He was captured at Shiloh and was imprisoned for a time at Madison, Ga., and in Libby prison, Richmond, Va., and in 1865 was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers.
Worth and Robert Patterson, and was brevetted for gallant conduct at Monterey.
At Vera Cruz he won the rank of first lieutenant, and for gallant conduct at Contreras and Chapultepec respectively he was brevetted captian and major, a rank which he attained with less than one year's service.
In 1865 he was brevetted major-general of volunteers.
He fought in the Cold Harbor and Petersburg operations in 1864-65, was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct at Reams Station, and at the close of the war was in temporary command of an army corps.
In July 1866 he was made colonel of a regular infantry regiment, and in 1867 he was brevetted brigadiergeneral in the regular army for his services at Chancellorsville and major-general for his services at Spottsylvania.
He was on the staff of General George Crook at the battles of Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek in the Shenandoah valley, and on the r4th of March 1865 was brevetted major of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services.