British Sentence Examples
They took him to the British camp.
Megan spoke with a gentle British lilt, and her dark eyes took in everything as they walked.
British music is known and loved around the world, as is its comedy and royalty.
He subsequently undertook the preparation of a new edition of the Hebrew Bible for the British and Foreign Bible Society.
Forsaking the priesthood about 1864, he was employed as a diplomatist by the British government in Egypt, Asia Minor, the West Indies, and Bulgaria, being appointed resident minister in Uruguay in 1884; he died at Montevideo on the 30th of September 1888.Advertisement
His throne and life had not been saved for him by the British, as was the case with his father.
There was much fighting; and several great battles took place between the British and the Americans.
A second great service was the publication in the British Association Reports for 1833 of his "Report on the Recent Progress and Present State of certain branches of Analysis."
The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.
Great developments have been made of recent years in the cultivation of rubber in British Malaya.Advertisement
Johor is the only Malay state in the southern portion of the peninsula, the whole of which is within the British sphere, which has been suffered to remain under native rule.
Federated Malay under British Protection.......
Malacca was taken from the Dutch by the British in 1795; was restored to the latter in 1818; but in 1824 was exchanged for Benkulen and a few more unimportant places in Sumatra.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.Advertisement
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried off its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M'Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consulgeneral of Denmark, and wife of the British consul.
When Lord Exmouth was about to bombard the city in 1816, the British consul was thrown into prison and loaded with chains.
Mrs. M`Donnell - who was but sixteen - escaped to the British fleet disguised as a midshipman, carrying a basket of vegetables in which her baby was hidden.Advertisement
A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.
The British minister demanded from the national government M`Leod's release, but his case was in the New York courts, over which the national government has no jurisdiction.
The British oak is one of the largest trees of the genus, though old specimens are often more remarkable for the great size of the trunk and main boughs than for very lofty growth.Advertisement
The wood is hard, heavy and of fine grain, quite equal to the best British oak for indoor use, but of very variable durability where exposed to weather.
The wood is variable in quality and, though hard in texture, is less durable than the best oak of British growth; the heart-wood is of a light reddish brown varying to an olive tint; a Canadian specimen weighs 524 lb the cubic foot.
Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
In 1907 he was president of the British Association.
Before its annexation by Germany the lagoons were a favourite resort of slavers, and stations were established there by Portuguese, British, French and German traders.
In 368 Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia, in honour of the emperor.
The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
On the outbreak of the Pindari War in 1817 the British government offered its protection.
Sindhia gave up the district of Ajmere to the British, and the pressure of the great Mahratta powers upon Rajputana was permanently withdrawn.
In the British Postal Telegraph Department all the most important wires are tested every morning between 7.30 and 7.45 A.M., in sections of about 200 miles.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
There are three kinds of primary batteries in general use in the British Postal Telegraph Department, viz., the Daniell, the bichromate, and the Leclanche.
In order to avoid this sparking, every local instrument in the British Postal Telegraph Department has a " spark " coil connected across the terminals of the electromagnet.
An experimental printer constructed about the middle of 1908 by the British Post Office, operated successfully at the rate of 210 words (1260 letters) per minute.
On the British side the question of constructing an Atlantic cable was engaging the attention of the Magnetic Telegraph Company and its engineer Mr (afterwards Sir) Charles Bright.
Although a good deal of cable had been lost, enough remained to connect the British and American shores, and accordingly it was determined to make another attempt immediately.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
The following year an additional cable was laid from Bacton, in Norfolk, to Borkum, in Germany, at the joint expense of the British and German governments.
In 1896 a committee was appointed to consider the proposal for laying a telegraph cable between British North America and Australasia.
There would be a very serious question raised, and it would probably extend to other forms of British enterprise."
Other experiments in inductive telegraphy were made by Preece, aided by the officials of the British Postal Telegraph Service, in Glamorganshire in 1887; at Loch Ness in Scotland in 1892; on Conway Sands in 1893; and at Frodsham, on the Dee, in 1894.
In 1896 he came to England and gave demonstrations to the British postal telegraph department and other officials.
In July and August 1899 the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy was tried for the first time during British naval manoeuvres, and the two cruisers, " Juno " and " Europa," were fitted with the new means of communication.
From and after that time the British Admiralty and the navies of other countries began to give great attention to the development of electric wave telegraphy.
The decisions of the Conference were ratified for Great Britain by the British government on July 1, 1908.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
A British army, commanded by Marshal Beresford, endeavoured to retake it, and on the 16th of May defeated a relieving force at Albuera, but the siege was abandoned in June.
The fortress was finally stormed on the 6th of April 1812, by the British under Lord Wellington, and carried with terrible loss.
Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
The Bourbon courl sailed away to Palermo, where it remained for eight years under the protection afforded by the British fleet and a British army of occupation.
Sir Sidney Smith with a British squadron captured Capri (February 18o6), and the peasants of the Abruzzi and Calabria soon began to give trouble.
Worst of all was the arrival of a small British force in Calabria under Sir John.
On the 18th of July, however, Gaeta surrendered to Massna, and that marshal, now moving rapidly southwards, extricated Rynier, crushed the Bourbon rising in Calabria with great barbarity, and compelled the British force to re-embark for Sicily.
During eight years (1806-1814) the chief places of the island had been garrisoned by British troops; and the commander of the force which upheld the tottering rule of Ferdinand at Palermo naturally had great authority.
The British government, which awarded a large annual subsidy to the king and queen at Palermo, claimed to have some control over the administration.
After the retirement of the British troops in 1814 the constitution lapsed, and the royal authority became once more absolute.
This result, accruing from British intervention, was in some respects similar to that exerted by Napoleon on the Italians of the mainland.
In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.
A British alliance would have been preferable, but the British government was too much concerned with the preservation of European peace.
On the 8th of July the revelation of the Anglo-Ottoman treaty for the British occupatiofi of Cyprus took the congress by surprise.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their norma I cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support lent by Italy to the British proposal at the London conference on the Egyptian question (July 1884).
Partly to satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favorable disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Caimi and Colonel Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beilul.
The British government, desirous of preventing an Italo-Abyssinian conflict, which could but strengthen the position of the Mahdists, despatched Mr (afterwards Sir) Gerald Portal from Massawa on the 29th of October to mediate with the negus.
In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
For a moment Baratieri thought of retreat, especially as the hope of creating a diversion from Zaila towards Harrar had failed in consequence of the British refusal to permit the landing of an Italian force without the consent of France.
His Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.
This third possibility in philosophy does not enter at all into Lecky's grouping referred to above; in fact, it is very generally strange to older British thinking,3 t;csm.
He has profoundly influenced British thinking, but is little known abroad.
Of the four two are in the British Museum.
The British Museum also contains the original parchment of the Articles of the Baron.
The garrison consists of 140 British and 300 Indian troops, with a few local European volunteers.
This was interrupted by the Indian Mutiny of 1857, but as soon as the neck of that revolt was broken, it became more urgent than ever to provide such a resource, on account of the great number of prisoners falling into British hands.
In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.
In the British fresh-water fauna only two genera, Hydra and Cordylophora, are found; in America occurs an additional genus, Microhydra.
Coryne, a common British longed into a brood pouch conhydroid, produces gonophores; taining embryos.
The British genus Gemmaria, however, is budded from a hydroid referable to the family Corynidae.
Thus Westminster Abbey is sometimes styled the British "Pantheon," and the rotunda in the Escorial where the kings of Spain are buried also bears the name.
Britain remained outside that jurisdiction, the Celtic churches of the British islands, after those islands were abandoned by the Empire, pursuing a course of their own.
The position is the same now through all the British colonies (except, as already mentioned, Lower Canada or Quebec).
On the 12th of April 1769 the British expedition to observe the transit of Venus, under the naval command of James Cook, arrived at Tahiti.
Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese.
The native country of this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many British nurseries as the "black Italian poplar," it is now well ascertained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been first brought to England from Canada in 1772.
The British Medical Association published in 1907 a work on Secret Remedies; what they cost and what they contain.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
During his long service as a lieutenant he took part in the bombardment of Tripoli, and on a subsequent occasion showed great firmness in resisting the seizure of a seaman as an alleged deserter from the British navy, his ship at the time lying under the guns of Gibraltar.
Small islands off the coast of north-west Spain, the headlands of that same coast, the Scillies, Cornwall, the British Isles as a whole, have all in turn been suggested.
Holmes, Ancient Britain (1907), appendix, identifies the Cassiterides with the British Isles.
Salsola Kali is British, and a hemi-halophyte at least; and it is rather spiny.
Those of warmer countries cannot be cultivated in British gardens without protection from the rigours of winter; still less are they able to hold their own unaided in an unfavourable climate.
The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown on the western shores of the British Isles, and as they are capable of germination, the species are only prevented from establishing themselves by an uncongenial climate.
If we turn to herbaceous plants, Hemsley has pointed out that of the thirteen genera of Ranunculaceae in California, eleven are British.
The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.
Of species common to the two, Maximowicz finds that Manchuria possesses 40% and scarcely 9% that are endemic. Of a collection of about 500 species made in that country by Sir Henry James nearly a third are British.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.
Mackinder in British Association Report (Ipswich), 18 95, p. 73 8, for a summary of German opinion, which has been expressed by many writers in a somewhat voluminous literature.
It was long before another British ship entered the Pacific Ocean.
The eighth voyage, led by Captain Saris, extended the operations of the company to Japan; and in 1613 the Japanese government granted privileges to the company; but the British retired in 1623, giving up their factory.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
British visits to Eastern countries, at this time, were not confined to the voyages of the company.
The Dutch nation, as soon as it was emancipated from Spanish tyranny, displayed an amount of enterprise, which, for a long time, was fully equal to that of the British.
While the British were at work in the direction of the Niger, the Portuguese were not unmindful of their old exploring fame.
The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
The latter occurs only in the temperate possessions of the British empire, in which there is no great preponderance of a coloured native population.
The young lady's relatives ultimately became reconciled to the match, and procured him an appointment as attache to the British legation at Turin.
In September of that year Cape Town surrendered to the British and the "National" party at Swellendam quietly accepted British rule.
The act is thus responsible for the accession of the house of Hanover to the British throne.
The importance of the Act of Settlement appears from the fact that, in all the regency acts, it is mentioned as one of the 4 The title of king of France was retained by the British sovereigns until 1801.
On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813.
As a punishment, on the 18th, of October 1775, the town was bombarded and burned by a British fleet.
The great auk, once common on the British coasts, those of Denmark, the east coast of North America, then restricted to those of Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland, has been killed by man, and the same fate has overtaken the Labrador duck, the Phillip Island parrot, Nestor productus, and the large cormorant of FIG.
Sharpe increases their number to about 15,000 in the New Hand-List of Birds, published by the British Museum.
In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains (i) an extract of the fresh corm, having doses of 4 to i grain, and (2) the Vinum Colchici, made by treating the dried corm with sherry and given in doses of 10 to 30 minims. This latter is the preparation still most generally used, though the presence of veratrine both in the corm and the seeds renders the use of colchicine itself theoretically preferable.
During the World War he served with the headquarters staff of the British army in France (1916-7), attaining the rank of colonel, and later was Director of Information under the Prime Minister (1917-8), and his History of the War (Nelson) was an admirable piece of work.
Without the pilgrims who come to visit it, Meshed would be a poor place, but lying on the eastern confines of Persia, close to Afghanistan, Russian Central Asia and Transcaspia, at the point where a number of trade routes converge, it is very important politically, and the British and Russian governments have maintained consulates-general there since 1889.
In 1890 General Maclean, the British consul-general, reported that there were 650 silk, 40 carpet and 320 shawl looms at work.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British Members of Parliament.
Books in the British Museum (London, 1867; continued by van Straalen, London, 1894).
Having once obtained a foothold in the country, they established their power over the entire valley and ruled with merciless barbarity, until they were expelled by the British in 1824-1825.
From Switzerland he passed in six months to England, where he formed acquaintances with other French exiles and with prominent British statesmen, and imbibed a lasting admiration for the English Constitution.
With the acquisition of the Suez Canal, moreover, the value of this route from the British standpoint was so greatly diminished that the scheme, so far as England was concerned, was quite abandoned.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
In this position he earned a reputation as a politician of thorough straightforwardness and grit, and as one who would maintain British interests independently of party; and he shared with Mr Asquith the reputation of being the ablest of the Imperialists who followed Lord Rosebery.
Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
British, Swiss and Germans are comparatively few.
In 1907, 26,105 Italian immigrants arrived, 21,927 Spanish, 2355 British, 2315 French and 1823 German.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
Besides a number of local banks, branches of German, Spanish, French and several British banks are established in Montevideo.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
In the British Islands native sulphur is only a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carboniferous Limestone of Oughterard in Co.
A British regiment, despatched to their assistance from Dinapur, was disastrously repulsed; but they were ultimately relieved, after eight days' continuous fighting, by a small force under Major (afterwards Sir Vincent) Eyre.
The greater portion, however, of the numerous bands which visit the British Islands in autumn and winter doubtless come from the Continent - perhaps even from far to the eastward, since its range stretches across Asia to Japan, in which country it is as favourite a cage-bird as with us.
In England nobility is apt to be confounded with the peculiar institution of the British peerage.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
The peerage, as it exists in the three British kingdoms, is something which is altogether peculiar to the three British kingdoms, and which has nothing in the least degree like it elsewhere.
In short, there is no real nobility in England; for the class which answers to foreign nobility has so long ceased to have any practical privileges that it has long ceased to be looked on as a nobility, and the word nobility has been transferred to another class which has nothing answering to it out of the three British kingdoms. 2 This last ' This statement is mainly interesting as expressing the late Professor Freeman's view; it is, however, open to serious criticism.
He became a fellow of the British Academy.
In 1782 the troops of Hyder were driven from Calicut by the British; but in 1788 it was taken and destroyed by his son Tippoo, who carried off the inhabitants to Beypur and treated them with great cruelty.
In the latter part of 1790 the country was occupied by the British; and under the treaty concluded in 1792, whereby Tippoo was deprived of half his dominions, Calicut fell to the British.
The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the Liberian service.
A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government.
British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains an infusion and tincture of buchu.
A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.
Early in the World War he went to South America to buy horses for the British army, and carried out his mission with success.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
The beetles of the British islands afford some very interesting examples of restricted distribution among species.
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
When the British government seemed disposed to use coercive measures for the protection of the Armenians, he gave it clearly to be understood that any such proceeding would be opposed by Russia.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The British figures are from the Board of Trade returns for the calendar year 1908.
In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.
In general, the British working unit supplied as public information has always been the goods-train-mile and the passengertrain-mile, these figures being the products of the number of trains into the number of miles they have travelled.
The Departmental Committee of the Board of Trade, sitting in 1909 to consider railway accounting forms, while recommending ton-miles to the careful consideration of those responsible for railway working in Great Britain, considered the question of their necessity in British practice to be still open, and held that, at all events, they should not be introduced under compulsion.
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
The public acts of parliament referring to British railways are collected in Bigg's General Railway Acts.
On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
The accidents to " other persons " cannot readily be compared with items 7-12 in the British record, except as to the totals and a few of the items.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
But British share capital has been issued so freely for extension and is ?- provement work of all sorts, including the costly requirements of the Board of Trade, that a situation has been reached where the return on the outstanding securities tends to diminish year by year.
Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
In the British colonies the prevailing gauge is 3 ft.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
The specifications for bull-headed rails issued by the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1904 provided for a carbon-content ranging from 0-35 to 0-50%, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.075%.
The lines through them should be, if possible, straight and on the level; the British Board of Trade forbids them being placed on a gradient steeper than i in 260, unless it is unavoidable.
The platforms on British railways have a standard elevation of 3 ft.
The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft.
British railways also undertake the collection and delivery of freight, in addition to transporting it, and thus an extensive range of vans and wagons, whether drawn by horses or mechanically propelled, must be provided in connexion with an important station.
It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.
They are distinguished essentially from the British type of carriage by having in the centre of the body a longitudinal passage, about 2 ft.
Cars of this saloon type have been introduced into England for use on railways which have adopted electric traction, but owing to the narrower loading gauge of British railways it is not usually possible to seat four persons across the width of the car for its whole length, and at the ends the seats have to be placed along the sides of the vehicle.
About 1875 their average capacity differed little from that of British wagons of the present day, but by 1885 it had grown to zo or 22 short tons (z000 ib) and now it is probably at least three times that of European wagons.
An ordinary British 10-ton wagon often weighs about 6 tons empty, and rarely much less than 5 tons; that is, the ratio of its possible paying load to its tare weight is at the best about 2 to 1.
In British practice the chains consist of three links, and are of such a length that when fully extended there is a space of a few inches between opposing buffers; this slack facilitates the starting of a heavy train, since the engine is able to start the wagons one by one and the weight of the train is not thrown on it all at once.
No adequate definition is to be found even in the British statute-book; for although g parliament has on different occasions passed acts dealing with such railways both in Great Britain and Ireland, it has not inserted in any of them a clear and sufficient statement of what it intends shall be understood by the term, as distinguished from an ordinary railway.
The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.
In France the lines which best correspond to British light railways are called Chemins de fer d'interit local.
In 1780 Cambay was taken by the army of General Goddard, was restored to the Mahrattas in 1783, and was afterwards ceded to the British by the peshwa under the treaty of 1803.
It is under British protection, being annexed in 1892.
With the uninhabited dependency of South Georgia Island, to the E.S.E., they form the most southerly colony of the British empire.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
The British warship "Calliope" (Captain Pearson) was in the harbour, but succeeded in getting up steam and, standing out to sea, escaped destruction.
But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
After the latter had been deported by the Germans, the British and American support was transferred to his successor, Mataafa.
Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
Eight British government expeditions for observing total solar eclipses were conducted by him between 1870 and 1905.
Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).
Harting in his work on Extinct British Animals, from which the following account is abridged.
One of such enclosures constitutes the British legation, and most of the other foreign legations are similarly, though not so sumptuously, lodged.
Harbour and citadel have now quite disappeared, the latter having been used to fill up the former shortly after the British occupation; some gain to health resulted, but an irreparable loss to science.
In 1746 Fort St David became the British headquarters for the south of India, and Dupleix' attack was successfully repulsed.
In 1782 they again took it and restored it sufficiently to withstand a British attack in 1783.
In 1785 it finally passed into British possession.
The edition in Bohn's British Classics (7 vols., 1853) deserves mention.
The Demeter of Cnidus in the British Museum, of the school of Praxiteles, apparently shows her mourning for the loss of her daughter.
Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.
He was prominent as a radical in all measures in opposition to the British government, and was a member of the first Virginia committee of correspondence.
To the fisherman in India the mahseer affords the same kind of sport as the salmon in the British Isles, and it rivals that fish as regards size, strength and activity.
In 1839 Ward became the editor of the British Critic, the organ of the Tractarian party, and he excited suspicion among the adherents of the Tractarians themselves by his violent denunciations of the Church to which he still belonged.
The problem is one of great practical importance, especially to the trative British Empire.
In British tropical possessions the bill is incomparably heavier.
A systematic campaign for the destruction of breedingplaces has been inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging results.
But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing campaigns the British troops suffered the most severe disasters.
Across the river from the town ancient earthworks (Bucton Castle), of British origin, are seen, and a Roman road passing them, and running north and south is also traceable.
Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became extinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; on whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United Kingdom became extinct.
As a rule flies are of small or moderate size, and many, such as certain blood-sucking midges of the genus Ceratopogon, are even minute; as extremes of size may be mentioned a common British midge, Ceratopogon varius, the female of which measures only 14 millimetre, and the gigantic Mydaidae of Central and South America as well as certain Australian robber-flies, which have a body 1-11n.
Of this second division of John's History, in which he had probably incorporated the socalled Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, considerable portions are found in the British Museum MSS.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British painters.
As there is no evidence of Roman or British settlement, it is probable that Sherborne (Scireburn, Shireburne) grew up after the Saxon conquest of the country from the Corn-Welsh in the middle of the 7th century.
It is unnecessary to remark that in the British colonies the Jews everywhere enjoy full citizenship. In fact, the colonies emancipated the Jews earlier than did the mother country.
In Surinam the Jews were treated as British subjects; in Barbadoes, Jamaica and New York they are found as early as the first half of the 17th century.
During the War of Independence the Jews of America took a prominent part on both sides, for under the British rule many had risen to wealth and high social position.
Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).
Algoa Bay was the first landing-place of the British emigrants to the eastern province of Cape Colony in 1820.
In May 1900 the group became a British protectorate under the native flag, the appointment of the consul and agent being transferred to the government of New Zealand.
In 1904 the financial and legal administration was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and popular (elected) representatives.
British coin is legal tender (since 1905).
Mr Basil Thomson (who after Baker's deportation had carried out reforms which the natives, when left alone, were incapable of maintaining) was sent in 1900 to conclude the treaty by which the king placed his kingdom under British protection.
In 1797 she presented to the Royal Society an Index to Flamsteed's observations, together with a catalogue of 561 stars accidentally omitted from the "British Catalogue," and a list of the errata in that publication.
It has been occupied since 1897 by British troops.
The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
A survey sufficiently accurate as regards the maritime parts was also executed, under the orders of the British admiralty, by Captain Graves and Captain (afterwards Admiral) Spratt.
Eventually the Cretan chiefs invoked the mediation of England, which Turkey, exhausted by her struggle with Russia, was ready to accept, and the convention known as the Pact of Halepa was drawn up in 1878 under the auspices of Mr Sandwith, the British consul, and Adossides Pasha, both of whom enjoyed the confidence of the Cretan population.
An attack made by the Moslems of Candia on the British garrison of that town, with the connivance of the Turkish authorities, brought home to the powers the necessity of removing the Ottoman troops, and the last Turkish soldiers quitted the island on the 14th of November 1898.
Against this the Mussulman deputies protested, in a memorandum addressed to the British secretary of state for foreign affairs.
The ancient British and Celtic churches followed the cycle of 84 years which they had originally received from Rome, and their stubborn refusal to abandon it caused much bitter controversy in the 8th century between their representatives and St Augustine of Canterbury and the Latin missionaries.
These latter unfairly attempted to fix the stigma of the Quartodeciman observance on the British and Celtic churches, and they are even now sometimes ignorantly spoken of as having followed the Asiatic practice as to Easter.
The British and Celtic churches always kept Easter according to the Nicene decree on a Sunday.
Thus Bede records that in a certain year (which must have been 645, 647, 648 or 651) Queen Eanfleda, who had received her instruction from a Kentish priest of the Roman obedience, was fasting and keeping Palm Sunday, while her husband, Oswy, king of Northumbria, following the rule of the British church, was celebrating the Easter festival.
After the revolution in Russia in the spring of 1917 Mr. Henderson visited that country on behalf of the British Government.
He returned with these ideas to England, and, being still secretary of the Labour party as well as a member of the War Cabinet, used his influence as secretary to promote British Labour participation in the Conference.
Honiton (Honetona, Huneton) is situated on the British Icknield Street, and was probably the site of an early settlement, but it does not appear in history before the Domesday Survey, when it was a considerable manor, held by Drew (Drogo) under the count of Mortain, who had succeeded Elmer the Saxon, with a subject population of 33, a flock of 80 sheep, a mill and 2 salt-workers.
Small parts of British Honduras and Guatemala are also included in it.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
He edited the Didascalia apostolorum syriace (1854), and other Syriac texts collected in the British Museum and in Paris.
The " Mecklenburg Declaration," which it is alleged was passed on the 10th of the same month by the same committee, " dissolves the political bonds " which have connected the county with the mother country, " absolves " the citizens of that county " from all allegiance to the British Crown," declares them " a free and independent people," and abounds in other phrases which closely resemble phrases in the great Declaration of the 4th of July 1776.
In the 11th century Strathclyde appears to have been finally incorporated in the Scottish kingdom, and the last time we hear of one of its kings is at the battle of Carham in 1018 when the British king Owen fought in alliance with Malcolm II.
Less than a year later Colonel Baker's career in the British army came to an untimely end.
British troops soon afterwards arrived at Suakin, and Sir Gerald Graham took the offensive.
Baker Pasha accompanied the British force, and guided it in its march to the scene of his defeat, and at the desperately-fought second battle of El Teb he was wounded.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest care of their eggs.
But in 1817, at the outbreak of the Pindari War, a treaty of dependence was concluded between the chief and the British government.
Since then Bhopal has been steadily loyal to the British government, and during the Mutiny it rendered good services.
On the 28th Sir Harry Smith, with a view to clearing the left or British bank, attacked him, and after a desperate struggle thrice pierced the Sikh troops with his cavalry, and pushed them into the river, where large numbers perished, leaving 67 guns to the victors.
The consequence of the victory was the submission of the whole territory east of the Sutlej to the British.
British India comprises approximately the area between the 95th and 10th meridians, and between the Tibetan table-land and the Indian Ocean.
The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
The island of Ceylon is distinguished from the neighbouring parts of British India by little more than its separate administration and the Buddhistic religion of its population.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.
At two points the Russian boundary nearly approaches that of provinces which are directly under British suzerainty.
It leaves the Hindu Kush near the Dorah Pass at the head of one of the minor Chitral affluents, and passing south-west divides Kafiristan from Chitral and Bajour, separates the sections of the Mohmands who are within the respective spheres of Afghan and British sovereignty, and crosses the Peshawar-Kabul route at Lundi-Khana.
It thus places a broad width of independent territory between the boundaries of British India (which have remained practically, though not absolutely, untouched) and Afghanistan; and this independent belt includes Swat, Bajour and a part of the Nlohmand territory north of the Kabul river.
From the Gomal Baluchistan itself becomes an intervening state between British India and Afghanistan, and the dividing line between Baluchistan and Afghanistan is laid down with all the precision employed on the more northerly sections of the demarcation.
There is British Baluch Baluchistan par excellence, and there is the rest of Baluchistan which exists in various degrees of independence, but is everywhere subject to British control.
British Baluchistan officially includes the districts of Peshin, Sibi and of Thal-Chotiali.
As these districts had originally been Afghan, they were transferred to British authority by the treaty of Gandamak in 1879, although nominally they had been handed over to Kalat forty years previously.
Now they form an official province of British Baluchistan within the Baluchistan Agency; and the agency extends from the Gomal to the Arabian Sea and the Persian frontier.
The increase of Russian influence on the northern Persian border and its extension southwards towards Seistan led to the appointment of a British consul at Kirman, the dominating Kirman.
While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
The Mekong river which limits British interests in Burma limits also those Boundary of France in Tongking.
From that point southwards the river becomes the boundary between the Shan States and Tongking for some 200 m., the channel of the river defining the limits of occupation (though not entirely of interest) between French and British subjects.
The population may be set down roughly as 823,000,000, of which 330,000,000 inhabit Chinese territory, 302,000,000 British, and 25,000,000 Russian.
In 1809 its exclusive trading rights were taken away by Parliament, but its administrative status was thus made clearer, and when after the mutiny of 1857 it was desirable to define British authority in India there seemed nothing unnatural in declaring it to be a possession of the crown.
As the Russian possessions in Asia are continuous with European Russia, it is only natural that they should have been russified far more thoroughly than the British possessions have been anglicized.
There were British, Roman and Saxon settlements at Dunster (Torre Dunestorre, Dunester), fortified against the piracies of the Irish Northmen.
He was one of the British representatives at the congress of Chatillon in February 1814, and in the same capacity was present during the negotiations which led to the treaty of Paris in the following May.
More important still were his services in settling the question of the boundary between the United States and British North America at a time when a single injudicious word would probably have provoked a war.
Palmerston, supported by Russell and well served by Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, British ambassador at Constantinople, favoured a more aggressive policy, and Aberdeen, unable to control Palmerston, and unwilling to let Russell go, cannot be exonerated from blame.
Among other institutions in Holborn, the British Museum, north of New Oxford Street, is pre-eminent.
The British first came into contact with Tanjore by their expedition in 1749 with a view to the restoration of a deposed raja.
It was founded by the British in 1826 on the restoration of the town of Martaban to the Burmese, and named in compliment to the governor-general of India of that day; but in 1827 the headquarters were transferred to Moulmein.
The process whereby the independent hero of the Lanzelet (who, though his mother is Arthur's sister, has but the slightest connexion with the British king), the faithful husband of Iblis, became converted into the principal ornament of Arthur's court, and the devoted lover of the queen, is by no means easy to follow, nor do other works of the cycle explain the transformation.
Of this school, which had Lagrange for its professor of mathematics, we have an amusing account in the life of Gilbert Elliot, 1st earl of Minto, who with his brother Hugh, afterwards British minister at Berlin, there made the acquaintance of Mirabeau.
About a mile and a half east of Kano is Nassarawa, formerly the emir's suburban residence, but since 1902 the British Residency and barracks.
In the closing years of the century, Kano became the centre of resistance to British influence, and the emir, Alieu, was the most inveterate of Fula slave raiders.
After the occupation by the British in 1903 the province was organized for administration on the same system as that adopted throughout northern Nigeria.
The emir on his installation takes an oath of allegiance to the British Crown, and accepts the position of a chief of the first class under British rule.
British courts of justice are established side by side with the native courts throughout the province.
Taxation is assessed under British supervision and paid into the native treasury.
A fixed portion is paid by the emir to the British government.
The emir is not allowed to maintain a standing army, and the city of Kano is the headquarters of the British garrison.
Since the introduction of British rule there has been no serious trouble in the province.
The emir Abbas worked loyally with the British and proved himself a ruler of remarkable ability and intelligence.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.
The Mahrattas have always been a separate nation or people, and still regard themselves as such, though nowadays they are almost all under British or Mahommedan jurisdiction; that is, they belong either to British India or to the nizam's dominions.
Under them the cultivators are by British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.
It is often stated that in India British conquest or annexation succeeded Mahommedan rule; and to a considerable extent this was the case.
But, on the other hand, the principal power, the widest sovereignty, which the British overthrew in India was that of the Mahrattas.
If attacked, however, in a competent manner, they would not stand; and afterwards, in conflict with the British, whole masses of them behaved in a dastardly manner.
In this way several Frenchmen - Benoit de Boigne, Perron and others - rose in the Mahratta service to a position dangerous to the British.
He therefore placed himself under British protection, and this led to the great Mahratta War, in which the Marquis Wellesley displayed those talents for military and political combination which rendered him illustrious.
The three confederates, Sindhia, Holkar and the Bhonsla, concluded peace with the British government, after making large sacrifices of territory in favour of the victor, and submitting to British control politically.
It was during these events that the British won the province of Orissa, the old Hindustan afterwards part of the North-Western Provinces, and a part of the western coast in Gujarat.
During the previous war the peshwa had been the protege and ally of the British; and since the war he had fallen more completely than before under British protection - British political officers and British troops being stationed at his capital.
So the peshwa ventured to take part in the combination against the British power, which even yet the Mahrattas did not despair of overthrowing.
After long-protracted menaces, he attacked the British at Kirkee, but failed utterly, and fled a ruined man.
The British, however, released the raja of Satara from the captivity in which he had been kept during the peshwa's time, and reinstated him on the throne, with a limited territory.
Owing to these events the British government became possessed of the Konkan and of the greater part of the Deccan.
The principality of Satara was held to have lapsed in 1848 by the death of the raja without lineal heirs, and was annexed by the British government.
The house of Holkar remained faithful to its engagements with the British government, and its position as a feudatory of the empire was maintained.
In Sindhia's territory, by reason of internal feuds, the British had to undertake measures which were successfully terminated after the battles of Maharajpur and Panniar in 1843.
The gaekwar gradually fell under British control towards the close of the 18th century, and his house never engaged in hostilities with the British government.
Their mode of hair-dressing (mop-fashion) earned them, in common with the Hadendoa, the name of "Fuzzy-wuzzies" among the British soldiers in the campaigns of 1884-98.
A much more valuable practical result of Brewster's optical researches was the improvement of the British lighthouse system.
In an article in the Quarterly Review he threw out a suggestion for "an association of our nobility, clergy, gentry and philosophers," which was taken up by others and found speedy realization in the British Association for the Advancement of Name.
In the same year in which the British Association held its first meeting, Brewster received the honour of knighthood and the decoration of the Guelphic order of Hanover.
The greater portions of his original materials have been preserved, and are included in the Lansdowne manuscripts in the British Museum.