Bromine sentence example

bromine
  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
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  • From meta-brombenzoicacid two nitrobrombenzoic ac i ds are obtained on direct nitration; elimination of the bromine atom and the reduction of the nitro to an amino group in these two acids results in the formation of the same ortho-aminobenzoic acid.
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  • Bromine oxidizes it to nitric acid, but the reaction is not quantitative.
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  • It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.
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  • It combines directly with fluorine at Ordinary temperature, and with chlorine, bromine and sulphur on heating.
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  • The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as non-metals, and the remainder as metals: Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, and the remainder are solids.
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  • The following, however, are negative towards the remaining elements which are more or less positive:-Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium.
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  • For instance, 35'45 parts of chlorine and 79.96 parts of bromine combine with 107.93 parts of silver; and when chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35'45 parts of the former to 79.96 parts of the latter.
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  • Thus, in the production of hydrochloric acid from hydrogen and chlorine 22,000 calories are developed; in the production of hydrobromic acid from hydrogen and bromine, however, only 8440 caloriesare developed; and in the formation of hydriodic acid from hydrogen and iodine 6040 calories are absorbed.
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  • This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable resemblance, may be explained in the following manner.
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  • Thus, chlorine enters into reaction with hydrogen, and removes hydrogen from hydrogenized bodies, far more readily than bromine; and hydrochloric acid is a far more stable substance than hydrobromic acid, hydriodic acid being greatly inferior even to hydrobromic acid in stability.
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  • The discovery of bromine in 1826 by A.
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  • In comparison with the isomeric propylene, CH 3 HC:CH 2, it is remarkably inert, being only very slowly attacked by bromine, which readily combines with propylene.
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  • A similar behaviour has since been noticed in other trimethylene derivatives, but the fact that bromine, which usually acts so much more readily than hydrobromic acid on unsaturated compounds,, should be so inert when hydrobromic acid acts readily is one still.
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  • Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
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  • Bromine water oxidizes this substance to oxalic acid and tetrabromdichloracetone (5).
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  • The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
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  • Thus bromine and iodine replace chlorine with increments of about 22° and 50° respectively.
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  • The thermal effects of the halogens are: chlorine =15.13 calories, bromine = 7.68; iodine = - 4.25 calories.
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  • Caoutchouc, like other "unsaturated" molecules, forms compounds with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur.
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  • The Ivanhoe baths, erected in 1826, are frequented for their saline waters, which, as containing bromine, are found useful in scrofulous and rheumatic complaints.
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  • It combines with bromine to form a dibromide, from which E.
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  • The hydrogen in the primary and secondary nitro compounds which is attached to the same carbon atom as the nitro group is readily replaced by bromine in alkaline solution.
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  • The pseudo-nitrols, RR':C(NO)(NO 2), may be obtained by the action of nitrous acid on the secondary nitroparaffins; by the action of silver nitrite on such bromnitrosoparaffins as contain the bromine and the nitroso group united to the same carbon atom (0.
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  • It burns in oxygen at 170°, in chlorine at 180°, in bromine at 210°, in iodine at 260°, in sulphur at 50o, and combines with nitrogen at about iooa.
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  • It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
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  • It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts.
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  • Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
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  • CH 3; whilst chlorine and bromine give aß-dihaloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.
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  • In 1830 he published in the Philosophical Transactions a paper on the iodine and bromine of mineral waters.
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  • Sometimes reagents are placed in the combustion tube, for example lead oxide (litharge), which takes up bromine and sulphur.
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  • It crystallizes in small colourless needles and is easily soluble in water; the concentrated aqueous solution dissolves bromine and iodine readily.
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  • The metal is soluble in solutions of chlorine, bromine, thiosulphates and cyanides; and also in solutions which generate chlorine, such as mixtures of hydrochloric acid with nitric acid, chromic acid, antimonious acid, peroxides and nitrates, and of nitric acid with a chloride.
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  • Skey showed that in substances which contain small quantities of gold the precious metal may be removed by the solvent action of iodine or bromine in water.
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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.
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  • The elements in addition to oxygen which exist in largest amount in sea salt are chlorine, bromine, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.
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  • Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
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  • Oxidation gives formaldehyde, formic acid and carbonic acid; chlorine and bromine react, but less readily than with ethyl alcohol.
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  • Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
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  • With ferric chloride it gives a violet coloration, and with bromine water a white precipitate of tribromphenol.
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  • Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
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  • When heated with bromine and water to too° C. it forms tribromacetic acid, some bromoform being produced at the same time.
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  • Bromine converts it into dibromacrylic acid, and it gives with hydrochloric acid (3-chloracrylic acid.
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  • Chlorine, bromine, and iodine, each recognizable by its colour and odour, result from decomposable haloids; iodine forms also a black sublimate.
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  • Fischer showed that methose was identical with the a-acrose obtained by himself and Tafel in 1887 by decomposing acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently prepared by oxidizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline solution, and treating the product with dilute alkali at o°.
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  • Chemical methods of sterilization have also been suggested, depending on the use of iodine, chlorine, bromine, ozone, potassium permanganate, copper sulphate or chloride and ()their substances.
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  • Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
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  • Other constituents are cholesterol (0.461.32%), traces of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine and bromine, and various aliphatic amines which are really secondary products, being formed by the decomposition of the cellular tissue.
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  • were produced with a value of $10,481; and there is a small output of bromine.
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  • With bromine in acetic acid solution at ordinary temperature, nicotine yields a perbromide, C10H10Br2N20 HBr 3, which with sulphur dioxide, followed by potash, gives dibromcotinine, C10H10Br2N20, from which cotinine, C10H12N20, is obtained by distillation over zinc dust.
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  • By heating nicotine with bromine in hydrobromic acid solution for some hours at 100° C., dibromticonine hydrobromide, C10H8N2Br202 HBr, results.
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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
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  • It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.
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  • [2.4.6]-trinitrophenol) into chloropicrin, CCI 3 NO 2, by bleaching lime (calcium hypochlorite), and into bromopicrin, CBr 3 NO 2, by bromine' water.
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  • Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.
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  • When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
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  • Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
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  • The ketone, dihydroxyacetone, CH 2 OH CO CH 2 OH, was obtained by Piloty by condensing formaldehyde with nitromethane, reducing to a hydroxylamino compound, which is oxidized to the oxime of dihydroxyacetone; the ketone is liberated by oxidation with bromine water: 3H CHO + CH 3 NO 2 -- (CH 2 OH) 3 C NO 2 - (CH 2 OH) 3 C NH OH -- (CH 2 OH) 2 C: NOH - > (CH20H)2CO.
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  • Acetylene tetrabromide, C 2 H 2 Br 4, which is very conveniently prepared by passing acetylene into cooled bromine, has a density of 3 ooi at 6° C. It is highly convenient, since it is colourless, odourless, very stable and easily mobile.
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  • Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
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  • For sodii bromidum, iodidum and salicylatum see Bromine, Iodine and Salicylic Acid respectively.
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  • As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.
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  • It combines directly with two and four atoms of bromine.
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  • Fittig (Ann., 1876, 180, p. 23) readily explains the formation of the monoand di-oximes of quinone and also that it readily combines with bromine.
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  • Y P Y P with nitric acid, Caro's acid or bromine (Auwers, Ber., 1897-1903; E.
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  • Chlorates); but it is manufactured by acting with bromine water on iron filings and decomposing the iron bromide thus formed with potassium carbonate.
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  • For the oxyhalogen salts see Chlorate, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
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  • The action of potassium bromide and potassium iodide has been treated under bromine and iodine (q.v.).
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  • Being an unsaturated acid it combines directly with hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, bromine, &c. On nitration it gives a mixture of ortho and para nitrocinnamic acids, the former of which is of historical importance, as by converting it into orthonitrophenyl propiolic acid A.
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  • Commercial iodine may be purified by mixing it with a little potassium iodide and then subliming the mixture; in this way any traces of bromine or chlorine are removed.
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  • Iodine possesses a characteristic penetrating smell, not so pungent, however, as that of chlorine or bromine.
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  • Its chemical properties closely resemble those of chlorine and bromine; its affinity for other elements, however, is as a rule less than that of either.
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  • Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
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  • Potassium ferricyanide, K 3 Fe(NC)s, red prussiate of potash, is obtained by oxidizing potassium ferrocyanide with chlorine, bromine, &c., 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + C1 2 = 2K 3 Fe(NC) 6 + 2KC1.
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  • Other minerals whose production may be found stated in detail in the annual volume on Mineral Resources of the United States Geological Survey are: natural pigments, felspar, white mica, graphite, fluorspar, arsenic, quartz, barytes, bromine.
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  • 10 a Analogous bromine and iodine compounds are unknown, since bromides and iodides on heating with potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid give free bromine or free iodine.
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  • On the Bade Insel is the Kurhaus (1872) and also the chief spring, the Elisabethquelle, impregnated with iodine and bromine, and prescribed for scrofulous, bronchial and rheumatic disorders.
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  • When there is appreciable absorption as in the case of the vapours of chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, selenium and arsenic, luminosity begins at a red heat.
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  • Such spectra seem to be characteristic of complex molecular structure, as they appear when compounds are raised to incandescence without decomposition, or when we examine the absorption spectra of vapours such as iodine and bromine and other cases where we know that the molecule consists of more than one atom.
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  • The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
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  • The detection of the presence of chlorine or bromine or iodine in a compound is at present undecided, and it may be well that we may have to look for its effects in a different part of the spectrum.
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  • It combines directly with bromine, and, with fuming hydrobromic acid at ioo° C., it gives chiefly a-brombutyric acid.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms, which are soluble in water, melt at 16° C., and boil at 160 5° C. When fused with an alkali, it forms propionic acid; with bromine it yields aß-dibromisobutyric acid.
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  • When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed.
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  • By the addition of potassium bromide and bromine water to diazonium salts they are converted into a perbromide, e.g.
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  • Hypochlorous acid and its salts, together with the corresponding bromine and iodine compounds, liberate oxygen violently from hydrogen peroxide, giving hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids (S.
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  • Consequently, of each pair of isomers we may establish beforehand which is the more stable; either in particular circumstances, a direct change taking place, as, for instance, with maleic acid, which when exposed to sunlight in presence of a trace of bromine, yields the isomeric fumaric acid almost at once, or, indirectly, one may conclude that the isomer which forms under greater heat-development is the more stable, at least at lower temperatures.
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  • It burns in air, and also in chlorine and bromine, and is readily oxidized by nitric acid.
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  • It combines readily with fluorine, chlorine and bromine, and also with sulphur, selenium, phosphorus, &c.
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  • In 1826 he discovered in sea-water a substance which he recognized as a previously unknown element and named bromine.
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  • While the discovery of bromine and the preparation of many of its compounds was his most conspicuous piece of work, Balard was an industrious chemist on both the pure and applied sides.
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  • It yields a nitroso derivative, is nitrated by nitric acid to dilituric acid and brominated by bromine.
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  • Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.
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  • It is permanent in dry air, but tarnishes in moist air; it can be hammered and rolled; it melts at 623° C. It burns readily on heating, with a brilliant flame; and it also combines with chlorine,bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and cyanogen.
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  • Chlorine acts on it readily in the cold, bromine not so easily, and iodine only when the mixture is heated.
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  • Liebig, Ann., 1848, 6 5, p. 2 44; 1853, 87, p.128), in which the two metals are precipitated by excess of potassium cyanide in alkaline solution, bromine being afterwards added and the solution warmed, when the nickel is precipitated.
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  • It combines also with iodine chloride and bromide and with bromine chloride and with bromine (H.
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  • Tungsten combines directly with bromine to give, when the bromine is in excess, the pentaand not a hexabromide.
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  • It slowly evolves bromine on standing, and is at once decomposed by water into the blue oxide and hydrobromic acid.
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  • By passing bromine vapour over red-hot tungsten dioxide a mixture of WO 2 Br 2 and WOBr4 is obtained, from which the latter can be removed by gently heating when it volatilizes.
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  • The term is applied to the four elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, on account of the great similarity of their sodium salts to ordinary sea-salt.
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  • Thus, as the atomic weight increases, the state of aggregation changes from that of a gas in the case of fluorine and chlorine, to that of a liquid (bromine) and finally to that of the solid (iodine); at the same time the melting and boiling points rise with increasing atomic weights.
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  • Compounds of fluorine and oxygen, and of bromine and oxygen, have not yet been isolated.
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  • They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
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  • On the addition of iodine to this oxide, chlorine is liberated and a white substance is produced, which decomposes, on heating to 380° C., into iodine and oxygen; bromine is without action (see A.
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  • By the action of bromine in alkaline solution it is converted into /3-aminopropionic acid.
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  • Barium bromate, Ba(Br03)2, can be prepared by the action of excess of bromine on barytawater, or by decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of loo parts of potassium bromate with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride.
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  • Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen, except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known.
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  • Antimony tribromide, SbBr 3, and tri-iodide, SbI 31 may be prepared by the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon bisulphide.
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  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution a dark violet, and bromine water precipitates tribromresorcin.
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  • The nature of the substituent exerts a specific influence on the reaction; thus with chlorine or bromine, ortho-semidines and the diphenyl bases are the chief products; the dimethylamino, -N(CH 3) 2, and acetamino, -NHCOCH3, groups give the diphenyl base and the para-semidine respectively.
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  • Bromine >>
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  • This test answers with a solution containing only 1 part of quinine in 5000, or in a solution containing not more than part if bromine be used instead of chlorine.
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  • BROMINE (symbol Br, atomic weight 79-96), a chemical element of the halogen group, which takes its name from its pungent unpleasant smell (0pW,uos, a stench).
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  • Bromine does not occur in nature in the uncombined condition, but in combination with various metals is very widely but sparingly distributed.
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  • The chief centres of the bromine industry are Stassfurt and the central district of Michigan.
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  • A regular current of chlorine mixed with steam is led in at the bottom of a tall tower filled with broken bricks, and there meets a descending stream of hot bittern: bromine is liberated and is swept out of the tower together with some chlorine, by the current of steam, and then condensed in a worm.
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  • Any uncondensed bromine vapour is absorbed by moist iron borings, and the resulting iron bromide is used for the manufacture of potassium bromide.
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  • The crude bromine is purified by repeated shaking with potassium, sodium or ferrous bromide and subsequent redistillation.
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  • Commercial bromine is rarely pure, the chief impurities present in it being chlorine, hydrobromic acid, and bromoform (M.
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  • Stas, in his stoichiometric researches, prepared chemically pure bromine from potassium bromide, by converting it into the bromate which was purified by repeated crystallization.
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  • Bromine at ordinary temperatures is a mobile liquid of fine red colour, which appears almost black in thick layers.
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  • Young, bromine, when dried over sulphuric acid, boils at 57.65° C., and when dried over phosphorus pentoxide, boils at 58.85° C. (under a pressure of 755.8 mm.), forming a deep red vapour, which exerts an irritating and directly poisonous action on the respiratory organs.
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  • The specific heat of bromine vapour, at constant pressure, is 0.05504 and at constant volume is 0.04251 (K.
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  • Bromine is soluble in water, to the extent of 3.226 grammes of bromine per too grammes of solution at 15° C., the solubility being slightly increased by the presence of potassium bromide.
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  • Bromine is readily soluble in chloroform, alcohol and ether.
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  • With the other elements it unites to form bromides, often with explosive violence; phosphorus detonates in liquid bromine and inflames in the vapour; iron is occasionally used to absorb bromine vapour, potassium reacts energetically, but sodium requires to be heated to 200° C. The chief use of bromine in analytical chemistry is based upon the oxidizing action of bromine water.
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  • Bromine and bromine water both bleach organic colouring matters.
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  • The use of bromine in the extraction of gold was proposed by R.
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  • Bromine is used extensively in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent and also for the preparation of addition compounds.
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  • Reactions in which it is used in the liquid form, in vapour, in solution, and in the presence of the so-called "bromine carriers."
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  • Sunlight affects the action of bromine vapour on organic compounds in various ways, sometimes retarding or accelerating the reaction, while in some cases the products are different (J.
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  • Some reactions, which are only possible by the aid of nascent bromine, are carried out by using solutions of sodium bromide and bromate, with the amount of sulphuric acid calculated according to the equation 5NaBr NaBr03-1-6H2S04= 6NaHSO 4 3H 2 O 6Br.
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  • (German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.
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  • Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.
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  • The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
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  • For oxidizing purposes bromine is generally employed in aqueous and in alkaline solutions, one of its most important applications being by Emil Fischer (Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 362) in his researches on the sugars.
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  • The atomic weight of bromine has been determined by J.
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  • This acid, HBr, the only compound of hydrogen and bromine, is in many respects similar to hydrochloric acid, but is rather less stable.
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  • It may be prepared by passing hydrogen gas and bromine vapour through a tube containing a heated platinum spiral.
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  • It cannot be prepared with any degree of purity by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on bromides, since secondary reactions take place, leading to the liberation of free bromine and formation of sulphur dioxide.
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  • The usual method employed for the preparation of the gas consists in dropping bromine on to a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and water, when a violent reaction takes place and the gas is rapidly liberated.
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  • It can be obtained also, although in a somewhat impure condition, by the direct action of bromine on various saturated hydrocarbons (e.g.
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  • paraffin-wax), while an aqueous solution may be obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through bromine water.
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  • Soc., 1900, 77, p. 648) prepares pure hydrobromic acid by covering bromine, which is contained in a large flask, with a layer of water, and passing sulphur dioxide into the water above the surface of the bromine, until the whole is of a pale yellow colour; the resulting solution is then distilled in a slow current of air and finally purified by distillation over barium bromide.
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  • Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.
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  • They are decomposed by chlorine, with liberation of bromine and formation of metallic chlorides; concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes them, with formation of a metallic sulphate and liberation of bromine and sulphur dioxide.
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  • Hydrobromic acid and its salts can be readily detected by the addition of chlorine water to their aqueous solutions, when bromine is liberated; or by warming with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, the same result being obtained.
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  • No oxides of bromine have as yet been isolated, but three oxy-acids are known, namely hypobromous acid, HBrO, bromous acid, HBr02, and bromic acid, HBrO 3.
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  • Hypobromous acid is obtained by shaking together bromine water and precipitated mercuric oxide, followed by distillation of the dilute solution in vacuo at low temperature (about 40°C.).
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  • It is a very unstable compound, breaking up, on heating, into bromine and oxygen.
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  • Bromic acid is obtained by the addition of the calculated amount of sulphuric acid (previously diluted with water) to the barium salt; by the action of bromine on the silver salt, in the presence of water, 5AgBrO, 3Br 2 3H 2 O = 5AgBr 6HBrO 3, or bypassing chlorine through asolution of bromine in water.
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  • The acid is only known in the form of its aqueous solution; this is, however, very unstable, decomposing on being heated to 100° C. into water, oxygen and bromine.
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  • The salts of bromine are widely used in photography, especially bromide of silver.
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  • For antiseptic purposes it has been prepared as "bromum solidificatum," which consists of kieselguhr or similar substance impregnated with about 75% of its weight of bromine.
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  • The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
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  • Soc., 1877, 25, p. 122), may be obtained by burning the trifluoride in fluorine, from the pentachloride and arsenic trifluoride and from the trifluoride and bromine, the first formed fluorobromide, PF 3 Br 21 decomposing into the pentabromide and pentafluoride: 5PF 3 Br 2 =3PF 5 +2PBr 5.
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  • The pentabromide, PBr 5, which results from phosphorus and an excess of bromine, is a yellow solid, and closely resembles the pentachloride.
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  • The bromochloride, PC1 3 Br 21 is an orange-coloured solid formed from bromine and the trichloride, into which components it decomposes at 35°.
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  • Hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, hydrofluoric, nitric, phosphoric and many other acids are manufactured by the action of sulphuric acid on their salts; the alkali and chlorine industries, and also the manufacture of bromine and iodine, employ immense quantities of this acid.
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  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 1 94): C2H4Br2+2NaCH(C02R)2--->(CH 2) 2 C(CO 2 R) 2 +CH 2 (CO 2 R) 2; ethyl butane tetracarboxylate is also formed which may be converted into a tetramethylene carboxylic ester by the action of bromine on its disodium derivative (W.
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  • When heated with bromine in a sealed tube for some days at 150-200° C., it yields I.
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  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
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  • Cyclo-heptatriene (tropilidine), C 7 H 81 is formed on distilling tropine with baryta; and from cyclo-heptadiene by forming its addition product with bromine and heating this with quinoline to 150-160° C. (R.
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  • With bromine it forms a dibromide, which then heated to 110° C. decomposes into hydrobromic acid and benzyl bromide.
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  • Bromine water is also employed.
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  • The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.
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  • Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.
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  • Ferric bromide, FeBr31 is obtained as dark red crystals by heating iron in an excess of bromine vapour.
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  • Baker), and when this is not so, indirect methods are available, except with bromine and fluorine (and also with the so-called inert gases - argon, helium, &c.), which so far have yielded no oxides.
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  • The important oxidizing agents include: oxygen, ozone, peroxides, the halogens chlorine and bromine, oxyacids such as nitric and those of chlorine, bromine and iodine, and also chromic and permanganic acid.
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  • It burns in an atmosphere of chlorine forming the trichloride; it also combines directly with bromine and sulphur on heating, while on fusion with alkalis it forms arsenites.
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  • Chlorine, bromine and iodine decompose arsine readily, the action being most violent in the case of chlorine.
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  • Arsenic tribromide, AsBr3, is formed by the direct union of arsenic and bromine, and subsequent distillation from the excess of arsenic; it forms colourless deliquescent prisms which melt at 20 0 -25° C., and boil at 220° C. Water decomposes it, a small quantity of water leading to the formation of the oxybromide, AsOBr, whilst a large excess of water gives arsenious oxide, As4O6.
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  • At Woodhall Spa on the Horncastle branch railway there is a much-frequented bromine and iodine spring.
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  • Bromine and potash give anthranilic acid, C 6 H 4 (NH 2) (CO 2 H).
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  • NH2 Orthoaminodiphenyl, -, is prepared by the action of bromine and caustic soda on orthophenylbenzamide (R.
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  • - This group includes iodine, bromine and chlorine, in their free state or as compounds.
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  • This page assumes that you have already read the page on the addition of bromine to symmetrical alkenes.
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  • Bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine as an electrophile Again, the bromine is polarized by the approaching pi bond in the cyclohexene.
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  • bromine as a disinfectant in hydrotherapy and other pool use has been a documented cause for concern for twenty years.
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  • bromine used to treat the water in the swimming pool.
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  • CCl 4 ). Halons are compounds which contain bromine, which also destroys stratospheric ozone (about 50 times more efficiently than chlorine!
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  • More reactive halogens displace less reactive halogens from their solutions eg chlorine displaces bromine.
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  • The scientist has put some liquid bromine into the pipe on the right.
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  • Know how to distinguish alkenes (as unsaturated hydrocarbons) from alkanes (as saturated hydrocarbons) using addition reactions with aqueous bromine.
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  • There is emerging evidence for the presence of reactive bromine and iodine in the troposphere.
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  • You can, however, deduce it fairly easily if you know the mechanism for the addition of pure bromine.
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  • So step (1) is the same for non-aqueous bromine, however step (2) is different!
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  • Dead Sea bromine is the world's largest producer of elemental bromine, and makes bromine based flame retardants.
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  • bromine atom is being replaced by an OH group in an organic compound.
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  • bromine molecule.
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  • bromine compounds.
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  • bromine water.
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  • bromine radicals.
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  • bromine transfer reactions are extremely fast.
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  • bromine in the presence of a catalyst.
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  • bromine in the atmosphere of the UK.
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  • bromine in the reaction involving HBr.
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  • Don't forget to write the words " induced dipole " next to the bromine molecule.
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  • silver platelated sheet of copper was sensitized with the fumes of chlorine or bromine and exposed in the camera.
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  • Uracil and its homologues may be obtained in many cases from the hydrouracils by the action of bromine, and subsequent elimination of the elements of hydrobromic acid; or by the condensation of aceto-acetic ester and related substances with urea, thiourea, guanidine, &c. Uracil, C4H402N2, crystallizes in colourless needles, is soluble in hot water and melts with decomposition at 335° C. Hydrouracil, C4H602N2, is obtained by the action of bromine and caustic alkalis on succinamide (H.
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  • In many respects it resembles chlorine in its chemical behaviour, a circumstance noted by Gay-Lussac; it combines directly with hydrogen (at 50o° to 550° C.) to form hydrocyanic acid, and with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur, to form cyanogen chloride, &c.; it also combines directly with zinc, cadmium and iron to form cyanides of these metals.
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  • By the action of bromine and alcoholic potash on the amides,, they are converted into amines containing one carbon atom less than the original amide, a reaction which possesses great.
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  • By heating nicotine with bromine in hydrobromic acid solution for some hours at 100° C., dibromticonine hydrobromide, C10H8N2Br202 HBr, results.
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  • When heated with bromine and water to too° C. it forms tribromacetic acid, some bromoform being produced at the same time.
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  • Thus the actually observed densities of liquid chlorine and bromine at the boilingpoints are 1 56 and 2-96, leading to atomic volumes 22.7 and 26.9, which closely correspond to Kopp's values deduced from organic compounds.
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  • Thus bromine and iodine replace chlorine with increments of about 22° and 50° respectively.
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  • It burns in oxygen at 170°, in chlorine at 180°, in bromine at 210°, in iodine at 260°, in sulphur at 50o, and combines with nitrogen at about iooa.
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  • The complete conversion of stannous into stannic chloride may be effected by a great many reagents - for instance, by chlorine (bromine, iodine) readily; by mercuric chloride in the heat, with precipitation of calomel or metallic mercury; by ferric chloride in the heat, with formation of ferrous chloride; by arsenious chloride in strongly hydrochloric solutions, with precipitation of chocolate-brown metallic arsenic. All these reactions are available as tests for "stannosum" or the respective agents.
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  • Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
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  • Fischer showed that methose was identical with the a-acrose obtained by himself and Tafel in 1887 by decomposing acrolein dibromide with baryta, and subsequently prepared by oxidizing glycerin with bromine in alkaline solution, and treating the product with dilute alkali at o°.
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  • CH 3; whilst chlorine and bromine give aß-dihaloid ethylbenzenes, e.g.
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  • C H 6h4Nr - > C 6 1-14� +Nh2r]]; CO > CO COOH by distilling the amino-acids with baryta; by the action of bromine and caustic potash on the acid-amides (A.
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  • It is obvious that electrolytic iodine and bromine, and oxygen compounds of these elements, may be produced by methods similar to those applied to chlorides (see Alkali Manufacture and Chlorates), and Kellner and others have patented processes with this end in view.
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  • The simplest of all include: (z) the synthesis of sodium oxalate by passing carbon dioxide over metallic sodium heated to 3500 - 360'; (2) the synthesis of potassium formate from moist carbon dioxide and potassium, potassium carbonate being obtained simultaneously; (3) the synthesis of potassium acetate and propionate from carbon dioxide and sodium methide and sodium ethide; (4) the synthesis of aromatic acids by the interaction of carbon dioxide, sodium and a bromine substitution derivative; and (5) the synthesis of aromatic oxy-acids by the interaction of carbon dioxide and sodium phenolates (see Salicylic Acid).
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  • Acetylene tetrabromide, C 2 H 2 Br 4, which is very conveniently prepared by passing acetylene into cooled bromine, has a density of 3 ooi at 6° C. It is highly convenient, since it is colourless, odourless, very stable and easily mobile.
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  • Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
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  • (See GAS: Manufacture.) Ammonium bromide, NH 4 Br, can be prepared by the direct action of bromine on ammonia.
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  • Potassium bromide, KBr, may be obtained by dissolving bromine in potash, whereupon bromide and bromate are first formed, evaporating and igniting the product in order to decompose the bromate: 6KHO 3Br 2 =5KBr -}- KBrO 3 -}- 3H 2 0; 2KBrO 3 = 2KBr + 302 (cf.
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  • It combines with bromine to form an unstable tribromide, KBr 3 (see F.
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  • They may be prepared by heating the alkyl iodides with potassium cyanide; by heating sulphuric acid esters with potassium cyanide; by distilling the acid-amides with phosphorus pentoxide; and by distilling amines (containing more than five atoms of carbon) with bromine and potash (A.
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  • It combines directly with bromine, and, with fuming hydrobromic acid at ioo° C., it gives chiefly a-brombutyric acid.
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  • It crystallizes in prisms, which are soluble in water, melt at 16° C., and boil at 160 5° C. When fused with an alkali, it forms propionic acid; with bromine it yields aß-dibromisobutyric acid.
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  • The bromide may be prepared by the addition of bromine to an ethereal solution of diazo-amino-benzene (tribromaniline remaining in solution).
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  • Methyl acetyl urea, CH 3 NH CO NH000H 31 is formed by the action of potash on a mixture of bromine (I mol.) and acetamide (2 mols.) (A.
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  • It is permanent in dry air, but tarnishes in moist air; it can be hammered and rolled; it melts at 623° C. It burns readily on heating, with a brilliant flame; and it also combines with chlorine,bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and cyanogen.
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  • On the addition of iodine to this oxide, chlorine is liberated and a white substance is produced, which decomposes, on heating to 380° C., into iodine and oxygen; bromine is without action (see A.
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  • Mohr, Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 2 493), or by the action of bromine and caustic soda on the amide of nicotinic acid (F.
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  • Young, bromine, when dried over sulphuric acid, boils at 57.65° C., and when dried over phosphorus pentoxide, boils at 58.85° C. (under a pressure of 755.8 mm.), forming a deep red vapour, which exerts an irritating and directly poisonous action on the respiratory organs.
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  • Bromine is soluble in water, to the extent of 3.226 grammes of bromine per too grammes of solution at 15° C., the solubility being slightly increased by the presence of potassium bromide.
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  • With the other elements it unites to form bromides, often with explosive violence; phosphorus detonates in liquid bromine and inflames in the vapour; iron is occasionally used to absorb bromine vapour, potassium reacts energetically, but sodium requires to be heated to 200° C. The chief use of bromine in analytical chemistry is based upon the oxidizing action of bromine water.
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  • Hypobromous acid is obtained by shaking together bromine water and precipitated mercuric oxide, followed by distillation of the dilute solution in vacuo at low temperature (about 40°C.).
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  • Bromous acid is formed by adding bromine to a saturated solution of silver nitrate (A.
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  • The acid is only known in the form of its aqueous solution; this is, however, very unstable, decomposing on being heated to 100° C. into water, oxygen and bromine.
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  • With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.
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  • The bromochloride, PC1 3 Br 21 is an orange-coloured solid formed from bromine and the trichloride, into which components it decomposes at 35°.
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  • When heated with bromine in a sealed tube for some days at 150-200° C., it yields I.
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  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
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  • Cyclo-heptatriene (tropilidine), C 7 H 81 is formed on distilling tropine with baryta; and from cyclo-heptadiene by forming its addition product with bromine and heating this with quinoline to 150-160° C. (R.
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  • With bromine it forms a dibromide, which then heated to 110° C. decomposes into hydrobromic acid and benzyl bromide.
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  • In ethereal solution it combines with bromine to form an unstable liquid dibromide; it also unites with one molecule of hydrobromic acid to form the same tertiary bromide as dimethylallylene; this points to its being Q-methyldivinyl, CH 2: C(CH 3) CH: CH 2 (V.
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  • Arsenic tribromide, AsBr3, is formed by the direct union of arsenic and bromine, and subsequent distillation from the excess of arsenic; it forms colourless deliquescent prisms which melt at 20 0 -25° C., and boil at 220° C. Water decomposes it, a small quantity of water leading to the formation of the oxybromide, AsOBr, whilst a large excess of water gives arsenious oxide, As4O6.
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  • A silver-plated sheet of copper was sensitized with the fumes of chlorine or bromine and exposed in the camera.
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  • Often used in spas for its tolerance of high pH levels and temperatures, bromine is in the same family of chemicals as chlorine, and chemically speaking, is very similar in structure.
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  • Bromine kills bacteria the same way chlorine does, but while chlorine produces chloramines, bromine produces bromamines.
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  • Installation tip: Feed bromine to your pool by way of a floating dispenser or a brominator.
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  • UV rays, sand and saltwater, chlorine, bromine from hot tubs and tanning oils can also break down elastic hip bands and Lycra/spandex type materials, causing suits to fade and lose their ability to hug the body.
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