This was fine with Great Britain but not with Maine.
By the end of the month, Japan, bound by treaty with Great Britain, declared war on Germany.
The government of the world I live in was not framed, like that of Britain, in after-dinner conversations over the wine.
Prehistoric tumuli are found abundantly in almost all parts of Europe and Asia from Britain to Japan.
In 1890 appeared The Development of Theology since Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1825, which was written for publication in England.
Araucaria imbricata, the Chile pine, or "monkey puzzle," was introduced into Britain in 1796.
Some trees of the sessile-fruited oak bear sweet acorns in Britain, and several varieties were valued by the ancient Italians for their edible fruit.
With Britain in the war, its colonies and dominions joined in as well.
The value of the trade with British colonies and Great Britain in 1905 was over 7,200,000.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
When all these characters are taken together no other mushroom-like fungus - and nearly a thousand species grow in Britain - can be confounded with it.
Araucaria excelsa, the Norfolk Island pine, a native of Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, was discovered during Captain Cook's second voyage, and introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1793.
All this happened many years ago in New Britain, Connecticut.
From 59-62 he commanded in Britain, and, after a severe defeat, finally crushed the Iceni under Boadicea (Boudicca).
The name Albania (in the Tosk dialect Arberia, in the Gheg Arbenia), like Albania in the Caucasus, Armenia, Albany in Britain, and Auvergne (Arvenia) in France, is probably connected with the root alb, alp, and signifies "the white or snowy uplands."
It cannot be grown in the open air in Britain, as it requires protection from frost, and is more tender than the Brazilian pine.
pools in Britain, and also widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, is known as horned pondweed, from the curved fruit.
Araucaria brasiliana, the Brazil pine, is a native of the mountains of southern Brazil, and was introduced into Britain in 1819.
Great Britain and all the larger European states have consulates there.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
The method in Great Britain is almost entirely confined to places of public assembly, but in Warm air FIG.
From 1879 to 1884 he was Cavendish professor of experimental physics in the university of Cambridge, in succession to Clerk Maxwell; and in 1887 he accepted the post of professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, which he resigned in 1905.
By a treaty made between Great Britain and Siam in 1902 the northern Malay states of the peninsula were admitted to lie within the Siamese sphere of influence, but by a treaty of 1909 Siam ceded her suzerain rights over the states of Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis to Britain.
At the time that "the scramble for Africa" began, the narrow strip of coast over which the king of Togo ruled was the sole district between the Gambia and the Niger to which Great Britain, France or some other civilized power had not a claim.
The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides.
The earliest written record of the introduction of domesticated cats into Great Britain dates from about A.D.
When he died three years later Lauenburg passed to his nephew, George Louis, elector of Hanover, afterwards king of Great Britain as George I., whose rights were recognized by the emperor Charles VI.
The foliage in some of the numerous varieties is almost evergreen, and in Britain is retained long after the autumnal withering.
Rotumah was discovered by Captain Edwards of the "Pandora" in 1791, and was annexed by Great Britain in 1881.
It is largely cultivated, and usually stands the winter of Britain; but in some years, when the temperature fell very low, the trees have suffered much.
Any note may be a pitch note; for orchestras custom has settled upon a' in the treble clef, for organs and pianos in Great Britain c 2, and for modern brass instruments b flat'.
In Britain the evergreen oak is quite hardy in ordinary winters, and is useful to the ornamental planter from its capacity for resisting the sea gales; but it generally remains of small size.
Throughout Britain, as a rule, this species is one of the most plentiful birds, and is found at all seasons of the year.
hyemale, commonly known as the Dutch rush, is much more abundant in Holland than in Britain; it is used for polishing purposes.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
In Great Britain wild cats survive only in some of the Scottish forests, and even there it is difficult to decide whether pure-bred specimens are extant.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
It is interesting for its connexion with the 15th-century romance of Perceforest, since in it Alexander visits Britain, where he bestows Scotland on Gadifer and England on Betis (otherwise Perceforest).
The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat.
It is by many esteemed as the best of all the edible fungi found in Great Britain.
GORBODUC, a mythical king of Britain.
For some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great Britain.
This is the only species which can be cultivated in the open air in Britain.
The Alexander cycle was no less popular in Great Britain.
But these two sections of Protestantism, in their common exile and in presence of the preponderating Roman Catholicism of the country, seemed at first inclined to draw closer together than had been thought possible in Great Britain.
In the extent and importance of her colonial dominion France is second only to Great Britain.
Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.
Spain, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Valens the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples of whom we now hear for the first time - Burgundians, Saxons, Alamanni.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the wall of Antoninus to the shores of Kent.
In 387 Magnus Maximus, who had commanded a Roman army in Britain, and had in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) made himself master of the northern provinces, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.
Another series of instruments, introduced by Cooke and Wheatstone in 1840, and generally known as " Wheatstone's step-by-step letter-showing " or " ABC instruments," were worked out with great ingenuity of detail by Wheatstone in Great Britain and by Breguet and others in France.
- Open Circuit, Single- (not in Great Britain).
This form of relay is largely used, but in Great Britain it has been entirely .flisplaced by the form shown in fig.
Repeaters (or translators, as they are sometimes termed) are in Great Britain only used on fast-speed circuits; they are in no case found necessary on circuits worked by hand, or at " key speed " as it is called.
Delany (which was adopted to a limited extent in Great Britain, but has now been entirely discarded) had for its object the working of a number of instruments simultaneously on one wire.
Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
Under the then existing telegraphic tariff the charge in Great Britain was a shilling for a twenty-word message over a distance not exceeding ioo miles; is.
For a message between Great Britain and Ireland the charge ranged from 3s.
The relative backwardness of telegraphy in Great Britain was attributed to high charges made by the companies and to restricted facilities.
France and Great Britain jointly acquired the cables between Calais and Dover, Boulogne and Folkestone, Dieppe and Beachy Head, Havre and Beachy Head, Piron, near Coutances, and Vieux Châteaux (St Heliers, Jersey).
Belgium and Great Britain became joint-proprietors of the cables between Ramsgate and Ostend and Dover and De la Panne (near Fumes).
The two cables to Holland and one of the cables to Germany were already the property of Great Britain, and the German Union Company's cable to Germany was purchased by the German government.
The decisions of the Conference were ratified for Great Britain by the British government on July 1, 1908.
Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
- The records of the telephone industry in Great Britain during the thirty years from 1877 to 1907 form an instructive chapter in the industrial history of the country.
With a population of 58 millions there are 10.2 telephones per loon of the population in that country compared with 10 15 in Great Britain and Ireland.
The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.
It is widely used in America, and was introduced into Great Britain in 1907.
Meyer, Public Ownership and the Telephone in Great Britain (London, 1907); E.
Bona- The anathemas of the pope, the bravery of Piedmontese and Austrians, and the subsidies of Great Britain failed to keep the league of Italian princes against France intact.
The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some secondary states of Germany took part.
The third coalition was formed between Great Britain, Russia and Austria, Naples soon joining its ranks.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
The lonian Islands, formerly belonging to Venice, were, by a treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November 1815, placed under the protection of Great Britain.
Cavour believed that by taking part in the war his country would gain for itself a military status and a place in the councils of the great Powers, and ~ establish claims on Great Britain and France for the realization of its Italian ambitions.
the instance of Great Britain Napoleon withdrew his qu ted squadron, that the blockade could be made complete.
and Russia, and Germany, Austria and Great Britain, he scarcely seemed alive to the possible effect of such agreements upon Italy.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
Almost up to the moment of the French occupation of Tunisia the Italian government believed that Great Britain, if only out of gratitude for the bearing of Italy in connection with the Dulcigno demonstration.
He not only refused to join Great Britain in the Egyptian.
Italy in consequence drew nearer to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and Germany.
At the same time negotiations took place with Great Britain for an Italian occupation of Massawa, and Mancini, dreaming of a vast Anglo-Italian enterprise against the Mahdi, expatiated in.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
About the same time Mancini was informed by the Italian agent in Cairo that Great Britain would be well disposed towards an extension of Italian influence on the Red Sea coast.
Partly to satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favorable disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Caimi and Colonel Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beilul.
News of the occupation reached Europe simultaneously with the tidings of the fall of Khartum, an event which disappointed Italian hopes of military co-operation with Great Britain in the Sudan.
Menelek had previously notified the chief European powers of his coronation at Entotto (i4th December 1889), but Germany and Great Britain replied that such notification should have been made through the Italian.
The chief advantage derived by Italy from Crispis foreign policy was the increase of confidence in her government on the part of her allies and of Great Britain.
The foreign policy of the second Crispi Administration, in which the portfolio of foreign affairs was held by Baron Blanc, was, as before, marked by a cordial interpretation of CompI!ca- the triple alliance, and by close accord with Great ~ Britain.
The protocol concluded with Great Britain on the 15th of April 1891, already referred to, contained a clause to the effect that, were Kassala occupied by the Italians, the place should be transferred to the Egyptian government as soon as the latter should be In a position.
Actuated by rancour against Crispi, he, on the 29th of April 1896, authorized I the publication of a Green Book on Abyssinian affairs, in which, without the consent of Great Britain, the confidential AngloItalian negotiations in regard to the Abyssinian war were disclosed.
The action of the tsar of Russia in convening the Peace Conference at The Hague in May 1900 gave rise to a question as to the right of the Vatican to be officially represented, and Admiral Canevaro, supported by Great Britain and Germany, succeeded in prevent~ ing the invitation of a papal delegate.
The acceptance by the powers of the Murzsteg programme and the appointment of Austrian and Russian financial agents in Macedonia was an advantage for Austria and a set-back for Italy; hut the latter scored a success in the appointment of General de Giorgis as commander of the international Macedonian gendarmerie; she also obtained, with the support of Great Britain, France and Russia, the assignment of the partly Albanian district of Monastir to the Italian officers of that corps.
He was charged with having encroached to himself royal powers by treating matters of peace and war without the knowledge of the council, with having promoted the raising of a standing army on pretence of a war with France, with having obstructed the assembling of parlia ' Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, by Sir J.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
Britain remained outside that jurisdiction, the Celtic churches of the British islands, after those islands were abandoned by the Empire, pursuing a course of their own.
Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.
It was introduced into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not earlier.
In this well-known variety the young shoots are but slightly angled, and the branches in the second year become round; the deltoid short-pointed leaves are usually straight or even rounded at the base, but sometimes are slightly cordate; the capsules ripen in Britain about the middle of May.
long; it is found in New England and the milder parts of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covered with a balsamic secretion.
The tree grows well in Britain, and acquires occasionally a considerable size.
It is said by Alton to have been introduced into Britain about the end of the 17th century.
They therefore resolved upon the foundation of a voluntary society, under the title of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, " for advancing the knowledge of chemistry and pharmacy, and promoting a uniform system of education for those who should practise the same, also for protecting the collective and individual interests and privileges of all its members, in the event of any hostile attack in parliament or elsewhere."
In Great Britain the period of study is voluntary, and usually occupies only one year.
Two or three years of apprenticeship is required in most countries, including Great Britain, but none in Belgium, Greece, Italy or Spain.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
Instead, they became a third, ill-understood source of tin, conceived of as distinct from Spain or Britain.
Neither Britain nor Spain can be called "small islands off the north-west of Spain."
Holmes, Ancient Britain (1907), appendix, identifies the Cassiterides with the British Isles.
Britain is fairly typical of the west European district.
Even so small an area as that of Britain illustrates what has already been pointed out, that the species of a flora change both with latitude and altitude.
It possesses about 1000 species, or about two-thirds the number of Britain.
On its western shores there are some twenty, such as Saxifraga umbrosa, Erica mediterranea and Arbutus unedo, which are not found in Britain at all.
The oak in turn has been almost superseded in Denmark by the beech, which, if we may trust Julius Caesar, had not reached Britain in his time, though it existed there in the pre-glacial period, but is not native in either Scotland or Ireland.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
Pytheas, whose own narrative is not preserved, coasted the Bay of Biscay, sailed up the English Channel and followed the coast of Britain to its most northerly point.
In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
The Northmen of Denmark and Norway, whose piratical adventures were the terror of all the coasts of Europe, and who established themselves in Great Britain and Ireland, in France and The Sicily, were also geographical explorers in their rough but Nothmen.
The chief result of this early intercourse between Great Britain and Japan was the interesting series of letters written by William Adams from 1611 to 1617.
Dampier's literary ability eventually secured for him a commission in the king's service; and he was sent on a voyage of discovery, during which he explored part of the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and discovered the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and New Britain, returning in 1701.
Carteret discovered the Charlotte and Gloucester Islands, and Pitcairn Island on the 2nd of July 1767; revisited the Santa Cruz group, which was discovered by Mendafia and Quiros; and discovered the strait separating New Britain from New Ireland.
He visited the New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain and part of New Guinea.
The company was by no means a financial success, and many of its proceedings were wholly unscrupulous and indefensible; its great object, however, was attained, and New Zealand became the Britain of the south.
ACT OF SETTLEMENT, the name given to the act of parliament passed in June 1701, which, since that date, has regulated the succession to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
When the port of Boston was closed by Great Britain in 1774 the bell of the old First Parish Church (Unitarian) of Portland (built 1740; the present building dates from 1825) was muffled and rung from morning till night, and in other ways the town showed its sympathy for the patriot cause.
But there are also species, though not Passerine, which are absolutely identical with those of Britain, the barn owl, common quail, pigmy rail, and little grebe or dabchick, all of them common and apparently resident in the island.
He was minister to Great Britain in1796-1803and again in 1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vicepresident in 1804 and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral votes to 183 cast for Monroe.
When his father was sent as minister to Great Britain in 1825 he accompanied him as secretary of the American legation, and when his father returned home on account of ill health he remained as charge d'affaires until August 1826.
CHAGOS, a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, belonging to Britain, disposed in circular form round the Chagos bank, in 4° 44' t o 7° 39' S., and 70 55' to 72° 52' E.
The work contains nothing that cannot be learned from Ptolemy, whom he follows in calling the promontory of the Novantae (Mull of Galloway) the most northern point of Britain.
If Britain and Sicily were the greatest fields of their enterprise, they were very far from being the only fields.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
A long struggle for dominion in Uruguay between Brazil and the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires was concluded in 1828, through the mediation of Great Britain, Uruguay being declared a free and independent state.
Gorchakov perceived that Russian designs against Turkey, supported by Great Britain and France, were impracticable, and he counselled Russia to make no more useless sacrifices, but to accept the bases of a pacification.
During the Polish insurrection Gorchakov rebuffed the suggestions of Great Britain, Austria and France for assuaging the severities employed in quelling it, and he was especially acrid in his replies to Earl Russell's despatches.
the social conditions of Great Britain and Germany.
As a result of the commissioners' report negotiations were set on foot for the adjustment of the Liberian debt and the placing of United States officials in charge of the Liberian customs. In July 1910 it was announced that the American government, acting in general agreement with Great Britain, France and Germany, would take charge of the finances, military organization, agriculture and boundary questions of the re public. A loan for £400,000 was also arranged.
The trade is done almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but.
long, the three main branches of which are themselves pinnately divided; it is found in dry, shady places in mountain districts in Great Britain, but is very rare in Ireland.
long, including the stalk; it is characterized by having the lower pinnae of the frond deflexed; it is generally distributed in Britain, though not common.
(4) Church extension in Germany, Great Britain, North America.
EAST ANGLIA, one of the kingdoms into which Anglo-Saxon Britain was divided.
According to the Historia Brittonum Guffa (Wuffa) was the son of (Guecha) Wehha, who first ruled the East Angles in Britain.
zo), are confined to eastern and southern Britain, and are unknown in Ireland.
On the other hand, there are Arctic species like the ground-beetle, Pelophila borealis, and south-western species like the boring weevil, Mesites Tardyi, common in Ireland, and represented in northern or western Britain, but unknown in eastern Britain or in Central Europe.
In Great Britain the beetle, after completing its development, winters in the seed, waiting to emerge and lay its eggs on the blossom in the ensuing spring.
Europe, including Great Britain.
after appealing in vain to Great Britain for active assistance turned in despair to Russia.
The resistance of the sultan, supported by Great Britain and France, led to the Crimean War, which was terminated by the taking of The Sevastopol (September 1855) and the treaty of Paris Crimean (March 30, 1856).
This new entente with Great Britain, cemented by a visit paid by King Edward VII.
of general merchandise it might prove a serious competitor to the canals, of which a large mileage had been constructed in Great Britain during that period.
The Liverpool & Manchester line achieved a success which surpassed the anticipations even of its promoters, and in consequence numerous projects were started for the construction of railways in various parts of Great Britain.
Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
On a single-track-mile basis, the following comparison may be made between apparent capital costs in Great Britain and the United States: - Single-Track Paid-up Capital Mileage.
The Departmental Committee of the Board of Trade, sitting in 1909 to consider railway accounting forms, while recommending ton-miles to the careful consideration of those responsible for railway working in Great Britain, considered the question of their necessity in British practice to be still open, and held that, at all events, they should not be introduced under compulsion.
H.) British Railway Legislation The first thing a railway company in Great Britain has to do is to obtain a special or private act of parliament authorizing the construction of the line.
Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.
43 487870 180 216 7 22 20 17 15 25407 4483 368 364 195 170347 13 61 2 165 287 3 86 172 8 160 2,440 289 40 28 22 337 of the passenger's journey in the United States is reported to be about 32 m.; in Great Britain it is undoubtedly less, but no record is published.
Of the total train mileage in America more than half is freight; in Great Britain much more than half is passenger.
Railway accidents in France are recorded in a shape somewhat different from that found in either Great Britain or America.
This governmental sanction has been obtainable only with difficulty, and after the exercise of numerous legal forms, in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe.
The laws regulating original outputs for capital were strictly drawn in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe; in America they were drawn very loosely.
The situation in Great Britain has been wholly different.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
Similarly in Great Britain there is a tendency towards combination by mutual agreement among the companies while they still preserve their independent existence.
In Great Britain the curvature is defined by stating the length of the radius, expressed in chains (i chain=66 ft.), in America by stating the angle subtended by a chord ioo ft.
In Great Britain railways are built to gauges other than 4 ft.
In Great Britain, Germany and France, at least 90% of the wooden sleepers are " treated " before they are laid, to ii.crease their resistance to decay, and the same practice is followed to some extent in other European countries.
In the first method, which is practically universal in Great Britain and is also employed to 1 See a full account of steel sleepers in a paper read by A.
Carbon is the important element in controlling hardness, and the amount present is in general higher in the United States than in Great Britain.
In Great Britain the Board of Trade requires facing points to be avoided as far as possible; but, of course, they are a necessity at junctions where running lines diverge and at the crossing places which must be provided to enable trains to pass each other on single-track lines.
In Great Britain, it may be noted, trains almost invariably keep to the left, whereas in most other countries right-handed running is the rule.
Still used by several railways in Great Britain for express passenger service, but going out of favour; it is also found in France, and less often in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe.
It has been extensively introduced, both in Great Britain and the continent of Europe, for passenger traffic, and is now the most numerous and popular class.
It is used to a limited extent both in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, but is much more common in America.
This is the standard goods engine of Great Britain and the continent of Europe.
Ramsbottom on the London & North-Western railway in 1859, have been laid in the tracks of the leading main lines of Great Britain.
On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
The same method is finding increased favour in Great Britain, to the supersession of the old hot-water footwarmers.
or more which are now performed by several railways in Great Britain, and on which average speeds of 54 or 55 m.
Over shorter distances still more rapid running is occasionally arranged, and in Great Britain, France and the United States there are instances of trains scheduled to maintain an average speed of 60 m.
If both the number and the speed of the trains be taken into account, Great Britain is generally admitted still to remain well ahead of any other country.
The vehicles used for the transportation of goods are known as goods wagons or trucks in Great Britain, and as freight cars in America.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
It is sometimes argued that if these things are true for one country they must be true for another, and that in Great Britain, for example, the use of more capacious cars would bring down.
The common form of non-automatic coupler, used in Great Britain for goods wagons, consists of a chain and hook; the chain hangs loosely from a slot in the draw-bar, which terminates in a hook, and coupling is effected by slipping the =chain of one vehicle over the hook of the next.
Automatic couplers resembling the Janney are adopted in a few special cases in Great Britain and other European countries, FIG.
No adequate definition is to be found even in the British statute-book; for although g parliament has on different occasions passed acts dealing with such railways both in Great Britain and Ireland, it has not inserted in any of them a clear and sufficient statement of what it intends shall be understood by the term, as distinguished from an ordinary railway.
Malvinas), a group of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Britain, and lying about 250 m.
In 1771, however, Spain yielded the islands to Great Britain by convention.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, and in 1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its leading counsel in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain.
Great Britain followed suit, but under a political arrangement between the powers no single power was to appropriate the islands.
The situation, however, was found to be so complicated and embarrassing that, early in 1900, the so-called Berlin treaty was abrogated, Great Britain withdrew her claims to any portion of the islands and received compensation from Germany by concessions in other parts of the world, and the United States withdrew from all the islands W.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
GALGACUS, or perhaps rather CALGACUS, a Caledonian chief who led the tribes of North Britain against the invading Roman army under Cn.
The fossil remains which have been discovered in Britain are not larger than, nor in any way to be distinguished from, the corresponding bones and teeth of European wolves of the present day.
In Britain the tree grows to a height of 40 ft., in its native soil to .70 or 90 ft.
It was introduced into Great Britain before the middle of the 16th century.
The cypress, as the olive, is found everywhere in the dry hollows and high eastern slopes of Corfu, of the scenery of which it is characteristic. As an ornamental tree in Britain the cypress is useful to break the outline formed by roundheaded low shrubs and trees.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
C. nootkaensis, the Nootka Sound cypress or Alaska cedar, was introduced into Britain in 1850.
Among other occurrences of the name of Avon in Great Britain there may be noted - in England, a stream flowing south-east from Dartmoor in Devonshire to the English Channel; in South Wales, the stream which has its mouth at Aberavon in Glamorganshire; in Scotland, tributaries of the Clyde, the Spey and the Forth.
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been betrothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great.
In November 1660 by his father's death he had become Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish peerage, and on the 20th April 1661 he was created Baron Annesley of Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the peerage of Great Britain.
He was summoned to the Irish House of Peers as Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament of Great Britain by a majority of one vote.
MARCUS AURELIUS CARAUSIUS, tyrant or usurper in Britain, A.D.
Carausius thereupon crossed over to Britain and proclaimed himself an independent ruler.
Constantius then made extensive preparations to ensure the reconquest of Britain, but before they were completed Carausius was murdered by Allectus, his praefect of the guards (Aurelius Victor, Caesares, 39; Eutropius ix.
Evans in Numismatic Chronicle, 1887, "On a coin of a second Carausius Caesar in Britain in the Fifth Century").
Marcy, who had ordered American ministers to wear a plain civilian costume), and by joining with James Buchanan and Pierre Soule, ministers to Great Britain and Spain respectively, in drawing up (Oct.
There are several species in Britain found on the ground or on decaying leaves.
They are rare or local, but more common in the south or south-east of England than in other parts of Britain.
He is said to have made war not only against lesser rulers in Ireland, but also in Britain and Gaul, stories of his exploits being related in the Book of Leinster and the Book of Ballymote, both of which, however, are many centuries later than the time of Niall.
Panin was the inventor of the famous "Northern Accord," which aimed at opposing a combination of Russia, Prussia, Poland, Sweden, and perhaps Great Britain, against the Bourbon-Habsburg League.
Great Britain, for instance, could never be persuaded that it was as much in her interests as in the interests of Russia to subsidize the antiFrench party in Sweden.
His next publication was Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain (Oxford, 1756).1756).
The true nature of this relation can be readily observed in other fields (ancient Britain, Greece, Egypt, &c.), where, however, the native documents and sources have not that complexity which characterizes the composite biblical history.
Treaties of friendship were concluded with Germany, Great Britain, and the United States of America.
The " Solemn League and Covenant," which pledged both countries to the extirpation of prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided by the " example of the best reformed churches," after undergoing some slight alterations, passed the two Houses of Parliament and the Westminster Assembly, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great Britain.
to Donaghadee), it was for more than 200 years a starting-point of the mail service between Great Britain and Ireland.
So far as Western Christendom is concerned the corrected calendar is now universally accepted, and Easter is kept on the same day, but it was not until 1752 that the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted in Great Britain and Ireland.
As the tench is of comparatively uncommon occurrence in unenclosed waters, its place among the indigenous fishes of Great Britain has been denied, and it has been supposed to have been introduced from the Continent; a view which, however, is not supported by any evidence, and is practically disposed of by the fact that fossil remains of the fish are found in the Pleistocene deposits of Great Britain.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
At the close of the Seven Years' War (1763) France ceded to Great Britain all her territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans, and Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain.
But Great Britain recognized the claims of the United States to the territory as far south as the 31st parallel, the line of 1763.
Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1876); and Sir John Rhys, Celtic Britain (London, 1904).
The order is well represented in Britain by 18 genera, which include several species of Orchis: Gymnadenia (fragrant orchis), Habenaria (butterfly and frog orchis), Aceras (man orchis), Hermin- ium (musk orchis), Ophrys (bee, spider and fly orchis), Epipactis (Helleborine), Cephalanthera, Neottia (bird's-nest orchis), one of the few saprophytic genera, which have no green leaves, but derive their nourishment from decaying organic matter in the soil, Listens (Tway blade), Spiranthes (lady's tresses), Malaxis (bog-orchis), Liparis (fen-orchis), Corallorhiza (coral root), also a saprophyte, and Cypripedium (lady's slipper), represented by a single species now very rare in limestone districts in the north of England.
town of southern Khorasan, directly connected with Meshed on the north; and the acquisition of rights of administration of the Nushki district secured to Great Britain the trade between Seistan and Quetta by the new Helmund desert route.
The kingdom which was annexed by Britain in 1885 was founded about 1750 by Alompra, who united his countrymen and broke the power of the Talaings.
Another category of European possessions in Asia comprises those acquired towards the end of the 19th century, such as Indo-China (France), Burma and Wei-Hai-Wei (Britain), and Kiao-Chow (Germany).
However, by his birth, his abilities and his connexions alike he was marked out for a high position, and after the death of his wife in February 1812 he was appointed ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Vienna, where he signed the treaty of TOplitz between Great Britain and Austria in October 1813; and accompanying the emperor Francis I.
Largely owing to his efforts, causes of quarrel between Great Britain and France in Tahiti, over the marriage of Isabella II.
Thirty-three bishops are included in the most authentic list of signatures, among them three from Britain, - York, London and "Colonia Londinensium" (probably a corruption of Lindensium, or Lincoln, rather than of Legionensium or Caerleon-on-Usk).
When he entered office the relations between the United States and Great Britain were critical.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
With the special commissioner from Great Britain, Lord Ashburton, he concluded the treaty of 1842 known as the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
In 1762 he was elected M.P. for Dartmouth, and held the seat till he received a title of Great Britain.
Grimsby (Grimesbi) is supposed to have been the landing-place of the Danes on their first invasion of Britain towards the close of the 8th century.
His jealousy was provoked by the successes of Agricola in Britain, who was recalled to Rome (85) in the midst of his conquests, condemned to retirement, and perhaps removed by poison.
But in his mode of forming ridges his practice seems to have been original; his implements, especially his drill, display much ingenuity; and his claim to the title of founder of the present horse-hoeing husbandry of Great Britain seems indisputable.
this treatise that the state of the art was not more advanced at that time in North Britain than it had been in England in the time of Fitzherbert.
The agriculture of Great Britain, as a whole, advanced with rapid strides during this period; hint nowhere was the change so great as in Scotland.
In 1883 foot-and-mouth disease was terribly rampant amongst the herds and flocks of Great Britain, and was far more prevalent than it has ever been since.
In 1889 the Board of Agriculture (for Great Britain) was formed under an act of parliament of that year (see Agriculture, Board Of).
In 1901 the formation of the Agricultural Organization Society marked the first systematic attempt to organize co-operation among the farmers of Great Britain.
In the period 18 751905 the extreme areas returned as " permanent pasture "-a term which, it should be clearly understood, does not include heath or mountain land, of which there are in Great Britain alone about 13 million acres used for grazing-were 23,772,602 acres in 1875, and 28,865,373 acres in 1905.
On account of the greater humidity and mildness of its climate, Ireland is more essentially a pastoral country than Great Britain.
The figures are those for 1905, but, though the absolute acreages Table -Areas of Cereal and Potato Crops in Great Britain and Ireland in 1905.
A similar comparison for the several sections of Great Britain, as set forth in Table VI., shows that to England belong about 95% of the wheat area, over 80% of the barley area, over 60% of the oats area, and over 70% of the potato area, and these proportions do not vary much from year to year.
A reas of Cereal and Potato Crops in England, Wales and Scotland, and in Great Britain, in 1905.
Whilst the returns relating to the acreage of crops and the number of live stock in Great Britain have been officially collected in each year since 1866, the annual official estimates of the produce of the crops in the several sections of the kingdom do not extend back beyond 1885.
Although enormous single crops of mangels [[Table X]].--Decennial Average Yields in Great Britain of Wheat, Barley and Oats-Bushels per acre.
This, indeed, is the practice in Ireland, and in order to incorporate the Irish figures with those for Great Britain so as to obtain average values for the United Kingdom, the Irish yields are calculated into bushels at the rate of 60 lb to the bushel of wheat, of beans and of peas, 50 lb to the bushel of barley and 39 lb to the bushel of oats.
Adopting this course in the case of the cereal crops of Great Britain the decennial averages recorded in Table X.
It thus appears that the average yield of wheat in Great Britain, as calculated upon the crops harvested during the ten years (1896-1905), exceeded 31 bushels to the acre, whereas, for the ten years ended 1895, it fell below 29 bushels.
Table XIII., in which the totals for the United Kingdom include those for the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, illustrates the preponderance of the sheep-breeding industry in the drier climate of Great Britain, and of the cattle-breeding industry in the more humid atmosphere of Ireland.
In Great Britain in 1905, for every head of cattle there were about four head of sheep, whereas in Ireland the cattle outnumbered the sheep. Again, whilst Great Britain possessed only half as many cattle more than Table XiiI.-Numbers of Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Pigs in the United Kingdom in 1905.
Great Britain had twice as many pigs as Ireland, but the swine industry is mainly.
In connexion with the internal live stock trade of Great Britain attention must be directed to the Markets and Fairs (Weighing of Cattle) Act 1891.
for fat cattle in Great Britain was 32S.
The winning stallions are distributed in districts throughout Great Britain, and the use of these selected sires has resulted in a decided improvement in the quality of half-bred horses.
Other cattle societies, all well caring for the interest of their respective breeds, are the Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn Association, the Hereford Herd Book Society, the Devon Cattle Breeders' Society, the South Devon Herd Book Society, the Sussex Herd Book Society, the Longhorned Cattle Society, the Red Polled Society, the English Guernsey Cattle Society, the English Kerry and Dexter Cattle Society, the Welsh Bla.
The effect was to reduce to a minimum the risk of the introduction of disease amongst the herds and flocks of the country, and at the same time to confine the trade in store stock exclusively to the breeders of Great Britain and Ireland.
The ports in Great Britain at which foreign animals may be landed are Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, London; t 'Manchester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Cattle plague, or rinderpest, has not been recorded in Great Britain since 1877.
The course of foot-and-mouth disease in Great Britain between 1877 and 1905 inclusive is told in Table XX., from which the [[Table Xx]].
- Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Great Britain, 1877-1905.
- Outbreaks of Sheep-Scab in Great Britain, 1877-1905.
For its size and in relation to its sheep population Wales harbours the disease to a far greater extent than the other divisions of Great Britain.
Isolated outbreaks are of common occurrence, and from the totals for Great Britain given in Table XXII.
Glanders (including farcy) was the subject during the twentyfour years 1877-1900 of outbreaks in Great Britain ranging between a minimum of 518 in 1877 and a maximum of 1657 in 1892; in the former year 758 horses were attacked, and in the latter 3001.
The counties of Great Britain over which the annual outbreaks have been distributed have ranged between 24 in 1890 and 52 in 1879.
- Outbreaks of Anthrax in Great Britain, 1895-1905.
The Rabies order was passed in 1886, and the number of counties in Great Britain in which cases of rabies in dogs were reported in each subsequent year is shown in Table XXIII.
- Cases of Rabies in Dogs in Great Britain, 1887-1902.
Pleuro-pneumonia in Great Britain was dealt with by the local authorities up to the year 1890.
Their administration was attended by success, for from 192 outbreaks in Great Britain in 1891 the total fell to 35 in 1892 and to 9 in 1893.
The Trade in Live Stock between Ireland and Great Britain.
The compulsory slaughter at the place of landing does not extend to animals shipped from Ireland into Great Britain, and this is a matter of the highest importance to Irish stock-breeders, who find their best market close at hand on the east of St George's Channel.
shows the number of cattle, sheep and pigs shipped from Ireland into Great Britain in each of the fifteen years 1891-1905, the numbers of horses similarly shipped being also indicated.
[[Table Xxv]].-Imports of Live Stock from Ireland into Great Britain, 1891-1905.
Most of the pigs sent from Ireland into Great Britain are fat, the store pigs accounting for less than one-tenth of the total number.
The returns from Ireland under the Diseases of Animals Acts 1894 and 1896 are less significant than those of Great Britain.
Compared with the export trade in live stock from Ireland to Great Britain the reciprocal trade from Great Britain to Ireland is small, and is largely restricted to animals for breeding purposes.
In Great Britain agricultural education as a whole lacks the scope and co-ordination which it has in some continental countries.
In Great Britain little attention is paid to this important branch of agricultural science, but in America and the British colonies the case is different.
The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.
A B In Great Britain the flea beetles (Halticidae) are one of the most serious enemies; one of these, the turnip flea (Phyllotreta nemorum), has in some years, notably 1881, caused more than 500,00o loss in England and Scotland alone by eating the young seedling turnips, cabbage and other Cruciferae.
Immense quantities are imported into Britain from Norway, Sweden and Prussia, under the names of "white Norway," "Christiania" and "Danzig deal."
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
From an equally loose application of the word "fir" by our older herbalists, it is difficult to decide upon the date of introduction of this tree into Britain; but it was commonly planted for ornamental purposes in the beginning of the 17th century.
It was introduced into Britain at the end of the 17th century.
The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
It was introduced into Great Britain in about the year 1736.
It was introduced into Britain soon after its rediscovery by David Douglas in 1827, and has been widely planted, but does not flourish well where exposed to high winds or in too shallow soil.
Introduced into Britain at the beginning of the 17th century, the silver fir has become common there as a planted tree, though, like the Norway spruce, it rarely comes up from seed scattered naturally.
Several million limpets-twelve million in Berwickshire alone-are annually used on the east coast of Britain as bait.
In everything which related to the continent of Europe and to the resumption of trade relations between Great Britain and France, Bonaparte had his way; and he abated his demands only in a few questions relating to India and Newfoundland.
The terms of the treaty of Amiens may be thus summarized: Great Britain restored to France the colonial possessions (almost the whole of the French colonial empire) conquered in the late war.
Napoleon's refusal to give this, and his complaint that Great Britain had neglected to comply with some of the provisions of the treaty of Amiens, brought Anglo-French relations to an acute phase.
By great dexterity he succeeded in turning public attention almost solely to the fact that Britain had not evacuated Malta.
In return for the great accessions of power to France since the treaty of Amiens (Elba, it may be noted, was annexed in August 1802) Great Britain was to retain Malta for ten years and to acquire the small island of Lampedusa in perpetuity.
Failing the arrival of a favourable reply from London by the 1st of December 1807, the tsar would help Napoleon to compel Denmark, Sweden and Portugal to close their ports against, and make war on, Great Britain.
By the Milan Decree of the 17th of December 1807, he ordained that every ship which submitted to the right of search now claimed by Great Britain would be considered a lawful prize.
So far back as the 13th of March, six days before he reached Paris, the powers at Vienna declared him an outlaw; and four days later Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.
In all but name he was a prisoner of Great Britain, and he knew it.
He under stood the relations of the European states, and the interests of Great Britain among them.
At any rate, he spoke at Guildhall on Lord Mayor's Day in a worthy manner; admitting that the growth of the German navy was a main factor in British construction, and pointing out that no power was better able to bear the strain or less likely to fail than Great Britain.
Great Britain must never conduct her affairs so that the navy of any one power could engage her at any moment with a reasonable prospect of success.
His influence in congress was great, and almost from the beginning he was impatient for a separation of the colonies from Great Britain.
Before this work had been completed he was again sent to Europe, having been chosen on the 27th of September 1779 as minister plenipotentiary for negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great Britain.
Political conditions in Great Britain, at the moment, made the conclusion of peace almost a necessity with the British ministry, and eventually the American negotiators were able to secure a peculiarly favourable treaty.
The ornithology of Britain naturally demands greater attention.
In 1769 Berkenhout gave to the world his Outlines of the Natural History of Great Britain and Ireland, which reappeared under the title of Synopsis of the same in 1795.
Simultaneously William Lewin began his seven quarto volumes on the Birds of Great Britain, a reissue in eight volumes following between 1795 and 1801.
A Monograph of the Odontophorinae or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr Sharpe (1850-1883); The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes (1863-1873); and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, and, after the author's death in 1881, undertaken by Mr Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three thousand coloured plates.
The mischief caused by this theory of a Quinary System was very great, but was chiefly confined to Britain, for (as has been will be necessary to limit this survey, as before indicated, to those countries alone which form the homes of English people, or are commonly visited by them in ordinary travel.
Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, originally published beween 1808 and 1814, has gone through many editions including those issued in Great Britain, by Jameson (4 vols.
One of the few appearing since, with the same scope, that are not borrowed is Jardine's Birds of Great Britain and Ireland (4 vols.
8vo, 1838-1843), forming part of his Naturalist's Library; and Gould's Birds of Great Britain has been already mentioned.
In Britain it seems to have been positively unknown until quoted some years after its completion by a cataloguecompiler on account of some peculiarities of nomenclature which it presented.
Hitherto our attention has been given wholly to Germany and France, for the chief ornithologists of Britain were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless way - not paying due heed at this time to the internal structure of birds, and some excellent descriptive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on ornithic anatomy.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
of Great Britain.
Inside the fortress lies the old Protestant burying-ground, with tombs of Sackville, of John Murray, of Sir Francis Vincent, last ambassador but one from Great Britain to the republic, of Consul Smith, whose collection of books forms the nucleus of the King's library in the British Museum, and of Catherine Tofts, the singer, Smith's first wife.
Of the same total 3,6 9 8,811 or 88.9% were native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93.8% of the foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy.
The Seven Years' War was the immediate consequence and this ended in the cession of the entire North-West to Great Britain.
In 1868 he was appointed minister to Great Britain and soon after his arrival in England negotiated the Johnson-Clarendon treaty for the settlement of disputes arising out of the Civil War; this, however, the Senate refused to ratify, and he returned home on the accession of General U.
He opposed the issue of paper money, supported Robert Morris's plan for a national bank, and was prominently connected with all Congressional action in regard to the peace with Great Britain.
An agreement of 1907 with Great Britain recognized the lake as within the Abyssinian Empire.
To this act Great Britain replied by various penal regulations and reconstructive acts of government.
The people covenanted not to use British goods and to suspend trade with Great Britain.
Later on a contingent served with the Roman army in Africa, Britain, Italy, Hungary, where grave-stones with Palmyrene and Latin inscriptions have been found; see Lidzbarski, Nordsem.
The Spanish mackerel is, as the name implies, a native of the seas of southern Europe, but single individuals or small schools frequently reach the shores of Great Britain and of the United States.
Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.
The colonies and dependencies of Great Britain, including India, seemed well able to grow all the cotton that could be required, whilst numerous other countries were ready to afford their co-operation.
British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.
Ellison, in his work on the cotton trade of Great Britain, traces in detail the increase in the volume of information collected and made public. At the close of the 8th century there was a tacit understanding among brokers to supply one another with information.
Again we must distinguish between the " future " contracts for the delivery of a particular kind of cotton, which may be entered into by spinners and their brokers, and are real purchases in the sense that the spinners want delivery of the cotton referred to, and the "futures," which always relate 1 The Cotton Trade of Great Britain, by Thomas Ellison, p. 186.
The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.
The annual average shipments from Bombay to the European continent and to Great Britain in 1900-1904 were as follows: To the continent.
To Great Britain.
The portion relating to Britain was published under the title Iter Britanniarum, with commentary by T.
Britain was the headquarters of Druidism, but once every year a general assembly of the order was held within the territories of the Carnutes in Gaul.
These probably came from North Britain.
The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
In 385 he was appointed master of the soldiery (magister militum) in Thrace, and shortly afterwards directed energetic campaigns in Britain against Picts, Scots and Saxons, and along the Rhine against other barbarians.
Stilicho and Serena were named guardians of the youthful Honorius when the latter was created joint emperor in 394 with special jurisdiction over Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain and Africa, and Stilicho was even more closely allied to the imperial family in the following year by betrothing his daughter Maria to his ward and by receiving the dying injunctions of Theodosius to care for his children.
He thwarted the efforts of Alaric to seize lands in Italy by his victories at Pollentia and Verona in 402-3 and forced him to return to Illyricum, but was criticized for having withdrawn the imperial forces from Britain and Gaul to employ against the Goths.
The Anglo-German agreement of October 1900, to which Japan also became a party, and by which it was agreed to " maintain undiminished the territorial condition of the Chinese empire," was considered by Great Britain and Japan not to exclude Manchuria; but Germany, on the other hand, declared that Manchuria was of no interest to her.
British capital has been invested in the extension of the Chinese Northern railway to Niu-chwang, and the fact was officially recognized by an agreement between Great Britain and Russia in 1899.
In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.
For the testing of the viscosity of lubricating oils the Boverton Redwood standardized viscometer is generally employed in Great Britain.
While the subject of the testing of petroleum for legislative purposes has been investigated in Great Britain by committees of both branches of the legislature, with a view to change in the law, the standard has never been raised, since such a course would tend to reduce the available supply and thus lead to increase in price or deterioration in quality.
was seeking to found a united kingdom in Great Britain; while the Habsburgs were entrenching themselves in Austria; above all, while Philippe le Bel and his legists were consolidating the French monarchy on an absolutist basis, there could be little thought of the holy war.
Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
In 409 Britain and Armorica declared their independence, which was confirmed by Honorius himself, and were thus practically lost to the empire.
Freeman, "Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" in Eng.
In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort, but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements.
Consequently, the people of Florida were for the most part loyal to Great Britain during the War of American Independence.
In the following year, Spain having declared war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.
In the meantime war between Great Britain and the United States was imminent.
The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military operations.
Of the more immediate successors of Newton in Great Britain Maclaurin is probably the only one who can be placed in competition with the great mathematicians of the continent of Europe at the time.
See Archaeology; also Lord Avebury, Prehistoric Times (1900); Sir John Evans, Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain (1897); Sir J.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
It was formerly believed to have been introduced into Britain by the Romans, but there is no doubt that it is a native.
Testacella haliotidea is common in Great Britain and throughout Europe.
Valvata is common in fresh waters throughout Britain; the gill when the animal is expanded is protruded beyond the mantle-chamber.
In May 1912 he was appointed to succeed Count Wolff-Metternich as ambassador to Great Britain, but he had only been in London a short time when his health finally broke down.
of Great Britain and of Anne of Denmark, and was born at Falkland Castle in Fifeshire in August 1596.
In the second he passes in brief review the history of Britain from its invasion by the Romans till his own times.
Among other matters reference is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of Tiberius; the persecution under Diocletian; the spread of the Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigern (Vortigern); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders.
These faults are of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman writers notice the affairs of Britain; but they become more serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of the 5th century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief narrative is our only authority for most of what passes current as the history of our island during those years.
Documents relating to Great Britain (Oxford, 1869); the latest edition is that by Theodor Mommsen in Monum.
In July 1774 he wrote for a convention in Fairfax county a series of resolutions known as the Fairfax Resolves, in which he advocated a congress of the colonies and suggested non-intercourse with Great Britain, a policy subsequently adopted by Virginia and later by the Continental Congress.
In Great Britain the first public laboratory appears to have been opened in 1817 by Thomas Thomson at Glasgow.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
In 1905 the powers agreed on the establishment of a financial commission on which the representatives of Great Britain, France, Germany and Ita]y would sit as colleagues of the civil agents.
The island was annexed by Great Britain in 1628 and was bestowed in 1680 upon the Codrington family who, for more than 200 years, held it as a kind of feudal fief.
Ultramarine being very cheap, it is largely used for wall painting, the printing of paperhangings and calico, &c., and also as a corrective for the yellowish tinge often present in things meant to be white, such as linen, paper, &c. Large quantities are used in the manufacture of paper, and especially for producing that kind of pale blue writing paper which is so popular in Great Britain.
The import trade is chiefly with Great Britain and India, the articles in chief demand being cotton, coloured shawls and hardware.
Speed (Theatrum of Great Britain, 1610), Timothy Pont and Robert Gordon of Strathloch (map of Scotland, 1608), and A.
In Great Britain A.
The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from 1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on independently.
The latter were only recently introduced into the United States, though well known in Great Britain as the West Highland or Poltalloch terrier; an application which was made (1900) by some of their admirers for separate classification was refused by the Kennel Club, but afterwards it was granted, the breed being classified as the West Highland white terrier.
Great Britain is probably the country where setters were first produced, and as early as the 17th century spaniels were used in England as setting dogs.
Although these dogs were originally brought to Great Britain from Newfoundland and are still bred in the latter country, greater size, perfection and intelligence have been attained in England, where Newfoundlands for many years have been the most popular large dogs.
Having already served in Germany, in the years 43 and 44, in the reign of Claudius, he distinguished himself in command of the 2nd legion in Britain under Aulus Plautius.
In 78 Agricola went to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his arms into North Wales and the Isle of Anglesey.
The " Preparative Meeting " usually consists of a single congregation; next in order comes the " Monthly Meeting," the executive body, usually embracing several Preparative Meetings called together, as its name indicates, monthly (in some cases less often); then the " Quarterly Meeting," embracing several Monthly Meetings; and lastly the " Yearly Meeting," embracing the whole of Great Britain (but not Ireland).
It is the legislative body of Friends in Great Britain.
In 1909 the number of missionaries (including wives) was 113; organized churches, 194; members and adherents, 21,085; schools, 135; pupils, 7042; hospitals and dispensaries, 17; patients treated, 6865; subscriptions raised from Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, £26,689, besides £3245 received in the fields of work.
See Sir Joseph Prestwich, Geology (1888); Sir John Evans, Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain, p. 512; Report on the Cave, Phil.
It is partitioned between Great Britain, Italy, France, and Abyssinia as under: - Somaliland was not generally adopted as the name of the country until the early years of the 19th century.
Thereupon Great Britain, partly to secure the route to the East via the Suez Canal, which the occupation of the country by another power might menace, occupied Zaila, Berbera and Bulhar, officials being sent from Aden to govern the ports.
An agreement with Great Britain (February 1888) fixed the southern limits of the protectorate; protocols with Italy (January 1900 and July 1901) the northern limits.
The question of the legal existence of slavery in Great Britain and Ireland was raised in consequence of an opinion given in 1729 by Yorke and Talbot, attorney-general and solicitor-general at the time, to the effect that a slave by coming into those countries from the West Indies did not become free, and might be compelled by his master to return to the plantations.
The planters now offered their allegiance to Great Britain; and an English force landed in the colony.
It had been provided in a treaty between France and Great Britain (May 30, 1814) that no foreigner should in future introduce slaves into the French colonies, and that the trade should be absolutely interdicted to the French themselves after the 1st of June 1819.
In 1831 and 1833 Great Britain entered into an arrangement with France for a mutual right of search within certain seas, to which most of the other powers acceded; and by the Ashburton treaty (1842) with the United States provision was made for the joint maintenance of squadrons on the west coast of Africa.
The example of Great Britain was gradually followed by the other European states, and some American ones had already taken action of the same kind.
There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.
Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding.
Though the fondness of this species for the seeds of flax (Linum) and hemp (Cannabis) has given it its common name in so many European languages,' it feeds largely, if not chiefly in Britain on the seeds of plants of the order Compositae, especially those growing on heaths and commons.
As these waste places have been gradually brought under the plough, in England and Scotland particularly, the haunts and means of subsistence of the linnet have been curtailed, and hence its numbers have undergone a very visible diminution throughout Great Britain.
In Great Britain in the breeding-season it seems to affect exclusively hilly and moorland districts from Herefordshire northward, in which it partly or wholly replaces the common linnet, but is very much more local in its distribution, and, except in the British Islands and some parts of Scandinavia, it only appears as an irregular visitant in winter.
Of the total trade Great Britain supplies from 35 to 40% of the imports and takes over 50% of the exports.
During his residence in Berwick, Henry commenced his History of Great Britain, written on a new plan; but, owing to the difficulty of consulting the original authorities, he did not make much progress with the work until his removal to Edinburgh in 1768.
The History of Great Britain has been translated into French, and has passed into several English editions.
York is known to have been occupied by the Britons, and was chosen by the Romans as their most important centre in north Britain and named Eboracum or Eburacur.
Nothing is known of the history of the city from the time the Romans withdrew from Britain in 410 until 627, when King Edwin was baptized there, and where shortly afterwards Paulinus, the first archbishop, was consecrated.
P. Schreiner to form a ministry, though aware that such a ministry would be opposed to any direct intervention of Great Britain in the Transvaal.
Convinced that the existing state of affairs, if continued, would end in the loss of South Africa by Britain, Milner came to England in November 1898.
He had not based his case against the Transvaal on the letter of the Conventions, and regarded the employment of the word "suzerainty" merely as an "etymological question," but he realized keenly that the spectacle of thousands of British subjects in the Transvaal in the condition of "helots" (as he expressed it) was undermining the prestige of Great Britain throughout South Africa, and he called for "some striking proof" of the intention of the British government not to be ousted from its predominant position.
Speaking next day at a luncheon given in his honour, answering critics who alleged that with more time and patience on the part of Great Britain war might have been avoided, he asserted that what they were asked to "conciliate" was "panoplied hatred, insensate ambition, invincible ignorance."
By a treaty between Spain and France on the one hand and Great Britain and Portugal on the other, signed at Paris in February 1763, all that portion lying E.
of the Mississippi river, the Iberville river, and Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain was ceded to Great Britain.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
Finally, at the outbreak of the Crimean War Turkey was assisted by her allies to raise a loan of £3,000,000 in London, guaranteed by Great Britain and France; in 1855 an organic law was issued regulating the budget, and in the same year a second guaranteed loan of £5,000,000 was contracted in Great Britain.
These " committees" were the " Council of Foreign Bondholders " for Great Britain, the Imperial Ottoman Bank and its " group " for France, Herr S.
This convention caused much excitement and irritation in Great Britain, owing to the encroachment of German influence sanctioned by it on territories bordering the Persian Gulf, hitherto considered to fall solely within the sphere of British influence.
Attempts were made by the German group, assisted by their government, to secure the participation of both Britain and France in the concession.
Turkey now joined Great Britain and Russia against France.'
The treaty of alliance with Russia was signed on the 23rd of December 1798, that with Great Britain on the 5th of January 1799.
On the 25th of March 1823 accordingly, Canning announced the recognition by Great Britain of the belligerent character of the Greeks.
This roused the emperor Alexander to action, since it seemed as though Great Britain was aiming at ousting Russian influence in the Levant.
Months passed without any action being taken under the protocol of the 4th of April; and Russia suspected Great Britain of merely using the protocol to prevent her Powers as own isolated intervention.
To this Great Britain agreed in principle; for Canning clearly saw the need for yielding on the question of a joint intervention, if the isolated intervention of Russia were to be prevented.
France thereupon proposed to convert the protocol of the 4th of April into a treaty; Russia and Great Britain agreed; and on the 6th of July the Treaty of London was signed by the three powers.
In 1844 he took advantage of his visit to England to propose to British ministers a plan of partition, under which Great Britain was to receive Egypt and Crete, Constantinople was to be erected into a free city, and the Balkan states were to become autonomous under Russian protection.
Nicholas even hoped for the active sympathy of Britain.
The Porte, in alarm, turned to Great Britain for advice and assistance.
The belief in the rejuvenation of Turkey seemed to be justified; and when, on the 27th of March 1854, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia, the action of the governments was supported by an overwhelming public opinion.
So far as the extreme claims of the tsar were concerned, neither Austria nor Prussia was willing to concede them, and both had joined with France and Great Britain in presenting, on the 12th of December 1853, an identical note at St Petersburg, drawn up at the Conference of Vienna, reaffirming the principles of the treaty of 1841.
Great Britain had throughout the war preserved strict neutrality, but, while making it clear from the outset that she could not assist Turkey, had been prepared for emergencies.
The occupation of the country by Great Britain gradually took a more permanent form, and though negotiations were more than once entered into with Turkey with a view to its termination, these either proved abortive or were rendered so (as e.g.
encroachments on the hinterland of Aden brought about a dangerous state of tension between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its parallel in 1906 in similar trespasses by the Ottoman authorities on the Egyptian land frontier near Akaba.
Hertslet's Treaties Regulating the Trade, ez'c., between Great Britain and Turkey (London, 1875) presents a summary of all the principal treaties between Turkey and other states; see also Gabriel Effendi Noradounghian, Recueil d'actes internationaux de l'empire ottoman, 1300-1789, t.
From that date till about the middle of August 1805, a space of some two years and two months, the war took the form of a most determined attempt on the part of Napoleon to carry out an invasion of Great Britain, met by the counter measures of the British government.
With the collapse of the invasion scheme, the naval war between Napoleon and Great Britain entered on a new phase.
Thus in 1822, at the congress of Verona, in order to overcome the objection of Great Britain to any interference of the European concert in Spain, identical notes were presented to the Spanish government instead of a collective note.
Upper Silurian, having a strong relation to the Wenlock group of Britain, but with an American facies, and Lower Silurian, with a succession much the same as in British North America, are found on the shores of Smith Sound, and Nathorst has discovered them in King Oscar Fjord, but not as yet so far south as the Danish possessions.
thick, and the north gateway, one of the most perfect Roman gateways in Great Britain.
It belongs to Great Britain, together with a strip of territory extending 15 m.
The delimitation of the southern frontier was in 1909 referred to the king of Spain as arbitrator between Great Britain and Germany.
His chief public triumph was the important part he played in bringing about the conclusion of the commercial treaty between France and Great Britain in 1860.
But none of the French posts was permanent, and in 1763 French rule came to an end, the Treaty of November (1762) and the Treaty of Versailles (1763) transferring respectively the western portion of the state to Spain and that part east of the Mississippi river to Great Britain.
Great Britain surrendered its title to the eastern portion by the Treaty of Paris (1783), and after the surrender of Virginia's colourable title had been accepted by Congress in 1784, this eastern part was made a part of the Northwest Territory by the ordinance of 1787, although the British held possession and did some trading there until 1796.
In Britain, although they are often very abundant, we have scarcely anything analogous.
He therefore called upon Portugal, in August 1807, to comply with his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806, under which continental nations were to close their ports to British subjects, and have no communication with Great Britain.
A Roman named' Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army, upon which Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyons, where, through the treachery of the governor, he was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on.
During this trying period he represented his country with ability and tact, making every endeavour to strengthen the Union cause in Great Britain.
Britain in 405.
It was doubtless during this stay in Britain that the idea of missionary enterprise in Ireland came to him.
He proceeded to Auxerre - a place which seems to have had a close connexion with Britain and Ireland - and was ordained deacon by Bishop Amator, along with two others who were afterwards associated with him in spreading the faith in Ireland.
Pope Celestine's choice fell on the deacon Palladius, who had taken a prominent part in stamping out the doctrine in Britain.
Tradition associates his name with the mountains of Wicklow, and we are told that he retired to the land of the Picts in North Britain, where he died.
by Miss Meyer, "The Celtic Church in Britain and Ireland," London, 1902); J.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
In the autumn of 1779 he was appointed secretary to John Adams, who had been selected as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain, and in December 1780 he was appointed diplomatic representative to the Russian government.
In 1877 he was one of the counsel for the United States before the commission which in accordance with the treaty of Washington met at Halifax, N.S., to arbitrate the fisheries question between the United States and Great Britain.
When Caesar invaded Britain 54 B.C. they joined him against their domestic rivals and it is possible (though not certain) that half a century after Caesar's departure they succumbed to them.
In the tribal division of Roman Britain given by Ptolemy their land included Camulodunum (Colchester), but nothing more is known of them.
There it was interpreted as Troy Novant, the "new Troy," and connected with the names of the Trojans Brutus and Corineus who were reputed to have given their names to Britain and Cornwall.
It not only made the efforts of the Turks to suppress the Greek revolt hopeless, but it made a breach difficult to heal in the traditional friendship between Great Britain and Turkey, which had its effect during the critical period of the struggle between Mehemet Ali and the Porte (1831-1841).
Codrington, by his daughter Lady Bourchier (London, 1873); Naval History of Great Britain, by W.
Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
In 1818 Sir Charles McCarthy, governor of Sierra Leone, obtained the cession of the islands to Great Britain from the chiefs of the Baga country, and in 1882 France recognized them to be a British possession.
The order is well represented in Britain - among others by Nasturtium (N.
Elizabeth rightly regarded the treaty of Westminster (January 16, 1756, whereby Great Britain and Prussia agreed to unite their forces to oppose the entry into, or the passage through, Germany of the troops of every foreign power) as utterly subversive of the previous conventions between Great Britain and Russia.
Elizabeth's object in this mysterious negotiation seems to have been to reconcile France and Great Britain, in return for which signal service France was to throw all her forces into the German war.
Subsequently he was governor of South Carolina in 1787-1789; presided over the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788; was a member of the state legislature in 17 9 1; and was United States minister to Great Britain in 1792-17 9 6.
During his legislative career in Victoria he was active in promoting social legislation and an ardent advocate of preference in favour of Great Britain.
It was formerly thought to be only an autumnal or wintervisitor to Britain, but later experience has proved that, though there may very likely be an immigration in the fall of the year, it breeds in nearly all the English counties to Yorkshire, and abundantly in those nearest to London.
James's, one of its leading citizens - a statesman, a man of letters, or a lawyer - whose name and reputation were already well known in Great Britain.
For the first time Great Britain responded in kind.
Within this area Great Britain has exclusive jurisdiction, and is represented by a commissioner under the colonial office; and has, besides, the right to erect fortifications, station troops and take any other measures necessary for defensive purposes at any points on or near the coast in that part of the peninsula east of 121 0 40' E.
Wei-hai-wei was made the headquarters of a native Chinese regiment in the pay of Great Britain, and organized and led by British officers; but this regiment was disbanded in 1902.
It) says that at the time of his invasion of Britain it was called Tamesis.
In the middle of the 17th century the sermon became one of the most highly-cultivated forms of intellectual entertainment in Great Britain, and when the theatres were closed at the Commonwealth it grew to be the only public form of eloquence.
Several species of Viola are native to Great Britain.
Aconitum Napellus, common monkshood, is a doubtful native of Britain, and is of therapeutic and toxicological importance.
To be consistent with the terminology adopted in Britain, it is necessary to regard the pole which is geographically north as being the south pole of the terrestrial magnet, and that which is geographically south as the north pole; in practice however the names assigned to the terrestrial magnetic poles correspond with their geographical situations.
In concert with his friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochement between the Lutheran and Anglican churches, the first-fruits of which was the establishment of the Jerusalem bishopric under the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the only result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J.
occasionally visited Pembroke, notably in 1172, and until the close of the Wars of the Roses, both town and castle played a prominent part in the history of Britain.
It contains 36 genera, many of which are north temperate and three are represented in Britain, viz.
Otheii genera are Funkia, native of China and Japan, cultivated in the open air in Britain; Hemerocallis, a small genus of central Europe and temperate Asia - H.
It contains 28 genera, several being represented in Britain.
For a time Maret betook himself to journalism; but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the coup d'etat of Fructidor (Sept.
The dolmen-builders of the New Stone Age are now known to have long occupied both Korea and Japan, from which advanced Asiatic lands they may have found little difficulty in spreading over the Polynesian world, just as in the extreme west they were able to range over Scandinavia, Great Britain and Ireland.
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