Don't burn your bridges behind you.
The bridges were all destroyed, and the old barriers from the war are back up.
"Who built these lovely bridges?" asked the little girl.
asserts that persons shall not be compelled to make bridges, unless they are bound to do so by ancient custom.
A few miles above this point the river is spanned by the magnificent bridges of Cubzac-lesPonts, which carry a road and railway.
She, Eden, the Original Human, would be the one who saved the human realm by killing the Gatekeeper, the God who maintained the bridges between worlds.
He was author of the article "Bridges" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.
By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.
In response to Molly's questions about covered bridges, we drove through two more in the area for her pleasure.
From south to north it is traversed by the channel of the Parma, crossed here by three bridges; and from east to west runs the line of the Via Aemilia, by which ancient Parma was connected on the one hand with Ariminum (Rimini), and on the other with Placentia (Piacenza).
We burned our bridges trying to get custody of Martha last winter.
The river is crossed by two bridges, and its banks are bordered by picturesque old houses.
The city is divided by the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by over 200 bridges of various sorts.
On each side, about half-way between the keep and the sea, these ravines are crossed by massive bridges, and on the farther side of the westernmost of these, away from the city, a large tower and other fortifications remain.
He himself claims to have brought more than a thousand Marcionites within the pale of the church, and to have destroyed many copies of the Diatessaron of Tatian, which were still in ecclesiastical use; and he also exerted himself to improve the diocese, which was at once large and poor, by building bridges and aqueducts, beautifying the town, and by similar works.
first laid on bridges - was supported on continuous longitudinal sleepers and held down by bolts passing through the flanges, and was employed by I.
Gradually, however, stone bridges came into use.
He mounted it and rode at a gallop to one of the bridges over the Niemen, deafened continually by incessant and rapturous acclamations which he evidently endured only because it was impossible to forbid the soldiers to express their love of him by such shouting, but the shouting which accompanied him everywhere disturbed him and distracted him from the military cares that had occupied him from the time he joined the army.
She'd already burned her bridges behind her.
All fell beneath the creatures she created in the human realm and used the bridges to cross into this one.
Dr Bridges took his M.A.
above the sea, but lying in a basin, skirts both banks of the river Semois which is crossed by two bridges.
Antioco, joined by a narrow isthmus and a group of bridges to the mainland, forms a good natural harbour to the south of the isthmus, the Golfo di Palmas; while the north portion of the peninsula, with the island of S.
The Neckar is spanned by two bridges.
from Rome by the Via Ostiensis, a road of very ancient origin still followed by a modern road which preserves some traces of the old pavement and remains of several ancient bridges.
The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
The average total inductive value of these bridges to received signals is about 40 henrys, and the coil is so arranged that the arms contain three sections or blocks of winding each, two of which are joined up to strap connexions, and the a p :?; .?
The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
Expenditure amounted to 3,768,888, of which the principal items were 760,000 for roads and bridges, 520,000 for lunatic asylums, ~4o,ooo for foundling hospitals, 320,000 for interest on debtand 200,000 for police.
In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.
At the time of Strabo and Horace, however, it was the practice to travel by canal from Forum Appii to Lucus Feroniae; to Nerva and Trajan were due the paving of the road and the repair of the bridges along this section.
all directions, numerous protoplasmic threads or bridges.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it.
It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway.
Three or four piers or sometimes bridges of masonry are run out into the bed of the river, frequently from both sides at once, raising the level of the stream and thus giving a water power sufficient to turn the gigantic wheel or wheels, sometimes almost 40 ft.
Through this part of its course the current of the river, except where restricted by floating bridges - at Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh and Samawa - does not normally exceed a mile an hour, and both on the main stream and on its canals the jerd or oxbucket takes the place of the naoura or water-wheel for purposes of irrigation.
Orihuela is situated in a beautiful and exceedingly fertile huerta, or tract of highly cultivated land, at the foot of a limestone bridge, and on both sides of the river Segura, which divides the city into two parts, Roig and San Augusto, and is spanned by two bridges.
Artels of one or two hundred carpenters, bricklayers, &c., are common wherever new buildings have to be erected, or railways or bridges constructed; the contractors always prefer to deal with an artel, rather than with separate workmen.
Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.
When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
tunnels, bridges, viaducts, culverts, &c. .
bridges or viaducts.
On the one hand he may make the line follow the natural inequalities of the ground as nearly as may be, avoiding the elevations and depressions by curves; or on the other he may aim at making it as nearly straight and level as possible by taking it through the elevations in cuttings or tunnels and across the depressions on embankments or bridges.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
There are no bridges, except where watercourses occur.
Of the bridges connecting the sections of the lower town the most interesting is the Obere Bri cke, completed in 1455.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
but entirely composed of wooden houses, penetrated in all directions by canals, wherefore bridges and boats are needed for the wayfarer.
The councils assess within certain limits the communal taxes, maintain roads, bridges, &c., and generally superintend local affairs.
The commissioners supervise the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges and finances of the county.
N N: C C02H (11) N N: C C02H which it is connected by a chain bridge (1855) and two railway bridges.
The borough is connected with the City of London by Blackfriars, Southwark and London bridges; the thoroughfares leading from these and the other road-bridges as far up as Lambeth converge at St George's Circus; another important junction is the "Elephant and Castle."
He second wife was Joanna Bridges, said on very doubtful authority to have been a natural daughter of Charles I.
The Nith is crossed by three bridges and the railway viaduct.
Within the city's lines the river is crossed by two bridges (to Manchester) for vehicles and pedestrians, and three railway bridges.
Richmond was evacuated that night, after the ironclads, the bridges and many of the military and tobacco store-houses had been set on fire by order of General R.
(9) Public works, such as paved and stepped roadways, bridges, systems of drainage, &c.
The canals were crossed by wooden bridges without steps, and in the case of the wide Grand Canal the bridge at Rialto was carried on boats.
The early bridges were inclined planes and could easily be crossed by horses.
It was not till the city became more populous and when stone-stepped bridges were introduced that the use of horses died out.
On occasions of festivals or pageants the balconies, the bridges, the boats, and even the facades of the houses, were hung with rich Eastern carpets or patterned textiles in gold and coloured silk.
Bridges (London, 1897); (8) Opera hactenus Inedita, by J.
around the peninsula are spanned by causeways and bridges, East Boston only, that the harbours may be open to the navyyard at Charlestown, being reached by ferry (1870), and by the electric subway under the harbour.
It consists of the old town on the left, the new town on the right, bank of the Werra, and BrUckenhausen on a small island connected with the old and new town by bridges.
Three bridges cross the river.
Highroads, maintained by the government, traverse every part of the country, and bridges have been built across the Caledon.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
There are several bridges over the river, the old wooden bridge having been replaced in 1905 by one built of stone.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
It is pleasantly situated at the foot of a lofty range of hills, which here dip down to the river, at the junction of the main lines of railway from Bremen and Hanover to Hamburg, which are carried to the latter city over two grand bridges crossing the southern and the northern arms of the Elbe.
It is situated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, and Charlestown and East Boston, and is connected with East Boston and Charlestown by bridges.
Two bridges, one of them a suspension-bridge, communicate with St Aubin on the opposite bank of the Seine, and steamboats ply regularly to Rouen.
WURZEN, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Mulde, here crossed by two bridges, 152 m.
The Eure, which at this point divides into three branches, is crossed by several bridges, some of them ancient, and is fringed in places by remains of the old fortifications, of which the Porte Guillaume (14th century), a gateway flanked by towers, is the most complete specimen.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
But the French army was already completely out of hand, and the degree to which the panic of a crowd can master even the strongest instinct of the individual is shown by the conduct of the fugitives who crowded over the bridges, treading hundreds under foot, whilst all the time the river was easily fordable and mounted men rode backwards and forwards across it.
on the 26th the bridges were finished and the passage began, but not without resistance by the Russians, who were gradually closing in.
The crossing continued all night, though interrupted from time to time by failures of the bridges.
the last body of regular troops passed over the bridges, and only a few thousand stragglers remained beyond the river.
The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat Pasha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city.
The river is spanned with bridges, and its valley by two viaducts, the larger of which (completed in 1878 at a cost of more than $ 2,000,000), 3 211 ft.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
The Taff is spanned by two bridges, one a four-arched bridge rebuilt in 1858-1859 leading to Llandaff, and the other a cantilever with a central swinging span of 190 ft.
After this there was a period of comparative inaction, though during it the French were driven from the bridges at Urdains and Cambo.
The remains of a similar bridge exist at Janglache; but there are no wooden or twig suspension bridges over the Tsanpo.
the Tali-Bhamo caravan route, described by Colborne Baker, crosses the river by one of those iron suspension bridges which are a feature of Yun-nan, at a height of 4700 ft.
Among the city's manufactures are agricultural implements, iron bridges and other structural iron work, watches and watch-cases, steel, engines, safes, locks, cutlery, hardware, wagons, carriages, paving-bricks, furniture, dental and surgical chairs, paint and varnish, clay-working machinery and saw-mill machinery.
SCHWEINFURT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, situated on the right bank of the Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 m.
Two bridges, passenger and railway, unite the city with the towns of St Marye's and Gibson on the east side of the river, at its junction with the Nashwaak.
The Elbe is crossed by numerous bridges, as at KOniggratz, Pardubitz, Kolin, Leitmeritz, Tetschen, Schandau, Pirna, Dresden, Meissen, Torgau, Wittenberg, Rosslau, Barby, Magdeburg, Rathenow, Wittenberge, Ddmitz, Lauenburg, and Hamburg and Harburg.
At all these places there are railway bridges, and nearly all, but more especially those in Bohemia, Saxony and the middle course of the river - these last on the main lines between Berlin and the west and south-west of the empire - possess a greater or less strategic value.
Dresden has four bridges, and there is a fifth bridge at Loschwitz, about 3 m.
is also spanned by two fine railway bridges.
At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are handsome railway bridges, the one (1868-1873 and 1894) crossing the northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the southern Elbe; and the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) for vehicular traffic.
Two bridges connect the city with the borough of West Pittston (pop., 1 9 00, 5846).
In summer the heat and moisture are excessive, and the Aapies (which is spanned by four bridges) is liable to floods.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
The wonderful Roman remains at Trier and elsewhere, the Roman roads, bridges and aqueducts, are convincing proofs of what the Rhine gained from Roman domination.
It lies on the Nith, opposite to Dumfries, with which it is connected by three bridges, being united with it for parliamentary purposes.
The modern highroad follows the ancient line, and some of the original bridges still exist.
The bridges in order above London Bridge are as follows, railway-bridges being bracketed - Southwark, (Cannon Street), (Blackfriars), Blackfriars, Waterloo, (Hungerford - with a footway), Westminster, Lambeth, Vauxhall, (Grosvenor), Victoria, Albert, Battersea, (Battersea), Wandsworth, (Putney), Putney and Hammersmith.
It is a massive stone structure of nine arches, carrying a level roadway, and is considered one of the finest bridges of its kind in the world.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
The roadbridges mentioned (except the City bridges) are maintained by the London County Council, who expended for this purpose a sum of £9149 in 1907-1908.
The following table shows the capital expenditure on the more important bridges and their cost of maintenance in 1907-1908: Net Capital Cost of Maintenance Expenditure.
393,189 1491 The properties entrusted to the Corporation for the upkeep of London Bridge are managed by the Bridge House Estates Committee, the revenues from which are also used in the maintenance of the other three City bridges, £26,989 being thus expended in 1907, the Tower bridge absorbing £17,735 of this amount.
Bridges, on the other hand, and so much of the highway as is immediately connected with them, are as a general rule a charge on the county; and by 22 Henry VIII.
Fn Scotland the highway system is regulated by the Roads and Bridges Act 1878 and amending acts.
The management and maintenance of the highways and bridges is vested in county road trustees, viz.
One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
See Glen, Law Relating to Highways; Pratt, Law of Highways, Main Roads and Bridges.
With Cincinnati and Covington it is connected by bridges.
In this connexion his most remarkable achievements were his railway bridges, especially those of the tubular girder type.
Remains of a theatre and of a late mosaic pavement with hunting scenes have been found, three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone are of Roman origin, and arches of the aqueduct exist outside Porta S.
along the deep valley, on both banks of the Wupper, which is crossed by numerous bridges, the engirdling hills crowned with woods.
Some of the religious gilds supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely connected with the government of the borough; but, as a rule, they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of activity.
According to this authority it had a circuit of 100 m., and no fewer than 12,000 bridges and 3000 baths.
Some of the bridges, too, built in the 18th century, are picturesque.
The city is picturesque, with arcaded streets, and many bridges crossing the various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the ancient walls.
The western part, called Ballybot, is connected with the eastern part, or old town, by four bridges over the canal and four over the tidal water.
In 1812 he was promoted general, and made director of roads and bridges.
At the time of the battle Napoleon was in possession of Vienna, the bridges over the Danube had been broken, and the archduke's army was on and about the Bisamberg, a mountain near Korneuburg, on the left bank of the river.
Undeterred by the news of heavy attacks on his rear from Tirol and from Bohemia, Napoleon hurried all available troops to the bridges, and by daybreak on the 21st, 40,000 men were collected on the Marchfeld, the broad open plain of the left bank, which was also to be the scene of the battle of Wagram.
His forces on the Marchfeld were drawn up in front of the bridges facing north, with their left in the village of Aspern (Gross-Aspern) and their right in Essling (or Esslingen).
During the 21st the bridges became more and more unsafe, owing to the violence of the current, but the French crossed without intermission all day and during the night.
In the meanwhile nearly all the French infantry posted between the two villages and in front of the bridges had been drawn into the fight on either flank.
The Danube bridges, which had broken down once already, had at last been cut by heavy barges, which had been set adrift down stream for the purpose by the Austrians.
Essling now fell to another assault of Rosenberg, and though again the French, this time part of the Guard, drove him out, the Austrian general then directed his efforts on the flank of the French centre, slowly retiring on the bridges.
Pop. (1905), 91,124 (including a garrison of 7 500 men), of whom two-thirds are Roman Catholic. The Rhine, which here attains the greatest breadth of its upper course, is crossed by a magnificent bridge of five arches, leading to the opposite town of Castel and by two railway bridges.
- (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.
Bridges, London, 1852); Systeme de politique positive, ou Traite de sociologie (4 vols., Paris, 1852-1854; ed.
with analysis and explanatory summary by Bridges, F.
Bridges' reply to Mill, The Unity of Comte's Life and Doctrines (1866); Herbert Spencer's essay on the Genesis of Science and pamphlet on The Classification of the Sciences; Huxley's " Scientific Aspects of Positivism," in his Lay Sermons; R.
There are four other bridges across the Adige: one, the graceful Ponte di Pietra, rests upon ancient foundations, while the two arches nearest to the left bank are Roman; but it has been frequently restored.
Of the bridges which cross the canals by which Padua is now intersected, four go back to Roman times.
The main development of the city has been to the north of the river, which is crossed by numerous bridges and flanked by fine quays and promenades.
Seven bridges (of which two are railway) cross the Main.
Other bridges are the Obermainbriicke of five iron arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the Untermainbriicke; the Wilhelmsbriicke, a fine structure, which from 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways.
Among the benevolent acts attributed to renowned Buddhist priests posterity specially remembers their efforts to encourage the building of roads and bridges.
In 1772 appeared a tract on The Principles of Bridges, suggested by the destruction of Newcastle bridge by a high flood on the 17th of November 1771.
The Ganges is crossed by six railway bridges on its course as far as Benares; and another, at Sara in Eastern Bengal, has been sanctioned.
The bridges over the Sumida, and those which span the canals, have always been distinctive features of Tokyo.
The largest bridges are those named Azuma, Umaya, Ryogoku, Shin-o and Eitai over the Sumida.
The town is intersected by canals (crossed by numerous bridges), which bring it into communication with most of the towns in East Friesland, of which it is the commercial capital.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
Ayr proper lies on the south bank of the river, which is crossed by three bridges, besides the railway viaduct - the Victoria Bridge (erected in 1898) and the famous "Twa Brigs" of Burns.
Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1256-1265), and since then several times repaired, lead over the Safi River on the western side of the town.
The river is here crossed by two iron bridges, and one stone and one timber bridge, and the upper and lower towns are connected by a funicular railway.
Four bridges cross the Lagan; the Queen's Bridge (1844, widened in 1886) is the finest, while the Albert Bridge (1889) replaces a former one which collapsed.
The Moselle, which is here joined by the Seille, flows through it in several arms, and is crossed by fourteen bridges.
in width and its northern half full of water; all the bridges were destroyed, and the E.
While the infantry pressed forward to carry the Marquion line bridges were swiftly thrown over the dry canal bed, and batteries went over at a gallop to take up their positions for supporting the farther advance.
At the same hour on the 29th the infantry again went forward, the objectives being to complete the capture of the Marcoing line and the seizure of the Scheldt canal bridges W.
advanced once more with the object of securing the coveted bridges over the Scheldt canal, to be followed later by the 1st Canadian and 11th Div., which were to clear the peninsula between that canal and the Sensee.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes.
The city is solidly and regularly built, the houses being of stone and the stream that flows through the town being spanned by several stone bridges.
The duties of this officer included: the arrangement of the camp and medical service, the transport of the baggage, the construction of roads, bridges and fortifications, the supply of ammunition and engines of war.
The towns elected (until 1856) the deputies to the general court, and were the administrative units for the assessment and collection of taxes, maintaining churches and schools, organizing and training the militia, preserving the peace, caring for the poor, building and repairing roads and bridges, and recording deeds, births, deaths and marriages; and to discuss questions relating to these matters as well as other matters of peculiarly local concern, to determine the amount of taxes for town purposes, and to elect officers.
The Pregel, spanned by many bridges, flows through the town in two branches, which unite below the Griine Briicke.
Three bridges lead from the left to the right bank of the Gers, on which the suburb of Patte d'Oie is situated.
One of the most interesting topics of study is the trails along which the seasonal and annual migrations of tribes occurred, becoming in Peru the paved road, with suspension bridges and wayside inns, or tambos.
SOUTH PORTLAND, a city of Cumberland (disambiguation)|Cumberland county, Maine, U.S.A., on Casco Bay, an arm of which separates it from Portland, with which it is connected by a ferry and four bridges.
When the French left wing and centre reached the Sambre bridges, at Marchienne and Charleroi, they found them held and strongly barricaded, and the cavalry were powerless to force the passage.
Iron war-ships, railway locomotives, iron bridges, machinery, &c., are built; the company has branches in Norrkoping, Gothenburg, and elsewhere.
Indeed, in the closing years of his life he produced some of his finest paintings, in which he set down with admirable truth the peculiar atmosphere and colour and teeming life of the boulevards, streets and bridges of Paris and Rouen.
The money has chiefly been spent on railways, telegraphs, roads, bridges, land purchase from the native tribes and private estate owners, on loans to settlers and on native wars.
DAVENPORT, a city and the county seat of Scott county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river, opposite Rock Island, Illinois, with which it is connected by two fine bridges and by a ferry.
Bridges, History of Okehampton (1889).
These are a state prison at Deer Lodge, managed by contract; a reform school at Miles City, an industrial school at Butte, an orphans' home at Twin Bridges, the soldiers' home at Columbia Falls, a school for deaf and blind at Boulder, and an insane asylum at Warm Springs, managed by contract.
The villages of the Guajiros in the Gulf of Maracaibo are described by Goering as composed of houses with low sloping roofs perched on lofty piles and connected with each other by bridges of planks.
In other cases the remains of the gangways or bridges connecting the settlements with the shore have been discovered, but often the village appears to have been accessible only by canoes.
- Bridges (old forms, brig, brygge, brudge; Dutch, brug; German, Briicke; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying roadways, waterways or railways across streams, valleys or other roads or railways, leaving a passage way below.
Long bridges of several spans are often termed " viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed " aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no bridge structure.
In all countries there are legal regulations fixing the minimum span and height of such bridges and the width of roadway to be provided.
Ordinarily bridges are fixed bridges, but there are also movable bridges with machinery for opening a clear and unobstructed passage way for navigation.
Most commonly these are " swing " or " turning " bridges.
" Floating " bridges are roadways carried on pontoons moored in a stream.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
Cast iron was about the same time used for arches, and some of the early railway bridges were built with cast iron girders.
Cast iron is now only used for arched bridges of moderate span.
Wrought iron was used on a large scale in the suspension road bridges of the early part of the 19th century.
The great girder bridges over the Menai Strait and at Saltash near Plymouth, erected in the middle of the i 9th century, were entirely of wrought iron, and subsequently wrought iron girder bridges were extensively used on railways.
The latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of f erro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars for arched bridges.
The present article relates chiefly to metallic bridges.
There is also in large bridges wind-bracing to stiffen the structure against horizontal forces.
Bridges may be classed as arched bridges, in which the principal members are in compression; suspension bridges, in which the principal members are in tension; and girder bridges, in which half the components of the principal members are in compression and half in tension.
But there are cases of bridges of mixed type.
Masonry bridges are preferable in appearance to any others, and metal arch bridges are less objectionable than most forms of girder.
In the case of bridges of large span the cost and difficulty of erection are serious, and in such cases facility of erection becomes a governing consideration in the choice of the type to be adopted.
In some recent masonry arched bridges of spans up to ' so f t.
In suspension bridges the principal members are in tension, and the introduction of iron link chains about the end of the 18th century, and later of wire ropes of still greater tenacity, permitted the construction of road bridges of this type with spans at that time impossible with any other system of construction.
On the other hand, suspension bridges require lofty towers and massive anchorages.
The immense extension of railways since 1830 has involved the construction of an enormous number of bridges, and most of these are girder bridges, in which about half the superstructure is in tension and half in compression.
The use of wrought iron and later of mild steel has made the construction of such bridges very convenient and economical.
A fundamental difference in girder bridges arises from the mode of support.
Hence many multiple-span bridges such as the Hawkesbury, Benares and Chittravatti bridges have been built with independent spans.
Lastly, some bridges are composed of cantilevers and suspended girders.
In many countries the limits of working stress in public and railway bridges are prescribed by law.
development of theory has advanced poi passe with the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in any of the types of structure now adopted.
It had a fortification such as became usual in later bridges for defence or for the enforcement of tolls.
Bridges with stone piers and timber superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they have perished.
Ponte dei type of bridges of this kind.
The Wittingen bridge by the same engineers had a span of 390 ft., probably the longest timber 1 For the ancient bridges in Rome see further Rome: Archaeology, and such works as R.
Of stone bridges in Great Britain, the earliest were the cyclopean bridges still existing on Dartmoor, consisting of stone piers bridged by stone slabs.
5) which now spans roadways, the streams which formerly flowed under it having been diverted, is one of the earliest known stone bridges in England.
The first bridges over the Thames at London were no doubt of timber.
Timber bridges of large span were constructed in America between the end of the 18th and the middle of the r 9th century.
Some of these timber bridges are said to have lasted ninety years with ordinary repairs, but they were road bridges not heavily loaded.
Down to 1850 such bridges were generally limited to 1 so ft.
(See Mosse, " American Timber Bridges," Proc. Inst.
p. 382; Cooper, " American Railroad Bridges," Trans.
Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.
(c) Suspension Bridges.
Iron suspension bridges began to be used at the end of the 18th century for road bridges with spans unattainable at that time in any other system.
This bridge suffered some injury in a storm, but it is still in good condition and one of the most graceful of bridges.
Other bridges built soon after were the Fribourg bridge of 870 ft.
Some suspension bridges have broken down in consequence of the oscillations produced by bodies of men marching in step. In 1850 a suspension bridge cable was carried on a separate saddle on rollers on each pier.
Of later bridges of great span, perhaps the bridges over the East river at New York are the most remarkable.
p. 258; also " Suspension Bridges with Stiffening Girders," by Max am Ende, Proc. Inst.
(d) Iron and Steel Girder Bridges.
The girders carry a floor or platform either on top (deck bridges) or near the bottom (through bridges).
For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.
In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively subjected to vertical loading forces.
In some girder -1 o bridges the members are connected entirely by riveting, in others the principal members are con nected by pin joints.
The pin system of connexion used in the Chepstow, Salt ash, Newark Dyke and other early English bridges is now rarely used in Europe.
In early pin bridges insufficient bearing area was allowed between the pins and parts connected, and they worked loose.
On the first English railways cast iron girder bridges for spans of to 66 ft.
The credit for the success of the Conway and Britannia bridges must be divided between the engineers, Robert Stephenson and William Fairbairn, and used for railway bridges in England after the construction of the Conway and Menai bridges, and it was in the discussions arising during their design that the proper function of the vertical web between the top and bottom flanges of a girder first came to be understood.
In America such girders were used from the first and naturally followed the general design of the earlier timber bridges.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
Amongst remarkable American girder bridges may be mentioned the Ohio bridge on the Cincinnati & Covington railway, which is probably the largest girder span constructed.
(e) Cantilever Bridges.
The girders are of the Whipple Murphy type, but with curved top booms. The bridges.
(f) Metal Arch Bridges.
In Paris the Austerlitz (1800-1806) and Carrousel (1834-1836) bridges had cast iron arches.
Of large-span bridges with steel arches, one of the most important is the St Louis bridge over the Mississippi, completed in 1874 (fig.
The St Louis bridge is not hinged, but later bridges have been constructed with hinges at the springings and sometimes with hinges at the crown also.
(g) Movable Bridges can be closed to carry a road or railway or in some cases an aqueduct, but can be opened to give free passage to navigation.
They are of several types: (i) Lifting Bridges.
The lattice girders of the side spans were first rolled into place, so as to project some distance beyond the piers, and then the arch ribs were built out, being partly supported by wire-rope cables from (3) Draw or Bascule Bridges.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.