Plymouth Brethren >>
There were 67,044 Baptists (2226 United Baptists, 2019 Primitive Baptists and 1513 Free Baptists); 40,011 Roman Catholics; 1 9,993 United Brethren, all of the " New Constitution "; 19,668 Presbyterians; 13,323 Disciples of Christ; 6506 Lutherans, and 5230 Protestant Episcopalians.
Podébrad's persecution of the newly-founded community of the Bohemian brethren is certainly a blemish on his career.
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.
Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1598 under the style of a mayor, 6 brethren and 12 capital burgesses.
The moderator has no special power or supremacy over his brethren, but is honoured and obeyed as Primus inter pares.
"A threefold cord is not quickly broken," and these three independent witnesses agree in describing a significant innovation which ends with the supremacy of the Zadokites of Jerusalem over their brethren.
"Albrights," and "Albright Brethren."
give relief, while the Christians attributed it to the prayers of their brethren in a legion to which, they affirmed, the emperor then gave the name of "The Thundering."
He died on the journey in March 1607; and thus, as one of the brethren pronounced his epitaph, " seeking Cathay he found heaven."
MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or Moravian CHu4cH, a Christian communion founded in the east of Bohemia.
His followers were known as the Brethren of Chelcic, and wore a distinctive dress.
the Church or Communion of Brethren; and this is really the correct translation of their later term, Unitas fratrum.
With the Brethren, however, the chief stress was laid, not on doctrine, but on conduct.
The growth of the Brethren was rapid.
At the battle of the White Hill (1620) the Bohemian Protestants were routed; the Brethren were driven from their homes; the Polish branch wis absorbed in the Reformed Church of Poland; and then many fled, some to England, some to Saxony, and some even to Texas.
For a hundred years the Brethren were almost extinct.
The revival of the Moravian Brethren was German in origin.
Of the "Hidden Seed" the greater number were Germans; they were probably descended from a colony of German Waldenses, who had come to Moravia in 1480 and joined the Church of the Brethren; and, therefore, when persecution broke out afresh they naturally fled to the nearest German refuge.
In this way the Moravian orders were maintained; the "ecclesiola" became an independent body, and the British parliament recognized the Brethren as "an ancient Protestant Episcopal Church" (1 749, 22 Geo.
It hampered the Brethren's progress in Germany, and explains the smallness of their numbers there.
Instead of aiming at Church extension, they built settlements on the estates of friendly noblemen, erected Brethren's and Sisters' houses, and cultivated a quiet type of spiritual life.
I); and the idea underlying this word is that the Brethren minister to the "scattered" in other Churches without drawing them into the Moravian Church.
For a few years they took an active share in the Evangelical Revival (173817S5); but Zinzendorf's "ecclesiola" policy prevented their growth, and not till 1853 did the English Moravians resolve to aim at "the extension of the Brethren's Church."
Schulze, Abrisz einer Geschichte der Bruder-Mission (1901); Seifferth, Church Constitution of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren (1866); De Schweinitz, History of the Unitas Fratrum (1885); Wauer, Beginnings of the Brethren's Church in England (1901); Hamilton, History of the Moravian Church in the 28th and 19th Centuries (1900); Hutton, History of the Moravian Church (1909); Moravian Church Book (1902); Moravian Almanac (annual).
A certain Conrad Schmidt placed himself at the head of a community of Thuringian flagellants, who took the name of Brethren of the Cross.
Numbers of Beghards joined the Brethren of the Cross, and the two sects were confounded in the rigorous persecution conducted in Germany by the inquisitor Eylard Schoneveld, who almost annihilated the flagellants.
He as vainly sought to secure Luther's adoption of a strict rule of church discipline, after the manner of the Moravian Brethren.
It is possible that tradition is right in supposing that " Judah went down from his brethren " (Gen.
It is possible that some had escaped by taking timely refuge among their brethren in Judah; indeed, if national tradition availed, there were doubtless times when Judah cast its eye upon the land with which it had been so intimately connected.
Whether led by this Mattathias or not, certain Jews fled into the wilderness and found a leader in Judas Maccabaeus his reputed son, the first of the five Asmonean (Hasmonean) brethren.
There were Jews in the Byzantine empire, in Rome, in France and Spain at very early periods, but it is with the Arab conquest of Spain that the Jews of Europe began to rival in culture and importance their brethren of the Persian gaonate.
This Smyrnan pretender not only proclaimed himself Messiah (c. 1650) but he was accepted in that role by vast numbers of his brethren.
The Jews of Hungary shared with their brethren in Austria the same alternations of expulsion and recall.
The Jews of America have also taken a foremost place in the succour of their oppressed brethren in Russia and other parts of the world.
They were especially numerous in the Rhineland in the end of the 13th and during the 14th century; and they seem to have corrupted the originally orthodox communities of Beghards, for Beghards and Brethren of the Free Spirit are used henceforward as convertible terms, and the same immoralities are related of both.
This was the origin of the Brethren of the Common Lot (or Common Life).
The first house of the Brethren was founded at Deventer by Gerhard Groot and his youthful friend Florentius Radewyn; and here Thomas a Kempis received his training.
The severe impartiality of the sacred historian has concealed no feature in this dark picture, - the brutal passion of Amnon, the shameless counsel of the wily Jonadab, the " black scowl " 1 that rested on the face of Absalom through two long years of meditated revenge, the panic of the court when the blow was struck and Amnon was assassinated in the midst of his brethren.
The Brethren lived in Schwarzenau in peace under the tolerant Count Heinrich Albrecht of Wittgenstein.
Eventually, Count Heinrich was pressured to rid the area of religious dissidents, and the Brethren felt compelled to leave.
The church officers (generally unpaid) comprise bishops (or ministers), elders, teachers, deacons (or visiting brethren) and deaconesses - chiefly aged women who are permitted at times to take leading parts in church services.
the missionary work of the Brethren, in Asia Minor and India,.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
5, 1905): Conservatives, or German Baptist Brethren, 95,000;.
Old Order, 4000; Progressives or Brethren, 15,000; Seventh.
In 1909 the German Baptist Brethren.
had an estimated membership of approximately ioo,000, and the Brethren of 18,000.
Even in its last phase, the Order did not forget its original purpose: it maintained several great hospitals in its new home on the south-east shore of the Baltic, in addition to an hotel des invalides at Marienburg for its sick or aged brethren.
Over each of the twenty districts of the Order was set a commander (Komtur), with the brethren of his house at his side as advisers.
The commander was bound by the advice of his brethren; and in the same way the general chapter of the Order, consisting of the landmeisters and the great dignitaries, formed an advisory board to the grand master in matters such as treaties and internal legislation.
The lay subjects of the Order consisted of two classes; on the one hand there were the conquered Prussians, in a position of serfdom, bound in time of war to serve with the brethren in foreign expeditions; on the other hand there were the German immigrants, both urban and rural, along with the free Prussians who had voluntarily submitted and remained faithful.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
The Order was at variance within itself; some of the houses of the brethren refused to obey the marshal, and the grand master quarrelled with the German master.
The brethren of East Prussia, however, still sighed for independence; and they pursued the policy of choosing German princes to be grand masters of the Order, in the hope of regaining liberty by their aid.
Few of the brethren resisted; and the Order quietly ceased from the land where for three hundred years it had had its being.
(fn3) Every house of the Order had two learned brethren, one learned in the law, one in theology.
The pupils at Brienne, far from receiving a military education, were grounded in ordinary subjects, and in no very efficient manner, by brethren of the order, or society, of Minims. The moral tone of the school was low; and Napoleon afterwards spoke with contempt of the training of the "monks" and the manner of life of the scholars.
On the whole Brandt's labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that consideration must be paid to osteology; for his position was such as to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably placed brethren had succeeded in doing.
Thanks to Mr Sclater, the Ray Society was induced to publish, in 1867, an excellent translation by Mr Dallas of Nitzsch's Pterylography, and thereby, however tardily, justice was at length rendered by British ornithologists to one of their greatest foreign brethren.'
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
Yet one must remember, in justice to Alexius, the gravity of the problem by which he was confronted; nor was the conduct of the crusaders themselves such that he could readily make them his brethren in arms.
At Tiberias a little squadron of the brethren of the two Orders went down before Saladin's cavalry in May; at Hattin the levy masse of the kingdom, some 20,000 strong, foolishly marching over a sandy plain under the heat of a July sun, was utterly defeated; and after a fortnight's siege Jerusalem capitulated (October 2nd, 1187).
Moravian Brethren >>
The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
During the first three centuries the fortitude of these "witnesses" won the admiration of their brethren.
It was feared that the heresy, if suffered to make headway, would spread like wildfire among the ignorant Russian peasantry, and Archbishop Nikon was sent to Athos to threaten the recalcitrant brethren with severe temporal and eternal penalties should they remain obstinate.
Those who quitted the Society maintained, for some little time, a separate organization of their own, but sooner or later most of them joined the Evangelical Church or the Plymouth Brethren.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
Besides himself and his brother, four other clergymen were present and four "lay brethren."
From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) fifty-ninth year, I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scripture, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation."
It was accepted as an unquestionable fact by every one who undertook to describe the catacombs, that the Christians of Rome, finding in the labyrinthine mazes of the exhausted arenariae, which abounded in the environs of the city, whence the sand used in building had been extracted, a suitable place for the interment of their martyred brethren, where also the sacred rites accompanying the interment might be celebrated without fear of interruption, took possession of them and used them as cemeteries.
These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
Those who had not yet crossed the river refused, in face of this omen, to follow their brethren; the little band, numbering 400 warriors (according to others, consisting of 2000 horsemen) decided to remain under Ertoghrul, son of the drowned leader.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
The Bohemian brethren, whose intellectual originator was Peter Chelcicky, but whose actual founders were Brother Gregory, a nephew of Archbishop Rokycan, and Michael, curate of Zamberk, to a certain extent continued the Taborite traditions, and in the 15th and 16th centuries included most of the strongest opponents of Rome in Bohemia.
Christ, the firstborn among many brethren, had a natural birth at Bethlehem and also a spiritual birth begun at his baptism and consummated at his resurrection.
The city has a public library, a business college and Central College (1897), controlled by the United Brethren in Christ (Old Constitution).
Io) says that it represented the brethren of Christ as his half-brothers.
Having secretly become a Christian, Sebastian was wont to encourage those of his brethren who in the hour of trial seemed wavering in their profession.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
At one time, indeed, a Magyar archbishop and four or five bishops openly joined the Orthodox communion and willingly crowned Manuel's nominees despite the anathemas of their Catholic brethren.
The separatist movement was strongest in the south, where the Rumans were in touch with their kinsmen in Walachia and Moldavia, the Serbs with their brethren in Servia, and the Croats intent on reasserting the independence of the" Tri-une Kingdom."
37, tells how the brethren after listening to St Baithene, "still kneeling, with joy unspeakable, and with hands spread out to heaven, venerated Christ in the holy and blessed man."
A few years after this the Brethren of the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem or Knights of the Temple came into being at the Holy City, and they settled first on the south side of Holborn near Southampton Row.
Along with his six brethren, Ken was committed to the Tower on the 8th of June 1688, on a charge of high misdemeanour; the trial, which took place on the 29th and 30th of the month, and which resulted in a verdict of acquittal, is matter of history.
7) of his brethren at Ophrah, his father's home.
At this city four brethren of his order, three of them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor.
From Canton he travelled overland to the great ports of Fukien, at one of which, Zayton or Amoy harbour, he found two houses of his order; in one of these he deposited the bones of the brethren who had suffered in India.
The fame of his vast journeys appears to have made a much greater impression on the laity of his native territory than on his Franciscan brethren.
The buildings of the society include a church, a school and houses for the brethren, the sisters and the widowed of both sexes, while it possesses an ethnographical museum and other collections of interest.
The religious element was more prominent in Orcy's gild at Abbotsbury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their ordinances exhibit much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls.
The brethren were aided in old age, sickness and poverty, often also in cases of loss by robbery, shipwreck and conflagration; for example, any member of the gild of St Catherine, Aldersgate, was to be assisted if he "fall into poverty or be injured through age, or through fire or water, thieves or sickness."
Alms were often given even to non-gildsmen; lights were supported at certain altars; feasts and processions were held periodically; the funerals of brethren were attended; and masses for the dead were provided from the common purse or from special contributions made by the gildsmen.
The ordinances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from the commercial competition of strangers or non-gildsmen.
The Morwenspeches were periodical meetings at which the brethren feasted, revised their ordinances, admitted new members, elected officers and transacted other business.
Admission to the gild was not restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic body having control over the whole municipal polity.
It contains the assurances of forgiveness even for the gravest sins after baptism (save blasphemy of the Name and betrayal of the brethren, Sim.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
He relegated many of the brethren to a quieter retreat outside the city, only retaining in Florence those best fitted to aid in intellectual labour.
Neither he nor his brethren.
Thereupon Savonarola turned, bade farewell to the brethren, and, accompanied by the faithful Domenico,.
At Dayton are the Union Biblical seminary, a theological school of the United Brethren in Christ, and the publishing house of the same denomination.
At the colloquy of Marburg "Zwingli offered his hand to Luther with the entreaty that they be at least Christian brethren, but Luther refused it and declared that the Swiss were of another spirit.
Yet no social attractions or successes diverted him from his devotion to his profession, the welfare of his brethren in art or of the Royal Academy.
Adamson (Perth, 1638) are the lines "For what we do presage is riot in grosse, For we are brethren of the Rosie Crosse; We have the Mason Word and second sight, Things for to come we can fortell aright."
Several modern societies have been formed from time to time (some of which are still flourishing in Great Britain) for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects, but in no sense are they directly derived from the "Brethren of the Rosy Cross" of the 17th century, though keen followers thereof.
The Rosicrucians, their Rites and Mysteries, by Hargrave Jennings (three editions, 1870-87); The Real History of the Rosicrucians, founded on their own Manifestoes and on Facts and Documents collected from the Writings of Initiated Brethren, by A.
In the course of 1842 an attack of illness led to his making a journey in Italy, where he spent some time in a monastery belonging to one of the strictest of all the monastic orders, the Passionists, brethren addicted to wearing hair shirts and scourging themselves without mercy.
In the young historian's eyes these good brethren were of much value as living and breathing historic material.
The Epistle of Polycarp. - Though Irenaeus states that Polycarp wrote many "letters to the neighbouring churches or to certain of the brethren" 4 only one has been preserved, viz.
Audubon states that the mocking-birds which are resident all the year round in Louisiana attack their travelled brethren on the return of the latter from the north in autumn.
Vernon; Western College (United Brethren, 1856) at Toledo; Upper Iowa University (Methodist Episcopal, 1857) at Fayette; Leander Clark College (United Brethren, 1857) at Toledo; Lenox College (Presbyterian, 1859) at Hopkinton; Luther College (Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran, 1861) at Decorah; Des Moines College (Baptist, 1865) at Des Moines; Tabor College (Congregational, 1866) at Tabor; Simpson College (Methodist, 1867) at Indianola; Wartburg Kollege (Lutheran, 1868) at Clinton; Amity College (Non-sectarian, 1872) at College Springs; German College (Methodist Episcopal, 1873) at Mt.
Luther and his sympathizers were blind to the reasonableness of the fundamental teachings of these " brethren."
The English Independents and the modern Baptists, as well as the Mennonites, may be regarded as the historical continuation of lines of development going back to the Waldensians and the Bohemian Brethren, and passing down through the German, Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists.
They invaded the West Indies, seized one island after another, and formed the freebooting communities known as the Brethren of the Coast and the Buccaneers.
Already there were scattered bodies of Waldenses in Germany who had influenced, and afterwards joined, the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren.
This was one of essential equality among " the saints " or " the brethren," turning on common possession of and by the one Spirit of Christ.
These, the bishops in the first instance of provincial capitals, gradually acquired a control over their episcopal brethren in lesser cities, analogous to that of the civil governor over other provincial officials.
This comes out in the writings both of Robinson and of Henry Jacob, both of whom passed gradually from Puritanism to Separatism at a time when the silencing of some 300 Puritan clergy by the Canons of 1604, and the exercise of the royal supremacy under Archbishop Bancroft, brought these " brethren of the Second Separation " into closer relations with the earlier Separatists.
The movement in the direction of union has been still further promoted by the International Councils referred to above (section on British Congregationalism ad fin.), in which the American Congregationalists have met the representatives of their brethren in Great Britain and its colonies having the same faith and polity.
It was also agreed to allow the Arminian deputies to take part in the deliberations, only on condition that they forbore to consult with, or in any way assist, their cited brethren, but this they refused.
He bids her " Do not touch Me, for I have not yet ascended "; but to tell His brethren " I ascend to My Father and to your Father, to My God and to your God."
40); in John, His mother stands with the two other Marys and the beloved disciple beneath the cross, and " from that hour the disciple took her unto his own (house)," while in the older literature His mother does not appear in Jerusalem till just before Pentecost, and with " His brethren " (Acts i.
In the parable Lazarus returns not to earth, since Abraham foresees that the rich man's brethren would disbelieve even if one rose from the dead; in the corresponding allegory, Lazarus does actually return to life, and the Jews believe so little as to determine upon killing the very Life Himself.
In spite of the neutral attitude taken by their government a number of the Free State Boers, living in the northern part of the country, went to the Transvaal and joined their brethren then in arms against the British.
Among the smaller religious sects the Moravian Brethren, whose chief seat is at Herrnhut, are perhaps the most interesting.
Johann Friedrich Bbttger made his famous discovery in 1710, and the manufacture of porcelain was begun at Meissen, and in this reign the Moravian Brethren made their settlement at Herrnhut.
His parents were Quakers, and he himself for many years was in communion with the (Darbyite) Plymouth Brethren, but afterwards became a Presbyterian.
River Brethren >>
But though the men of the keys and the sword let him go his way unmolested, it was otherwise with his brethren of the pen.
That they had a large measure of authority of course goes without saying, but it depended always upon their brethren's recognition of their possession of the divine gift of apostleship, and the right of Churches or individuals to test their claims and to refuse to listen to them if they did not vindicate their divine call was everywhere recognized.
132), and the Iranian priests (athravans, later Magi) claimed, like the Brahmans, to be the highest order of society; but a variety of conditions were lacking to give them the full place of their Indian brethren.
In Bohemia, the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren represents a spiritual and historical continuity with the old Hussites.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
Almost every acre of densely populated Masovia was in the hands of her sturdy, ultra-conservative squires, in point of culture far below their brethren in Great and Little Poland.
Another sect, which ultimately found even more favour in Poland than the Calvinists, was that of the Bohemian Brethren.
The Bohemian Brethren evangelized Little Poland, but ultimately coalesced with the Calvinists at the synod of Kozminek (August 1555).
Knowing the sensitiveness of the Lithuanians as regards Volhynia and Podolia, he suddenly, of his own authority, formally incorporated both these provinces with the kingdom of Poland, whereupon, amidst great enthusiasm, the Volhynian and Podolian deputies took their places on the same benches as their Polish brethren.
Here congregated hundreds of the younger szlachta, fresh from their school benches, whence they brought nothing but a smattering of Latin and a determination to make their way by absolute subservience to their "elder brethren," the pans.
The Connexion provides for English residents wherever required, and the English ministers are oftener in their own pulpits than their Welsh brethren.
The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.
when Quetzalcoatl reached the Atlantic he sent back his companions to tell the Cholulans that in a future age his brethren,.
They found alike their mutual relations and their relations to other people - and not only to people, but to all living creatures - exclusively on love, and therefore they hold all people equal and brethren.
RIVER BRETHREN, the name of a group of three Christian communities in the United States of America, descended from Swiss settlers near the Susquehanna river in Pennsylvania in 1750.
The three branches are: (1) The Brethren in Christ, who are the most elaborately organized and are numerous in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Kansas; they have also formed churches in New York and in Canada, and missions in South Africa, India and Texas.
(2) The Old Order, or Yorker Brethren, consists of a small body which separated from the main body in 1843 and maintained more strictly the original practice.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, 1 an American religious sect which originated in the last part of the 18th century under the leadership of Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), pastor of the Second Reformed Church in Baltimore, and Martin Boehm (1725-1812), a Pennsylvanian Mennonite of Swiss descent.
The first delegated general conference met at Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, in 1815, and adopted a confession of faith, rules of order and a book of discipline, which were revised in 1885-1889, when women were first admitted to ordination, and when the Conservatives, protesting against the new constitution, withdrew and formed the body now commonly known as the United Brethren in Christ "of the Old Constitution."
Berger, History of the Church of the United Brethren (1897), and his sketch (1894) in vol xii.
Shuey, Handbook of the United Brethren in Christ (1893); W.
Shuey, Year-Book of the United Brethren in Christ (from 1867); and A, W.
34) that those who were too hungry to wait until all the brethren were assembled in church, should eat at home and beforehand.
Rather than scandalize weaker brethren, Paul was willing to eat herbs the rest of his life.
r, implies that the brethren ate heartily, and that the cup and bread formed no isolated episode.
65, describes the first communion of the newly baptized: " After we have thus washed the person who has believed and conformed we lead him to the brethren so called, where they are gathered together, to offer public prayer both for ourselves and for the person illuminated, and for all others everywhere, earnestly, to the end that having learned the truth we may be made worthy to be found not only in our actions good citizens, but guardians of the things enjoined.
Then there is presented to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of water (and of a mixture,) ' and he having taken it sends up praise and glory to the father of all things by the name of the Son and Holy Spirit, and he offers at length thanksgiving (eucharistic) for our having been made -;'orthy of these things by him.
But this effect of participation in the bread and cup was not in Paul's opinion automatic, was no mere o, ', us operatum; it depended on the ethical co-operation of the believer, who must not eat and drink unworthily, that is, after refusing to share his meats with the poorer brethren, or with any other guilt in his soul.
p. i I ga and his mother, and his wife and his children, and his brethren and his sister, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple."
His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.
The Western Manichaeans of the 4th and 5th centuries are much more like Christians than their Eastern brethren.
[M] church has on its east side the "pisalis" or "calefactory" (H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by flues beneath the floor.
The upper story of the refectory is the "vestiarium," where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were kept.
These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement.
Beyond this we often find the calefactorium or day-room - an apartment warmed by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the day.
The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the calefactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal services.
The cemetery, the last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H).
Advancing into the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren, - the kitchen, cellars, &c., - form a court of themselves outside the cloister and quite detached from the church.
The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging to the professional life of the brethren surround the great cloister.
The whole arrangements and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hard-working brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and self-denying toil.
Prossnitz is a town of ancient origin, and in the 16th century was one of the chief seats of the Moravian Brethren.
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
The arguments that had weaned him from his Zwibiglian simplicity did not satisfy his unpromoted brethren, and Jewel had to refuse admission to a benefice to his friend Laurence Humphrey (q.v.), who would not wear a surplice.
In the 13th century a master and chaplain took the place of the lay brethren, and in 1334 a chantry was founded.
(a) The first is certainly fellowship with Christ and with the brethren.
3), and found in their union with Christ the lasting and strongest motive of love to the brethren.
George from his childhood "appeared of another frame than the rest of his brethren, being more religious, inward, still, solid and observing beyond his years"; and he himself declares: "When I came to eleven years of age I knew pureness and righteousness; for while a child I was taught how to walk to be kept pure."
13 f.) is to leave Judaism, and adopt a frankly Christian standing, on the same footing with their non-Jewish brethren in the local church.
No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis embraced Catholicism, and a colony of Pavlikeni in the village of Cioplea near Bucharest followed the example of their brethren across the Danube.
This injunction he laid upon us, and all our Brethren on his death-bed, That we each continue in our respective Station till the time appointed for the next Conference at Manchester.
The preachers had agreed in 1793 that all distinction between those whom Wesley had ordained and their brethren should cease.
AUGUST GOTTLIEB SPANGENBERG (1704-1792), Count Zinzendorf's successor, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren, was born on the 15th of July 1704 at Klettenberg, on the south of the Harz Mountains, where his father, Georg Spangenberg, was court preacher and ecclesiastical inspector of the countship of Hohenstein.
At Herrnhut there were conflicting tendencies, doctrinal and practical extravagances, and the organization of the brethren was very defective.
In 1777 Spangenberg was commissioned to draw up an idea fidei fratrum, or compendium of the Christian faith of the United Brethren, which became the accepted declaration of the Moravian belief.
" Spangenberg"; the article by Ledderhose, in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; also Moravian Brethren.
There is a large number of the smaller religious sects in the state; the principal denominations, with the number of communicants of each in 1906, are: Metho dist (363,443), Lutheran (335,643), Presbyterian (322,542), Reformed Church (177,270), Baptist (141,694), Protestant Episcopalian (99,021), United Brethren (55,574), United Evan gelical Church (45,480), Disciples of Christ (26,458), German Baptist Brethren (23,176), Eastern Orthodox Churches (22,123), Mennonites (16,527), Congregational (14,811), Evangelical Association (13,294), Friends (12,457), Church of God or " Winnebrennerians " (11,157), and Moravian (5322).
(In this outer court, in all the earlier foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and inner courts are connected by a long passage (F), wide enough to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the cells of the brethren with fuel.
46, to the effect that Dionysius of Alexandria c. 250 sent a letter to Meruzanes, bishop of the brethren in Armenia.
Dominican missions went to Armenia, and in 1328 under their auspices was formed a regular order called the United Brethren, the forerunners of the Uniats of the present day, who have convents at Venice and Vienna, a college in Rome and a numerous following in Turkey.
Prerau was at one time the chief seat of the Moravian Brethren.
About that year he began the compilation of his Chronica, a work intended for the private reading of his brethren.
Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
When in 1747 "the Associate Synod," by a narrow majority, decided not to give full immediate effect to a judgment which had been passed in the previous year against the lawfulness of the "Burgess Oath," Gib led the protesting minority, who separated from their brethren and formed the Antiburgher Synod (April loth) in his own house in Edinburgh.
It was chiefly under his influence that it was agreed by this ecclesiastical body at subsequent meetings to summon to the bar their "Burgher" brethren, and finally to depose and excommunicate them for contumacy.
He wrote three dramas in Latin:- Christus patiens; Sophomphaneas, on the story of Joseph and his brethren; and Adamus exul, a production still remembered as having given hints to Milton.
In the breeding-season, however, it is as noisy and conspicuous as its larger brethren while executing its aerial evolutions.
Sketches of the Missions of the United Brethren, p. 3; A.
the Plymouth Brethren, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, the Regions Beyond Missionary Union.
PLYMOUTH BRETHREN, a community of Christians who received the name in 1830 when the Rev. J.
Although small Christian communities existed in Ireland and elsewhere calling themselves Brethren, and holding similar views, the accession to the ranks of Darby so increased their numbers and influence that he is usually reckoned the founder of Plymouthism.
1800 in London; graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1819; died April 29, 1882, at Bournemouth) was a curate in Wicklow 1825-1827,1827, when he felt himself constrained to leave the Anglican communion; going to Dublin, he became associated with several devout people who met statedly for public worship, and called themselves "Brethren."
The Brethren started a periodical, The Christian Witness, continued from 1849 as The Present Testimony, with Harris as editor and Darby as the most important contributor.
Congregations were formed in Geneva, at Lausanne, where most of the Methodist and other dissenters joined the Brethren, at Vevey and elsewhere in Vaud.
The revolution in the canton Vaud, brought about by Jesuit intrigue in 1845, brought persecution to the Brethren in the canton and in other parts of French Switzerland, and Darby's life was in great jeopardy.
He returned to England, and his reappearance was followed by divisions among the Brethren at home.
Benjamin Wills Newton, head of the community there, who had been a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, was accused of departing from the testimony of the Brethren by reintroducing the spirit of clericalism.
The majority of the Brethren out of Plymouth supported Darby, but a minority remained with Newton.
Out of this came the separation into Neutral Brethren, led by Muller, and Exclusive Brethren or Darbyites, who refused to hold communion with the followers of Newton or Muller.
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At a later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north.
More serious still, from the point of view of the Church, was the association of these wandering mendicants with the mystic heresies of the Fraticelli, the Apostolici and the pantheistic Brethren of the Free Spirit.
Of the Pietists of the second class one of the leaders was Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), born in Dillenburg, Nassau, whose system of class-meetings was the basis of a secession from which grew the United Brethren in Christ, commonly called the "New Reformed Church," organized in 1800.
In Virginia many churches became Episcopalian and others United Brethren.
Among the members of this celebrated body was one to whom it has owed the greater part of its celebrity, yet who was regarded with little respect by his brethren, and had not without difficulty obtained a seat among them.
According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German empire- 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other confessions, 586,948 Jews, f 1,597 members of other sects and 5938 unclassified, The Christians belonging to other confessions include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900.
Rome, chastiser of the freebooters of Rhegium, saw Italian brethren in the freebooters of Messana.
Many of them seem to have rejected a belief in immortality and in a personal God, and in many ways they resemble the Brethren of the Free Spirit in the 14th century.
The revolt under the Hasmonaean family (Judas Maccabaeus and his brethren) followed, ending in 143-142 in the establishment of an independent Jewish state under a Hasmonaean prince.
Meanwhile a great part of the Jewish people was living dispersed among the cities of the Greek world, speaking Greek as their mother-tongue, and absorbing Greek influences in much larger measure than their brethren of Palestine.
Prior to the death of the khalifa, many of his soldiers deserted to join their brethren who had been captured by the sirdars troops, during the gradual advance up the Nile.
It had been foretold to his mother before his birth that he should be "a wild ass among men," and that he should dwell "before the face of" (that is, to the eastward of) his brethren.
On reaching manhood Moses openly displays his sympathy with his brethren by slaying an Egyptian, and has, in consequence, to flee to Midian, where he marries Zipporah, the daughter of the priest of Midian (ii.
Among those who sought refuge here was a colony of Moravian Brethren; they still occupy a separate quarter of the town, where they carry on manufactures of porcelain stoves and deerskin gloves.
The almspeople consisted of six " poor brethren " and six " poor sisters," and the teaching and governing staff of a master and a warden, who were always to be of the founder's surname, and four fellows, all " graduates and divines," among whom were apportioned the ministerial work of the chapel, the instruction of the boys, and the supervision of the almspeople.
On the 10th of May the brethren wrecked the monasteries of Perth, after a sermon by Knox,and the revolution was launched, the six or seven preachers already threatening the backward members of their party with excommunication.
The movement spread to St Andrews, to Stirling, to Edinburgh, which the brethren entered, while Mary of Guise withdrew.
Darnley being a Catholic, as far as he was anything, the jealous fears of the Brethren under Knox reached a passionate height.
For this and other severe censures of his brethren, Mr Erskine would not apologize: he had " delivered the utterance given to him by the Lord ": his was the very attitude of the preachers who thundered against James VI.
The evidence that the correlation between sexually produced brethren is the same as that existing between the asexually repeated organs on an individual body renders it impossible to accept Weismann's view that one of the results produced by the differentiation of animals and plants into two sexes is an increase in the variability of their offspring.
These were handed on, from mouth to mouth, in the small companies of the brethren or sisters.
Of these ro 7 are brethren, and 73 sisters, in the order.
Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
Presently, when He told that His mother and brethren were calling for Him, He disclaimed their interference by pointing to a new circle of family relationship, consisting of all those who " do the will of God."
Young Martin went to the village school at Mansfeld; to a school at Magdeburg kept by the Brethren of the Common Lot; then to the well-known St George's school at Eisenach.
Lastly, the medieval Brethren were engaged in printing and distributing tracts, mystical, anti-clerical, sometimes socialist.
In 1828 he founded a new religious order, the Institute of the Brethren of Charity,.
However, these transformed salamanders, of which twenty-nine were obtained from 1865 to 1870, did not breed, although their branchiate brethren continued to do so very freely.
This mysterious Western, offshoot of Gnosticism had no single feature about it which could soften the hostility of a character such as Martin's, but he resisted the introduction of secular punishment for evil doctrine, and withdrew from communion with those bishops in Gaul, a large majority, who invoked the aid of Maximus against their erring brethren.
And one of the Afghan histories, quoted by Mr Bellew, relates " a current tradition " that, previous to the time of Kais, Bilo the father of the Biluchis, Uzbak (evidently the father of the Usbegs) and Afghana were considered as brethren.
Here, again, the Mahommedans are not strongly distinguished from their Hindu brethren.
COMENIUS (or [[Komensky), Johann Amos]] (1592-1671), a famous writer on education, and the last bishop of the old church of the Moravian and Bohemian Brethren, was born at Comna, or, according to another account, at Niwnitz, in Moravia, of poor parents belonging to the sect of the Moravian Brethren.
Soon after he was made bishop of the church of the Brethren.
Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II.
B.C.) the district to the west of Galilee appears to have been known to the Egyptians as Aser(u), so that it is possible to infer either (a) that Asher was an Israelite tribe which, if it ever went down into Egypt, separated itself from its brethren in Egypt and migrated north, "an example which was probably followed by some of the other tribes as well" (Hommel, Ancient Hebrew Tradition, p. 228); or (b) it was a district which, if never closely bound to Israel, was at least regarded as part of the national kingdom, and treated as Israelite by the genealogical device of making it a "son" of Jacob.
Indeed they are to be repeated in us also, so that we are to forgive our brethren as we ask to be forgiven (Matt.
who serve their fellows, are the brethren of Christ, even though they do not call him Lord (Mark iii.
The same sect that erected these buildings, the Moravians, or United Brethren, maintain here the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, and a well-known school for girls (the Moravian Seminary), founded as a church boarding school in 1749 and reorganized in 1785, for girls of all denominations.
The brethren in Antioch send Paul and Barnabas up to Jerusalem to ask the opinion of the apostles and elders: they state their case, and carry back the decision to Antioch.
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