Don't burn your bridges behind you.
The bridges were all destroyed, and the old barriers from the war are back up.
"Who built these lovely bridges?" asked the little girl.
asserts that persons shall not be compelled to make bridges, unless they are bound to do so by ancient custom.
A few miles above this point the river is spanned by the magnificent bridges of Cubzac-lesPonts, which carry a road and railway.
The river is crossed by two bridges, and its banks are bordered by picturesque old houses.
She, Eden, the Original Human, would be the one who saved the human realm by killing the Gatekeeper, the God who maintained the bridges between worlds.
He was author of the article "Bridges" in the ninth edition of this encyclopaedia.
By means of bond labour roads and bridges were con structed, and a route opened into the interior beyond Rise of the Blue Mountains.
In response to Molly's questions about covered bridges, we drove through two more in the area for her pleasure.
From south to north it is traversed by the channel of the Parma, crossed here by three bridges; and from east to west runs the line of the Via Aemilia, by which ancient Parma was connected on the one hand with Ariminum (Rimini), and on the other with Placentia (Piacenza).
He mounted it and rode at a gallop to one of the bridges over the Niemen, deafened continually by incessant and rapturous acclamations which he evidently endured only because it was impossible to forbid the soldiers to express their love of him by such shouting, but the shouting which accompanied him everywhere disturbed him and distracted him from the military cares that had occupied him from the time he joined the army.
We burned our bridges trying to get custody of Martha last winter.
The city is divided by the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by over 200 bridges of various sorts.
but entirely composed of wooden houses, penetrated in all directions by canals, wherefore bridges and boats are needed for the wayfarer.
On each side, about half-way between the keep and the sea, these ravines are crossed by massive bridges, and on the farther side of the westernmost of these, away from the city, a large tower and other fortifications remain.
He himself claims to have brought more than a thousand Marcionites within the pale of the church, and to have destroyed many copies of the Diatessaron of Tatian, which were still in ecclesiastical use; and he also exerted himself to improve the diocese, which was at once large and poor, by building bridges and aqueducts, beautifying the town, and by similar works.
first laid on bridges - was supported on continuous longitudinal sleepers and held down by bolts passing through the flanges, and was employed by I.
Gradually, however, stone bridges came into use.
She'd already burned her bridges behind her.
(4) Swing or Turning Bridges.
All fell beneath the creatures she created in the human realm and used the bridges to cross into this one.
Dr Bridges took his M.A.
above the sea, but lying in a basin, skirts both banks of the river Semois which is crossed by two bridges.
Antioco, joined by a narrow isthmus and a group of bridges to the mainland, forms a good natural harbour to the south of the isthmus, the Golfo di Palmas; while the north portion of the peninsula, with the island of S.
The Neckar is spanned by two bridges.
from Rome by the Via Ostiensis, a road of very ancient origin still followed by a modern road which preserves some traces of the old pavement and remains of several ancient bridges.
The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
The average total inductive value of these bridges to received signals is about 40 henrys, and the coil is so arranged that the arms contain three sections or blocks of winding each, two of which are joined up to strap connexions, and the a p :?; .?
The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.
Expenditure amounted to 3,768,888, of which the principal items were 760,000 for roads and bridges, 520,000 for lunatic asylums, ~4o,ooo for foundling hospitals, 320,000 for interest on debtand 200,000 for police.
In the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed to the superintendence of the roads and bridges.
At the time of Strabo and Horace, however, it was the practice to travel by canal from Forum Appii to Lucus Feroniae; to Nerva and Trajan were due the paving of the road and the repair of the bridges along this section.
all directions, numerous protoplasmic threads or bridges.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it.
It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway.
Three or four piers or sometimes bridges of masonry are run out into the bed of the river, frequently from both sides at once, raising the level of the stream and thus giving a water power sufficient to turn the gigantic wheel or wheels, sometimes almost 40 ft.
Through this part of its course the current of the river, except where restricted by floating bridges - at Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh and Samawa - does not normally exceed a mile an hour, and both on the main stream and on its canals the jerd or oxbucket takes the place of the naoura or water-wheel for purposes of irrigation.
Orihuela is situated in a beautiful and exceedingly fertile huerta, or tract of highly cultivated land, at the foot of a limestone bridge, and on both sides of the river Segura, which divides the city into two parts, Roig and San Augusto, and is spanned by two bridges.
Artels of one or two hundred carpenters, bricklayers, &c., are common wherever new buildings have to be erected, or railways or bridges constructed; the contractors always prefer to deal with an artel, rather than with separate workmen.
Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.
When, however, a company desires to construct a line on a commercial scale, to acquire land compulsorily, to divert rivers and streams, to cross roads either on the level or by means of bridges, to pass near houses, to build tunnels or viaducts, and to execute all the other works incidental to a.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
tunnels, bridges, viaducts, culverts, &c. .
bridges or viaducts.
On the one hand he may make the line follow the natural inequalities of the ground as nearly as may be, avoiding the elevations and depressions by curves; or on the other he may aim at making it as nearly straight and level as possible by taking it through the elevations in cuttings or tunnels and across the depressions on embankments or bridges.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
There are no bridges, except where watercourses occur.
Of the bridges connecting the sections of the lower town the most interesting is the Obere Bri cke, completed in 1455.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
The councils assess within certain limits the communal taxes, maintain roads, bridges, &c., and generally superintend local affairs.
The commissioners supervise the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges and finances of the county.
N N: C C02H (11) N N: C C02H which it is connected by a chain bridge (1855) and two railway bridges.
The borough is connected with the City of London by Blackfriars, Southwark and London bridges; the thoroughfares leading from these and the other road-bridges as far up as Lambeth converge at St George's Circus; another important junction is the "Elephant and Castle."
He second wife was Joanna Bridges, said on very doubtful authority to have been a natural daughter of Charles I.
The Nith is crossed by three bridges and the railway viaduct.
Within the city's lines the river is crossed by two bridges (to Manchester) for vehicles and pedestrians, and three railway bridges.
Richmond was evacuated that night, after the ironclads, the bridges and many of the military and tobacco store-houses had been set on fire by order of General R.
(9) Public works, such as paved and stepped roadways, bridges, systems of drainage, &c.
The canals were crossed by wooden bridges without steps, and in the case of the wide Grand Canal the bridge at Rialto was carried on boats.
The early bridges were inclined planes and could easily be crossed by horses.
It was not till the city became more populous and when stone-stepped bridges were introduced that the use of horses died out.
On occasions of festivals or pageants the balconies, the bridges, the boats, and even the facades of the houses, were hung with rich Eastern carpets or patterned textiles in gold and coloured silk.
around the peninsula are spanned by causeways and bridges, East Boston only, that the harbours may be open to the navyyard at Charlestown, being reached by ferry (1870), and by the electric subway under the harbour.
It consists of the old town on the left, the new town on the right, bank of the Werra, and BrUckenhausen on a small island connected with the old and new town by bridges.
Highroads, maintained by the government, traverse every part of the country, and bridges have been built across the Caledon.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
There are several bridges over the river, the old wooden bridge having been replaced in 1905 by one built of stone.
It is served by the International & Great Northern, the National of Mexico, the Texas Mexican and the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass railways, and is connected by bridges with Nuevo Laredo.
It is pleasantly situated at the foot of a lofty range of hills, which here dip down to the river, at the junction of the main lines of railway from Bremen and Hanover to Hamburg, which are carried to the latter city over two grand bridges crossing the southern and the northern arms of the Elbe.
It is situated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, and Charlestown and East Boston, and is connected with East Boston and Charlestown by bridges.
Two bridges, one of them a suspension-bridge, communicate with St Aubin on the opposite bank of the Seine, and steamboats ply regularly to Rouen.
WURZEN, a town of Germany in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Mulde, here crossed by two bridges, 152 m.
The Eure, which at this point divides into three branches, is crossed by several bridges, some of them ancient, and is fringed in places by remains of the old fortifications, of which the Porte Guillaume (14th century), a gateway flanked by towers, is the most complete specimen.
On the 7th of October this movement was completed - the Austrians abandoned the Danube bridges after a show of resistance, retreating westward - and Napoleon, leaving Murat in command of the V.
But the French army was already completely out of hand, and the degree to which the panic of a crowd can master even the strongest instinct of the individual is shown by the conduct of the fugitives who crowded over the bridges, treading hundreds under foot, whilst all the time the river was easily fordable and mounted men rode backwards and forwards across it.
on the 26th the bridges were finished and the passage began, but not without resistance by the Russians, who were gradually closing in.
The crossing continued all night, though interrupted from time to time by failures of the bridges.
the last body of regular troops passed over the bridges, and only a few thousand stragglers remained beyond the river.
The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat Pasha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city.
The river is spanned with bridges, and its valley by two viaducts, the larger of which (completed in 1878 at a cost of more than $ 2,000,000), 3 211 ft.
The most important manufactures are iron and steel, carriage hardware, electrical supplies, bridges, boilers, engines, car wheels, sewing machines, printing presses, agricultural implements, and various other commodities made wholly or chiefly from iron and steel.
The Taff is spanned by two bridges, one a four-arched bridge rebuilt in 1858-1859 leading to Llandaff, and the other a cantilever with a central swinging span of 190 ft.
After this there was a period of comparative inaction, though during it the French were driven from the bridges at Urdains and Cambo.
The remains of a similar bridge exist at Janglache; but there are no wooden or twig suspension bridges over the Tsanpo.
the Tali-Bhamo caravan route, described by Colborne Baker, crosses the river by one of those iron suspension bridges which are a feature of Yun-nan, at a height of 4700 ft.
Among the city's manufactures are agricultural implements, iron bridges and other structural iron work, watches and watch-cases, steel, engines, safes, locks, cutlery, hardware, wagons, carriages, paving-bricks, furniture, dental and surgical chairs, paint and varnish, clay-working machinery and saw-mill machinery.
SCHWEINFURT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, situated on the right bank of the Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 m.
Two bridges, passenger and railway, unite the city with the towns of St Marye's and Gibson on the east side of the river, at its junction with the Nashwaak.
The Elbe is crossed by numerous bridges, as at KOniggratz, Pardubitz, Kolin, Leitmeritz, Tetschen, Schandau, Pirna, Dresden, Meissen, Torgau, Wittenberg, Rosslau, Barby, Magdeburg, Rathenow, Wittenberge, Ddmitz, Lauenburg, and Hamburg and Harburg.
At all these places there are railway bridges, and nearly all, but more especially those in Bohemia, Saxony and the middle course of the river - these last on the main lines between Berlin and the west and south-west of the empire - possess a greater or less strategic value.
Dresden has four bridges, and there is a fifth bridge at Loschwitz, about 3 m.
is also spanned by two fine railway bridges.
At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are handsome railway bridges, the one (1868-1873 and 1894) crossing the northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the southern Elbe; and the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) for vehicular traffic.
Two bridges connect the city with the borough of West Pittston (pop., 1 9 00, 5846).
In summer the heat and moisture are excessive, and the Aapies (which is spanned by four bridges) is liable to floods.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
The wonderful Roman remains at Trier and elsewhere, the Roman roads, bridges and aqueducts, are convincing proofs of what the Rhine gained from Roman domination.
It lies on the Nith, opposite to Dumfries, with which it is connected by three bridges, being united with it for parliamentary purposes.
The modern highroad follows the ancient line, and some of the original bridges still exist.
The bridges in order above London Bridge are as follows, railway-bridges being bracketed - Southwark, (Cannon Street), (Blackfriars), Blackfriars, Waterloo, (Hungerford - with a footway), Westminster, Lambeth, Vauxhall, (Grosvenor), Victoria, Albert, Battersea, (Battersea), Wandsworth, (Putney), Putney and Hammersmith.
It is a massive stone structure of nine arches, carrying a level roadway, and is considered one of the finest bridges of its kind in the world.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
The roadbridges mentioned (except the City bridges) are maintained by the London County Council, who expended for this purpose a sum of £9149 in 1907-1908.
The following table shows the capital expenditure on the more important bridges and their cost of maintenance in 1907-1908: Net Capital Cost of Maintenance Expenditure.
393,189 1491 The properties entrusted to the Corporation for the upkeep of London Bridge are managed by the Bridge House Estates Committee, the revenues from which are also used in the maintenance of the other three City bridges, £26,989 being thus expended in 1907, the Tower bridge absorbing £17,735 of this amount.
Bridges, on the other hand, and so much of the highway as is immediately connected with them, are as a general rule a charge on the county; and by 22 Henry VIII.
Fn Scotland the highway system is regulated by the Roads and Bridges Act 1878 and amending acts.
The management and maintenance of the highways and bridges is vested in county road trustees, viz.
One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
See Glen, Law Relating to Highways; Pratt, Law of Highways, Main Roads and Bridges.
With Cincinnati and Covington it is connected by bridges.
In this connexion his most remarkable achievements were his railway bridges, especially those of the tubular girder type.
Remains of a theatre and of a late mosaic pavement with hunting scenes have been found, three of the bridges across the Bacchiglione and Retrone are of Roman origin, and arches of the aqueduct exist outside Porta S.
along the deep valley, on both banks of the Wupper, which is crossed by numerous bridges, the engirdling hills crowned with woods.
Some of the religious gilds supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely connected with the government of the borough; but, as a rule, they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of activity.
According to this authority it had a circuit of 100 m., and no fewer than 12,000 bridges and 3000 baths.
Some of the bridges, too, built in the 18th century, are picturesque.
The city is picturesque, with arcaded streets, and many bridges crossing the various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the ancient walls.
The western part, called Ballybot, is connected with the eastern part, or old town, by four bridges over the canal and four over the tidal water.
In 1812 he was promoted general, and made director of roads and bridges.
At the time of the battle Napoleon was in possession of Vienna, the bridges over the Danube had been broken, and the archduke's army was on and about the Bisamberg, a mountain near Korneuburg, on the left bank of the river.
Undeterred by the news of heavy attacks on his rear from Tirol and from Bohemia, Napoleon hurried all available troops to the bridges, and by daybreak on the 21st, 40,000 men were collected on the Marchfeld, the broad open plain of the left bank, which was also to be the scene of the battle of Wagram.
His forces on the Marchfeld were drawn up in front of the bridges facing north, with their left in the village of Aspern (Gross-Aspern) and their right in Essling (or Esslingen).
During the 21st the bridges became more and more unsafe, owing to the violence of the current, but the French crossed without intermission all day and during the night.
In the meanwhile nearly all the French infantry posted between the two villages and in front of the bridges had been drawn into the fight on either flank.
The Danube bridges, which had broken down once already, had at last been cut by heavy barges, which had been set adrift down stream for the purpose by the Austrians.
Essling now fell to another assault of Rosenberg, and though again the French, this time part of the Guard, drove him out, the Austrian general then directed his efforts on the flank of the French centre, slowly retiring on the bridges.
Pop. (1905), 91,124 (including a garrison of 7 500 men), of whom two-thirds are Roman Catholic. The Rhine, which here attains the greatest breadth of its upper course, is crossed by a magnificent bridge of five arches, leading to the opposite town of Castel and by two railway bridges.
- (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.
Bridges, London, 1852); Systeme de politique positive, ou Traite de sociologie (4 vols., Paris, 1852-1854; ed.
with analysis and explanatory summary by Bridges, F.
There are four other bridges across the Adige: one, the graceful Ponte di Pietra, rests upon ancient foundations, while the two arches nearest to the left bank are Roman; but it has been frequently restored.
Of the bridges which cross the canals by which Padua is now intersected, four go back to Roman times.
The main development of the city has been to the north of the river, which is crossed by numerous bridges and flanked by fine quays and promenades.
Seven bridges (of which two are railway) cross the Main.
Other bridges are the Obermainbriicke of five iron arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the Untermainbriicke; the Wilhelmsbriicke, a fine structure, which from 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways.
Among the benevolent acts attributed to renowned Buddhist priests posterity specially remembers their efforts to encourage the building of roads and bridges.
In 1772 appeared a tract on The Principles of Bridges, suggested by the destruction of Newcastle bridge by a high flood on the 17th of November 1771.
The Ganges is crossed by six railway bridges on its course as far as Benares; and another, at Sara in Eastern Bengal, has been sanctioned.
The bridges over the Sumida, and those which span the canals, have always been distinctive features of Tokyo.
The largest bridges are those named Azuma, Umaya, Ryogoku, Shin-o and Eitai over the Sumida.
The town is intersected by canals (crossed by numerous bridges), which bring it into communication with most of the towns in East Friesland, of which it is the commercial capital.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
Ayr proper lies on the south bank of the river, which is crossed by three bridges, besides the railway viaduct - the Victoria Bridge (erected in 1898) and the famous "Twa Brigs" of Burns.
Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1256-1265), and since then several times repaired, lead over the Safi River on the western side of the town.
The river is here crossed by two iron bridges, and one stone and one timber bridge, and the upper and lower towns are connected by a funicular railway.
Four bridges cross the Lagan; the Queen's Bridge (1844, widened in 1886) is the finest, while the Albert Bridge (1889) replaces a former one which collapsed.
The Moselle, which is here joined by the Seille, flows through it in several arms, and is crossed by fourteen bridges.
in width and its northern half full of water; all the bridges were destroyed, and the E.
While the infantry pressed forward to carry the Marquion line bridges were swiftly thrown over the dry canal bed, and batteries went over at a gallop to take up their positions for supporting the farther advance.
At the same hour on the 29th the infantry again went forward, the objectives being to complete the capture of the Marcoing line and the seizure of the Scheldt canal bridges W.
advanced once more with the object of securing the coveted bridges over the Scheldt canal, to be followed later by the 1st Canadian and 11th Div., which were to clear the peninsula between that canal and the Sensee.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.
Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes.
The city is solidly and regularly built, the houses being of stone and the stream that flows through the town being spanned by several stone bridges.
The duties of this officer included: the arrangement of the camp and medical service, the transport of the baggage, the construction of roads, bridges and fortifications, the supply of ammunition and engines of war.
The towns elected (until 1856) the deputies to the general court, and were the administrative units for the assessment and collection of taxes, maintaining churches and schools, organizing and training the militia, preserving the peace, caring for the poor, building and repairing roads and bridges, and recording deeds, births, deaths and marriages; and to discuss questions relating to these matters as well as other matters of peculiarly local concern, to determine the amount of taxes for town purposes, and to elect officers.
The Pregel, spanned by many bridges, flows through the town in two branches, which unite below the Griine Briicke.
Three bridges lead from the left to the right bank of the Gers, on which the suburb of Patte d'Oie is situated.
One of the most interesting topics of study is the trails along which the seasonal and annual migrations of tribes occurred, becoming in Peru the paved road, with suspension bridges and wayside inns, or tambos.
SOUTH PORTLAND, a city of Cumberland (disambiguation)|Cumberland county, Maine, U.S.A., on Casco Bay, an arm of which separates it from Portland, with which it is connected by a ferry and four bridges.
When the French left wing and centre reached the Sambre bridges, at Marchienne and Charleroi, they found them held and strongly barricaded, and the cavalry were powerless to force the passage.
Iron war-ships, railway locomotives, iron bridges, machinery, &c., are built; the company has branches in Norrkoping, Gothenburg, and elsewhere.
Indeed, in the closing years of his life he produced some of his finest paintings, in which he set down with admirable truth the peculiar atmosphere and colour and teeming life of the boulevards, streets and bridges of Paris and Rouen.
The money has chiefly been spent on railways, telegraphs, roads, bridges, land purchase from the native tribes and private estate owners, on loans to settlers and on native wars.
DAVENPORT, a city and the county seat of Scott county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river, opposite Rock Island, Illinois, with which it is connected by two fine bridges and by a ferry.
Bridges, History of Okehampton (1889).
These are a state prison at Deer Lodge, managed by contract; a reform school at Miles City, an industrial school at Butte, an orphans' home at Twin Bridges, the soldiers' home at Columbia Falls, a school for deaf and blind at Boulder, and an insane asylum at Warm Springs, managed by contract.
The villages of the Guajiros in the Gulf of Maracaibo are described by Goering as composed of houses with low sloping roofs perched on lofty piles and connected with each other by bridges of planks.
In other cases the remains of the gangways or bridges connecting the settlements with the shore have been discovered, but often the village appears to have been accessible only by canoes.
- Bridges (old forms, brig, brygge, brudge; Dutch, brug; German, Briicke; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying roadways, waterways or railways across streams, valleys or other roads or railways, leaving a passage way below.
Long bridges of several spans are often termed " viaducts," and bridges carrying canals are termed " aqueducts," though this term is sometimes used for waterways which have no bridge structure.
In all countries there are legal regulations fixing the minimum span and height of such bridges and the width of roadway to be provided.
Ordinarily bridges are fixed bridges, but there are also movable bridges with machinery for opening a clear and unobstructed passage way for navigation.
Most commonly these are " swing " or " turning " bridges.
" Floating " bridges are roadways carried on pontoons moored in a stream.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
Cast iron was about the same time used for arches, and some of the early railway bridges were built with cast iron girders.
Cast iron is now only used for arched bridges of moderate span.
Wrought iron was used on a large scale in the suspension road bridges of the early part of the 19th century.
The great girder bridges over the Menai Strait and at Saltash near Plymouth, erected in the middle of the i 9th century, were entirely of wrought iron, and subsequently wrought iron girder bridges were extensively used on railways.
The latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of f erro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars for arched bridges.
The present article relates chiefly to metallic bridges.
There is also in large bridges wind-bracing to stiffen the structure against horizontal forces.
Bridges may be classed as arched bridges, in which the principal members are in compression; suspension bridges, in which the principal members are in tension; and girder bridges, in which half the components of the principal members are in compression and half in tension.
But there are cases of bridges of mixed type.
Masonry bridges are preferable in appearance to any others, and metal arch bridges are less objectionable than most forms of girder.
In the case of bridges of large span the cost and difficulty of erection are serious, and in such cases facility of erection becomes a governing consideration in the choice of the type to be adopted.
In some recent masonry arched bridges of spans up to ' so f t.
In suspension bridges the principal members are in tension, and the introduction of iron link chains about the end of the 18th century, and later of wire ropes of still greater tenacity, permitted the construction of road bridges of this type with spans at that time impossible with any other system of construction.
On the other hand, suspension bridges require lofty towers and massive anchorages.
The immense extension of railways since 1830 has involved the construction of an enormous number of bridges, and most of these are girder bridges, in which about half the superstructure is in tension and half in compression.
The use of wrought iron and later of mild steel has made the construction of such bridges very convenient and economical.
A fundamental difference in girder bridges arises from the mode of support.
Hence many multiple-span bridges such as the Hawkesbury, Benares and Chittravatti bridges have been built with independent spans.
Lastly, some bridges are composed of cantilevers and suspended girders.
In many countries the limits of working stress in public and railway bridges are prescribed by law.
development of theory has advanced poi passe with the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in any of the types of structure now adopted.
It had a fortification such as became usual in later bridges for defence or for the enforcement of tolls.
Bridges with stone piers and timber superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they have perished.
Ponte dei type of bridges of this kind.
The Wittingen bridge by the same engineers had a span of 390 ft., probably the longest timber 1 For the ancient bridges in Rome see further Rome: Archaeology, and such works as R.
Of stone bridges in Great Britain, the earliest were the cyclopean bridges still existing on Dartmoor, consisting of stone piers bridged by stone slabs.
5) which now spans roadways, the streams which formerly flowed under it having been diverted, is one of the earliest known stone bridges in England.
The first bridges over the Thames at London were no doubt of timber.
Timber bridges of large span were constructed in America between the end of the 18th and the middle of the r 9th century.
Some of these timber bridges are said to have lasted ninety years with ordinary repairs, but they were road bridges not heavily loaded.
Down to 1850 such bridges were generally limited to 1 so ft.
(See Mosse, " American Timber Bridges," Proc. Inst.
p. 382; Cooper, " American Railroad Bridges," Trans.
Till near the end of the 19th century bridges of masonry or brickwork were so constructed that they had to be treated as rigid blockwork structures.
The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.
(c) Suspension Bridges.
Iron suspension bridges began to be used at the end of the 18th century for road bridges with spans unattainable at that time in any other system.
This bridge suffered some injury in a storm, but it is still in good condition and one of the most graceful of bridges.
Other bridges built soon after were the Fribourg bridge of 870 ft.
Some suspension bridges have broken down in consequence of the oscillations produced by bodies of men marching in step. In 1850 a suspension bridge cable was carried on a separate saddle on rollers on each pier.
Of later bridges of great span, perhaps the bridges over the East river at New York are the most remarkable.
p. 258; also " Suspension Bridges with Stiffening Girders," by Max am Ende, Proc. Inst.
(d) Iron and Steel Girder Bridges.
The girders carry a floor or platform either on top (deck bridges) or near the bottom (through bridges).
For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.
In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively subjected to vertical loading forces.
In some girder -1 o bridges the members are connected entirely by riveting, in others the principal members are con nected by pin joints.
The pin system of connexion used in the Chepstow, Salt ash, Newark Dyke and other early English bridges is now rarely used in Europe.
In early pin bridges insufficient bearing area was allowed between the pins and parts connected, and they worked loose.
On the first English railways cast iron girder bridges for spans of to 66 ft.
In America such girders were used from the first and naturally followed the general design of the earlier timber bridges.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
Amongst remarkable American girder bridges may be mentioned the Ohio bridge on the Cincinnati & Covington railway, which is probably the largest girder span constructed.
(e) Cantilever Bridges.
The girders are of the Whipple Murphy type, but with curved top booms. The bridges.
(f) Metal Arch Bridges.
In Paris the Austerlitz (1800-1806) and Carrousel (1834-1836) bridges had cast iron arches.
Of large-span bridges with steel arches, one of the most important is the St Louis bridge over the Mississippi, completed in 1874 (fig.
The St Louis bridge is not hinged, but later bridges have been constructed with hinges at the springings and sometimes with hinges at the crown also.
(g) Movable Bridges can be closed to carry a road or railway or in some cases an aqueduct, but can be opened to give free passage to navigation.
They are of several types: (i) Lifting Bridges.
The lattice girders of the side spans were first rolled into place, so as to project some distance beyond the piers, and then the arch ribs were built out, being partly supported by wire-rope cables from (3) Draw or Bascule Bridges.
Bridges of this type are not very numerous or important.
(2) Rolling Bridges.
In these bridges each bascule is prolonged backwards beyond the hinge so as to balance at the hinge, the prolongation sinking into the piers when the bridge is opened.
- The largest movable bridges FIG.
(5) Floating Bridges, the roadway being carried on z pontoons moored in the% stream.
Bridges of this type have been erected at Portugalete, Bizerta, Rouen, Rochefort and more recently across the Mersey between the towns of Widnes and Runcorn.
In the United States few railway companies design or build their own bridges.
The result is that American bridges are generally of well-settled types and their members of uniform design, carefully considered with reference to convenient and accurate manufacture.
Since the erection of the Forth bridge, cantilever bridges have been extensively used, and some remarkable steel arch and suspension bridges have also been constructed.
For suspension bridges the abutment forming the anchorage must be so designed as to be thoroughly stable under the greatest pull which the chains can exert.
Many bridges so constructed have stood for centuries.
- Consideration of the local conditions affecting the erection of bridges is always important, and sometimes becomes a controlling factor in the determination of the design.
(2) The Britannia and Conway bridges were built on staging on shore, lifted by pontoons, floated out to their position between the piers, and lastly lifted into place by hydraulic presses.
Modifications of the system have been adopted for bridges with discontinuous spans.
In bridges so erected the straining action during erection must be studied, and material must be added to resist erecting stresses.
The great cantilever bridges have been erected in the same way, and they are specially adapted for erection by building out.
In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel - a stronger, tougher and better material.
Moderately hard steel has been used for the larger members of longspan bridges.
- The external forces acting on a bridge may be classified as follows: (t) The live or temporary load, for road bridges the weight of a dense crowd uniformly distributed, or the weight of a heavy wagon or traction engine; for railway bridges the weight of the heaviest train likely to come on the bridge.
(4) The horizontal pressure due to a wind blowing transversely to the span, which becomes of importance in long and high bridges.
(7) In some cases, especially in arch and suspension bridges, changes of temperature set up stresses equivalent to those produced by an external load.
Live Load on Road Bridges.
But in recent times the weight of traction engines and wagons which pass over bridges has increased, and this kind of load generally produces greater straining action than a crowd of people.
In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on provision being made for such loads.
In the earlier girder bridges the live load was taken to be equivalent to a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run for each line of way.
The weights of engines and wagons are now greater, and in addition it is recognized that the concentration of the loading at the axles gives rise to greater straining action, especially in short bridges, than the same load uniformly distributed along the span.
Hence many of the earlier bridges have had to be strengthened to carry modern traffic. The following examples of some of the heaviest locomotives on English railways is given by W.
I In Austria the official regulations require that railway bridges shall be designed for at least the following live loads per foot run and per track: It would be simpler and more convenient in designing short bridges if, instead of assuming an equivalent uniform rolling load, agreement could be come to as to a typical heavy locomotive which would produce stresses as great as any existing locomotive on each class of railway.
Bridges would then be designed for these selected loads, and the process would be safer in dealing with flooring girders and shearing forces than the assumption of a uniform load.
Waddell (De Pontibus, New York, 1898) proposes to arrange railways in seven classes, according to the live loads which may be expected from the character of their traffic, and to construct bridges in accordance with this classification.
Road bridges vary so much in the character of the flooring that no general rule can be given.
In railway bridges the weight of sleepers, rails, &c., is 0.2 to 0.25 tons per ft.
Then w2'/w2 = (1 +4p7p) w2'/7.vl = 1 1 0 [l2/ll + (12/11) 2] (1 +4P1p) A partially rational approximate formula for the weight of main girders is the following (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs, 1869, p. 4 0) :- Let w=total live load per ft.
K = 6000 to 7200 for iron and =7200 to 9000 for steel bridges.
In the case of braced girder bridges, the wind pressure is taken as acting on a continuous surface extending from the rails to the top of the carriages, plus the vertical projected area of so much of one girder as is exposed above the train or below the rails.
In the case of bridges not subject to Board of Trade inspection, the allowance for wind pressure varies in different cases.
In the case of bridges of less than 50 ft.
The variance in the strength of existing bridges is such as to be apparent to the educated eye without any calculation.
Baker then described the results of experiments on repetition of stress, and added that " hundreds of existing bridges which carry twenty trains a day with perfect safety would break down quickly under twenty trains an hour.
for steel, was safe or more than safe for long bridges with large ratio of dead to live load, it was not safe for short ones in which the stresses are mainly due to live load, the weight of the bridge being small.
It was pointed out as early as 1869 (Unwin, Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs) that a rational method of fixing the working stress, so far as knowledge went at that time, would be to make it depend on the ratio of live to dead load, and in such a way that the factor of safety for the live load stresses was double that for the dead load stresses.
Determination of Stresses in the Members of Bridges.
- It is convenient to consider beam girder or truss bridges, and it is the stresses in the main girders which primarily require to be determined.
With short bridges it is best to draw the curve of maximum bending moments for some assumed typical set of loads in the way just described, and to design the girder accordingly.
For longer bridges the funicular polygon affords a method of determining maximum bending moments which is perhaps more convenient.
Now, except for very short bridges and very unequal loads, a parabola can be found which includes the curve of maximum moments.
Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the weights of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.
For flexible suspension bridges with wrought iron link chains, and dip = Ath of the span, the limiting span is 2800 ft.
For stiffened suspension bridges with wire cables, if the dip is 310th of the span the limiting span is 2700 to 3600 ft., and if the dip is *th of the span, 3250 to 4250 ft., according to the factor of safety allowed.
Frames are much used as girders, and they also give useful designs for suspension and arched bridges.
Types of Braced Girder Bridges.
In long-span ¦ bridges the cantilever system permits erection FIG.
The majority of bridges not of great span have girders with parallel booms. This involves the fewest difficulties of workmanship and perhaps permits FIG.
Some timber bridges consist of queenpost trusses in the upright position, as shown diagrammatically in fig.
On the Pacific coast, where excellent timber is obtainable and steel works are distant, combination bridges are still largely used (Ottewell, Trans.
The true catenary is that assumed by a chain of uniform weight per unit of length, but the form generally adopted for suspension bridges is that assumed by a chain under a weight uniformly distributed relatively to a horizontal line.
It is in answer to A Defence of the Government established in the Church of Englande, by Dr. John Bridges, dean of Salisbury, itself a reply to earlier puritan works, and besides attacking the episcopal office in general assails certain prelates with much personal abuse.
The rivalry between the east and west side towns was intense, the plats were so surveyed that the streets did not meet at the river, and there were bitter quarrels over the building of bridges.
The expenditure for 1906 amounted to $5,072,406, of which $836,097 was spent on administrative establishments, $301,252 on the upkeep of existing public works; $415,175 on the construction of works and buildings, and of new roads, streets, bridges, &c. The imports in 1906 were valued at $94,54 6, 112; the exports at $90,709,225.
His last great engineering work was the construction of the steel bridges for the Nile.
There are several bridges across the Kansas river.
Bridges, Richelieu, Mazarin and Colbert (1866).
The city of Geneva is situated at the south-western extremity of the beautiful lake of the same name, whence the "arrowy Rhone" flows westwards under the seven bridges by which the two halves of the town communicate with each other.
The river is here crossed by three bridges; the (upper) steel arch bridge, built (1895) on the site of the former suspension bridge (built in 1869; blown down in 1889; rebuilt as a suspension bridge) near the Falls, is crossed by double carriageways and footpaths and by an electric railway, and is probably the longest bridge of the kind in the world, being 1240 ft.
farther down the river are two railway bridges, the Michigan Central's cantilever bridge, completed in 1883, and the (lower) single steel arch bridge (completed in 1897, on the site of John A.
after a moderate rain; it is spanned by several bridges.
The railway runs right through the precinct, and much of Magnesia has gone into its bridges and embankments.
It is intersected by the sluggish Park river, which is spanned by ten bridges.
It is surrounded by orchards and gardens, and is about a mile from the right bank of the river, which here runs in two wide channels crossed by bridges.
On one occasion an infantry division of 8000 men repaired 102 miles of railway and built 182 bridges in 40 days, forging their own tools and using local resources.
Two Roman bridges and several tombs were found above the falls in 1826.
They not only formed one of the bridges by which the medieval thinkers got back to Plato and Aristotle; they determined the scientific method of thirty generations, and they partly created and partly nourished the Christian mysticism of the middle ages.
granites with an unusually large proportion of soda-lime feldspar), of various grey shades, sometimes tinged with blue, pink or buff, and always marked with black mica; the finer varieties take a high polish and are used for monuments, and the coarser grades are used for construction, especially of railway bridges, and for paving and curbing.
Between Whitworth and Richmond bridges stands the "Four Courts" (law courts), on the site of the ancient Dominican monastery of St Saviour.
Two bridges here span the Fox, which is from 3 m.
Two bridges, one built of stone and dating from the Roman period, the other constructed of iron in 1804, unite the older and larger part of Manresa with the modern suburbs on the right bank of the river.
The river, which is unnavigable and winding at this point, forms the western boundary of the city for more than 4 m., and is spanned by three public bridges and a number of railway bridges.
A curious chain suspension bridge across the Merrimac, connecting Newburyport with Amesbury, was built in 1827, replacing a similar bridge built in 1810, which was one of the first suspension bridges in America.
The borough, composed of three townships identical with the ancient manors of Salford, Pendleton and Broughton, is for the most part separated from Manchester by the river Irwell, which is crossed by a series of bridges.
Within the city limits the Muskingum is crossed by seven bridges (including a notable concrete Y bridge) and the Licking by two.
long, enclosed with stone walls, crossed by a number of iron bridges and bordered by lines of royal palms. The most famous street of the old city is the Rua do Ouvidor, running westward from the market-place to the Largo de Sao Francisco de Paula, and lined with retail shops, cafés and newspaper offices.
long) are spanned by 17 large iron bridges and about 2500 smaller bridges and culverts.
For the taxation of the Jews in the middle ages, see Bridges, The Jews of Europe in the Middle Ages, and Gneist's History of the English Constitution.
Five fine bridges connect the Altstadt and Neustadt.
Up-stream are the two modern Albert and Konigin Carola bridges, and, down-stream, the Marien and the Eisenbahn (railway) bridges.
The terrace commands a view of the Elbe and the distant heights of Loschwitz and the Weisser Hirsch, but the prospect has of late years become somewhat marred, owing to the extension of the town up the river and to the two new up-stream bridges.
Three hundred guns covered the assault, and Dresden was set on fire in places by the cannonade, while the French columns marched unceasingly over the bridges and through the Altstadt.
It lies on both sides of the river, and connexion between the two ports is maintained by road and railway bridges.
This fact bridges over the distinction between the band and line spectra.
Probably the most important were military service (fird, expeditio) and the repairing of fortifications and bridges - the trinoda necessitas of later times.
We need scarcely doubt also that the labour of repairing fortifications and bridges, though it is charged against the landowners, was in reality delegated by them to their dependents.
No doubt ceorls took part in military expeditions, but they may have gone as attendants and camp-followers rather than as warriors, their chief business being to make stockades and bridges, and especially to carry provisions.
Of earlier bridges one, which crossed at High Street, was swept away by the flood of 1621, and another, constructed by General Wade in 1723-1733, was apparently the predecessor of Smeaton's bridge.
So popular has it become that besides being used for massive constructions like breakwaters, dock walls, culverts, and for foundations of buildings, lighthouses and bridges, it is also proving its usefulness to the architect and engineer in many other ways.
The floors and even the walls of important buildings are made of this combination, and long span bridges, tall factory chimneys, and large water-tanks are among the many novel uses to which it has been put.
It is not clear from Welch's account what is the cause of the whiteness of the tips of the hairs of the autumn coat, but his figures suggest that it is due to the development of gas in the interspaces between the keratin bridges and trabeculae of the hairs.
Several bridges cross the stream, and a lofty railway viaduct bestrides the valley.
At any rate, Charles led various expeditions against the invaders, and tried to put a barrier in their way by having fortified bridges built over all the rivers.
It is picturesquely situated on a height above the right bank of the river Pruth, which is crossed here by two bridges, of which one is a railway bridge.
Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs.
These bridges prove useful in breaking up the ice which forms above them in winter.
The best tool steel should not contain more than 0.02% of either, and in careful practice it is often specified that the phosphorus and sulphur respectively shall not exceed 0.04 and o 05% in the steel for important bridges, or o 06 and 0 07% in rail steel, though some very prudent engineers allow as much as 085% or even o To% of phosphorus in rails.
An excellent harbour is furnished by the natural channel between the two islands; and communication from one division to the other is afforded by two bridges - the Langebro and the Knippelsbro, which replaced the wooden drawbridge built by Christian IV.
The river is crossed by three bridges, the old, the new (1872-1875) Kaiserbriicke, and the railway bridge, with a gangway for foot passengers.
The Jumna is crossed by a railway bridge and there are two bridges of boats over the Ganges.
It is crossed by several bridges - including the Abercorn, St James's and the Abbey Bridges - and two railway viaducts.
The Pasig river is crossed by two modern steel cantilever bridges.
of water below the bridges in the town.
Cologne is connected by bridges with the suburb of Deutz.
Clonmel is built on both sides of the Suir, and also occupies Moore and Long Islands, which are connected with the mainland by three bridges.
allotted to him the control of roads and bridges.
It is famous for the suspension and tubular bridges which cross it.
It was built to consist of two bridges one over the eastern or Damietta branch of the river having 71 arches, the other, over the Rosetta branch, having 61 arches, each arch being of 5 metres or 16.4 ft.
Numerous regulating bridges and locks have been built to give absolute control of the water and facilities for navigation; and since 1901 a second weir has been constructed opposite Zilta, across the Damietta branch of the Nile, to improve the irrigation of the Dakhilia province.
works required for this system are a syphon to pass the high level under the main canal near its head, bridges fitted with sluices where each canal passes under an embankment, and an escape weir at the tail of the system, just south of the desert point, to return surplus water to the river.
For this system two syphons will be required near the head, regulating bridges under all the embankments, and an escape weir back into the river.
The export of steel (railway) rails and bridges from this part is steadily on the increase.
Several bridges across the Fox River connect Menasha with Neenah, with which it really forms one community industrially.
Carcassonne is divided by the river Aude into two distinct towns, the Ville Basse and the Cite, which are connected by two bridges, one modern, the other dating from the 13th century.
the limits of fortifications, which it had outgrown, have both contributed to render Genoa a picturesque confusion of narrow streets, lanes and alleys, varied with stairways climbing the steeper slopes and bridges spanning the deeper valleys.
The De aedificiis contains an account of the chief public works executed during the reign of Justinian down to 558 (in which year it seems to have been composed), particularly churches, palaces, hospitals, fortresses, roads, bridges and other river works throughout the empire.
There is a service of steam trams in the principal streets, and three fine bridges connect the town with Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Across the river, and therefore in county Sligo, is the suburb of Ardnaree, connected with Ballina by two bridges.
Two great railway bridges across the Missouri, many smaller bridges across the Kansas, and a great interstate toll viaduct extending from bluff to bluff across the valley of the latter river, lie within the metropolitan area of the two cities.
The town hall is a handsome classical building erected in 1875; it bridges the county boundary, the Calder, enabling the magistrates to exercise jurisdiction in both counties.
Two bridges, opened in 1908, connect Old Cairo with Roda, and a third bridge joins Roda to Giza on the west bank of the river.
or repairs to the Quirinal, Lateran and Vatican palaces; the erection of four obelisks, including that in the piazza of St Peter's; the opening of six streets; the restoration of the aqueduct of Severus ("Acqua Felice"); besides numerous roads and bridges, an attempt to drain the Pontine marshes, and the encouragement of agriculture and manufacture.
It was formerly an important river port, especially for the shipment of cotton, but lost this commercial advantage when railway bridges made the river impassable.
It is, however, partially regaining the river trade in consequence of the compulsory substitution of drawbridges for the stationary railway bridges.
Six bridges spanning the river and electric lines crossing them have brought Allegheny into close industrial and social relations with the main part of Pittsburg, and on the hills of Allegheny are beautiful homes of wealthy men.
of the Missouri river opposite Omaha, Nebraska, with which it is connected by a road bridge and two railway bridges.
It is also employed for the building of light bridges, floors, and pipes constructed of cement mortar disposed round a skeleton of iron rods.
from its mouth, opposite Saint Stephens, New Brunswick, with which it is connected by bridges.
In the Elbe, between the old town and the Friedrichstadt, lies an island whereon stands the citadel; this is united with both banks by bridges.
Two bridges connect the town with the south side of the Tweed.
There are two bridges over the stream: one of three arches, which carries the main street and bazaar, and one of two arches over which is built the Kait Bey mosque.
Under the Congested Districts (Scotland) Act of 18 97, £35, 0 0 0 a year was devoted within certain districts of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, to assisting migration, improving the breeds of live stock, building piers and boatslips, making roads and bridges, developing home industries, &c.
Over the principal rivers at this early period there were bridges near the most populous places, as over the Dee near Aberdeen, the Esk at Brechin, the Tay at Perth and the Forth near Stirling.
They were kept in repair by the tenants and cotters, and, when their labour was not sufficient, by the landlords, who were required to " stent " (assess) themselves, customs also being sometimes levied at bridges, ferries and causeways.
The Roads and Bridges (Scotland) Act of 1878 entrusted the control of the roads to royal and police burghs and in the counties to road trustees, from whom it was transferred by the Local Government Act of 1889 to county councils, the management, however, being in the hands of district committees.
The country was being reorganized, ruined churches and bridges were being rebuilt.
Richard Congreve was tutor at Wadham from 1849 to 1854, and three men of that time, Frederic Harrison, Beesly and John Henry Bridges (1832-1906), became the leaders of Comtism in England.
The city is built on the southern extremity of the sandy sea beach, on the island of Antonio Vaz, and on the mainland to the westward, the river channels being crossed by numerous bridges.
There are no bridges, and the transit of the river from bank to bank can only be effected by the use of inflated skins.
The two banks of the Danube are united by six bridges, including two fine suspension bridges; the first of them, generally known as the Ketten-Briicke, constructed by the brothers Tiernay and Adam Clark in 1842-1849, is one of the largest in Europe.
The other bridges are the Margaret bridge, with a junction bridge towards the Margaret island, the Franz Joseph bridge, and two railway bridges.
The removal of slums and the regulation of the older parts of the town, in connexion with the construction of the two new bridges across the Danube and of the railway termini, went hand-in-hand with the extension of the town, new quarters springing up on both banks of the Danube.
A great part of the country, however, is still compelled to use the most primitive means of communication-mule paths, fords in the smaller streams in the dry season, and rude suspension bridges across deep gorges and swift mountain torrents.
STRAUBING, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, pleasantly situated in a fertile plain, on the right bank of the Danube, here crossed by two bridges, 25 m.
of Minneapolis and St Paul, on Superior, St Louis and Allouez bays at the head of Lake Superior, and directly opposite Duluth, Minnesota, with which it is connected by ferry and by railway and road bridges.
of Hanover, on the left bank of the Weser, which is spanned by two bridges.
Augustus, when he instituted a general restoration of the roads of Italy, which he assigned for the purpose among various senators, reserved the Flaminia for himself, and rebuilt all the bridges except the Pons Mulvius, by which it crosses the Tiber, 2 m.
77 (see Cales), and Trajan, as inscriptions show, repaired several bridges along the road.
93, 8), one arch of which and all the piers are still standing; and went on, followed at first by the modern road to Sangemini which passes over two finely preserved ancient bridges, past Carsulae to Mevania, and thence to Forum Flaminii.
The west building, the traces of bridges and roads, show that at one time it did hold some relation to Mycenae; but this was long after its foundation or the building of the huge Cyclopean supporting wall which is coeval with the walls of Tiryns, these again being earlier than those of Mycenae.
The flora and also (though to a less degree) the fauna present not only Asian and Central African affinities, but, what is more interesting, Mascarene, South African and Antipodean-American relationships, indicating a very different distribution of land and water and necessitating other bridges of communication than now exist.
Beaucaire is situated on the right bank of the Rhone, opposite Tarascon, with which it is connected by two handsome bridges, a suspension-bridge of four spans and 1476 ft.
The engineer under whose direction the tower was constructed was Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (born at Dijon on the 15th of December 1832), who had already had a wide experience in the construction of large metal bridges, and who designed the huge sluices for the Panama Canal, when it was under the French company.
Bridges are made of posts, carrying a framework either covered with timber or with pine branches and earth.
of Philadelphia, and opposite Bethlehem, with which it is connected by bridges.
Brooklyn is connected with Manhattan by three bridges across the East river - the lowest, known as the Brooklyn, opened in 1883; another, known as the Williamsburg or East River bridge, opened in 1903; and a third, the Manhattan, was opened in 1909.
wide, the cutting of Donnaz, and the Roman bridges of Chatillon (Pont St Vincent) and Aosta (Pont de Pierre), &c.
A broad strip of park lands lies between them, through which runs the river Torrens, crossed by five bridges and greatly improved by a dam on the west of the city.
Five lofty bridges have been thrown over the Aar, the two most modern being the Kirchfeld and Kornhaus bridges which have greatly contributed to create new residential quarters near the old town.
Other officers were the Burggraf 2 or praefectus for military matters, including the preservation of the town's defences, walls, moat, bridges and streets, to whom also appertained some jurisdiction over the craft-gilds in matters relating to their crafts; further the customs-officer or teleonarius and the mint-master or monetae magister.
delphia & Reading railways, and is connected by two long; bridges with South Bethlehem.
The fords could not be used; several existing bridges were carried away, and attempts to throw new bridges were unsuccessful.
Henriquez had difficult mountainous country to cross before he reached the plain, and both he and Wurm were held up on the Isonzo, where the bridges had been destroyed by the retreating Italians.
Army, whose task had been rendered more difficult by the fact that the permanent bridges at Casarsa had been blown up prematurely, owing to a false alarm.
It had been impossible to keep the Casarsa bridges for the III.
Some of these succeeded in crossing at the Latisana bridges, but the enemy attacked in considerable force the following day, and a large number of Italians were cut off and taken prisoners.
The two rivers divide the town into three nearly equal parts, communicating with each other by bridges.
Above these two bridges the rivers are accessible only to river navigation.
Here, too, remains of two bridges may be seen, and several rich tombs have been excavated.
In the limestone regions caverns and natural bridges occur, among which Luray Cavern and the Natural Bridge are well known.
The class of simple frames includes many of the frameworks used in the construction of roofs, lattice girders and suspension bridges; a number of examples will be found in the article BRIDGES.
In relation to the theory of suspension bridges the case where the weight of any portion of the chain varies as its horizontal projection is of interest.
Rectangular piers of bridges and other buildings, and arch-stones I: 3
There are four islands in the Pegnitz, which is crossed here by fourteen bridges.
GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799), the first president of the United States, was born at Bridges Creek, Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the 22nd (Old Style 11th) of February 1732.
John took up land at Bridges Creek, became a member of the House of Burgesses in 1666, and died in 1676.
The Orontes flows winding past the city and is spanned by four bridges.
above sea-level,, near the right bank of the Po, which here is crossed by road and railway bridges, just below the confluence of the Trebia.
He became master of requests in 1806, and next year prefect of the Cote d'Or, councillor of state and director-general of bridges and roads in 1809, and count of the empire in the autumn of the same year.
South of Ostermalm, and east of the Kungstradgard and Staden, lies the peninsula of Blasieholm (formerly an island) and, connected by bridges, the islands of Skeppsholm and Kastellholm, the three forming the foreground in the beautiful seaward view from the Norrbro.
Throughout the country bridges were shattered, roads were broken up like ploughed fields, and the beds of rivers were dislocated.
of the site of the town, traversed by the Cremera brook, are the ruins of two ancient bridges and of some baths of the Roman period; and here is also the Ponte Sodo, a natural tunnel, artificially enlarged, through which.
It is a railway centre, has two Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, two bridges across the Neckar, handsome streets in the modern quarter of the town and fine promenades and gardens.
The fifth road, IsfahanAhvaz, 280 rn., is the old mule track provided with some bridges, and improved by freeing it of boulders and stones, &c., at a total cost of 5500.
The massive iron bridges across the dock entrances are opened and closed by hydraulic power, which is likewise applied to the cranes, coal-hoists, warehouse-lifts and other machinery about.
281), King lEthelberht exchanges five hides of folkland for five hides of bookland which had formerly belonged to a thane, granting the latter for the newly-acquired estates exemption from all fiscal exactions except the threefold public obligation of attending the fyrd and joining in the repair of fortresses and bridges.
of Passau, on the left bank of the Danube, which is there crossed by two iron bridges.
The Portuguese troops cut Massena's communications; the peasants, under instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Massena might retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus.
It occupies rising ground on both banks of the Maine, which are united by three bridges.