Megan spoke with a gentle British lilt, and her dark eyes took in everything as they walked.
"Ully, you're not supposed to be down here!" she called without turning in a distinct British accent.
They took him to the British camp.
The largest British species, E.
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
DINAPUR, a town and military station of British India, in the Patna district of Bengal, on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m.
Albuera is celebrated on account of the victory gained there on the 16th of May 1811 by the British, Portuguese and Spaniards, under Marshal Beresford, over the French army commanded by Marshal Soult.
British music is known and loved around the world, as is its comedy and royalty.
There was much fighting; and several great battles took place between the British and the Americans.
WARREN HASTINGS (1732-1818), the first governor-general of British India, was born on the 6th of December 17 3 2 in the little hamlet of Churchill in Oxfordshire.
WARREN HASTINGS (1732-1818), the first governor-general of British India, was born on the 6th of December 17 3 2 in the little hamlet of Churchill in Oxfordshire.
"By gosh, I think I've got it," she spoke in a poor imitation of British accent.
of Edinburgh by the North British railway.
Katie smiled in return, deciding she liked the Amazon with the British accent and wild tribal tattoos.
Katie smiled in return, deciding she liked the Amazon with the British accent and wild tribal tattoos.
When the Revolutionary War began he was one of the first to hurry to Boston to help the people defend themselves against the British soldiers.
of 1889), and the steamers of the British India Navigation Company call there once a week going and coming between Rangoon and Calcutta.
Forsaking the priesthood about 1864, he was employed as a diplomatist by the British government in Egypt, Asia Minor, the West Indies, and Bulgaria, being appointed resident minister in Uruguay in 1884; he died at Montevideo on the 30th of September 1888.
His throne and life had not been saved for him by the British, as was the case with his father.
His throne and life had not been saved for him by the British, as was the case with his father.
Of the largest pair in the possession of the British Museum, which belonged to an elephant killed in 1866 by Colonel G.
One day as he was riding through the woods, some British soldiers saw him.
The British soldiers soon returned to Charleston, and he was allowed to go home.
A tusk in the British Museum measures io ft.
Representations of apotheoses occur on several works of art; the most important are the apotheosis of Homer on a relief in the Townley collection of the British Museum, that of Titus on the arch of Titus, and that of Augustus on a magnificent cameo in the Louvre.
The centre of interest now shifts to the India House and to the British parliament.
of the British Museum and entitled Chevelere assigne.
From Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
MfTRtS From Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
A tusk in the British Museum measures io ft.
Not long since I read his epitaph in the old Lincoln burying-ground, a little on one side, near the unmarked graves of some British grenadiers who fell in the retreat from Concord--where he is styled "Sippio Brister"--Scipio Africanus he had some title to be called--"a man of color," as if he were discolored.
In 1892 he became a member of the British House of Commons as an Irish Nationalist, being elected for South Longford.
He was described as chasing the British squadron all round the lake, but his encounters did not go beyond artillery duels at long range, and he allowed his enemy to continue in existence long after he might have been destroyed.
is the well-protected Gulf of Terranova, a part of which, Golfo degli Aranci, is the port of arrival for the mail steamers from Civitavecchia, and a port of call of the British Mediterranean squadron.
He subsequently undertook the preparation of a new edition of the Hebrew Bible for the British and Foreign Bible Society.
THOMAS HOOD (1799-1845), British humorist and poet, the son of Thomas Hood, bookseller, was born in London on the 23rd of May 1799.
Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, iii.
AMRITSAR, or Umritsar, a city and district of British India, in the Lahore division of the Punjab.
From it the exact time is conveyed each day at one o'clock by electric signal to the chief towns throughout the country; British and the majority of foreign geographers reckon longitude from its meridian.
A few species, however, like the common British forms Chelifer cancroides and Chiridium museorum, frequent human dwellings and are found in books, old chests, furniture, &c.; others like Ganypus littoralis and allied species may be found under stones or pieces of coral between tide-marks; while others, which are for the most part blind, live permanently in dark caves.
With the emperor in their camp, the Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier for its defence.
But in process of time he learnt to understand the importance of British counsels.
"What is your name, young rebel?" said the British captain.
Maybe you think the British ban on fox hunting with dogs is ridiculous.
More than 70 percent of the British have passports, as do 50 percent of Canadians and 25 percent of Japanese.
The British government obtained no satisfactory answer to its remonstrances, and Sir Robert Hart, finding himself placed in a subordinate position after his long service, retired in July 1907.
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty.
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty.
He received formal leave of absence in January 1908, when he received the title of president of the board of customs. Both the Chinese and the British governments from time to time conferred honours upon Sir Robert Hart.
The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February.
INSEIN, a town of British India, in the Hanthawaddy district of Burma, Io m.
CHANDAUSI, a town of British India, in the Moradabad district of the United Provinces, 28 m.
When the stress came, and he retreated to the British legation, he took an active part in the defence, and spared neither risk nor toil in his exertions.
The retreat of the British force gave Chauncey time to complete this vessel, the "General Pike," which was so far superior to anything under Yeo's command that she was said to be equal in effective strength to the whole of the British flotilla.
The American commodore was now able to blockade the British flotilla at Kingston.
There is in the British Museum a poem printed in 1666, entitled Letter to the bishop of Munster containing a Panegyrick of his heroick achievements in heroick verse.
and iv., are still valuable and contain nearly all that is known of the fifty British species.
From 1639 to 1768 there was an agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British consul.
Calling at Talamone to embark arms and money, he reached Marsala on the 11th of May, and landed under the protection of the British vessels "Intrepid" and "Argus."
The work of fortifying the place has been carried on by the British government, which possesses here a naval hospital, military prison and other necessary institutions.
Since the British occupation Valletta has been a naval and military station of the first importance.
On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.
During the War of Independence Norfolk was bombarded on the 1st of January 1776 by the British under John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (1732-1809); much of the town was burned by the American troops to prevent Dunmore from establishing himself here.
It was reoccupied by the British in March 1900.
On each side of this is a curve formed of two rows of -HH a From Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
(Leipzig, 1909); and " Dolmens, Tombs of the Giants and Nuraghi of Sardinia," in Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
CHARLES PRITCHARD (1808-1893), British astronomer, was born at Alberbury, Shropshire, on the 29th of February 1808.
The American commodore was now able to blockade the British flotilla at Kingston.
"I am going to help drive those red-coated British out of the country," he said to his mother.
"PHILLIP SNOWDEN (1864-), British Labour politician, was born at Cowling, Yorks, July 18 1864.
The "cat" was the regular instrument with which floggings were performed in the British army and navy.
Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, i.
A slightly idealized portrait of Pericles as strategus is preserved to us in the British Museum bust, No.
VANCOUVER, a city and port in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the southern side of Burrard Inlet.
The city is the largest in British Columbia, and is the chief Canadian shipping port for Japan, China, Australia and the islands at which the C.P.R.
The "McGill University College of British Columbia" at Vancouver is one of the colleges of McGill University (Montreal).
Vancouver is the centre of the important timber industry of British Columbia.
BOWLS, the oldest British outdoor pastime, next to archery, still in vogue.
Organizing it like this would be easy, because it would be working with the grain of the encyclopedia itself, and usually, for instance, the county that any British or Irish town is in is listed very early in the article.
Whilst the heavier troops moved down the Kabul valley to Pencelaotis (Charsadda) under Perdiccas and Hephaestion, Alexander with a body of lighter-armed troops and cavalry pushed up the valleys which join the Kabul from the north - through the regions now known as Bajour, Swat and Buner, inhabited by Indian hill peoples, as fierce then against the western intruder as their Pathan successors are against the British columns.
c. 1550) are preserved in the British Museum.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British historians.
of Great Britain, routed the allied British, Portuguese and Spanish troops.
The British army is bound by His Majesty's Rules and Regulations to play at the Philharmonic pitch, and a fork tuned to a' 452.5 in 1890 is preserved as the standard for the Military Training School at Kneller Hall.
Wendover (Wendovre, Wandovre, Wendoura) is on the Upper Icknield Way, which was probably an ancient British road, and various traces of a British settlement have been found in the town and neighbourhood.
Owing to the poverty of the people, cheap Austrian goods find a readier sale than the more expensive and solid British manufactures.
This rapid absorption of the khanates brought Russia into close proximity to Afghanistan, and the reception of Kaufmann's emissaries by the Amir was a main cause of the British war with Afghanistan in 1878.
"ARTHUR HAMILTON HAMILTON-GORDON, STANMORE 1ST Baron (1829-1912), British administrator, was born Nov.
DHARWAR, a town and district of British India, in the southern division of Bombay.
Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.
The following statistics are interesting: - The enormous development of the wheat-growing industry is These figures do not include the wheat ground into flour and sent by way of British Columbia to Asia and Australia, nor the wheat retained by the farmers for seed.
BADNUR, a town of British India, the headquarters of the district of Betul in the Central Provinces.
The intention was to make American Methodism a facsimile of that in England, subject to Wesley and the British Conference-a society and not a Church.
In 1614 appeared the work which in the history of British science can be placed as second only to Newton's Principia.
When Napier published the Canonis Descriptio England had taken no part in the advance of science, and there is no British author of the time except Napier whose name can be placed in the same rank as those of Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, or Stevinus.
"In no portion of the empire," it has been said, "does the British flag now fly over a divided Presbyterianism, except in the British Isles themselves."
The Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms are recognized and venerated standards in all the lands where British Presbyterianism, with its sturdy characteristics, has taken root.
In common with the general Presbyterianism of the British Isles, the Presbyterian Church of England has in recent years been readjusting its relation to the Westminster Confession of Faith.
Doughty preached in Virginia and Maryland in 1650-1659, and was the father of British Presbyterianism in the Middle Colonies.
It is not easy to say when any example of the bird first came under the eyes of British ornithologists; but in the Zoological Proceedings for Seriema.
It was first seen by white men in 1823 when it was reached by way of Tripoli by the British expedition under Dr Walter Oudney, R.N., the other members being Captain Hugh Clapperton and Major (afterwards Lieut.-Colonel) Dixon Denham.
A British force under Colonel T.
Boyd Alexander, a British officer, further explored the lake, which then contained few stretches of open water.
by Bornu, which is partly in the British protectorate of Nigeria and partly in the German protectorate of Cameroon.
The imperial British pint = 57 of a litre, 34.66 cub.
Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
On the 17th of June 1806 General William Beresford landed with a body of Effects of troo s from a British fleet under the command of Sir p Home Popham, and obtained possession of Buenos Aires.
But a French officer, Jacques de Liniers, gathered together a large force with which he enclosed the British within the walls, and finally, on the 12th of August, by a successful assault, forced Beresford and his troops to surrender.
In July 1807 another British force of eight thousand men under General Whitelock endeavoured to regain possession of Buenos Aires, but strenuous preparations had been made for resistance, and after fierce street fighting the invading army, after suffering severe losses, was compelled to capitulate.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
None of the French possessions is self-governing in the manner of the chief British colonies.
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
The value of the trade with British colonies and Great Britain in 1905 was over 7,200,000.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
A further persecution of Christians in Uea, during 1875, called forth a protest from the British government.
LUDWIG MOND (1839-1909), British chemist, was born at Cassel in Germany on the 7th of March 1839.
He became a naturalized British subject in 1867.
The Booth collection of British birds, bequeathed to the corporation by E.
Thomas, Catalogue of Monotremata and Marsupialia in the British Museum (1888); "On Caenolestes, a Survivor of the Epanorthidae," Proc. Zool.
On the west side are the institution of the sisters of St Vincent; the Ratisbon school; the Montefiore hospice; the British ophthalmic hospital of the knights of St John; the convent and church of the Clarisses; and the Moravian leper hospital.
ABBOTTABAD, a town of British India, 4120 ft.
Strutt, made him known over Europe; and his powers rapidly matured until, at the death of Clerk Maxwell, he stood at the head of British physicists, Sir George Stokes and Lord Kelvin alone excepted.
There are no ruins of any importance on the site of either Ialysus or Camirus, but excavations at the latter place have produced valuable and interesting results in the way of ancient vases and other antiquities, which are now in the British Museum.
1 - The Australian people are mainly of British origin, only 34% of the population of European descent being of non-British race.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
The nationality of the tonnage was, British 2,771,000, including Australian 288,000, and foreign 948,000.
The destination of the shipping was, to British ports 2,360,000 tons, and to foreign ports 1,350,000 tons.
The import trade is divided between the United Kingdom and possessions and foreign countries as follows: - United Kingdom £23,074,000, British possessions £5,3 8 4, 000, and foreign states L9,889,000, while the destination of the exports is, United Kingdom £26,703,000, British possessions £12,519,000, and foreign countries £17,619,000.
The United Kingdom in 1905 sent 60% of the imports taken by Australia, compared with 26% from foreign countries, and 14% from British possessions; of Australian imports the United Kingdom takes 47%, foreign countries 31% and British possessions 22%.
This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
Rusden, History of Australia (1897); Australasia, British Empire Series (Kegan Paul & Co., 1900); A.
Before quitting the bay the ceremony was performed of hoisting the Union Jack, first on the south shore, and then near the north head, formal possession of the territory being thus taken for the British crown.
During the sojourn in Botany Bay the crew had to perform the painful duty of burying a comrade - a seaman named Forby Sutherland, who was in all probability the first British subject whose body was committed to Australian soil.
The next recorded expedition is a memorable one in the annals of Australian history - the despatch of a British colony to the shores of Botany Bay.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Unlike the other mainland provinces, it was at first held and used chiefly for the reception of British convicts.
The first British governors at Sydney, from 1788, ruled with despotic power.
The two most striking political events in the modern history of Australia, as a whole, apart from the readiness it has shown to remain a part of the British empire, and to in Australia.
In spite of the official rebuff received from the mother-country, the Australian ministry, in drawing up the new Federal tariff, gave a substantial preference to British imports, and thus showed their willingness to go farther.
(See the article BRITISH EMPIRE.) (R.
The main results of these researches, which occupied him from 1854 to 1864, are contained in his Report on the Theory of Numbers, which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 to 1865.
He was president of the mathematical and physical section of the British Association at Bradford in 1873 and of the London Mathematical Society in 18 741876.
PANDHARPUR, a town of British India, in Sholapur district of Bombay, on the right bank of the river Bhima, 38 m.
From Holland he was invited to England by the duke of Montague, who employed him, together with other French painters, to paint the walls of his palace, Montague House (on the site of which is now the British Museum).
The island was occupied by British troops from August to December 1799.
ROBERT LOWE SHERBROOKE, VISCOUNT (1811-1892), British statesman, was born on the 4th of December 1811 at Bingham, Notts, where his father was the rector.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
It contains models of the principal dockyards and fortifications of the British empire, naval models of all dates, and numerous specimens of weapons of war from the remotest times to the present day.
During the last few years of his life Boole was constantly engaged in extending his researches with the object of producing a second edition of his Differential Equations much more complete than the first edition; and part of his last vacation was spent in the libraries of the Royal Society and the British Museum.
Harley, F.R.S., is to be found in the British Quarterly Review for July 1866, No.
A second great service was the publication in the British Association Reports for 1833 of his "Report on the Recent Progress and Present State of certain branches of Analysis."
But, still clinging to the groundless belief, for which British statesmen had, of late at least, afforded Turkey no justification, that Great Britain at all events would support him, he obstinately refused to give ear to the pressing requests of the Powers that the necessary reforms should be instituted.
The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.
Great developments have been made of recent years in the cultivation of rubber in British Malaya.
Politically the Malay Peninsula is divided into four sections: the colony of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States; the independent Malay State of Johor, which is within the British sphere of influence; the non-federated states under British protection; and the groups of states to the north of Perak and Pahang which are now recognized as lying within the sphere of influence of Siam.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
Johor is the only Malay state in the southern portion of the peninsula, the whole of which is within the British sphere, which has been suffered to remain under native rule.
under British protection (since 1909) are Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis (Palit).
alp 1 Dindings Medan Scale, t:R.000,000 English Miles oto 50 too 150 Railways «.*+ British Possessions...-...
Federated Malay under British Protection.......
Malacca was taken from the Dutch by the British in 1795; was restored to the latter in 1818; but in 1824 was exchanged for Benkulen and a few more unimportant places in Sumatra.
The first British factory in the peninsula was established in the native state of Patani on the east coast in 1613, the place having been used by the Portuguese in the 16th century for a similar purpose; but the enterprise came to an untimely end in 1620 when Captain Jourdain, the first president, was killed in a naval engagement in Patani Roads by the Dutch.
In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
Swettenham, British Malaya (1906); H.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, British consul in 1580.
One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried off its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M'Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consulgeneral of Denmark, and wife of the British consul.
When Lord Exmouth was about to bombard the city in 1816, the British consul was thrown into prison and loaded with chains.
Mrs. M`Donnell - who was but sixteen - escaped to the British fleet disguised as a midshipman, carrying a basket of vegetables in which her baby was hidden.
A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.
The British minister demanded from the national government M`Leod's release, but his case was in the New York courts, over which the national government has no jurisdiction.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
The British oak is one of the largest trees of the genus, though old specimens are often more remarkable for the great size of the trunk and main boughs than for very lofty growth.
The wood of the British oak, when grown in perfection, is.
The British oak grows well in the northern and middle states of America; and, from the superiority of the wood to that of Q.
The wood is hard, heavy and of fine grain, quite equal to the best British oak for indoor use, but of very variable durability where exposed to weather.
The wood is variable in quality and, though hard in texture, is less durable than the best oak of British growth; the heart-wood is of a light reddish brown varying to an olive tint; a Canadian specimen weighs 524 lb the cubic foot.
In the woods of Oregon, from the Columbia river southwards, an oak is found bearing some resemblance to the British oak in foliage and in its thick trunk and widely-spreading boughs, but the bark is white as in Q.
Both these oaks grow well in British plantations, where their bright autumn foliage, though seldom so decided in tint as in their native woods, gives them a certain picturesque value.
The Dutch acknowledged the supremacyof the English flag in the British seas, which Tromp had before refused; they accepted the Navigation Act, and undertook privately to exclude the princes of Orange from the command of their forces.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
The vigour and success with which he organized the national resources and upheld the national honour, asserted the British sovereignty of the seas, defended the oppressed, and caused his name to be feared and respected in foreign courts where that of Stuart was despised and neglected, command praise and admiration equally from contemporaries and from modern critics, from his friends and from his opponents.
"He once more joined us to the continent," wrote Marvell, while Dryden describes him as teaching the British lion to roar.
A small expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining British territory till its cession in 1667.
To Cromwell more than to any other British ruler belongs the credit of having laid the foundation of England's maritime supremacy and of her over-sea empire.
Cromwell's colonial policy aimed definitely at the recognition and extension of the British empire.
Next a small party consisting of two British subjects, two American citizens, and a Dane, sailed from the Sandwich Islands for Port Lloyd in 1830, taking with them some Hawaiian natives.
These colonists hoisted the British flag on Peel Island (Chichijima), and settled there.
English was the language of the settlers, and they regarded themselves as a British colony.
But in 1861 the British government renounced all claim to the islands in recognition of Japan's right of possession.
Since the pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile.
Proceeding to Alexandria as assistant to the British consul-general there, he devoted himself to Arabic and its various dialects, and made himself master of Eastern manners and usages.
His fine collections of manuscripts and coins was purchased by the British Museum.
He never lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were glad to consult.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
"SIR DAVID GILL (1843-1914), British astronomer, was born in Aberdeenshire June 12 18 4 3 and educated at the university of Aberdeen.
He did much to advance stellar photography and its use in cataloguing the stars, and he was responsible for the geodetic surveys of Natal and Cape Colony, British Bechuanaland, German S.-W.
In 1907 he was president of the British Association.
by the British possessions on the Gold Coast, N.
Before its annexation by Germany the lagoons were a favourite resort of slavers, and stations were established there by Portuguese, British, French and German traders.
BERHAMPUR, a town of British India, the headquarters of Murshidabad district, in Bengal, situated on the left bank of the river Bhagirathi, 5 m.
BELA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of the Partabgarh district of the United Provinces, with a railway station 80 m.
of Dundee by the North British railway.
In 368 Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia, in honour of the emperor.
The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
On the outbreak of the Pindari War in 1817 the British government offered its protection.
Sindhia gave up the district of Ajmere to the British, and the pressure of the great Mahratta powers upon Rajputana was permanently withdrawn.
The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
In the British Postal Telegraph Department all the most important wires are tested every morning between 7.30 and 7.45 A.M., in sections of about 200 miles.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
There are three kinds of primary batteries in general use in the British Postal Telegraph Department, viz., the Daniell, the bichromate, and the Leclanche.
40 ohms (or 900 ohms when worked from accumulators), and the instrument is worked with a current of 400 milliamperes (25 milli British Post Office.
20, which is the most modern pattern of relay used by the British Post Office, known as the " Post Office Standard Relay."
In order to avoid this sparking, every local instrument in the British Postal Telegraph Department has a " spark " coil connected across the terminals of the electromagnet.
An experimental printer constructed about the middle of 1908 by the British Post Office, operated successfully at the rate of 210 words (1260 letters) per minute.
tariff, and in the seven financial years from 1900-1907: the British ship " Agamemnon," both being war-ships lent for the purpose by their respective governments.
On the British side the question of constructing an Atlantic cable was engaging the attention of the Magnetic Telegraph Company and its engineer Mr (afterwards Sir) Charles Bright.
Although a good deal of cable had been lost, enough remained to connect the British and American shores, and accordingly it was determined to make another attempt immediately.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
The following year an additional cable was laid from Bacton, in Norfolk, to Borkum, in Germany, at the joint expense of the British and German governments.
In 1896 a committee was appointed to consider the proposal for laying a telegraph cable between British North America and Australasia.
There would be a very serious question raised, and it would probably extend to other forms of British enterprise."
Meyer, The British State Telegraphs (London, 1907); The " Electrician " Electrical Trades Directory; E.
Other experiments in inductive telegraphy were made by Preece, aided by the officials of the British Postal Telegraph Service, in Glamorganshire in 1887; at Loch Ness in Scotland in 1892; on Conway Sands in 1893; and at Frodsham, on the Dee, in 1894.
In 1896 he came to England and gave demonstrations to the British postal telegraph department and other officials.
111578 of 1898, or British Specification, No.
2 See British Pat.
Marconi, The Electrician, 1902, 49, P. 49 o; also British Pat.
3 See British Pat.
Soc., 1902, 70, p. 341, or British Pat.
Also British Pat.
In July and August 1899 the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy was tried for the first time during British naval manoeuvres, and the two cruisers, " Juno " and " Europa," were fitted with the new means of communication.
From and after that time the British Admiralty and the navies of other countries began to give great attention to the development of electric wave telegraphy.
Marconi in his first British patent (No.
The decisions of the Conference were ratified for Great Britain by the British government on July 1, 1908.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
1837), the British commander, was lying with his squadron, he had a very marked superiority.
A British army, commanded by Marshal Beresford, endeavoured to retake it, and on the 16th of May defeated a relieving force at Albuera, but the siege was abandoned in June.
The fortress was finally stormed on the 6th of April 1812, by the British under Lord Wellington, and carried with terrible loss.
Eng., March 1883; British Assoc. Rep., 1863; Civ.
The system of the British Post Office is worked as follows: A subscriber desiring a long-distance connexion calls up his local exchange in the ordinary way, and the operator there, being informed that a trunk connexion is desired, extends the subscriber's line to the Post Office by means of a record circuit.
- Typical Cord Circuit, British Insulated Co.'s System.
Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
Ashby, in Papers of the British School at Rome, I.
A British fleet under Nelson, sent into the Mediterranean in May 1798 primarily for their defence, checkmated the designs of Bonaparte in Egypt, and then, returning to Naples, encouraged that court to adopt a spirited policy.
It is now known that the influence of Nelson and of the British ambassador, Sir William Hamilton, and Lady Hamilton precipitated the rupture between Naples and France.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
The Bourbon courl sailed away to Palermo, where it remained for eight years under the protection afforded by the British fleet and a British army of occupation.
Sir Sidney Smith with a British squadron captured Capri (February 18o6), and the peasants of the Abruzzi and Calabria soon began to give trouble.
Worst of all was the arrival of a small British force in Calabria under Sir John.
On the 18th of July, however, Gaeta surrendered to Massna, and that marshal, now moving rapidly southwards, extricated Rynier, crushed the Bourbon rising in Calabria with great barbarity, and compelled the British force to re-embark for Sicily.
During eight years (1806-1814) the chief places of the island had been garrisoned by British troops; and the commander of the force which upheld the tottering rule of Ferdinand at Palermo naturally had great authority.
The British government, which awarded a large annual subsidy to the king and queen at Palermo, claimed to have some control over the administration.
After the retirement of the British troops in 1814 the constitution lapsed, and the royal authority became once more absolute.
This result, accruing from British intervention, was in some respects similar to that exerted by Napoleon on the Italians of the mainland.
In Sicily, which for centuries had enjoyed a feudal constitution modernized and Anglicized under British auspices in 1812, and where anti-Neapolitan feeling was strong, autonomy was suppressed, the constitution abolished in 1816, and the island, as a reward for its fidelity to the dynasty, converted into a Neapolitan province governed by Neapolitan bureaucrats.
A British alliance would have been preferable, but the British government was too much concerned with the preservation of European peace.
On the 8th of July the revelation of the Anglo-Ottoman treaty for the British occupatiofi of Cyprus took the congress by surprise.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
Anglo-Italian relations, however, regained their norma I cordiality two years later, and found expression in the support lent by Italy to the British proposal at the London conference on the Egyptian question (July 1884).
Partly to satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favorable disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Caimi and Colonel Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beilul.
The British government, desirous of preventing an Italo-Abyssinian conflict, which could but strengthen the position of the Mahdists, despatched Mr (afterwards Sir) Gerald Portal from Massawa on the 29th of October to mediate with the negus.
In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
For a moment Baratieri thought of retreat, especially as the hope of creating a diversion from Zaila towards Harrar had failed in consequence of the British refusal to permit the landing of an Italian force without the consent of France.
British Museum for various pamphlets.
His Political Memoranda were edited by Oscar Browning for the Camden Society in 1884, and there are eight volumes of his official correspondence in the British Museum.
This third possibility in philosophy does not enter at all into Lecky's grouping referred to above; in fact, it is very generally strange to older British thinking,3 t;csm.
He has profoundly influenced British thinking, but is little known abroad.
Of the four two are in the British Museum.
Both were written evidently in a less hurried fashion than those in the British Museum, and the one at Lincoln was regarded as the most perfect by the commissioners who were responsible for the appearance of the Statutes of the Realm in 1810.
The British Museum also contains the original parchment of the Articles of the Baron.
The garrison consists of 140 British and 300 Indian troops, with a few local European volunteers.
This was interrupted by the Indian Mutiny of 1857, but as soon as the neck of that revolt was broken, it became more urgent than ever to provide such a resource, on account of the great number of prisoners falling into British hands.
In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.
In the British fresh-water fauna only two genera, Hydra and Cordylophora, are found; in America occurs an additional genus, Microhydra.
20) is a common British form.
2) is a British hydroid.
4), a well-known British hydroid, bears gonophores.
5), a common British hydroid, produces gonophores; so also does Cordylophora, a form inhabiting fresh or brackish water.
Coryne, a common British longed into a brood pouch conhydroid, produces gonophores; taining embryos.
The British genus Gemmaria, however, is budded from a hydroid referable to the family Corynidae.
Two of the commonest British hydroids belong to this family, Obelia and Clytia.
- A glantha rosea (Forbes), a British medusa, X5.
Browne, " On British Hydroids and Medusae," Proc. Zool.
Hincks, A History of British Hydroid Zoophytes (2 vols., London, 1868); 27.
Murbach and C. Shearer, " On Medusae from the Coast of British Columbia and Alaska," Proc. Zool.
Thus Westminster Abbey is sometimes styled the British "Pantheon," and the rotunda in the Escorial where the kings of Spain are buried also bears the name.
Britain remained outside that jurisdiction, the Celtic churches of the British islands, after those islands were abandoned by the Empire, pursuing a course of their own.
The position is the same now through all the British colonies (except, as already mentioned, Lower Canada or Quebec).
On the 12th of April 1769 the British expedition to observe the transit of Venus, under the naval command of James Cook, arrived at Tahiti.
Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese.
For British amber, Clement Reid in Trans.
The native country of this form has been much disputed; but, though still known in many British nurseries as the "black Italian poplar," it is now well ascertained to be an indigenous tree in many parts of Canada and the States, and is a mere variety of P. canadensis; it seems to have been first brought to England from Canada in 1772.
The British Medical Association published in 1907 a work on Secret Remedies; what they cost and what they contain.
CAWNPORE, or Kanpur, a city and district of British India in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
During his long service as a lieutenant he took part in the bombardment of Tripoli, and on a subsequent occasion showed great firmness in resisting the seizure of a seaman as an alleged deserter from the British navy, his ship at the time lying under the guns of Gibraltar.
Small islands off the coast of north-west Spain, the headlands of that same coast, the Scillies, Cornwall, the British Isles as a whole, have all in turn been suggested.
Holmes, Ancient Britain (1907), appendix, identifies the Cassiterides with the British Isles.
AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.
British salt marshes furnish few instances of spiny plants, though such occur occasionally on the inland salt marshesof continental districts.
Salsola Kali is British, and a hemi-halophyte at least; and it is rather spiny.
Those of warmer countries cannot be cultivated in British gardens without protection from the rigours of winter; still less are they able to hold their own unaided in an unfavourable climate.
The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown on the western shores of the British Isles, and as they are capable of germination, the species are only prevented from establishing themselves by an uncongenial climate.
If we turn to herbaceous plants, Hemsley has pointed out that of the thirteen genera of Ranunculaceae in California, eleven are British.
The British Phanerogamic flora, it may be remarked, does not contain a single endemic species, and 38% of the total number are common to the three northern continents.
Of species common to the two, Maximowicz finds that Manchuria possesses 40% and scarcely 9% that are endemic. Of a collection of about 500 species made in that country by Sir Henry James nearly a third are British.
Two British plants may be added which both reach North Africa: Sanicule eurojbaea extends from Abyssinia to the Cameroons and southwards to Cape Colony and Madagascar; Sambucus Ebulus reaches Uganda.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.
Mackinder in British Association Report (Ipswich), 18 95, p. 73 8, for a summary of German opinion, which has been expressed by many writers in a somewhat voluminous literature.
It was long before another British ship entered the Pacific Ocean.
The eighth voyage, led by Captain Saris, extended the operations of the company to Japan; and in 1613 the Japanese government granted privileges to the company; but the British retired in 1623, giving up their factory.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
British visits to Eastern countries, at this time, were not confined to the voyages of the company.
The Dutch nation, as soon as it was emancipated from Spanish tyranny, displayed an amount of enterprise, which, for a long time, was fully equal to that of the British.
While the British were at work in the direction of the Niger, the Portuguese were not unmindful of their old exploring fame.
The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
British Association Report (Edinburgh, 1892), p. 699.
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
The latter occurs only in the temperate possessions of the British empire, in which there is no great preponderance of a coloured native population.
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
The young lady's relatives ultimately became reconciled to the match, and procured him an appointment as attache to the British legation at Turin.
In September of that year Cape Town surrendered to the British and the "National" party at Swellendam quietly accepted British rule.
The act is thus responsible for the accession of the house of Hanover to the British throne.
The importance of the Act of Settlement appears from the fact that, in all the regency acts, it is mentioned as one of the 4 The title of king of France was retained by the British sovereigns until 1801.
On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813.
As a punishment, on the 18th, of October 1775, the town was bombarded and burned by a British fleet.
- Remains of head of Odontopteryx, from the original in the British Museum; side view; natural size.
The great auk, once common on the British coasts, those of Denmark, the east coast of North America, then restricted to those of Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland, has been killed by man, and the same fate has overtaken the Labrador duck, the Phillip Island parrot, Nestor productus, and the large cormorant of FIG.
(From specimens in the British Museum.
Sharpe increases their number to about 15,000 in the New Hand-List of Birds, published by the British Museum.
(From specimen in the British Museum.
In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah.
(1787-1865), British civil engineer, founder of the Cunard line of steam-ships, was born at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the 21st of November 1787.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains (i) an extract of the fresh corm, having doses of 4 to i grain, and (2) the Vinum Colchici, made by treating the dried corm with sherry and given in doses of 10 to 30 minims. This latter is the preparation still most generally used, though the presence of veratrine both in the corm and the seeds renders the use of colchicine itself theoretically preferable.
"JOHN BUCHAN (1875-), British author, was born at Perth Aug.
During the World War he served with the headquarters staff of the British army in France (1916-7), attaining the rank of colonel, and later was Director of Information under the Prime Minister (1917-8), and his History of the War (Nelson) was an admirable piece of work.
Without the pilgrims who come to visit it, Meshed would be a poor place, but lying on the eastern confines of Persia, close to Afghanistan, Russian Central Asia and Transcaspia, at the point where a number of trade routes converge, it is very important politically, and the British and Russian governments have maintained consulates-general there since 1889.
In 1890 General Maclean, the British consul-general, reported that there were 650 silk, 40 carpet and 320 shawl looms at work.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British Members of Parliament.
EDWARD HINCKS (1792-1866), British assyriologist, was born at Cork, Ireland, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin.
Books in the British Museum (London, 1867; continued by van Straalen, London, 1894).
in the British Museum (London, 1899, &c.).
Having once obtained a foothold in the country, they established their power over the entire valley and ruled with merciless barbarity, until they were expelled by the British in 1824-1825.
From Switzerland he passed in six months to England, where he formed acquaintances with other French exiles and with prominent British statesmen, and imbibed a lasting admiration for the English Constitution.
With the acquisition of the Suez Canal, moreover, the value of this route from the British standpoint was so greatly diminished that the scheme, so far as England was concerned, was quite abandoned.
It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."
In this position he earned a reputation as a politician of thorough straightforwardness and grit, and as one who would maintain British interests independently of party; and he shared with Mr Asquith the reputation of being the ablest of the Imperialists who followed Lord Rosebery.
AIRY, SIR GEORGE BIDDELL (1801-1892), British Astronomer Royal, was born at Alnwick on the 27th of July 1801.
Of his astronomical writings during this period the most important are his investigation of the mass of Jupiter, his report to the British Association on the progress of astronomy during the 19th century, and his memoir On an Inequality of Long Period in the Motions of the Earth and Venus.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
British, Swiss and Germans are comparatively few.
In 1907, 26,105 Italian immigrants arrived, 21,927 Spanish, 2355 British, 2315 French and 1823 German.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
Besides a number of local banks, branches of German, Spanish, French and several British banks are established in Montevideo.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
Martin, Through Five Republics (London, 1905); Anuario Estadistico and Anuario Demografico (official, Montevideo); British and American Consular Reports; Publications, Bureau of American Republics.
A Log Book is a marine or sea journal, containing, in the British navy, the speed, course, leeway, direction and force of the wind, state of the weather, and barometric and thermometric observations.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
In the British Islands native sulphur is only a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carboniferous Limestone of Oughterard in Co.
Those contained in the British Pharmacopoeia are the following: (1) Sulphur sublimatum, flowers of sulphur (U.S.P.), which is insoluble in water.
ARRAH, a town of British India, headquarters of Shahabad district, in the Patna division of Bengal, situated on a navigable canal connecting the river Sone with the Ganges.
A British regiment, despatched to their assistance from Dinapur, was disastrously repulsed; but they were ultimately relieved, after eight days' continuous fighting, by a small force under Major (afterwards Sir Vincent) Eyre.
The greater portion, however, of the numerous bands which visit the British Islands in autumn and winter doubtless come from the Continent - perhaps even from far to the eastward, since its range stretches across Asia to Japan, in which country it is as favourite a cage-bird as with us.
In England nobility is apt to be confounded with the peculiar institution of the British peerage.
Yet nobility, in some shape or another, has existed in most places and times of the world's history, while the British peerage is an institution purely local, and one which has actually hindered the existence of a nobility in the sense which the word bears in most other countries.
The peerage, as it exists in the three British kingdoms, is something which is altogether peculiar to the three British kingdoms, and which has nothing in the least degree like it elsewhere.
In short, there is no real nobility in England; for the class which answers to foreign nobility has so long ceased to have any practical privileges that it has long ceased to be looked on as a nobility, and the word nobility has been transferred to another class which has nothing answering to it out of the three British kingdoms. 2 This last ' This statement is mainly interesting as expressing the late Professor Freeman's view; it is, however, open to serious criticism.
He became a fellow of the British Academy.
CALICUT, a city of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras; on the coast, 6 m.
In 1782 the troops of Hyder were driven from Calicut by the British; but in 1788 it was taken and destroyed by his son Tippoo, who carried off the inhabitants to Beypur and treated them with great cruelty.
In the latter part of 1790 the country was occupied by the British; and under the treaty concluded in 1792, whereby Tippoo was deprived of half his dominions, Calicut fell to the British.
of Dunfermline by the North British railway.
In 1905 Liberia proposed to France that the boundary line should follow the river Moa from the British frontier of Sierra Leone up stream to near the source of the Moa (or Makona), and that from this point the boundary should run eastwards along the line of water-parting between the system of the Niger on the north and that of the coast rivers (Moa, Lofa, St Paul's) on the south, until the 8th degree of N.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
between the Po hills and the British frontier.
The customs service includes British customs officers lent to the Liberian service.
A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government.
British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
The movement of German philosophy which led from Kant to Hegel has indeed found powerful British champions (T.
2) (P. vulgare) is widely diffused in the British Isles, where it is found on walls, banks, trees, &c.; the creeping, densely-scaly rootstock bears deeply pinnately cut fronds, the fertile ones bearing on the back.
In this way the Moravian orders were maintained; the "ecclesiola" became an independent body, and the British parliament recognized the Brethren as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church" (1 749, 22 Geo.
(5) Boarding Schools: German province, 14; British, 7; American, 5.
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains an infusion and tincture of buchu.
A service of the British India Steam Navigation Company's steamers has been established between Negapatam and Colombo through Palk Strait and this narrow passage.
"ROBERT BONTINE CUNNINGHAME-GRAHAM (1852-), British author and traveller, was born in 1852, the son of William Cunninghame-Graham Bontine of Ardoch and Gartmore, and was educated at Harrow.
Early in the World War he went to South America to buy horses for the British army, and carried out his mission with success.
LERWICK, a municipal and police burgh of Shetland, Scotland, the most northerly town in the British Isles.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
The beetles of the British islands afford some very interesting examples of restricted distribution among species.
For the British species, W.
Fowler (Coleoptera of the British Islands, 5 vols., London, 1887-1891) is the standard work; and W.
adjuvare) staff-officer to a general in command, but now a distinct high functionary at the head of a special office in the British and American war departments.
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
On the Pamirs Russia has since 1885 been conterminous with British India (Kashmir); but the boundary then swings away N.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
When the British government seemed disposed to use coercive measures for the protection of the Armenians, he gave it clearly to be understood that any such proceeding would be opposed by Russia.
"ALEXANDER HUGH BRUCE, BALFOUR OF BURLEIGH Loth (or 6TH) Baron (1849-1921), British politician, was born at Kennet, Alloa, Jan.
5,013 British India.
56,181 Although more than half of the total mileage of Asia is in British India, it is probable that the greatest proportionate gains in the near future will be in China, Siberia and Manchuria, and Central Russia in Asia.
that the railway mileage in the British possessions amounts to almost five-sixths of the total.
0.8 o.68 Japan I I British India.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The British figures are from the Board of Trade returns for the calendar year 1908.
In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.
In general, the British working unit supplied as public information has always been the goods-train-mile and the passengertrain-mile, these figures being the products of the number of trains into the number of miles they have travelled.
The Departmental Committee of the Board of Trade, sitting in 1909 to consider railway accounting forms, while recommending ton-miles to the careful consideration of those responsible for railway working in Great Britain, considered the question of their necessity in British practice to be still open, and held that, at all events, they should not be introduced under compulsion.
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
H.) British Railway Legislation The first thing a railway company in Great Britain has to do is to obtain a special or private act of parliament authorizing the construction of the line.
The public acts of parliament referring to British railways are collected in Bigg's General Railway Acts.
On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
The accidents to " other persons " cannot readily be compared with items 7-12 in the British record, except as to the totals and a few of the items.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
But British share capital has been issued so freely for extension and is ?- provement work of all sorts, including the costly requirements of the Board of Trade, that a situation has been reached where the return on the outstanding securities tends to diminish year by year.
Thus the characteristic defect in the British railway organization has been the tendency to put out new capital at a rate faster than has been warranted by the annual increases in earnings.
- British Railways A similar comparison (Table XIX.) can be made for the United States of America, statistics prior to the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission being taken from Poor's Manual of Railroads as transcribed in government reports.
j' After taxes; to compare with British figures.
In the British colonies the prevailing gauge is 3 ft.
Typical dimensions for sleepers on important British railways are: - length 9 ft., breadth io in., and depth 5 in.
- A, Section of British Bull-Headed Rail, 90 lb to the yard, showing also chair and fastenings.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
- British Rail and Rail Joint.
The specifications for bull-headed rails issued by the British Engineering Standards Committee in 1904 provided for a carbon-content ranging from 0-35 to 0-50%, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.075%.
The lines through them should be, if possible, straight and on the level; the British Board of Trade forbids them being placed on a gradient steeper than i in 260, unless it is unavoidable.
The platforms on British railways have a standard elevation of 3 ft.
The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft.
British railways also undertake the collection and delivery of freight, in addition to transporting it, and thus an extensive range of vans and wagons, whether drawn by horses or mechanically propelled, must be provided in connexion with an important station.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
It will be seen from these particulars - which are typical of what has happened not only on other British railways, but also on those of other countries - that much more space has to be provided and more weight hauled for each passenger than was formerly the case.
They are distinguished essentially from the British type of carriage by having in the centre of the body a longitudinal passage, about 2 ft.
Cars of this saloon type have been introduced into England for use on railways which have adopted electric traction, but owing to the narrower loading gauge of British railways it is not usually possible to seat four persons across the width of the car for its whole length, and at the ends the seats have to be placed along the sides of the vehicle.
About 1875 their average capacity differed little from that of British wagons of the present day, but by 1885 it had grown to zo or 22 short tons (z000 ib) and now it is probably at least three times that of European wagons.
An ordinary British 10-ton wagon often weighs about 6 tons empty, and rarely much less than 5 tons; that is, the ratio of its possible paying load to its tare weight is at the best about 2 to 1.
In British practice the chains consist of three links, and are of such a length that when fully extended there is a space of a few inches between opposing buffers; this slack facilitates the starting of a heavy train, since the engine is able to start the wagons one by one and the weight of the train is not thrown on it all at once.
No adequate definition is to be found even in the British statute-book; for although g parliament has on different occasions passed acts dealing with such railways both in Great Britain and Ireland, it has not inserted in any of them a clear and sufficient statement of what it intends shall be understood by the term, as distinguished from an ordinary railway.
The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.
In France the lines which best correspond to British light railways are called Chemins de fer d'interit local.
In 1780 Cambay was taken by the army of General Goddard, was restored to the Mahrattas in 1783, and was afterwards ceded to the British by the peshwa under the treaty of 1803.
It is under British protection, being annexed in 1892.
With the uninhabited dependency of South Georgia Island, to the E.S.E., they form the most southerly colony of the British empire.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
Penrose, Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands (1775); Observations on the Forcible Occupation of Malvinas by the British Government in 1833 (Buenos Ayres, 1833); Reclamacion del Gobierno de las provincias Unidas de la Plata contra el de S.
The British warship "Calliope" (Captain Pearson) was in the harbour, but succeeded in getting up steam and, standing out to sea, escaped destruction.
But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
After the latter had been deported by the Germans, the British and American support was transferred to his successor, Mataafa.
Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
Eight British government expeditions for observing total solar eclipses were conducted by him between 1870 and 1905.
Among Lockyer's other works are - The Dawn of Astronomy (1894), to which Stonehenge and other British Stone Monuments astronomically considered (1906) may be considered a sequel; Recent and coming Eclipses (1897); and Inorganic Evolution (1900).
in 1897, and acted as president of the British Association in 1903-1904.
The history of the wolf in the British Isles, and its gradual extirpation, has been thoroughly investigated by Mr J.
Harting in his work on Extinct British Animals, from which the following account is abridged.
ALEXANDER BARCLAY (c. 1476-1552), British poet, was born about 1476.
One of such enclosures constitutes the British legation, and most of the other foreign legations are similarly, though not so sumptuously, lodged.
Harbour and citadel have now quite disappeared, the latter having been used to fill up the former shortly after the British occupation; some gain to health resulted, but an irreparable loss to science.
CUDDALORE, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, on the coast 125 m.
In 1746 Fort St David became the British headquarters for the south of India, and Dupleix' attack was successfully repulsed.
In 1782 they again took it and restored it sufficiently to withstand a British attack in 1783.
In 1785 it finally passed into British possession.
- Carex riparia, the largest British sedge, from 3 to 5 ft.
The edition in Bohn's British Classics (7 vols., 1853) deserves mention.
"SARAH EMILY DAVIES (1830-1921), British educationalist, was born at Southampton April 22 1830.
45 62 -4573; British School Annual, x.
Cnidus (q.v.) was excavated at the same time, when the "Cnidian Lion," now in the British Museum, was found crowning a tomb near the site of the old city (C. T.
refused to allow his son to command the British army against the Jacobites.
The Demeter of Cnidus in the British Museum, of the school of Praxiteles, apparently shows her mourning for the loss of her daughter.
ARTHUR ANNESLEY ANGLESEY, 1st Earl Of (1614-1686), British statesman, son of the 1st Viscount Valentia (cr.
Their effect was supplemented by the division into French and British sympathizers; the Republicans approving the aims and condoning the excesses of the French Revolution, the Federalists siding with British reaction against French democracy.
He was prominent as a radical in all measures in opposition to the British government, and was a member of the first Virginia committee of correspondence.
To the fisherman in India the mahseer affords the same kind of sport as the salmon in the British Isles, and it rivals that fish as regards size, strength and activity.
In 1839 Ward became the editor of the British Critic, the organ of the Tractarian party, and he excited suspicion among the adherents of the Tractarians themselves by his violent denunciations of the Church to which he still belonged.
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879), British physicist, was the last representative of a younger branch of the wellknown Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik, and was born at Edinburgh on the 13th of November 1831.
The problem is one of great practical importance, especially to the trative British Empire.
In British tropical possessions the bill is incomparably heavier.
A systematic campaign for the destruction of breedingplaces has been inaugurated in the British West African colonies, with encouraging results.
29, 1907); British Medical Journal (Oct.
But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing campaigns the British troops suffered the most severe disasters.
Across the river from the town ancient earthworks (Bucton Castle), of British origin, are seen, and a Roman road passing them, and running north and south is also traceable.
Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became extinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; on whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United Kingdom became extinct.
KENYA, a great volcanic mountain in British East Africa, situated just south of the equator in 37° 20' E.
As a rule flies are of small or moderate size, and many, such as certain blood-sucking midges of the genus Ceratopogon, are even minute; as extremes of size may be mentioned a common British midge, Ceratopogon varius, the female of which measures only 14 millimetre, and the gigantic Mydaidae of Central and South America as well as certain Australian robber-flies, which have a body 1-11n.
Of this second division of John's History, in which he had probably incorporated the socalled Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, considerable portions are found in the British Museum MSS.
14640, a British Museum MS. of the 7th century.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about British painters.
As there is no evidence of Roman or British settlement, it is probable that Sherborne (Scireburn, Shireburne) grew up after the Saxon conquest of the country from the Corn-Welsh in the middle of the 7th century.
We hear some ' One may recall, in this connexion, Caxton's very interesting prologue to Malory's Morte d'Arthur and his remarks on the permanent value of the " histories " of this British hero.
It is unnecessary to remark that in the British colonies the Jews everywhere enjoy full citizenship. In fact, the colonies emancipated the Jews earlier than did the mother country.
In Surinam the Jews were treated as British subjects; in Barbadoes, Jamaica and New York they are found as early as the first half of the 17th century.
During the War of Independence the Jews of America took a prominent part on both sides, for under the British rule many had risen to wealth and high social position.
Of this total there were in the British Empire about 380,000 Jews (British Isles 240,000, London accounts for 150,000 of these; Canada and British Columbia 60,000; India 18,000; South Africa 40,000).
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.