Bromides sentence example
The bromides and iodides resemble the chlorides.
With ammonia and alkaline bromides and iodides double salts are formed.
Sulphuric acid is now added to the liquid, and any alkaline sulphides and sulphites present are decomposed, while iodides and bromides are converted into sulphates, and hydriodic and hydrobromic acids are liberated and remain dissolved in the solution.
The iodides as a class resemble the chlorides and bromides, but are less fusible and volatile.
Hantzsch (Ber., 18 9 6, 2 9, p. 947 1898, 31, p. 1253) has shown that the chlorand bromdiazoniumthiocyanates, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanbenzene diazonium chlorides and bromides.Advertisement
They can be distinguished from the corresponding bromides and iodides by the fact that on distillation with a mixture of potassium bichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid they yield chromium oxychloride, whereas bromides and iodides by the same treatment give bromine and iodine respectively.
The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
Potassium, sodium and magnesium bromides are found in mineral waters, in river and sea-water, and occasionally in marine plants and animals.
It cannot be prepared with any degree of purity by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on bromides, since secondary reactions take place, leading to the liberation of free bromine and formation of sulphur dioxide.
Hydrobromic acid reacts with metallic oxides, hydroxides and carbonates to form bromides, which can in many cases be obtained also by the direct union of the metals with bromine.Advertisement
As a class, the metallic bromides are solids at ordinary temperatures, which fuse readily and volatilize on heating.
The non-metallic bromides are usually liquids, which are readily decomposed by water.
Silver nitrate in the presence of nitric acid gives with bromides a pale yellow precipitate of silver bromide, AgBr, which is sparingly soluble in ammonia.
In medicine it is largely employed in the form of bromides of potassium, sodium and ammonium, as well as in combination with alkaloids and other substances.
Of the three bromides in common use the potassium salt is the most rapid and certain in its action, but may depress the heart in morbid states of that organ; in such cases the sodium salt - of which the base is inert - may be employed.Advertisement
The conditions in which bromides are most frequently used are insomnia, epilepsy, whooping-cough, delirium tremens, asthma, migraine, laryngismus stridulus, the symptoms often attendant upon the climacteric in women, hysteria, neuralgia, certain nervous disorders of the heart, strychnine poisoning, nymphomania and spermatorrhoea.
Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, the alkaline iodides and bromides, also belong partly to this group, although most of them have also specific actions.
Alkaline bromides, in addition to their saline action, have in sufficient doses a depressing effect upon the central nervous system, and less markedly upon the heart.
Bork had proved to be his own worst enemy on television, creating an impression of an arrogant know-it-all spouting reactionary bromides.
With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.Advertisement
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
Perkin, junr., in 1883, that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form triand tetramethylene rings.
The waters are tasteless and inodorous, and contain calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, combinations of hydrogen and silicon, and of iodides, bromides and lithium.
The bromides closely resemble the chlorides and fluorides.
Similar bromides and iodides are known.Advertisement