Both the iodide and bromide are used in photography.
a-propylene glycol, CH 3 CH(OH) CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 188° to 189°, and obtained by heating glycerin with sodium hydroxide and distilling the mixture; and trimethylene glycol, CH 2 OH CH 2 CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 214° C. and prepared by boiling trimethylene bromide with potash solution (A.
The bromide paper is automatically passed through a developing bath, a fixing bath, and drying rollers.
Aluminium bromide, AlBr 3, is prepared in the same manner as the chloride.
Uranous bromide, UBr4, and uranous iodide, U14, also exist.
The bromide, CoBr 2, resembles the chloride, and may be prepared by similar methods.
Boron bromide BBr 3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements, but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the chloride.
Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,.
A ray of light is directed upon the mirror, and the motion of the latter, due to the varying strengths and direction of the received currents, is made to write the transmitted signals upon a strip of bromide photographic paper about three inches wide.
The chloride,CdC1 2, bromide,CdBr 2, and iodide,Cdl2,arealsoknown, cadmium iodide being sometimes used in photography, as it is one of the few iodides which are soluble in alcohol.
The mean value 112.467 was obtained by Baxter, Hines and Frevert (ibid., 1906, 28, p. 770) by analysing cadmium bromide.
Sulphur bromide, S 2 Br 2, is a dark red liquid which boils with decomposition at about 200° C. The products obtained by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although E.
The acid is considered to possess the structure 0 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl thiosulphate.
The chloro-bromide and bromide of silver were also included under this term until they were distinguished chemically in 1841 and 1842, and described under the names embolite and bromargyrite (or bromyrite) respectively; the chloride then came to be distinguished as chlorargyrite, though the name cerargyrite is often now applied to this alone.
An, matter), formed the basis of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzoyl chloride, benzoyl bromide and benzoyl sulphide, benzamide and benzoic ether.
It was long supposed that the simplest ring obtainable contained six atoms of carbon, and the discovery of trimethylene in 1882 by August Freund by the action of sodium on trimethylene bromide, Br(CH 2) 3 Br, came somewhat as a surprise, especially in view of its behaviour with bromine and hydrogen bromide.
But on the other hand, it is readily converted by hydrobromic acid into normal propyl bromide, CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br.
The halogens may be sometimes detected by fusing with lime, and testing the solution for a bromide, chloride and iodide in the usual way.
Hydrocarbons of similar structure have been prepared by Thiele, for example, the orange-yellow tetraphenyl-para-xylylene, which is obtained by boiling the bromide C6H4[CBr(C6H5)2]2 with benzene and molecular silver.
When heated with the halogens, acetophenone is substituted in the aliphatic portion of the nucleus; thus bromine gives phenacyl bromide, C6H6CO.CH2Br.
Acetonyl-acetophenone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CH2.CO.CH3, is produced by condensing phenacyl bromide with sodium acetoacetate with subsequent elimination of carbon dioxide, and on dehydration gives aa-phenyl-methyl-furfurane.
Oxazoles are produced on condensing phenacyl bromide with acid-amides (M.
Lead bromide, PbBr 2, a white solid, and lead iodide, PbI 21 a yellow solid, are prepared by precipitating a lead salt with a soluble bromide or iodide; they resemble the chloride in solubility.
It is formed when the vapours of toluene, stilbene, dibenzyl, ortho-ditolyl, or coumarone and benzene are passed through a red-hot tube; by distilling morphine with zinc dust; and, with anthracene, by the action of sodium on ortho-brombenzyl bromide (C. L.
Stannous bromide, SnBr 2, is a light yellow substance formed from tin and hydrobromic acid.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
Stannic iodide, Sn14, forms red octahedra and is prepared similarly to stannic bromide.
CYANAMIDE, NC NH 2j the amide of normal cyanic acid, obtained by the action of ammonia on cyanogen chloride, bromide or iodide, or by the desulphurization of thio-urea with, mercuric oxide; it is generally prepared by the latter process.
Hydriodic acid reduces it to hexamethylene" (cyclo-hexane or hexa-hydro-benzene); chlorine and bromine form substitution and addition products, but the action is slow unless some carrier such as iodine, molybdenum chloride or ferric chloride for chlorine, and aluminium bromide for bromine, be present.
It may be obtained from storax by distillation with water, and synthetically by heating cinnamic acid with lime, by the action of aluminium chloride on a mixture of vinyl bromide and benzene, by removing the elements of hydrobromic acid from bromethylbenzene by means of alcoholic potash, or, best, by treating (-bromhydrocinnamic acid with soda, when it yields styrolene, carbon dioxide and hydrobromic acid.
The a-halogen compounds are obtained by heating styrolene chloride (or bromide) with lime or alcoholic potash; they are liquids which have a penetrating odour, and yield acetophenone when heated with water to 180°.
Stilbene bromide when treated with alcoholic potash gives diphenyl acetylene or tolane, C6H5 C: C CsH5.
Zinc bromide, ZnBr 2, and Zinc iodide, Zn12, are deliquescent solids formed by the direct union of their elements.
It is formed by the condensation of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride: Br CH Br CH C H +C6H6=4HBr+C6H4) I, )C6H4, Br CH Br CH and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200° C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C. L.
Chem-., 1905, 47, p. 1 45), who, by estimating the ratios of strontium bromide and chloride to silver, obtained the values 87.663 and 87.661.
Thorpe and Laurie converted potassium auribromide into a mixture of metallic gold and potassium bromide by careful heating.
The relation of the gold to the potassium bromide, as well as the amounts of silver and silver bromide which are equivalent to the potassium bromide, were determined.
Kriiss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65; while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.
Aurous oxide, Au 2 0, is obtained by cautiously adding potash to a solution of aurous bromide, or by boiling mixed solutions of auric chloride and mercurous nitrate.
Aurous bromide, AuBr, is a yellowish-green powder obtained by heating the tribromide to 140°; auric bromide, AuBr 3, forms reddish-black or scarlet-red leafy crystals, which dissolve in water to form a reddishbrown solution,and combines with bromides to form bromaurates corresponding to the chloraurates.
Dittmar showed that the average proportion of the salts in ocean water of 35 parts salts per thousand was as follows (calculated as parts per 'thousand of the sea-water, as percentage of the total"salts and per hundred molecules of magnesium bromide) :- The Salts in Ocean Water.
The atomic weight of caesium has been determined by the analysis of its chloride and bromide.
The bromide, CsBr, and iodide, CsI, resemble the corresponding potassium salts.
Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.
Methyl bromide is a liquid, specific gravity I 73, boiling point 13°; methyl iodide has a specific gravity of 2.19, and boils at 43°.
Zirconium bromide, ZrBr 4, is formed similarly to the chloride.
Whereas calcium chloride, bromide, and iodide are deliquescent solids, the fluoride is practically insoluble in water; this is a parallelism to the soluble silver fluoride, and the insoluble chloride, bromide and iodide.
Calcium iodide and bromide are white deliquescent solids and closely resemble the chloride.
Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
above), also known as diethylene diamine, may be prepared by reducing pyrazine, or, better, by combining aniline and ethylene bromide to form diphenyl diethylene diamine, the dinitroso compound of which hydrolyses to para-dinitrosophenol and pipera zine.
The bromide and iodide crystallize from hot solutions in anhydrous cubes; from solutions at ordinary temperatures in monoclinic prisms with 2H 2 O; and at low temperatures with 5H 2 O.
Chlorates); but it is manufactured by acting with bromine water on iron filings and decomposing the iron bromide thus formed with potassium carbonate.
Potassium iodide, KI, is obtained by dissolving iodine in potash, the deoxidation of the iodate being facilitated by the addition of charcoal before ignition, proceeding as with the bromide.
The action of potassium bromide and potassium iodide has been treated under bromine and iodine (q.v.).
The bromide and iodide are formed in a similar manner by heating the metal in gaseous hydrobromic or hydriodic acids.
Chromic salts are of a blue or violet colour, and apparently the chloride and bromide exist in a green and violet form.
Chromic bromide, CrBr 3, is prepared in the anhydrous form by the same method as the chloride, and resembles it in its properties.
The only trace we can find at present is in ethyl bromide, in which the radical band about 90o is curtailed in one wing.
The difference between amyl iodide and amyl bromide is not sufficiently marked to be of any value."
Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.
The fluoride is found native as sellaIte, and the bromide and iodide occur in sea water and in many mineral springs.
Formaldehyde behaves abnormally with magnesium benzyl bromide (M.
Chloral and potassium bromide may be given as physiological antidotes.
By the addition of potassium bromide and bromine water to diazonium salts they are converted into a perbromide, e.g.
Sir William Crookes has, however, changed a pale yellow diamond to a bluish-green colour by keeping it embedded in radium bromide for eleven weeks.
Curie obtained only a fraction of a gramme of the chloride and Giesel 2 to 3 gramme of the bromide from a ton of uranium residues.
Pinner, Ber., 1893, 26, p. 2125); and with trimethylene bromide to form a phenyl tetrahydropyrimidine (Pinner).
On the outskirts are the Oresund Park, gardens containing iodide and bromide springs, and frequented sea-baths.
The short streak of light thus obtained moves with Mirror, .l 4,Stindd Boom Balance Weight, j/?/?j?jj/ Masonry Column Lamp Br.mide Paper_ On- Need,Le o 0 the movement of the boom over a second slit perpendicular to the first and made in the lid of a box containing clockwork driving a band of bromide paper.
The mother-liquor now falls to a specific gravity of 1.3082 to 1.2965, and yields a very mixed deposit of magnesium bromide and chloride, potassium chloride and magnesium sulphate, with the double magnesium and potassium sulphate, corresponding to the kainite of Stassfurt.
Thallous bromide, TIBr, is a light yellow crystalline powder; it is formed analogously to the chloride.
The bromide MnBr2.4H20, iodide, Mn12, and fluoride, MnF2, are known.
Soc., 1906, 28, p. 1360), by analyses of the chloride and bromide, obtained 54.96 (0 = 16).
Cerous bromide, 2CeBr 3.3H 2 O, and iodide, CeI 3.9H 2 O, are known.
The salts of scandium are all colourless, the chloride and bromide corresponding in composition to Sc 2 X 6.12H 2 0; the fluoride is anhydrous.
It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at 75.5° C. and boiling at 215-220° C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum.
The bromide and iodide of nickel resemble the chloride and are prepared in a similar fashion.
It combines also with iodine chloride and bromide and with bromine chloride and with bromine (H.
Soc., 1904, 85, p. 776) from the analysis of the chloride and bromide gives the mean value as 85.485 (O =16).
More volatile anaesthetics such as anestile or anaesthyl and coryl are produced by mixing with methyl chloride; a mixture of ethyl and methyl chlorides with ethyl bromide is known as somnoform.
In some respects there is a very marked difference between fluorine and the other members of the group, for, whilst sodium chloride, bromide and iodide are readily soluble in water, sodium fluoride is much less soluble; again, silver chloride, bromide and iodide are practically insoluble in water, whilst, on the other hand, silver fluoride is appreciably soluble in water.
It is also obtained by the action of zinc on bromacetyl bromide (H.
Dimethyli ketene, (CH3)2C :CO, obtained by the action of zinc on a-brom-isobutyryl bromide, is a yellowish coloured liquid.
Magnesium phenyl bromide gives triphenyl vinyl alcohol.
Barium bromide is prepared by saturating baryta-water or by decomposing barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid.
Barium amide, Ba(NH 2) 2, is obtained from potassammonium and barium bromide.
The atomic weight of antimony has been determined by the analysis of the chloride, bromide and iodide.
Silver bromide, AgBr, constitutes the mineral bromargyrite or bromyrite, found in Mexico and Chile.
It is obtained as a yellowish white precipitate by mixing solutions of a bromide and a silver salt.
The minerals embolite, megabromite and microbromite, occurring in Chile, are variable mixtures of the chloride and bromide.
It is a brickred powder which explodes when heated to 130° C. Selenium cyanide, Se(CN) 2, is obtained by decomposing silver selenocyanide with cyanogen iodide, or by the action of silver cyanide on a solution of selenium bromide in carbon bisulphide.
Soc., 1898, 20, p. 595), from the analysis of silver selenite and the reduction of the double selenium ammonium bromide, give values from 79 2 77 to 79.3 6 7; whilst J.
Its chief commercial sources are the salt deposits at Stassfurt in Prussian Saxony, in which magnesium bromide is found associated with various chlorides, and the brines of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, U.S.A.; small quantities are obtained from the mother liquors of Chile saltpetre and kelp. In combination with silver it is found as the mineral bromargyrite (bromite).
It is manufactured from the magnesium bromide contained in "bittern" (the mother liquor of the salt industry), by two processes, the continuous and the periodic. The continuous process depends upon the decomposition of the bromide by chlorine, which is generated in special stills.
Any uncondensed bromine vapour is absorbed by moist iron borings, and the resulting iron bromide is used for the manufacture of potassium bromide.
The periodic process depends on the interaction between manganese dioxide (pyrolusite), sulphuric acid, and a bromide, and the operation is carried out in sandstone stills heated to 60° C., the product being condensed as in the continuous process.
The crude bromine is purified by repeated shaking with potassium, sodium or ferrous bromide and subsequent redistillation.
Stas, in his stoichiometric researches, prepared chemically pure bromine from potassium bromide, by converting it into the bromate which was purified by repeated crystallization.
By heating the bromate it was partially converted into the bromide, and the resulting mixture was distilled with sulphuric acid.
The distillate was further purified by digestion with milk of lime, precipitation with water, and further digestion with calcium bromide and barium oxide, and was finally redistilled.
Bromine is soluble in water, to the extent of 3.226 grammes of bromine per too grammes of solution at 15° C., the solubility being slightly increased by the presence of potassium bromide.
Some reactions, which are only possible by the aid of nascent bromine, are carried out by using solutions of sodium bromide and bromate, with the amount of sulphuric acid calculated according to the equation 5NaBr NaBr03-1-6H2S04= 6NaHSO 4 3H 2 O 6Br.
(German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.
The action of bromine is sometimes accelerated by the use of compounds which behave catalytically, the more important of these substances being iodine, iron, ferric chloride, ferric bromide, aluminium bromide and phosphorus.
Stas and C. Marignac from the analysis of potassium bromide, and of silver bromide.
Soc., 1900, 77, p. 648) prepares pure hydrobromic acid by covering bromine, which is contained in a large flask, with a layer of water, and passing sulphur dioxide into the water above the surface of the bromine, until the whole is of a pale yellow colour; the resulting solution is then distilled in a slow current of air and finally purified by distillation over barium bromide.
The majority are soluble in water, the chief exceptions being silver bromide, mercurous bromide, palladious bromide and lead bromide; the last is, however, soluble in hot water.
Silver nitrate in the presence of nitric acid gives with bromides a pale yellow precipitate of silver bromide, AgBr, which is sparingly soluble in ammonia.
For their quantitative determination they are precipitated in nitric acid solution by means of silver nitrate, and the silver bromide well washed, dried and weighed.
The salts of bromine are widely used in photography, especially bromide of silver.
- Bromide of potassium is the safest and most generally applicable sedative of the nervous system.
Hence bromide of potassium - or bromide of sodium, which is possibly somewhat safer still though not quite so certain in its action - is used as a hypnotic, as the standard anaphrodisiac, as a sedative in mania and all forms of morbid mental excitement, and in hyperaesthesia of all kinds.
In whooping-cough, when a sedative is required but a stimulant is also indicated, ammonium bromide is often invaluable.
The bromide, PH 4 Br, was first obtained by H.
The oxide P 2 0 was obtained by Besson (Comptes rendus, 1897, 124, p. 763; 1901, pp. 132, 1556) by heating a mixture of phosphonium bromide and phosphorus oxychoride in sealed tubes to 50°.
Thiophosphoryl bromide, PSBr3, obtained after the manner of the corresponding chloride, forms yellow octahedra which melt at 38°, and have a penetrating, aromatic odour.
Freund (Monats., 1882, 3, p. 625) by heating trimethylene bromide with sodium, is a gas, which may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -35° C. (749 mm.).
When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free acid may be obtained on hydrolysis.
Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
C 7 H 13, a thick oily liquid, boiling at 290-291° C., is obtained by the reduction of suberyl bromide.
With bromine it forms a dibromide, which then heated to 110° C. decomposes into hydrobromic acid and benzyl bromide.
The hydrocarbons, upon which the luminosity of the flame entirely depends, are divided in the analysis into two groups, saturated and unsaturated, according to their behaviour with a solution of bromine in potassium bromide, which has the power of absorbing those termed "unsaturated," but does not affect in diffused daylight the gaseous members of the "saturated" series of hydrocarbons.
4.1 Chemical Reactivity 4.2 Solubility 4.3 Compounds 4.4 Ferrous Oxide 4.5 Magnetite 4.6 Ferric Acid 4.7 Halogen Compounds 4.8 Ferric Chloride 4.9 Ferrous Bromide 4.10 Sulfur(Sulphur)Compounds 4.11 Nitrides and Nitrates 4.12 Phosphides, Phosphates 4.13 Arsenides and Arsenites 4.14 Carbides, Carbonates 4.15 Medical Uses
Ferrous bromide, FeBr2, is obtained as yellowish crystals by the union of bromine and iron at a dull red-heat, or as bluish-green rhombic tables of the composition FeBr26H2O by crystallizing a solution of iron in hydrobromic acid.
Ferric bromide, FeBr31 is obtained as dark red crystals by heating iron in an excess of bromine vapour.
Soc., 1901, p. 285) obtained a nitride Fe2N by acting upon anhydrous ferrous chloride or bromide, finely divided reduced iron, or iron amalgam with ammonia at 420°; and, also, in a compact form, by the action of ammonia on red hot iron wire.
Chem., 1900, 23, p. 2 45; 1904, 38, p. 232), who found the amount of silver bromide given by ferrous bromide, gave the value 55.44 (0 = 16).
Owing principally to the large proportion of chloride and bromide of magnesia no animal life can exist in its water.
Magnesium chloride Magnesium bromide Iron and aluminium oxides Organic matter, water of tion, loss .
Thiel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1135) obtained the values 115.08 and 114.81 from analyses of the chloride and bromide, whilst F.
CO 2 H,with sodium amalgam, by conversion of trimethylene bromide into the cyanide and hydrolysis of this compound, or from acetoacetic ester, which, in the form of its sodium derivative, condenses with j3-iodopropionic ester to form acetoglutaric ester, CH 3 CO CH(CO 2 C 2 H 5) CH 2.
The stoichiometric control has been repeated with 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of the above lithium amide with each of bromide and iodide.
That happens with the silver chloride, and with the silver bromide if concentrated ammonia is used.
anaesthesia In children the ED 90 dose of vecuronium bromide under halothane anesthesia was found to be somewhat higher (approx.
The results are stunning, fully archival Bromide prints, giving you the best of digital and analog technologies combined.
Acute intoxication by inadvertent oral ingestion of tiotropium bromide capsules is unlikely due to low oral bioavailability.
One lettuce sample contained inorganic bromide at levels 22 times the safety level  for young children.
Later, Talbot changed to using silver bromide to fix his prints.
For example, ammonia reacts with HBr to give ammonium bromide, NH 4 + Br - .
bromide at the recommended dose.
In case of long digestion, an excess of soluble bromide retards, but does not prevent the attainment of great sensitiveness.
bromide ions reduce the sulphuric acid to sulfur dioxide gas.
bromide prints can be produced up to giant mural size.
bromide paper caused a life of.
bromide ion concentration.
These stock solutions are stored in the fume hood with the ethidium bromide.
Clinical data from nursing women exposed to tiotropium bromide are not available.
Avoid the use of methyl bromide in soil with high organic matter.
Ipratropium bromide does not penetrate the blood brain barrier.
Various strategies have been employed to ensure tight binding of the rocuronium bromide with the CD.
Maintenance dose: 20 to 30 micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight.
bromide of potassium with that of nitrate of silver.
fineness of grain of the bromide when first formed.
gaslight papers, but with fast bromide papers this had to be achieved using toning methods.
Patients should stop using tiotropium bromide and consult a physician immediately when signs and symptoms of narrow-angle glaucoma appear.
It is now a requirement to use virtually impermeable Film in methyl bromide treatments.
inorganic bromide at levels 22 times the safety level  for young children.
methyl bromide in soil with high organic matter.
Operator protection A written Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) assessment must be made before using methyl bromide.
Advisory notes Approved products containing methyl bromide are available for agricultural, horticultural, food storage and space spray use.
micrograms vecuronium bromide per kg body weight.
Toxic doses of propantheline bromide may produce non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking effects with paralysis of voluntary muscle.
potassium bromide in cats (organized by Dr. Giunio Cherubini ).
Rupert shielded his eyes with his black velvet wrapped silver bromide glass plates.
For a bromide see A.
The dihydro derivatives are most probably those compounds which are formed in the condensation of acidyl derivatives of acetone, with urea, guanidine, &c. Tetrahydropyrimidines are obtained by the action of amidines on trimethylene bromide: Br(CH 2) 3 Br+C 6 H 5 C (:NH) NH 2 = 2HBr+C 4 H 7 N 2 (C 6 H 5) .
Aston) and from analysis of the bromide and chloride(Sainte-Claire Deville); the values obtained ranging from 10.73 to II 04.
a-propylene glycol, CH 3 CH(OH) CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 188Ã‚° to 189Ã‚°, and obtained by heating glycerin with sodium hydroxide and distilling the mixture; and trimethylene glycol, CH 2 OH CH 2 CH 2 OH, a liquid boiling at 214Ã‚° C. and prepared by boiling trimethylene bromide with potash solution (A.
Huntington (Berichte, 1882, 15, p. 80), from an analysis of the pure bromide, to be 111-9.
Sulphur bromide, S 2 Br 2, is a dark red liquid which boils with decomposition at about 200Ã‚° C. The products obtained by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although E.
On treatment with potassium bromide it yields thionyl bromide, SOBr2, an orange-yellow liquid which boils at 68Ã‚° C. (40 mm.) (Hartoz and Sims, Chem.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33Ã‚° and boiling at 201Ã‚°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
The a-halogen compounds are obtained by heating styrolene chloride (or bromide) with lime or alcoholic potash; they are liquids which have a penetrating odour, and yield acetophenone when heated with water to 180Ã‚°.
It is formed by the condensation of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride: Br CH Br CH C H +C6H6=4HBr+C6H4) I, )C6H4, Br CH Br CH and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200Ã‚° C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C. L.
NH 2, is prepared by the action of ammonia on trimethylene bromide (E.
Aurous bromide, AuBr, is a yellowish-green powder obtained by heating the tribromide to 140Ã‚°; auric bromide, AuBr 3, forms reddish-black or scarlet-red leafy crystals, which dissolve in water to form a reddishbrown solution,and combines with bromides to form bromaurates corresponding to the chloraurates.
Methyl bromide is a liquid, specific gravity I 73, boiling point 13Ã‚°; methyl iodide has a specific gravity of 2.19, and boils at 43Ã‚°.
Heated in chlorine or with bromine, it yields carbon and calcium chloride or bromide; at a dull red heat it burns in oxygen, forming calcium carbonate, and it becomes incandescent in sulphur vapour at 500Ã‚°, forming calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide.
(See GAS: Manufacture.) Ammonium bromide, NH 4 Br, can be prepared by the direct action of bromine on ammonia.
They also combine with nitrosyl bromide and chloride, and with many metallic haloid salts (platinum bichloride, iridium chloride), with mercury salts (see K.
Potassium bromide, KBr, may be obtained by dissolving bromine in potash, whereupon bromide and bromate are first formed, evaporating and igniting the product in order to decompose the bromate: 6KHO 3Br 2 =5KBr -}- KBrO 3 -}- 3H 2 0; 2KBrO 3 = 2KBr + 302 (cf.
Meuller, who obtained the values 39.1135 and 39.1143 from analyses of the bromide '(see' Abs.
It may be synthesized 1py passing the vapour of phenyl butylene bromide over heated soda lime (B.
Aronheim, Ann., 1874, 171, p. 219); and by the action of ortho-xylylene bromide on sodium ethane tetracarboxylic ester, the resulting tetra-hydronaphthalene tetracarboxylic ester being hydrolysed and heated, when it yields hydronaphthalene dicarboxylic acid, the silver salt of which decomposes on distillation into naphthalene and other products (A.
The bromide may be prepared by the addition of bromine to an ethereal solution of diazo-amino-benzene (tribromaniline remaining in solution).
It forms very deliquescent long white needles melting at 75.5Ã‚° C. and boiling at 215-220Ã‚° C. The bromide, iodide and sulphate are known, as is also gallium ammonium alum.
Nitrosobenzene, C 6 H 5 NO, was first obtained by the action of nitrosyl bromide or chloride on mercury diphenyl (A.
Chem., 1893, 6, p. 89), by determining the equivalent of barium chloride and bromide to silver, obtained the value 137.44 For the relation of barium to radium, see Radioactivity.
It is a brickred powder which explodes when heated to 130Ã‚° C. Selenium cyanide, Se(CN) 2, is obtained by decomposing silver selenocyanide with cyanogen iodide, or by the action of silver cyanide on a solution of selenium bromide in carbon bisulphide.
elektrochem., 1906, 55, p. 537) electrolyse a mixture of bromide and chloride which melts at 520Ã‚°.
The periodic process depends on the interaction between manganese dioxide (pyrolusite), sulphuric acid, and a bromide, and the operation is carried out in sandstone stills heated to 60Ã‚° C., the product being condensed as in the continuous process.
Bromine is soluble in water, to the extent of 3.226 grammes of bromine per too grammes of solution at 15Ã‚° C., the solubility being slightly increased by the presence of potassium bromide.
The oxide P 2 0 was obtained by Besson (Comptes rendus, 1897, 124, p. 763; 1901, pp. 132, 1556) by heating a mixture of phosphonium bromide and phosphorus oxychoride in sealed tubes to 50Ã‚°.
Thiophosphoryl bromide, PSBr3, obtained after the manner of the corresponding chloride, forms yellow octahedra which melt at 38Ã‚°, and have a penetrating, aromatic odour.
Freund (Monats., 1882, 3, p. 625) by heating trimethylene bromide with sodium, is a gas, which may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -35Ã‚° C. (749 mm.).
Soc., 1891, 59, p. 79 8); by the action of trimethylene bromide on disodio-propane tetracarboxylic ester; and by the reduction of isophthalic acid with sodium amalgam, the tetrahydro acids first formed being converted into hydrobromides and further reduced (A.
Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117Ã‚° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
C 7 H 13, a thick oily liquid, boiling at 290-291Ã‚° C., is obtained by the reduction of suberyl bromide.
With bromine it forms a dibromide, which then heated to 110Ã‚° C. decomposes into hydrobromic acid and benzyl bromide.
In ethereal solution it combines with bromine to form an unstable liquid dibromide; it also unites with one molecule of hydrobromic acid to form the same tertiary bromide as dimethylallylene; this points to its being Q-methyldivinyl, CH 2: C(CH 3) CH: CH 2 (V.
Soc., 1901, p. 285) obtained a nitride Fe2N by acting upon anhydrous ferrous chloride or bromide, finely divided reduced iron, or iron amalgam with ammonia at 420Ã‚°; and, also, in a compact form, by the action of ammonia on red hot iron wire.
The bronchodilation following inhalation of ipratropium bromide is primarily local and site specific to the lung and not systemic in nature.
In the absorber a lithium bromide solution absorbs low-pressure refrigerant water vapor produced in the evaporator.
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