiseptic purposes it has been prepared as "bromum solidificatum," which consists of kieselguhr or similar substance impregnated with about 75% of its weight of bromine.
The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
The pentabromide, PBr 5, which results from phosphorus and an excess of bromine, is a yellow solid, and closely resembles the pentachloride.
Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.
Bromine water is also employed.
The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.
Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.
Ferric bromide, FeBr31 is obtained as dark red crystals by heating iron in an excess of bromine vapour.
It burns in an atmosphere of chlorine forming the trichloride; it also combines directly with bromine and sulphur on heating, while on fusion with alkalis it forms arsenites.
Chlorine, bromine and iodine decompose arsine readily, the action being most violent in the case of chlorine.
At Woodhall Spa on the Horncastle branch railway there is a much-frequented bromine and iodine spring.
Bromine and potash give anthranilic acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2) (CO 2 H).
This page assumes that you have already read the page on the addition of bromine to symmetrical alkenes.
Bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine is polarized by the approaching pi bond in the cyclohexene.
More reactive halogens displace less reactive halogens from their solutions eg chlorine displaces bromine.
The scientist has put some liquid bromine into the pipe on the right.
Know how to distinguish alkenes (as unsaturated hydrocarbons) from alkanes (as saturated hydrocarbons) using addition reactions with aqueous bromine.
There is emerging evidence for the presence of reactive bromine and iodine in the troposphere.
You can, however, deduce it fairly easily if you know the mechanism for the addition of pure bromine.
So step (1) is the same for non-aqueous bromine, however step (2) is different!
Dead Sea bromine is the world's largest producer of elemental bromine, and makes bromine based flame retardants.
Don't forget to write the words " induced dipole " next to the bromine molecule.
By the action of bromine and alcoholic potash on the amides,, they are converted into amines containing one carbon atom less than the original amide, a reaction which possesses great.
Thus the actually observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boilingpoints are 1 56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22.7 and 26.9, which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic compounds.
The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
It is obvious that electrolytic iodine and bromine, and oxygen compounds of these elements, may be produced by methods similar to those applied to chlorides (see Alkali Manufacture and Chlorates), and Kellner and others have patented processes with this end in view.
The bromide may be prepared by the addition of bromine to an ethereal solution of diazo-amino-benzene (tribromaniline remaining in solution).
Mohr, Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 2 493), or by the action of bromine and caustic soda on the amide of nicotinic acid (F.
With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.
A silver-plated sheet of copper was sensitized with the fumes of chlorine or bromine and exposed in the camera.
Often used in spas for its tolerance of high pH levels and temperatures, bromine is in the same family of chemicals as chlorine, and chemically speaking, is very similar in structure.
Bromine kills bacteria the same way chlorine does, but while chlorine produces chloramines, bromine produces bromamines.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
With ferric chloride it gives a violet coloration, and with bromine water a white precipitate of tribromphenol.
Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
Chemical methods of sterilization have also been suggested, depending on the use of iodine, chlorine, bromine, ozone, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or chloride and ()their substances.
Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.
Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.