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brittle

brittle

brittle Sentence Examples

  • "When I was in that room …" His grip on the railing tightened, and she stopped, afraid of pushing him through the brittle façade containing his emotions.

  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

  • Sirian and Rissa glared at each other with animosity that bespoke a brittle relationship.

  • The book's ancient pages were so brittle, he feared they would crumble before he finished.

  • He resisted the urge to burn them, in case the brittle papers held more secrets he needed.

  • By the tension between the two, their alliance was brittle at best.

  • velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.

  • Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.

  • Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.

  • They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.

  • This substance, however, on standing becomes brittle.

  • The coalitions, once so brittle as to break at the first strain, had now been hammered into solidity by his blows.

  • The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri found at Herculaneum has been instanced as the evil result of this re-making of the material.

  • Of the Characeae many are so exceedingly brittle that it is best to float them out like sea-weeds, except the prickly species, which may be carefully laid out on bibulous paper, and when dry fastened on sheets of white paper by means of gummed strips.

  • Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.

  • The straw must have a certain length of "pipe" between the knots, must possess a clear delicate golden colour and must not be brittle.

  • By the early Greek alchemists the metal was named Hermes, but at about the beginning of the 6th century, it was termed Zeusor Jupiter, and the symbol 2(assigned to it; it was also referred to as diabolus metallorum, on account of the brittle alloys which it formed.

  • The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.

  • At ordinary temperatures tin proves fairly ductile under the hammer, and its ductility seems to increase as the temperature rises up to about 100° C. At some temperature near its fusing point it becomes brittle, and still more brittle from - 14° C. downwards.

  • Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.

  • A bar of zinc, for instance, as obtained by casting, is very brittle; but when heated to 100° or 150° C. it becomes sufficiently plastic to be rolled into the thinnest sheet or to be drawn into wire.

  • The same metal, when heated to 205° C., becomes so brittle that it can be powdered in a mortar.

  • The alloy with 12% of silicon is white, hard and brittle.

  • The leaf ultimately becomes dried up and brittle.

  • By whichever way treated, the tobaccoleaf after curing is brittle and cannot be handled without crumbling to powder.

  • It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.

  • If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.

  • At about 200° C., the metal becomes so brittle that it can be pounded in a mortar.

  • Aluminium, iron, platinum and many other metals may thus take up so much carbon as to become brittle and unforgeable.

  • The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.

  • The faience is thick and clumsy, having soft, brittle and very light pale.

  • Similarly, bell-metal is harder, more sonorous and more brittle than either of its components.

  • The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.

  • Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.

  • The alloy of II parts gold and i part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.

  • The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.

  • Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

  • When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.

  • Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.

  • These substances, and also carbon, sulphur, selenium and tellurium, render the metal very brittle.

  • Bright, glance or pitch coal is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regular fragments of a black colour and pitchy lustre.

  • The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.

  • For its extraction from zircon the mineral is heated and quenched in water to render it brittle, and then reduced to a fine powder, which is fused with three to four parts of acid potassium fluoride in a platinum crucible.

  • From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks (Madoqua) of NorthEast Africa differ by their hairy noses, expanded in some species into short trunks; while the widely spread klipspringer, Oreotragus saltator, with its several local races, is unfailingly distinguishable by its rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, golden-flecked hair.

  • Aleppo galls (gallae halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, in.

  • Wood charcoal is a hard and brittle black substance, which retains the external structure of the wood from which it is made.

  • At temperatures below o° C. it is pretty hard and brittle; at the ordinary temperature it is so soft that it can be kneaded between the fingers and cut with a blunt knife.

  • It forms a grey brittle mass, having a conchoidal fracture; it is very deliquescent, combining very energetically with water to form caustic potash.

  • Tail long and brittle.

  • The long, pointed tail is brittle.

  • It is of a pale brown colour, transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour is used for fumigation and in perfumery.

  • Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, and varying in length from 2 to 4 in.

  • The hair covering the body is long, coarse, and of a peculiarly brittle and pith-like character, breaking easily; it is generally of a greyish-brown colour, sometimes inclined to yellowish-red, and often variegated with lighter patches.

  • The fact that a comparatively brittle material like concrete can be subjected not only to heavy loads but also to the jar and vibration from the blows of a heavy pile ram makes it appear as if its nature and properties had been changed by the steel reinforcement.

  • It is not brittle like porcelain and cast iron, not poisonous like lead-glazed earthenware and untinned copper, needs no enamel to chip off, does not rust and wear out like cheap tin-plate, and weighs but a fraction of other substances.

  • When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.

  • They have a shining, marble-grey and brown, thick, leathery outer coat, within which is a thin dark-coloured brittle coat.

  • One of the most striking alterations of cell-walls is that termed carbonization, in which the substance gradually turns black, hard and brittle, as if charred - e.g.

  • It is extremely magnetic and almost non-magnetic; as brittle as glass and almost as pliable and ductile as copper; extremely springy, and springless and dead; wonderfully strong, and 1 The word " iron " was in 0.

  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

  • Moreover, the coals which deoxidized the iron would inevitably carburize some lumps of it, here so far as to turn it into the brittle and relatively useless cast iron, there only far enough to convert it into steel, strong and very useful even in its unhardened state.

  • However this may be, very soon after man began to practise hot-forging he would inevitably learn that sudden cooling, by quenching in water, made a large proportion of his metal, his steel, extremely hard and brittle, because he would certainly try by this very quenching to avoid the inconvenience of having the hot metal about.

  • Moreover, this same carburizing action of the fuel would at times go so far as to turn part of the metal into a true cast iron, so brittle that it could not be worked at all.

  • These are cementite, a definite iron carbide, Fe 3 C, harder than glass and nearly as brittle, but probably very strong under gradually and axially applied stress; and ferrite, pure or nearly pure metallic a-iron, soft, weak, with high electric conductivity, and in general like copper except in colour.

  • Beta (13) iron, an unmagnetic, intensely hard and brittle allotropic form of iron, though normal and stable only in the little triangle GHM, is yet a state through which the metal seems always to pass when the austenite of region 4 changes into the ferrite and cementite of regions 6 and 8.

  • The suddenly cooled metal is hard and brittle, because the cold 0-iron which it contains is hard and brittle.

  • Thus, though sudden cooling has very little effect on steel of o io% of carbon, it changes that of 1.50% from a somewhat ductile body to one harder and more brittle than glass.

  • The Tempering and Annealing of Steel.-But this sudden cooling goes too far, preserving so much 0-iron as to make the steel too brittle for most purposes.

  • Why, then, is this material malleable, though the common grey cast iron, which is made up of about the same constituents and often in about the same proportion, is brittle ?

  • Thus, first, for the brittle glass-hard cementite there is gradually substituted the relatively harmless temper graphite; and, second, even this is in part removed by surface oxidation.

  • These two classes of properties tend to exclude each other, for, as a general rule, whatever tends to make iron and steel hard and strong tends to make it correspondingly brittle, and hence liable to break treacherously, especially under shock.

  • Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.

  • Sudden cooling makes the metal extremely ductile, and slow cooling makes it brittle.

  • brittle in the cold, apparently because it increases the size and the sharpness of demarcation of the crystalline grains of which the mass is made up. The specific effect of sulphur is to make the metal red-short, i.e.

  • brittle when at a red heat, by forming a network of iron sulphide which encases these crystalline grains and thus plays the part of a weak link in a strong chain.

  • brittle at a red or forging heat.

  • The iron for most engineering purposes needs chiefly to be strong and not excessively brittle.

  • Though all true cast iron is brittle, in the sense that it is not usefully malleable, i.e.

  • that it cannot be hammered from one shape into another, yet its degree of brittleness differs as that of soapstone does from that of glass, so that there are the intensely hard and brittle cast irons, and the less brittle ones, softer and unhurt by a shock which would shiver the former.

  • Second, though the brittleness should be lessened somewhat by the decrease in the extent to which the continuity of the strong matrix is broken up by the graphite skeleton, yet this effect is outweighed greatly by that of the rapid substitution in the matrix of the brittle cementite for the' very ductile copper-like ferrite, so that the brittleness increases continuously (RS), from that of the very grey graphitic cast irons, which, like that of soapstone, is so slight that the metal can endure severe shock and even indentation without breaking, to that of the pure white cast iron which is about as brittle as porcelain.

  • of carbon means substituting in the matrix no less than 15% of the brittle, glass-hard cementite for the soft, very ductile ferrite..

  • - Sulphur has the specific harmful effects of shifting the carbon from the state of graphite to that of cementite, and thus of making the metal hard and brittle; of making it thick and sluggish when molten, so that it does not run freely in the moulds; and of making it red short, i.e.

  • brittle at a red heat, so that it is very liable to be torn by the aeolotachic contraction in cooling from the molten state; and it has no good effects to offset these.

  • The permissible phosphorus-content is lessened by the presence of either much sulphur or much manganese, and by rapid cooling, as for instance in case of thin castings, because each of these three things, by leading to the formation of the brittle cementite, in itself creates brittleness which aggravates that caused by phosphorus.

  • It is only the pressure of increasing demand that makes marketable hard pelts with harsh brittle hair of nondescript hue, and these would, naturally, be the last to attract the notice of dealers.

  • The Asiatic, African and South American varieties are, with the exception of those taken in the mountains, poorly furred and usually brittle and therefore of no great service.

  • Many from Russia are dyed black for floor and carriage rugs; the hair is brittle, with poor underwool and not very durable; the cost, however, is small.

  • The dressing is hard and brittle.

  • The hair is, however, brittle and is not at all durable.

  • The fur is a yellowish brown and rather harsh and brittle and has no underwool.

  • A small number of very pretty guanaco and vicuna carriage rugs are imported into Europe, and many come through travellers and private sources, but generally they are so badly dressed that they are quite brittle upon the leather side.

  • The fur, apart from a clumsy appearance, is so brittle, however, as to be of scarcely any service whatever.

  • White hares are frequently sold as white fox, but the fur is weak, brittle and exceedingly poor compared to fox and possesses no thick underwool.

  • The wood of an old tree, on the other hand, has lost a great part of its toughness, and is of bad colour, brittle and often predisposed to decay.

  • In this way the disease is spread rapidly, continually eating into the timber, which is first rendered brittle, and then reduced to powder.

  • Tin is too weak and brittle a metal to be employed alone for any but small objects.

  • Such speculum metal is exceedingly hard and brittle, takes a fine white polish, and when protected from damp has little liability to tarnish.

  • The nails become brittle and the skin dry, sterility shows itself in women and sexual impotence in men.

  • The fracture is conchoidal, and the material is brittle.

  • It varies somewhat in consistency, being sometimes soft, elastic and sticky; often closely resembling india-rubber; and occasionally hard and brittle.

  • An alloy was formed of two parts silver, one-third copper and one-sixth lead; to this mixture, while fluid in the crucible, powdered sulphur in excess was added; and the brittle amalgam, when cold, was finely pounded, and sealed up in large quills for future use.

  • A very weak current gives a pale and brittle deposit, but as the current-density is increased up to a certain point, the properties of the metal improve; beyond this point they deteriorate, the colour becoming darker and the deposit less coherent, until at last it is dark brown and spongy or pulverulent.

  • Cuprous sulphide, Cu 2 S, occurs in nature as the mineral chalcocite or copper-glance, and may be obtained as a black brittle mass by the direct combination of its constituents.

  • Recently prepared fibre is always stronger, more lustrous, softer and whiter than such as has been stored for some time - age and exposure rendering it brown in colour and harsh and brittle in quality.

  • Owing, however, to the woody and brittle nature of the fibre, it has to undergo a preliminary treatment peculiar to itself.

  • The pioneers of the jute industry, who did not understand this necessity, or rather who did not know how the woody and brittle character of the fibre could be remedied, were greatly perplexed by the difficulties they had to encounter, the fibre spinning badly into a hard, rough and hairy yarn owing to the splitting and breaking of the fibre.

  • The coating of lime or mortar is soft and brittle, and consequently the young oysters can easily be detached with a stout knife.

  • Antimony is a silvery white, crystalline, brittle metal, and has a high lustre.

  • Antimony compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate in the reducing flame give brittle beads of metallic antimony, and a white incrustation of the oxide.

  • At this temperature the bacterial bodies are extremely brittle, and are thus readily broken up. The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry.

  • Being very brittle, the spar is rather difficult to work on the lathe, and is often toughened by means of resin.

  • The scorifier is taken from the muffle in a pair of tongs and the contents poured into a mould, the lead forming a button in the bottom while the slag floats on top. When cold, the contents of the mould are taken out and the lead button hammered into the form of a cube, the slag, which is glassy and brittle, separating readily from the metal, which is then ready for cupellation.

  • It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.

  • Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.

  • - Skull and metacarpals generally as in Mazama; size very small; hair coarse and brittle; antlers in the form of short, simple spikes; cannon-bones very short; tail very short or wanting; no whorls in the hair of the face; face-gland moderately large, and gland-pit deep and oval; tarsal and metatarsal glands wanting; ectocuneiform bone of tarsus united with the naviculocuboid.

  • - Hair coarse and brittle; upper canines of male very long; no tarsal or metatarsal glands or tufts; lateral metacarpals represented by their lower extremities; lateral hoofs very large; tail very short; naked portion of muzzle extensive; male with a large abdominal gland.

  • Liquid selenium becomes more and more viscous in character as its temperature falls from 220° C. to 60° C.; it is soft at about 60°, but is hard and brittle between 30° and 40°.

  • The greatest care is taken that no steel is left in a brittle condition by heating and cooling without proper annealing.

  • Asphalt, whether a natural product or artificially obtained, as, for example, in some chemical manufactures, is a most useful material if properly employed in connexion with reservoir dams. Under sudden impact it is brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture like glass; but under continued pressure it has the properties of a viscous fluid.

  • in diameter, with a thin, brittle, red shell which bears rough protuberances.

  • Nephelium Longana, the longan tree, also a native of southern China, is cultivated in that country, in the Malay Peninsula, India and Ceylon for its fruit, which is smaller than that of the litchi, being half an inch to an inch in diameter with a nearly smooth yellowishbrown brittle skin, and containing a pulpy aril resembling that of the litchi in flavour.

  • It is the most tenacious of all the ductile metals at ordinary temperatures with the exception of cobalt and nickel; it becomes brittle, however, at the temperature of liquid air.

  • It softens at a red heat, and may be readily welded at a white heat; above this point it becomes brittle.

  • A nitride appears to be formed when nitrogen is passed over heated iron, since the metal is rendered brittle.

  • On exposure to the air it becomes dry, hard and brittle.

  • Rosin is a brittle and friable resin, with a faint piny odour; the melting-point varies with different specimens, some being semi-fluid at the temperature of boiling water, while others do not melt till 220 or 250° F.

  • It is brittle, and when hammered readily breaks up into a powder of angular grains.

  • For road-mending flint, though very hard, is not regarded with favour, as it is brittle and pulverizes readily; binds badly, yielding a surface which breaks up with heavy traffic and in bad weather; and its fine sharp-edged chips do much damage to tires of motors and cycles.

  • Bronze containing about 7 parts of copper to 1 of tin is hard, brittle and sonorous, and can be tempered to take a fine edge.

  • It is very brittle.

  • Another variety, obtained from the Prosopis dulcis, a leguminous plant, is called gum mesquite or mezquite; it comes from western Texas and Mexico, and is yellowish in colour, very brittle and quite soluble in water.

  • They are generally opaque and solid, and often brittle.

  • The time of sowing, the quantity of seed per acre (about three bushels) and the method of gathering and retting are very similar to those of flax; but, as a rule, it is a hardier plant than flax, does not possess the same pliability, is much coarser and more brittle, and does not require the same amount of attention during the first few weeks of its growth.

  • A cold gust of wind ripped brittle brown leaves from the limbs of old oak tree, tossing them carelessly in front of the headstone below.

  • "When I was in that room …" His grip on the railing tightened, and she stopped, afraid of pushing him through the brittle façade containing his emotions.

  • Initially fearing her to be brittle by her reaction to the world around her, A'Ran was more assured of her ability to withstand the changes in her life.

  • Darkness clung to the brittle pages, resisting even direct firelight.

  • Sirian and Rissa glared at each other with animosity that bespoke a brittle relationship.

  • The book's ancient pages were so brittle, he feared they would crumble before he finished.

  • He resisted the urge to burn them, in case the brittle papers held more secrets he needed.

  • She'd given up her own, and to invite hope when she needed to focus on stopping the demon for good…her resolve was too brittle to consider any other fate.

  • By the tension between the two, their alliance was brittle at best.

  • In all cases with my sets, the badges stored in the brittle plastic bags have yellowed " .

  • Feed supplements containing biotin and methionine may help to aid good quality hoof growth, especially for those horses with naturally brittle feet.

  • Osteoporosis Osteoporosis -- or brittle bones -- is one of the major health concerns for older women.

  • The clips holding it in place are brittle and easily breakable.

  • brittle at low temperatures.

  • The presence of the carbide makes the metal very brittle.

  • Frequent wetting and drying of hands can leave nails brittle.

  • brittle bladder-fern, for instance, spread from the north and west to the South East and East Anglia.

  • brittle fracture is likely to result.

  • brittle bones in all parts of the United Kingdom.

  • brittle nails are the result of severe dehydration in the nail plates.

  • brittle deformation.

  • brittle asthma can have a fatal attack with no warning whatsoever.

  • Elijah (Samuel L. Jackson) barely survives being born with a rare disease that leaves his bones extremely brittle.

  • The critical load for adhesion failure is easiest to identify in the case of a hard, relatively brittle film on a softer substrate.

  • Will you get a call saying your film is too brittle?

  • The wire itself is very stiff and rather brittle.

  • This version also has a red plastic comb binding, which with age has tended to become quite brittle.

  • Poor quality modern papers which have become brittle will not be copied.

  • The assurances on jobs look very brittle at the moment.

  • Then, like aging teeth, they get more brittle.

  • You know, the days when you feel so brittle, like a slightest gust of wind might knock you down.

  • brittle with age and exposure to oil.

  • Japanese tissue, a thin yet extremely strong paper made from mulberry bushes, is used to repair brittle or damaged documents.

  • High contrast, stark, lunar, chiaroscuro, sharp and brittle.

  • A steel wire coat hanger could be used to show brittle fracture after ' working ' in the plastic stage.

  • conchoidal brittle fractures observed in the top right corner.

  • A material that undergoes very little plastic deformation is brittle.

  • plastic deformation must not be carried beyond a certain point or brittle fracture is likely to result.

  • Material heterogeneity and loading history are fundamental to the initiation and evolution of distributed brittle deformation.

  • Finally the brittle skin is peeled away to reveal beautifully delicate markings and smoky blushes.

  • drain on paper towels, and serve as soon as possible while they are still very crisp and brittle.

  • Larvae of other echinoderms are also present in the plankton, like those of sea urchins, sea cucumbers and brittle stars.

  • Belgium is banning several products containing fluorine because it causes ' brittle bone disease ' .

  • Looks like a volcanic flow with a surface of brittle fractures a result of mechanical erosion of the face.

  • This was also dangerous for already brittle areas of iron gall ink.

  • Darkhawk smashed the now brittle bone golem to shards with his clawed fists and stepped toward the nagpa.

  • The piece is then fired again in a raku kiln to a point where the glaze has melted enough to form a brittle skin.

  • The properties can be excellent in spite of the fact that freshly formed high-carbon martensite is brittle.

  • Cryogenic milling is used to break down some metals which become brittle at low temperatures.

  • A: " brittle nails are the result of severe dehydration in the nail plates.

  • Among the brittle stars you see occasional Dahlia Anemones in pink or orange or white.

  • raku kiln to a point where the glaze has melted enough to form a brittle skin.

  • Frequent tillage during a fallow year exposes the brittle, fleshy rhizomes to be gathered or they may dry out in hot weather.

  • The dry lichen thallus is brittle, so fragments can be broken off easily and transported by wind or by animals.

  • Fissures, filled with calcite and sand, were pointed out, thought to be due to brittle fracture, as tectonic uplift occurred.

  • It is a brittle metal of specific gravity 22 .

  • velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.

  • dryophilus has sometimes been gathered in mistake for the champignon, but this too grows in woods where the champignon never grows; it has a hollow instead of a solid stem, gills crowded together instead of far apart, and flesh very tender and brittle instead of tough.

  • Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.

  • Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.

  • They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.

  • This substance, however, on standing becomes brittle.

  • The coalitions, once so brittle as to break at the first strain, had now been hammered into solidity by his blows.

  • The more brittle condition of the Latin papyri found at Herculaneum has been instanced as the evil result of this re-making of the material.

  • Of the Characeae many are so exceedingly brittle that it is best to float them out like sea-weeds, except the prickly species, which may be carefully laid out on bibulous paper, and when dry fastened on sheets of white paper by means of gummed strips.

  • Rubber slowly absorbs oxygen when exposed to air and light, the absorption of oxygen being accompanied by a gradual change in the characteristic properties of rubber, and ultimately to the production of a hard, inelastic, brittle substance containing oxygen.

  • The straw must have a certain length of "pipe" between the knots, must possess a clear delicate golden colour and must not be brittle.

  • By the early Greek alchemists the metal was named Hermes, but at about the beginning of the 6th century, it was termed Zeusor Jupiter, and the symbol 2(assigned to it; it was also referred to as diabolus metallorum, on account of the brittle alloys which it formed.

  • The metal is dimorphous: by cooling molten tin at ordinary air temperature tetragonal crystals are obtained, while by cooling at a temperature just below the melting point rhombic forms are produced, When exposed for a sufficient time to very low temperatures (to - 39° C. for 14 hours), tin becomes so brittle that it falls into a grey powder, termed the grey modification, under a pestle; it indeed sometimes crumbles into powder spontaneously.

  • At ordinary temperatures tin proves fairly ductile under the hammer, and its ductility seems to increase as the temperature rises up to about 100° C. At some temperature near its fusing point it becomes brittle, and still more brittle from - 14° C. downwards.

  • Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.

  • A bar of zinc, for instance, as obtained by casting, is very brittle; but when heated to 100° or 150° C. it becomes sufficiently plastic to be rolled into the thinnest sheet or to be drawn into wire.

  • The same metal, when heated to 205° C., becomes so brittle that it can be powdered in a mortar.

  • The alloy with 12% of silicon is white, hard and brittle.

  • The leaf ultimately becomes dried up and brittle.

  • By whichever way treated, the tobaccoleaf after curing is brittle and cannot be handled without crumbling to powder.

  • It fuses at 415° C. and under ordinary atmospheric pressure boils at 1040° C. Its vapour density shows that it is monatomic. The molten metal on cooling deposits crystals belonging to the hexagonal system, and freezes into a compact crystalline solid, which may be brittle or ductile according to circumstances.

  • If zinc be cast into a mould at a red heat, the ingot produced is laminar and brittle; if cast at just the fusing-point, it is granular and sufficiently ductile to be rolled into sheet at the ordinary temperature.

  • At about 200° C., the metal becomes so brittle that it can be pounded in a mortar.

  • Aluminium, iron, platinum and many other metals may thus take up so much carbon as to become brittle and unforgeable.

  • The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.

  • The faience is thick and clumsy, having soft, brittle and very light pale.

  • Similarly, bell-metal is harder, more sonorous and more brittle than either of its components.

  • The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.

  • Gold and Zinc.-When present in small quantities zinc renders gold TABLE II.-Gold brittle, but it may be added to gold in larger quantities without destroying the ductility of the precious metal; Peligot proved that a triple alloy of gold, copper and zinc, which contains 5.8% of the lastnamed, is perfectly ductile.

  • The alloy of II parts gold and i part of zinc is, however, stated to be brittle.

  • The alloys of tin and gold are hard and brittle, and the combination of the metals is attended with contraction; thus the alloy SnAu has a density 14.243, instead of 14.828 indicated by calculation.

  • Eleven parts of gold and i of cobalt form a brittle alloy of a dull yellow colour.

  • In 1450 Basil Valentine referred to it by the name "wismut," and characterized it as a metal; some years later Paracelsus termed it "wissmat," and, in allusion to its brittle nature, affirmed it to be a "bastard" or "half-metal"; Georgius Agricola used the form "wissmuth," latinized to "bisemutum," and also the term "plumbum cineareum."

  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

  • When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.

  • Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white element of specific gravity 6.27.

  • These substances, and also carbon, sulphur, selenium and tellurium, render the metal very brittle.

  • Bright, glance or pitch coal is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regular fragments of a black colour and pitchy lustre.

  • The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.

  • For its extraction from zircon the mineral is heated and quenched in water to render it brittle, and then reduced to a fine powder, which is fused with three to four parts of acid potassium fluoride in a platinum crucible.

  • From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks (Madoqua) of NorthEast Africa differ by their hairy noses, expanded in some species into short trunks; while the widely spread klipspringer, Oreotragus saltator, with its several local races, is unfailingly distinguishable by its rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, golden-flecked hair.

  • Aleppo galls (gallae halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, in.

  • They are hollow, brittle, irregularly pyriform, tuberculated or branched vesicles, with thin walls, covered externally with a grey down, and internally with a white chalk-like matter, and insect-remains (see fig.

  • Wood charcoal is a hard and brittle black substance, which retains the external structure of the wood from which it is made.

  • At temperatures below o° C. it is pretty hard and brittle; at the ordinary temperature it is so soft that it can be kneaded between the fingers and cut with a blunt knife.

  • It forms a grey brittle mass, having a conchoidal fracture; it is very deliquescent, combining very energetically with water to form caustic potash.

  • Tail long and brittle.

  • The long, pointed tail is brittle.

  • It is of a pale brown colour, transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour is used for fumigation and in perfumery.

  • Ginseng of good quality generally occurs in hard, rather brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, and varying in length from 2 to 4 in.

  • The hair covering the body is long, coarse, and of a peculiarly brittle and pith-like character, breaking easily; it is generally of a greyish-brown colour, sometimes inclined to yellowish-red, and often variegated with lighter patches.

  • The fact that a comparatively brittle material like concrete can be subjected not only to heavy loads but also to the jar and vibration from the blows of a heavy pile ram makes it appear as if its nature and properties had been changed by the steel reinforcement.

  • It is not brittle like porcelain and cast iron, not poisonous like lead-glazed earthenware and untinned copper, needs no enamel to chip off, does not rust and wear out like cheap tin-plate, and weighs but a fraction of other substances.

  • When shreds and nails are used, short thick wire nails and " medicated shreds " are the best; the ordinary cast iron wall nails being much too brittle and difficult to drive into the wall.

  • They have a shining, marble-grey and brown, thick, leathery outer coat, within which is a thin dark-coloured brittle coat.

  • One of the most striking alterations of cell-walls is that termed carbonization, in which the substance gradually turns black, hard and brittle, as if charred - e.g.

  • It is extremely magnetic and almost non-magnetic; as brittle as glass and almost as pliable and ductile as copper; extremely springy, and springless and dead; wonderfully strong, and 1 The word " iron " was in 0.

  • The essential characteristic of wrought iron was its nearly complete freedom from carbon; that of steel was its moderate carbon-content (say between 0.30 and 2.2%), which, though great enough to confer the property of being rendered intensely hard and brittle by sudden cooling, yet was not so great but that the metal was malleable when cooled slowly; while that of cast iron was that it contained so much carbon as to be very brittle whether cooled quickly or slowly.

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