His heart felt like a brick in his stomach.
He danced out of the room singing, "She's a Brick House".
"Dealing with you is like beating my head against a brick wall!" she snapped.
A fire was made up in the dilapidated brick stove.
He was running into more brick walls than an overworked mason.
Many of the houses are of brick decorated with glazed tiles.
Dumb as a brick, but in the bedroom, my God–amaaaaazing!
I have thus a tight shingled and plastered house, ten feet wide by fifteen long, and eight-feet posts, with a garret and a closet, a large window on each side, two trap doors, one door at the end, and a brick fireplace opposite.
She sensed a brick wall and hesitated, considering.
A red brick municipal building stood at the far end of the street ahead of us.
As a river-port and the terminus of railways from Varna and from Sofia via Trnovo, it has much commercial importance; and it possesses tobacco and cigarette factories, soap-works, breweries, aerated water factories, dyeworks, tanneries, sawmills, brick and tile works and a celebrated pottery.
All my charm and diplomacy is hitting a brick wall.
A gray brick house dominated the landscape, its ranch style sprawling in a U shape with a garage on one end.
Nazario e Celso), a small structure in the form of a Latin cross with a dome (in which, as in the baptistery of Neon, the old cathedral, &c., the constructional use of amphorae is noteworthy), with a plain brick exterior, and rich mosaics on a dark blue ground within.
There are numerous tile and brick works in the department.
Jackson stopped and gently pushed her against the brick wall they were walking by.
in length) and an ancient brick arch (called the Arco del Sacramento), while below the town is the Ponte Lebroso, a bridge of the Via Appia over the Sabbato, and along the road to Avellino are remains of thermae.
Twelve dollars later I was let off at a shabby red brick building in a section of town where no tour busses stop.
The houses in many instances are built of stone (a circumstance which indicates the former wealth of the city, as the material had to be brought from a very considerable distance); and remains of a brick wall, 3 m.
An hour later, she dismounted her bike and leaned it against the brick front of the art gallery where her work was displayed.
Dean knew the Parkside Sentinel would be going full steam later in the day, so he stopped by the red brick building on his way to work.
All he needed was a nice brick wall to halt the nagging speculation Byrne might have skipped—like a body or something equally definitive.
Maybe Scranton would provide the brick wall he was looking for and end this silly speculation.
Berhampur was fixed upon after the battle of Plassey as the site of the chief military station for Bengal; and a huge square of brick barracks was erected in 1767, at a cost of 30o,000.
The 15th-century castle in the north-east corner of the town erected by the Venetians is a picturesque brick building.
He did not know that the brick buildings, built to plan, were being built by serfs whose manorial labor was thus increased, though lessened on paper.
Finally, there was a nice, solid brick wall ending speculation on this matter.
"Let's see if the brick building has a museum or historical collection of some kind," Betsy said as we approached the building.
the use of blind arches as an external decoration, and of brick cornices with the points of the bricks projecting like the teeth of a saw, the use of pulvini (cushions) above the capitals of columns and under the spring of an arch, &c. &c., the use of round arches springing direct from these cushions, spherical pendentives, &c.
The exterior brick walls are divided by shallow arches and pilasters, as in other churches of Ravenna.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
The homestead consisted of a threshing floor, outhouses, stables, a bathhouse, a lodge, and a large brick house with semicircular facade still in course of construction.
On all sides there were waste spaces with only stoves and chimney stacks still standing, and here and there the blackened walls of some brick houses.
Asheville is a market for live-stock, dairy products, lumber and fruits, and has various manufactories (in which a good water-power is utilized), including tanneries, cotton mills, brick and tile factories, and a wood-working and veneer plant.
It is a quiet, typically Dutch town, with its old brick houses and tree-bordered canals.
If what I'm seeing isn't some kind of joke, I'm at the end of the yellow brick road.
The town has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college, flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and glass and brick works; the port has trade in grain, timber, hemp, flax, &c.
The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
It had in 1909 a property of 2345 acres (of which 1000 were farm lands, 1145 pasture and wood lands, and 200 school campus), and loo buildings, many of brick, and nearly all designed and constructed, even to the making of the bricks, by the teachers and students.
The manufactures comprise sheet-iron, boilers, zinc, brick and tiles, paraffin, petroleum, soap and candles.
De Granier died in September 1602, and the new bishop entered on the administration of his vast diocese, which, as a contemporary says, "he found brick and left marble."
On the Constantins platz stands the magnificent brick basilica, probably of the age of Constantine, though the south and east walls are modern.
On all his estates Pierre saw with his own eyes brick buildings erected or in course of erection, all on one plan, for hospitals, schools, and almshouses, which were soon to be opened.
The beds made partly of old mushroom-bed dung often contain sufficient spawn to yield a crop, without the introduction of brick or cake spawn, but it is advisable to spawn them in the regular way.
Cannock has tool, boiler, brick and tile works.
The south pavilion of the present house is the original brick building, one and a half storeys high, first occupied by Jefferson in 1770.
To the south-west of the Forum are the remains of three small temples, one dedicated to Venus, and a well-preserved Mithraeum, with mosaics representing the seven planets, &c. To the south-west again is the conspicuous brick cella of a lofty temple, on arched substructures, generally supposed to be that of Vulcan, with a threshold block of africano (Euboean) marble over 15 ft.
The brick and opus reticulatum facing of the walls is especially fine.
On the south side of the façade is a large brick campanile, and the foundations of another may be seen on the north.
Francesco, probably the earliest Franciscan church in northern Italy (1230-1298; now a prison), is a Gothic building in brick with a fine rose-window.
Near Woolwich Common there are brick and tile kilns and sand and chalk pits, and there are extensive marketgardens in the locality.
The principal modern monument to the poet's memory in Stratford is the Shakespeare Memorial, a semi-Gothic building of brick, stone and timber, erected in 1877 to contain a theatre, picture gallery and library.
The spinning and weaving of cotton and the manufacture of hosiery, of both of which Troyes is the centre, are the main industries of the department; there are also a large number of distilleries, tanneries, oil works, tile and brick works, flour-mills, saw-mills and dyeworks.
The cat cemetery on the west side of the town consisted of numbers of large brick chambers, crammed with burnt and decayed mummies, many of which had been enclosed in cat-shaped cases of wood and bronze.
Half a day's journey beyond, at a point where two great wadis enter the Euphrates, on the Syrian side, stands Jabriya, an unidentified ruined town of Babylonian type, with walls of unbaked brick, instead of the stone heretofore encountered.
It is served by the Morris & Essex division of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western railway and by the Orange branch of the Erie (the former having three stations in the city - Grove Street, East Orange and Brick Church), and is connected with Newark, Orange and West Orange by electric line.
And Bogdanich was a brick: he told you you were saying what was not true.
Just then, an elderly woman emerged from the back of the red brick structure.
airing yards are provided for each sex in the different departments, bounded by high brick walls.
Here are iron, machinery and brick works, tanneries, distilleries, and factories for jam, mustard and mead.
The cathedral, a beautiful church, was consecrated in 1084, but of this early building only foundation walls remain; the present structure of brick was begun in 1215, and enlarged and restored at various later dates.
The brick tower in Pavia in which he was confined was, and still is, an object of reverence to the country people.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
for a free grammar school at his name-place, Wainfleet, sufficient to produce for the chantry-priest-schoolmaster Lro a year, the same salary as the headmaster of Magdalen School, and built the school which still exists almost untouched, a fine brick building with two towers, 76 ft.
Aston Hall, erected by Sir Thomas Holte in 1618-1635, is an admirable architectural example of its period, built of red brick.
The government barrack is a rather imposing structure in the middle of the town, as is the cathedral church to the east, built of stone and buttressed with brick.
The interior is of brick, plastered and decorated with frescoes.
The church of St Nicholas was built of brick in 1821; and there are a town hall and a custom-house.
The town possesses breweries, tanneries, malthouses, flour-mills, saw-mills, brick and tile works, potteries and an iron foundry; its trade in butter is considerable.
Brick, tile, sewer-pipe, and hydraulic cement are manufactured, and there are railway repair shops.
In the vicinity are large deposits of coal, of glass-sand, and of clay suitable for brick and tile.
The city's manufactures include glass, brick, tile, carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, pianos and organs and cigars.
Rose Hall, in the vicinity, is a moated manor of brick, of the 16th century.
Printing works, malting, brick and tile, and agricultural implement works are the chief industries.
Smith and fifty-nine others lost their lives; and St Paul's Church, where Jefferson Davis was attending services, on the 2nd of April 1865, when he received news from 1 As built in Richmond in 1845 by Luther Libby, it was a brick structure, three storeys high in front and four in the rear.
The Palazzo del Podesta, now a private house, is a brick building of the 15th century.
Brick and more rarely stone took the place of wood and wattle.
But in the 13th century the Venetians began to pave the more frequented streets with brick.
During the middle ages the walls of Venetian buildings were constructed invariably of brick.
The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.
The campanile is usually a plain brick shaft with shallow pilasters running up the faces.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
A special brick structure was erected in the public gardens to receive the works of contemporary artists, both Italian and foreign.
Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and sand suitable for making glass.
The old Museum of Fine Arts (1876) is a red brick edifice in modern Gothic style, with trimmings of light stone and terra-cotta.
On the 9th-1 oth of November 1872 a terrible fire swept the business part of the city, destroying hundreds of buildings of brick and granite, and inflicting a loss of some $75,000,000.
The place figured frequently as a frontier fortress in the wars of the Romans and the Parthians, its brick walls being unusually thick and its citadel very strong.
in depth, and lining the sides of this with wood or brick.
It is in the Vermilion coal region, and clay for brick and tile is abundant in its vicinity.
The city's manufactures include glass, brick, tile, foundry and machine-shop products, &c. In 1905 the factory product was valued at $1,888,894, being 51.4% greater than in 1900.
Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.
wide, paved with brick and asphalt, and well shaded.
It' is a picturesque old town with several brick houses of the 16th and 17th centuries.
north of the present city, where ruins of brick and stone buildings, with three lofty stupas still standing, cover an area about half a mile long by a quarter broad.
The walls, piers and arches, are all built in brick, covered with stucco, a great portion of which is preserved down to the present day.
The architect is said to have been a Coptic Christian who deprecated the destruction of ancient buildings to obtain columns and blocks of stone, and who undertook to design a mosque which should be built entirely in brick, which when coated with stucco and appropriate decorative designs would rival its predecessors.
As a contrast to the Ahmedabad mosques, the Kadam Rasul mosque at Gaur in Bengal possesses some characteristics which resemble those of the mosque of Tulun in Cairo, possibly due to the fact that it is entirely built in brick, with massive piers carrying pointed arches.
The Babylonians apparently refused to be impressed by the Egyptians in this matter, and went on building temples in brick, probably for the good reason that they could not get any stone.
The town possesses ironfoundries, sack and matting manufactories, tanneries, breweries, corn mills and brick and terra-cotta works.
It became a permanent French settlement in 1688, but did not rise to any importance till the time of Dupleix, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried on.
Its base is Roman, of mingled stone and brick work.
The commercial product of stones, brick and cement is of rapidly increasing importance.
The number of small brick plants is legion, almost all very primitive.
The Russians marched in two columns, which lost touch of one another, and as it was quite impossible for either to engage the French singlehanded, they both retired again towards Smolensk, where with an advanced guard in the town itself - which possessed an oldfashioned brick enceinte not to be breached by field artillery alone - the two columns reunited and deployed for action behind the unfordable Dnieper.
Both the eastern and the western part of the city were formerly enclosed by brick walls, with large round towers at the principal angles and smaller towers intervening at shorter distances, the whole surrounded by a deep fosse.
These walls all fell into decay long since; at places they were used as brick quarries, and finally the great reforming governor, (1868-1872), Midhat Pasha, following the example set by many European cities, undertook to destroy them altogether and utilize the free space thus obtained as a public park and esplanade.
This consists of a huge tower of unburned brick resting on a small hill of debris, the whole rising to a height of loo ft.
Situated in a region where there is no stone, and practically no timber, Bagdad was built, like all the cities of the Babylonian plain, of brick and tiles.
There are several other churches, among them the church of the Jacobins, a brick building of the 13th century, and the church of St Hilaire of the 16th century, which has a modern tower.
to 132 ft.); are paved chiefly with Medina dressed stone, brick and asphalt; and, like the parks, are so well shaded by maples, elms and other trees, that Cleveland has become known as the "Forest City."
Underneath the surface are beds of sand, gravel and clays, the last affording material for the manufacture of brick, tiles and pottery.
The business houses are mostly of brick or stone, and range from two to six storeys in height.
Dover has a fine city hall of red brick and freestone; a public library containing (1907) 34,000 volumes; the Wentworth hospital; the Wentworth home for the aged; a children's and an orphans' home.
Brick and cement making is an important industry, and there are corn and paper mills.
Bangor has various manufactures, the most important of which (other than those dependent upon lumber) are boots and shoes (including moccasins); among others are trunks, valises, saws, stoves, ranges and furnaces, edge tools and cant dogs, saw-mill machinery, brick, clothing, cigars, flour and dairy products.
high, is usually of brick, red brick on the outside, firebrick on the inside; sometimes it is made of wrought iron waterjackets.
Its common adulterants are iron oxides, powdered barytes and brick dust.
Some remains of the town still exist, including a tower of the city wall in brick.
Sepolcro, a circular church with ornamentation in brick and an imitation of opus reticulatum, should probably be attributed to the 6th or 7th centuries.
Francesco, perhaps the finest medieval building in Bologna, begun in 1246 and finished in 1260; it has a fine brick campanile of the end of the 14th century.
The two leaning towers, the Torre Asinelli and the Torre Garisenda, dating from 1109 and 1110 respectively, are among the most remarkable structures in Bologna: they are square brick towers, the former being 320 ft.
cigarette factories, small chocolate factories, hat factories, brick and tile yards, potteries, tanneries, saddleries, and many other small industries common to all large communities.
The brick campanile has small columns with little pointed arches.
The chief buildings are of brick, but most of the natives dwell in grass tukls.
It is built of brick, is a fine specimen of Pointed Gothic, and was designed by Agostino and Agnolo.
Siena is indeed unsurpassed for its examples of 13th and 14th century Italian Gothic, whether in stone or in brick.
above sea-level, in a wheat-growing region, in which bituminous coal, limestone, and brick and potter's clay abound.
Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..
His house (of red brick, like the other old houses of the town) was restored in 1823 and fitted up with old furniture.
The transepts, added in the 13th and, 4th centuries (before 1370), have picturesque brick façades, with fine terra-cotta ornamentation.
On the side of the Piazza del Comune opposite to the cathedral are two 13th-century Gothic palaces in brick, the Palazzo Comunale and the former Palazzo dei Giureconsulti, now the seat of the commissioners for the water regulation of the district.
Brick earth overlies it from Kensington to Brentford and west thereof, and appears in Chelsea and Fulham, Hornsey and Stoke Newington, and in patches south of the Thames between Battersea and Richmond.
While stone is the material used in the construction of the majority of great buildings of London, some modern examples (notably the Westminster Roman Catholic cathedral) are of red brick with stone dressings; and brick is in commonest use for general domestic building.
A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile.
The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.
thick; then succeeded a portion wholly of brick, terminating in battlements topped with copings of stone.
The ground was originally a Roman Cemetery, and about the year 1576 bricks were largely made from the clayey earth, the recollection of which is kept alive in the name of Brick Lane.
Although for several centuries attempts had been made in favour of building houses with brick or stone, yet the carpenters continued to be the chief housebuilders.
As late as the year 1650 the Carpenters' Company drew up a memorial in which they " gave their reasons that tymber buildings were more commodious for this citie than brick buildings were."
After setting forth that " building with brick was not only more comely and durable, but also more safe against future perils of fire," it was enacted " that all the outsides of all buildings in and about the city should be made of brick or stone, except doorcases and windowframes, and other parts.
Coal, fireclay and blue and red brick clay are dug in the neighbourhood; and there are also market gardens.
Of red the varieties are fewer; the finest is a crimson red of very beautiful tint, and there are various gradations from this to a dull brick red.
The Piazza dei Signori contains picturesque brick battlemented palaces - the Salone del Gran Consiglio (1184) and the Palazzo del Commune (1268).(1268).
In Babylonia the abundance of clay and want of stone led to the employment of brick; the Babylonian temples are massive but shapeless structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains, one of which at Ur was of lead.
The use of brick led to the early development of the pilaster and column, as well as of frescoes and enamelled tiles.
Assyria in this, as in other matters, the servile pupil of Babylonia, built its palaces and temples of brick, though stone was the natural building material of the country, even preserving the brick platform, so necessary in the marshy soil of Babylonia, but little needed in the north.
As time went on, however, the later Assyrian architect began to shake himself free from Babylonian influences and to employ stone as well as brick.
Many of the tombs, which were built of crude brick, were provided with gardens, and there were shelves or altars on which were placed the offerings to the dead.
Besides its copper works the town at present possesses extensive tinplate, steel and galvanized sheet works as well as iron and brass foundries, steam-engine factories, brick and tile works, engineering works, flannel factories and chemical works.
Corona (1260-1300), both of brick, are better examples of Gothic than the cathedral; both contain interesting works of art - the latter a very fine "Baptism of Christ," by Giovanni Bellini.
The portal is of 1154, and the Lombardesque square brick tower of 1160.
In a dry state it becomes hard and bakes to a brick.
The church of St Martin is a brick building of the 17th century in the Gothic style with a modern facade.
To start a new furnace, the front side is closed provisionally by a brick wall, a fire lighted inside, and the temperature raised very gradually to a white heat.
Iron manufactures are extensive; there are also brick and tile works and breweries.
The town is enclosed by nearly square brick walls, flanked by massive round towers, dating from the time of the caliphs, but now falling into decay.
Several of the original low brick buildings, built between 1816 and 1820r still stand.
Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.
The brick enclosure wall of the temple is still plainly visible near the little village of Sa el hagar (Sa of stone) on the east bank of the Rosetta branch, but the royal tombs and other monuments of Sais, some of which were described by Herodotus, and its inscribed records, have all gone.
Only crude brick ruins and rubbish heaps remain on the site, but a few relics conveyed to Alexandria and Europe in the Roman age have come down to our day, notably the inscribed statue of a priest of Neith who was high in favour with Psammetichus III., Cambyses and Darius.
The Rectory Tower, a turreted gate-house of brick, dates from c. 1495.
The great mosque (Jamaa-el-Kebir) has a brick minaret 112 ft.
Zeno, rebuilt in 1123, are an interesting example of brick and marble construction.
Zeno is mainly built of mixed brick and stone in alternate bands: four or five courses of fine red brick lie between bands of hard creamcoloured limestone or marble, forming broad stripes of red and white all over the wall.
A similarly variegated effect in red and white is produced by building the arches of windows and doors with alternating voussoirs in brick and marble.
On the north side of the church is a lofty tower, called the tower of Peppin; while the slender brick campanile on the south dates from 1045 to 1178.
It consists of a nave in six bays, aisles, transepts, each with two eastern chapels, and an apse, all vaulted with simple quadripartite brick groining.
It is mainly built of red brick, with fine nave columns of red and white marble and an elaborate marble pavement inlaid in many different patterns.
The façade is of brick and marble used alternately.
The early palaces of Verona, before its conquest by Venice, were of noble and simple design, mostly built of fine red brick, with an inner court, surrounded on the ground floor by open arches like a cloister, as, for example, the Palazzo della Ragione, an assize court, begun in the r 2th century.
Zeno and the cathedral, both of which were mainly rebuilt Arci?i in the 12th century, are noble examples of the Lombardic style, with few single-light windows, and with the walls decorated externally by series of pilasters, and by alternating bands of red and white, in stone or brick.
There were in 1906 upwards of a thousand houses, many of them substantially built of brick.
In these thoroughfares and in several of the streets which intersect them are the offices of the mining companies, the banks, clubs, newspaper offices, hotels and shops, the majority being handsome stone or brick buildings, while the survival of some wooden shanties and corrugated iron buildings recalls the early character of the town.
The other industries of Johannesburg include brewing, printing and bookbinding, timber sawing, flour milling, iron and brass founding, brick making and the manufacture of tobacco.
The government offices are well-built brick structures.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick shale are found in the vicinity.
Among, the city's manufactures are refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt, ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour.
Among the leading products are those of the furnaces, foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, planing mills, creameries, bridge and iron works, publishing houses and a packing house; and brick, tile, pottery, patent medicines, furniture, caskets, tombstones, carriages, farm machinery, Portland cement, glue, gloves and?hosiery.
Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.
After a short pastorate at Brandon, Vermont, he was successively professor of English literature in the University of Vermont (1845-1852), professor of sacred rhetoric in Auburn Theological Seminary (1852-1854), professor of church history in Andover Theological Seminary (1854-1862), and, after one year (1862-1863) as associate pastor of the Brick Church of New York City, of sacred literature (1863-1874) and of systematic theology (1874-1890) in Union Theological Seminary.
The mud houses in rear of the bazaars are for the most part uninhabited and in ruins, and even the burnt brick buildings are becoming everywhere dilapidated.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on piles at the edges of the innumerable canals and water-courses which formed the thoroughfares, but to meet the requirements of modern life, well-planned roads and streets have been constructed in all directions, crossing the old canals at many points and lined with well-built houses, for the most part of brick, in which the greater part of the erstwhile riparian population now resides.
Those of economic value are kaolin, mined chiefly in the vicinity of Hockessin, New Castle county, the static kaolin product being exceeded in 1903 only by that of Pennsylvania among the states of the United States; granite, used for road-making and rough construction work, found near Wilmington; and brick and tile clays; but the value of their total product in 1902 was less than $500,000.
As the roads advance other pillars are driven through in the same manner, the passages first made being closed by stoppings of broken rock, or built up with brick and mortar walls, or both.
This difficulty was overcome by first filling the cylinder with porous briquettes and then soaking them with a fixed percentage of acetone, so that after allowing for the space taken up by the bricks the quantity of acetone soaked into the brick will absorb ten times the normal volume of the cylinder in acetylene for every atmosphere of pressure to which the gas is subjected, whilst all danger of explosion is eliminated.
Brick, porcelain and glassworks employ large numbers of the inhabitants.
Brick is the ordinary building material, and the dwelling-houses are mostly of one storey.
Nearly all the stucco-fronted brick houses, with flat roofs and cornices and wide spreading stoeps, of the early Dutch settlers have been replaced by shops, warehouses and offices in styles common to English towns.
Many of these buildings are of considerable architectural merit, the material chiefly used in their construction being granite from the Paarl and red brick.
St Paul's was a fine Gothic church of brick, built by the Baganda in 1901-1904.
Among the city's manufactures are boilers, machines, glass, chemicals, terra cotta, brick, iron pipes and couplings, gas engines, cutlery and silk.
was first formed in 470 B.C. by the "synoecism" of the neighbouring villages, the river Ophis flowed through the midst of it, and the Spartan king Agesipolis dammed it up below the town and so flooded out the Mantineians and sapped their walls, which were of unbaked brick.
Accordingly, when the city was rebuilt in 370 B.C., the river Ophis was divided into, two branches, which between them encircled the walls; and the walls themselves were constructed to a height of about 3 to 6 feet of stone, the rest being of unbaked brick.
broad at the top. The streets are paved with brick and are wide, straight and clean.
Among its industrial establishments are sugarrefineries, iron-foundries, breweries, machine-shops and brick works.
Second in value to the various stones were the clay products of the state, which were valued in 1906 at $2,172,733 (of which $1,415,864 was the value of common brick) and in 1908 at $1,647,362 (of which $950,921 was the value of common brick).
The most notable of the mosques is the Mir-Arab, built in the 16th century, with its beautiful lecture halls; the chief mosque of the emir is the Mejid-kalyan, or Kok-humbez, close by which stands a brick minaret, 203 ft.
Most of it was made, by bursting the rock by means of wooden wedges, through the solid granite, and its outside parapet was supported by walls of brick resting on ledges far below.
Among the more important public buildings must be noticed the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche), a handsome brick edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, the government offices and the theatre.
Hampton is an agricultural shipping point, ships fish, oysters and canned crabs, and manufactures fish oil and brick.
The necropolis, too, has been discovered, but not systematically excavated; but objects of the first Iron age, including a sword of Aegean type (thus confirming the tradition), have been found; also remains of a building with Doric columns of an archaistic type, remains of later buildings in brick, and inscriptions, some of them of considerable interest.
At Baiae itself there exist three large and lofty domed buildings, two octagonal, one circular, and all circular in the interior, of opus reticulatum and brick, which, though popularly called temples, are remains of baths or nymphaea.
The common bricks made in New York in 1908 were valued at $5,066,084, an amount in excess of that in any other state; and the total value of brick and tile products was $7,270,981, being less than that of Ohio, Pennsylvania or Illinois.
The inner town, surrounded by a dilapidated brick wall, at the gates of which octroi duties are still levied, is a dirty Oriental city, with the usual narrow streets.
The city's principal manufactures are carriages, ploughs, brick, machinery, sanitary ware and plumber's goods.
The emperor's boast that he had found the city of brick but left it of marble (` ` marmoream se relinquere, quam latericiam accepisset," Suet.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
For moderate spans brick, masonry or concrete can be used without excessive cost, but for longer spans steel is more economical, and for very long spans its use is imperative.
For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression is the most natural form.
They are generally of brick and concrete.
An important series of experiments on the strength of masonry, brick and concrete structures will be found in the Zeitschr.
The interior of the well is generally filled up with concrete or brick when the required depth has been reached.
A great change of method arose when iron cylinders and in some cases brick cylinders Cross Bridge.
In the case of the Empress bridge over the Sutlej each pier consisted of three brick wells, 19 ft.
by 28 ft., sunk about ioo ft., lined with brick and filled with concrete.
There are ship and boat building yards, engineering works, lead and copper smelting works, cement works and brick and tile works.
part of which was a pyramidal tower of two stages, constructed of sun-dried brick, cased with a wall of kiln-burned brick, the whole still standing to a height of about 70 ft.
The extensive use as building material of cream-coloured brick made in the vicinity gives the city its nickname, "the Cream City."
Wauwatosa has important manufactures, including machinery, brick, lime, beer, chemicals and wooden-ware, and extensive market gardens and nurseries and valuable stone quarries.
Cotton mills, iron foundries, brick and tile works, and collieries employ the large industrial population.
Since that time the ruins have served as quarries for bricks for the building of Nejef, and at the present time little remains but holes in the ground, representing excavations for bricks, with broken fragments of brick and glass strewn over a considerable area.
Good clays for the manufacture of tile and brick are found at numerous places.
Rice-mills, saw-mills and a few distilleries of locally consumed liquor, one or two brick and tile factories, and here and there a shed in which coarse pottery is made, are all Siam has in the way of factories.
Other buildings of interest are the guildhall, a 15th-century structure of brick; Shodfriars Hall, a half-timbered house adjacent to slight remains of a Dominican priory; the free grammar school, founded in 1554, with a fine gateway of wrought iron of the 17th century brought from St Botolph's church; and the Hussey Tower of brick, part of a mansion of the 16th century.
The city's foreign trade is light (the value of its imports was $859,442 in 1907; of its exports $664,525), but its river traffic is heavy, amounting to about 3,000,000 tons annually, and being chiefly in general merchandise (including food-stuffs, machinery and manufactured products), ores and metals, chemicals and colours, stone and sand and brick.
At West New Brighton is a large dyeing establishment, there are also ship-building yards, oyster fisheries, and truck farms, and among the maufactures are linoleum, paper, white lead, linseed oil, brick, and fire-clay products.
The houses are built with thick walls of stone and brick round open courts, in the Moorish style, and their ironbarred doors and windows give them the appearance of being a part of the fortifications.
This is the remains of the raised platform of unbaked brick, faced with baked bricks and stone, on which stood the principal palaces and temples of the city, the cone at the N.W.
The situation, with its wooded hills and neighbouring islands, is no less beautiful than that of other south-coast towns, but the substitution of brick for wood as building material after a fire in 1892 made against the picturesqueness of the town.
Buildings, &c. - Brick, blue limestone, and a greyish buff freestone are the most common building materials, and the city has various buildings of much architectural merit.
The business houses are of stone or brick, and many of them are attractive architecturally; there are a number of modern office buildings from 15 to 20 storeys in height.
Brick, potter's and tile clays are obtained most largely along the west border of the Coastal Plain, and fire-clay from the coal region of West Maryland; in 1907 the value of clay products was $1,886,362.
The ark, or citadel, in the southwest extremity of the city, now used as an arsenal, is a noble building of burnt brick with mighty walls and a tower 120 ft.
Its only noteworthy building is an ancient castle, constructed of brick.
The Parliament House, standing on the crown of the eastern hill, is a massive square brick building with a pillared freestone facade approached by a broad flight of steps.
The grammar-schools, founded in 1594 and endowed with the revenues of a suppressed gild, include a school of the second and a school of the third grade, the former a building of red brick in the Renaissance style erected in 1880, and the latter an old Elizabethan structure.
The mosque to which the tower belongs is a large brick building erected by `Abd el Mumin; the interior is adorned with marble pillars, and the whole of the crypt is occupied by a vast cistern excavated by Yakub el Mansur.
The church of St Mary existed at a very early period, but the present building, chiefly of brick, was erected in 1535 by Robert Thorne, a merchant, and Sir George Monoux, lord mayor of London, and has undergone frequent alteration.
It is a shipping and transfer point and has paper mills, machine shops, flour mills, sash, door and blind factories, a launch and pleasure-boat factory, and knitting works, cheese factories and dairies, brick yards and grain elevators.
The city is especially important as a salmon fishing and packing centre (cod, halibut and smaller fish also being abundant); it has also an extensive lumber trade, important lumber manufactories, pressed brick and terra-cotta factories, and dairy interests.
Other important manufactures are bicycles, brick and other clay products, brooms, brushes, and cotton and woollen goods.
The extensive additions and alterations made by Wren according to the taste of the King resulted in a severely plain edifice of brick; the orangery, added in Queen Anne's time, is a better example of the same architect's work.
Most of the houses are built of brick, but some are of wood.
Bridgwater has a considerable coasting trade, importing grain, coal, wine, hemp, tallow and timber, and exporting Bath brick, farm produce, earthenware, cement and plaster of Paris.
Bath brick, manufactured only here, and made of the mingled sand and clay deposited by every tide, is the staple article of commerce; iron-founding is also carried on.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
The quantity of brick tea thus exported in 1904 was upwards of 10 million lb.
The Swinton industrial schools, opened in February 1846, are a fine range of buildings of brick with stone facings, surrounded with grounds extending to 20 acres.
Vast cemeteries of animals which belonged to the revered species have been discovered; more especially may be mentioned that of the cats at Bubastis, the remains of which, charred by some great fire, until recently filled numberless chambers of crude brick in the ruins at Zagazig.
It is the highest brick edifice in Europe, its summit being 510 ft.
at the top, is well known, inasmuch as they were standing till about 1600; and the north gate, the Porta Palatina, still exists; it has a double opening, and two orders of arches above, and is flanked by two sixteen-sided brick towers.
Brick and broken stone are chiefly used in the walls, which are plastered outside and tinted.
The choir is largely constructed of brick, and thus affords an unusually early example of the use of this material in English ecclesiastical architecture.
The many quaint old brick houses form the chief feature of interest in the town.
and N., with collieries, and at Church Bridge are brick, tile, and edge-tool works.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
Among the manufactures of Fishkill Landing are rubber-goods, engines (Corliss) and other machinery, hats, silks, woollens, and brick and tile.
The plaza itself had been converted from a barren, sandy square into a well-shaded park, through the efforts of the Woman's Board of Trade, an unique institution, which also controls the public library, housed in a brick and stone building (1907) in the Mission style of architecture.
The chief manufactures of Santa Fe are brick, pottery (made by Pueblo Indians), and filigree jewelry (made by Mexican artisans).
brick or cement.
The parish church of St Mary is a fine Decorated building, containing monuments of the L'Estrange family, whose mansion, Hunstanton Hall, is a picturesque Tudor building of brick in a well-wooded park.
G, Outer wall of the colonnade built of brick, now missing.
The back of the colonnade was built of brick, and is now missing, as are all the brick parts of the palace, owing to the bricks having been only sun-dried.
of the walls above the ground are made of large blocks of stone bedded in clay; above this the wall was of brick, sun-dried, and covered with stucco.
There is an extensive area in the south-east part of the state containing shale clay of a superior quality for making common brick.
In 1908 the state ranked first in the value of its output of brick and tile ($ 18, 9 81, 743), which was 14.74% of the entire product of the United States, and was second only to Ohio in the total value of its clay products ($14,842,982), which was 11.14% of that for the entire country.
It is constructed of brick in a pure Gothic style.
There are iron foundries, breweries, distilleries, rope and sail works, coachbuilding yards, steam joinery works, and brick and tile works.
On account of these properties, builders have come to give it a distinct preference over stone, brick, timber and other building materials.
(a) The church itself occupies the site of an older brick building, which is perhaps a remnant of the " workshop of Pheidias " seen by Pausanias.
Only the lower part of the cella wall was of stone, the rest being of unbaked brick; the entablature above the columns was of wood covered with terracotta.
It consisted of a half-dome of brick, 54 ft.
The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern English style.
It owes its origin to the marquis de la Mina, who, about 1754, did much for the city, and is regularly laid out, the houses being built of brick after a uniform pattern.
The older houses are of brick, overlaid with white or tinted plaster, and ornamented with figures or foliage in terra-cotta; but owing to the great changes of temperature in Rumania, the plaster soon cracks and peels off, giving a dilapidated appearance to many streets.
The Orthodox Greek churches are generally small, with very narrow windows, and are built of brick in a modified Byzantine style.
Excellent wine is made, and flour-milling, leather-working, brick and candle making and soap-boiling are the chief industries.
It is built of brick cased in marble from the quarries which Gian Galeazzo Visconti gave in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter.
It is a brick edifice with a portico on the ground floor and a large hall on the upper.
The church was built by St Ambrose early in the 4th-century (on the site of a temple of Bacchus it is said), but as it stands it is a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, recently well restored (like many other churches in Milan), with a brick exterior, like so many churches of Milan and Lombardy, curious galleries over the facade, and perhaps the most perfectly preserved atrium in existence.
The lofty brick campanile (789-824) is among the earliest in Italy, and is decorated with coloured majolica disks.
south of Milan, is a fine brick building in the plan of a Latin cross, with nave and two aisles with round pillars, with a lofty domed tower, in the so-called Romanesque Transition style, having comparatively slender round pillars and cross vaulting, while the exterior is still quite Romanesque.
Marco, modernized inside, still retains a beautiful facade of 1254 and a tower - in brick as elsewhere - and contains another tomb by Balduccio.
On the bank of the Potomac is a brick house which was for several years the home of Francis Scott Key, author of "The Star-Spangled Banner"; on Analostan Island in the river was a home of James Murray Mason; Georgetown Heights was the home of the popular novelist, Mrs Emma Dorothy Eliza Nevitte Southworth (1819-1899).
As brick is more easily built hollow than stone, it is to be preferred for garden walls.
The pathways should be paved with tiles, brick or stone, or made of concrete and cement, and the surface should be gently rounded so that the water required for evaporation may drain to the sides while the centre is sufficiently dry to walk upon; they should also have brick or stone edgings to prevent the water so applied soaking away at the sides and thus being wasted.
They may be supported by iron standards or brick piers, back and front, bearing up a flat bar of iron on which the slates may rest; the use of the bar will give wider intervals between the supports, which will be found convenient for filling and emptying the beds.
A type of building which is becoming increasingly popular for this purpose, and which is in many respects superior to the older, and often more expensive structures, is built of wood, with or without brick foundations, and is thickly thatched with reeds or other non-conducting material externally - on walls and roof - while the interior is matchboarded.
If intended to raise the temperature of the structure, they should be set on iron or brick supports just clear of walls, earth or other heatabsorbing bodies.
The borders should consist of 3 parts rich turfy loam, the top spit of a pasture, and i part light gritty earth, such as road-grit, with a small portion (one-sixth) of fine brick rubbish.
Groningen is the most important town in the north of Holland, with its fine shops and houses and wide clean streets, while brick houses of the 16th and 17th centuries help it to retain a certain old-world air.
of the first settlement; almost the only visible remains, however, were the tower of the brick church and a few gravestones.
In 1900 the association for the preservation of Virginia antiquities, to which the site was deeded in 1893, induced the United States government to build a wall to prevent the further encroachment of the river; the foundations of several of the old buildings have since been uncovered, many interesting relics have been found, and in 1907 there were erected a brick church (which is as far as possible a reproduction of the fourth one built in 1639-1647), a marble shaft marking the site of the first settlement, another shaft commemorating the first house of burgesses, a bronze monument to the memory of Captain John Smith, and another monument to the memory of Pocahontas.
Early in the Civil War the Confederates regarded the site (then an island) as of such strategic importance that (near the brick church tower and probably near the site of the first fortifications by the original settlers) they erected heavy earthworks upon it for defence.
1 Latium, from the same root as lotus, side; later, brick; lrXa-r(s, flat; Sans.
It was rebuilt in brick and stone after a destructive fire in 1888.
It retains Perpendicular portions, a south porch of brick of the 16th century and numerous ancient monuments and brasses.
- and nearly all intersect at right angles; they are paved with brick and asphalt, and many in the residential quarters are shaded with fine elms and maples.
Maria in Trivio, erected in 1353 in gratitude for the liberation of the city from a plague which devastated it in 1348, is in the style of contemporary brick campanili in Rome, but built mainly of black selce, with white marble columns at the windows.
At each corner stood a solid brick.
Coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city, manufactures iron, steel, tin plate, electrical and telephone supplies, shovels, boilers, leather, flour, brick and tile, salt, furniture and several kinds of vehicles.
There were soon 50,000 workers on this field, the canvas camp was replaced by a town of brick and iron surrounded by the wooden huts of the natives, and Kimberley became an important centre.
The better sort of houses in Manila have two storeys, the lower one built of brick or stone and the upper one of wood, roofed with red Spanish tile or with corrugated iron; the upper storey contains the living-rooms, and the lower has servants' rooms, store-houses, stables, carriage-houses and poultry yards.
On the west bank of the huge colossi of Memnon marked the entrance of his funerary temple, a magnificent building which was afterwards destroyed, and the great lake of Birket Habu was dug and embanked in front of his brick palace at the extreme south.
Kairawan, in shape an irregular oblong, is surrounded by a crenellated brick wall with towers and bastions and five gates.
Hornell has extensive car shops of the Erie railroad, and among its manufactures are silk goods (silk gloves being a specially important product), sash, doors and blinds, leather, furniture, shoes, white-goods, wire-fences, foundry and machine shop products, electric motors, and brick and tile.
No good building stone was at hand; and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either of volcanic tufa, or lava, or Sarno limestone, or brick (the latter only used for the corners of walls).
In the private houses even the columns are mostly of brick, covered merely with a coat of stucco.
The "quasi-reticulate" period - walling faced with masonry not yet quite so regular as opus reticulatum, and with brick quoins, coinciding with the second period of decoration (the architectural, partly imitating marble like the first style, but without relief, and by colour only, and partly making use of architectural designs).
No homogeneous series of buildings - we find various styles of construction (quasi-reticulate, opus reticulatum of tufa with stone quoins, of the time of Augustus, opus reticulatum with brick quoins or with mingled stone and brick quoins, a little later); and three styles of wall decoration fall within its limits.
Above the town the brick tower of a former castle crowns a hill, commanding a fine view over the Sound.
Paintings from his brush adorn the cathedral (which has a fine brick campanile), and others are preserved in the gallery of the town hall.
The remainder, 80,000,000 lb, is brick China and tablet tea sent entirely to Asiatic and European green tea, Russia.
Of a somewhat different nature is the brick tea prepared chiefly at Ya-chou in Brick t ea the province of Ssu-chuan, for overland transit to Tibet, for Tibet.
See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
It was already surrounded by a wall of crude brick, which rested on stone foundations and was strengthened at certain points by courses of burnt brick.
The wall was pierced by "the gate of Assur," "the gate of the Sun-god," "the gate of the Tigris," &c., and on the river side was a quay of burnt brick and limestone cemented with bitumen.
The industrial establishments comprise cotton-mills, print-works, paper-mills, foundries, and brick and lime works.
There is a fine Tudor gatehouse of brick, and the hall is dated 1663.
Besides chemical manufactures, there are chalk, lime, cement and brick works and a shipbuilding yard.
Its principal manufactures are gunpowder, carpets, brick, cotton press machinery, and coffin hardware.
There are three court-houses, one of granite (1839-1841) with great monolithic Corinthian pillars, another (1862), adjoining it, of brick, and a third (1908-1909) of granite, for the probate court.
The Essex Institute (1848) is housed in a brick building (1851) with freestone trimmings and in old Plummer Hall (1857); its museum contains some old furniture and a collection of portraits; it has an excellent library and publishes quarterly (1859 sqq.) Historical' Collections.
Among the other buildings and institutions are Hamilton Hall (1805); the Franklin Building (1861) of the Salem Marine Society; a large armoury; a state normal school (1854); an orphan asylum (1871), under the Sisters of the Grey Nuns; the Association for the Relief of Aged and Destitute Women (1860), occupying a fine old brick house formerly the home of Benjamin W.
Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and was the first Congregational church organized in America; the Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with a brick meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, and Grace Church (1858).
To the otherwise unfinished brick façade a portal borne by marble columns was added in 1843.
C. i is on the earliest dwellings of man; C. 2 on systems of Thales, Heraclitus, Democritus, &c.; c. 3 on bricks; c. 4 on sand; c. 5 on lime; c. 6 on pozzolana; c. 7 on kinds of stone for building; c. 8 on methods of constructing walls in stone, brick, concrete and marble, and on the materials for stucco; c. 9 on timber, time for felling it, seasoning, &c.; and c. to on the fir trees of the Apennines.
C. t is on selection of sites; c. 2 on the planning of buildings to suit different sites; c. 3 on private houses, their construction and styles, the names of the different apartments; c. 4 on the aspects suited for the various rooms; c. 5 on buildings fitted for special positions; c. 6 on farms and country houses; c. 7 on Greek houses and the names of various parts; c. 8 on construction of houses in wood, stone, brick or concrete.
There are large iron works (including foundries and factories for engines, boilers, chains and cables), shipbuilding yards, glass manufactories, chemical, soap and candle works, brick and tile works, breweries and tanneries.
wide, with a seating capacity of about 15,000, is covered by a steel-frame roof without a column for its support; the exterior of the walls is cut stone and brick.
The basement storey is generally built of the soft calcareous stone of the neighbouring hills, and the upper storey, which contains the harem, of painted brick.
The mosque of Tulun was built entirely in brick, and is the earliest instance of the employment of the pointed arch in Egypt.
Built in brick, it was found necessary to give a more monumental appearance to the walls by a casing of stucco, which remains in fair preservation to the present day.
In Lower Egypt the cities built of crude brick were very numerous, especially after the 7th century B.C., but owing to the value of stone very few of their monuments have escaped destruction: even the mounds of rubbish which marked their sites furnish a valuable manure for the fields and in consequence are rapidly disappearing.
In the north of the Delta wherever salt marshes have prevented cultivation in modern times, the mounds, such as those of Pelusium, still stand to their full height, and the more important are covered with ruins of brick structures of Byzantine and Arab date.
Moulded into brick, without burning, this black clay also supplied the common wants of the builder, and even the palaces of the greatest kings were constructed of crude brick.
According to the paintings of the Middle Kingdom in the tombs of Beni Hasan, the battlements of brick fortresses were attacked and wrenched away with long and massive spears.
Outside its walls there was a huge brick model of the solar bark in which the god daily traversed the heavens.
Tombs of brick with a single chamber were succeeded by tombs of stone with several chambers, until they really merited the name of houses of eternity that the Egyptians gave to them.
92); similarly in building a brick pyramid the axis was marked, and there were supplemental marks two cubits to one side (P.K.
One painted tomb was found at Nekhen (Hieraconpolis), now in the Cairo Museum; the brick walls were color-washed and covered with irregular groups of men, animals and ships, painted with red, black and green.
The cemeteries otherwise only contain graves, cut in gravel or brick lined, and formerly roofed with poles and brushwood.
Elsewhere are but few other monuments; at Wadi Maghara in Sinai is a rock sculpture of Semcrkhet of the 1st Dynasty in perfect state, at Giza is a group of tombs of a prince and retinue of the 1st Dynasty, and at GIza and Bet Khallaf are two large brick mastabas with extensive passages closed by trap-doors, of kings of the IIIrd Dynasty.
His palace lay farther south on the west bank, built of crude brick covered with painted stucco.
The buildings, which are mostly of red brick, are conspicuous against the gray clayey and sandy soil.
Their use in above-water work is checked by the low price of common brick.
inside, a pit lined with brick walls, and originally roofed with timber and matting.
A temple built of sun-dried brick and timber has been found at Thebes underlying an archaic temple of Ismenian Apollo and standing on Mycenaean tombs (Keramopoullos, 1916), and a more extensive settlement was found at Thermon in Aetolia (Romaios, 1911-3).
The_ principal industries are cottonpressing and the manufacture of lumber and of cotton-seed products; sugar and molasses, artificial ice, mineral waters and brick are other manufactures.
It appears at one time to have been embedded in a brick niche, and about 1891 a shed was placed over it, but in 1907 it stood in the open entirely unprotected.
In 1762 he also leased the Brick - House, alias " Bell " works, at Burslem.
There are forty tiers of seating, divided by one diazoma, and crowned by an arched gallery of rather later date, repaired in places with brick.
beautiful cloister (in brick and Verona marble), of the 12th-14th century.
A mixture of pounded brick, clay and ashes was then ground finely in water to the consistence of cream, and successive coats of this mixture were then applied with a brush, till a second skin was formed all over the wax, fitting closely into every line and depression of the modelling.
and elastic bed of cement made of pitch and pounded brick.
a,a, Upright cast-iron cylinders; b,b, brick jacket; c,c, flues; d, e, iron plates arranged like venetian blinds, between which the contact-substance is contained; f, charging hole; g, discharging hole; h, entrance pipe for gas; i, exit pipe for gas.
The latter rests on a brick pillar; the remaining part of the sloping bottom is heated, either by the waste fire from a black-ash furnace or by a special fireplace.
There are some two hundred rectangular tomb buildings in unburnt brick with ornamented fronts.
The poorer houses are built of brick with plaster fronts.
To the north, in the Piazza Stesicoro, is the amphitheatre, a considerable portion of which has been uncovered, including the two corridors which ran round the whole building and gave access to the seats, while a part of the arcades of the exterior has been excavated and left open; the pillars are made of blocks of lava, and the arches of brick.
Of the city of Ghazni, the vast capital of Mahmud and his race, iio substantial relics survive, except the tomb of Mahmud and two remarkable brick minarets.
Foremost among its buildings must be mentioned its five chief churches, stately Gothic edifices in glazed brick, with lofty spires and replete with medieval works of art - pictures, stained glass and tombs.
The Rathaus (town hall) of red and black glazed brick, dating from various epochs during the middle ages, is famous for its staircase, the vaulted wine cellar of the city council beneath and magnificent wood carving.
There are collieries near the town, the workings extending beneath the sea; there are also iron mines and works, engineering works, shipbuilding yards, breweries, tanneries, stone quarries, brick and earthenware works, and other industrial establishments in and near the town.
The buildings of Montevideo are chiefly of brick and broken stone, covered outside with plaster and stucco, of one to three storeys, with flat roofs, usually surmounted by a square tower, or mirador.
Brewing and brick and tile making are carried on.
high, covering a space of about 8 acres, near the northwestern edge of which, towards the western corner, he built a ziggurat, or stage-tower, of three stages of unburned brick, faced with kiln-burned bricks laid in bitumen.
The houses are of brick or unpainted wood.
and brick and granite warehouses used largely for the storage of grain.
The facades of the houses are usually built in courses of brick and stone, and adorned with carvings, sculptures and inscriptions.
It is built for the most part of brick and stone.
The most prominent building is the square castle of the house of Este, in the centre of the town, a brick building surrounded by a moat, with four towers.
Opposite the cathedral is the Gothic Palazzo della Ragione, in brick (1315-1326), now the law-courts.
It is a plain brick structure, now known as Kew Palace.
The town, which is said to have been founded about 723, contains a population estimated at 70,000, occupying 5000 houses made of brick, and usually from two to four storeys high.
Maria del Carmine is externally one of the most beautiful of the brick Gothic churches in northern Italy and dates from 1273 (or 1323 ?).
Near it are three tall, slender brick towers of the Gothic period.
Veitchii, a more recent introduction (1868) from Japan, has smaller leaves very variable in shape; it clings readily to stone or brick work by means of suckers at the ends of the branched tendrils.
Among the manufactures are zinc spelter-there are large smelters here-clay products (chiefly vitrified brick, sewer pipe and tile; the clay being obtained from a great underlying bed of shale), blasting powder, packinghouse products and planing-mill products.
The campanile is a massive square brick tower 223 ft.
The Gothic brick vestibule (II Paradiso) on the north side is one of the older parts of the building.
The Palazzo dei Tribunali and the Palazzo degli Scoti are fine early Renaissance brick buildings with terra-cotta decorations.
There are lead and zinc smelters, and a large vitrified brick and tile factory.
In Mansfeld brick cupola furnaces are without a rival in size, equipment and performance.
Blast furnaces of large size, built of brick, have been constructed for treating the richest and more silicious ores of Rio Tinto, and the Rio Tinto Company has introduced converters at the mine.
The furnaces used were of ordinary design and built of brick.
Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on the false bottom of a brick chamber.
The buildings, largely of brick, give a substantial appearance to the place.
About 2300 Americans under General Nathanael Greene here attacked a slightly inferior force under Colonel Alexander Stewart; at first the Americans drove the British before them, but later in the day the latter took a position in a brick house and behind palisades, and from this position the Americans were unable to drive them.
The city, laid out on a plan drawn up by Lord Kitchener in 1898, has a picturesque aspect with its numerous handsome stone and brick buildings surrounded by gardens and its groves of palms and other trees.
Swedish towns, though rarely of quite modern foundation, generally appear so, for the use of brick in building is mainly of modern introduction, and is still by no means general, so that the partial or total destruction of a town by fire is now only less common than formerly.
Noteworthy public buildings are St Aidan's College, a large brick building in Tudor style, for the use of Anglican students in theology; the market hall (1845); town hall, a free library with branches, borough hospital, built at the cost of Sir John Laird; and many schools both public and private, including the industrial schools built as a memorial to Albert, prince consort, at the cost of Sir W.
over which the extant remains have been traced; it consisted of sundried brick on a stone foundation.
Many of the houses in the town are built of brick, not a few bearing an inscription of Nebuchadrezzar, obtained from the ruins of Babylon, which lie less than an hour away to the north.
As the result of the reconstruction of this section, thousands of wooden buildings, which had been a striking architectural characteristic of the city, were replaced by structures of steel, brick, and, especially, reinforced concrete.
Of the 28,000 buildings destroyed in the disaster of 1906, valued approximately at $105,000,000, only 5000 were such as had involved steel, stone or brick in their construction.
These misfortunes led to a more general employment of brick and stone in the business quarter.
There are many interesting brick houses, dating chiefly from the first half of the 17th century, with curious gables and picturesque ornamentation, carvings and inscriptions.
gold, silver, lead, sulphate of copper, spelter, tinplates, steel and iron, nickel and cobalt, yellow metal, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, creosote, alkali, galvanized sheets, patent fuel as well as engineering works, iron foundries, large flour and provender mills, fuse works and brick works.
high rises a pointed mass of vitrified brick split down the centre, over 40 ft.
high, about which lie huge masses of vitrified brick, some as much as 15 ft.
But it is important to add that the permanent forts were old and conspicuous, and, except in a few cases where modernization had been actually begun, possessed only brick vaulting that was not proof against 6-in.
Since the introduction of stone and brick, the whole city has been rebuilt and now contains numerous structures of some architectural pretension, the royal palaces, the houses formerly belonging to the prime minister and nobles, the French residency, the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several stone churches, as well as others of brick, colleges, schools, hospitals, courts of justice and other government buildings, and hundreds of good dwellinghouses.
The cathedral, a vast basilica built of brick and white stone, with a central dome and two lofty spires above the north entrance, was founded in 1866 and consecrated in 1882.
The body of the church of St Mary was rebuilt in brick after its collapse in 1713, but the Perpendicular tower remains.
The houses are well built of sun-dried brick, and the streets are wide and fairly clean.
The chief building is the Church of Scotland church, a fine red brick building, a mixture of Norman and Byzantine styles, with lofty turrets and white domes.
The chief industries are sugar-refining, iron and brick works, and the manufacture of furniture and gloves.
It is engaged in farming, fishing, the manufacture of brick, tile, cotton fabrics and furniture, and the building of boats.
in thickness, of clay, faced with brick, in the reception rooms wainscoted with stone slabs or tiles, elsewhere plastered, or, in the harem, adorned with fresco paintings and arabesques.
Among the secular buildings are the old ducal palace, begun in 1578 by Ammanati, and now the residence of the prefect and seat of the provincial officers and the public picture gallery; the early Renaissance Palazzo Pretorio, or former residence of the podesta, now the seat of the civil and correctional courts; the palace, erected in the 15th century by a member of the Guinigi family, of brick, in the Italian Gothic style, and now serving as a poor-house; the 16th-century palace of the marquis Guidiccioni, now used as a depository for the archives, the earliest documents going back to A.D.
In New Jersey the mining of clays is more important than in any other state, the amount mined and sold in 1902 being a third of the entire output of the United States, and the amount in 1907 (44 0, 1 3 8 tons) being more than one-fifth of all clay mined and sold in the United States; and in 1907 in the value of clay products ($16,005,460; brick and tile, $9,019, 834, and pottery, $6,985,626) New Jersey was outranked only by Ohio and Pennsylvania.
In the manufacture of clay products, including brick, tiling, terra cotta and pottery, the state takes high rank: the total value of pottery, terra cotta and fire-clay products increased from $8,940,723 in 1900 to $11,717,103 in 1905; in 1905 the most valuable pottery product was sanitary ware, valued at $3,006,406; and in that year New Jersey furnished 18.2% of the total pottery product of the United States, and was surpassed in this industry only by Ohio.
In 1905 the value of brick and tile manufactured in the state was $1,830,080.
Albany ships much cotton, and has a cotton compress, a cotton mill, cotton-seed oil and guano factories, brick yards, lumber mills and ice factories.
It has various manufactures, including cotton gins, cotton-seed oil, cigars, lumber and brick.
This uplift has brought up submarine deposits of sand, &c., to form little coastal plains at some points along the coast, providing good land for settlement and clay for brick and pottery.
Among the manufactures are paper, flour, cotton goods, leather,brick,railway supplies, &c. The value of the city's factory products increased from $1,621,358 in 1900 to $3,226,268 in 1905, or 90%.
Among these is the argument from the numerous borings made in the alluvium of the Nile valley to a depth of 60 ft., where down to the lowest level fragments of burnt brick and pottery were always found, showing that people advanced enough in the arts to bake brick and pottery have inhabited the valley during the long period required for the Nile inundations to deposit 60 ft.
The new exchange (1901) is a striking building in red brick and stone, and lies a short distance away between the Dam and the fine central station (1889).
The Yorkshire Ladies' Council of Education has as its object the promotion of female education, and the instruction of girls and women of the artisan class in domestic economy, &c. The general infirmary in Great George Street is a Gothic building of brick with stone dressings with a highly ornamental exterior by Sir Gilbert Scott, of whose work this is by no means the only good example in Leeds.
In the town itself there are no Roman remains; but there is a good Gothic cathedral in brick, and an interesting octagonal baptistery, attributed to the 8th or 9th century, the arches being supported by ancient columns, and the vaulting decorated with mosaics.
Some of the medieval palaces of Albenga have lofty brick towers.
Some architects depend solely upon partitions, and a building with a well-constructed iron frame should be safe if provided with brick partitions or if the exterior of the iron framework is covered with well-built masonry of sufficient thickness.
The filling between the girders and floor beams consists of segmental arches of brick, segmental or flat arches of porous (sawdust) terra-cotta, or hard-burned hollow terra- - cotta voussoirs, or various patented forms of con crete floors containing ties or supports of steel or iron.
In Germany skeleton steel-framed factory buildings may be erected with half brick (12 cm.), with a restriction that when such buildings are abutting or are in the immediate neighbourhood, i.e.
of a neighbouring building, the outside walls on the sides affected shall be full brick (25 cm.).
The city consists of (I) the kreml or citadel (1550), crowning a hill, on which stand also the spacious brick cathedral containing the tombs of two Georgian princes, the archbishop's palace and the monastery of the Trinity; (2) the Byelogorod or White Town, containing the administrative offices and the bazaars; and (3) the suburbs, where most of the population resides.
It has a noble facade with a deeply recessed portico, and a brick campan