How to use Brethren in a sentence
The growth of the Brethren was rapid.
His new brethren gave him letters to the Kiev and Odessa Masons and promised to write to him and guide him in his new activity.
This was the origin of the Brethren of the Common Lot (or Common Life).
The Jews of America have also taken a foremost place in the succour of their oppressed brethren in Russia and other parts of the world.
For a hundred years the Brethren were almost extinct.Advertisement
The severe impartiality of the sacred historian has concealed no feature in this dark picture, - the brutal passion of Amnon, the shameless counsel of the wily Jonadab, the " black scowl " 1 that rested on the face of Absalom through two long years of meditated revenge, the panic of the court when the blow was struck and Amnon was assassinated in the midst of his brethren.
The commander was bound by the advice of his brethren; and in the same way the general chapter of the Order, consisting of the landmeisters and the great dignitaries, formed an advisory board to the grand master in matters such as treaties and internal legislation.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
There were 67,044 Baptists (2226 United Baptists, 2019 Primitive Baptists and 1513 Free Baptists); 40,011 Roman Catholics; 1 9,993 United Brethren, all of the " New Constitution "; 19,668 Presbyterians; 13,323 Disciples of Christ; 6506 Lutherans, and 5230 Protestant Episcopalians.
It hampered the Brethren's progress in Germany, and explains the smallness of their numbers there.Advertisement
Instead of aiming at Church extension, they built settlements on the estates of friendly noblemen, erected Brethren's and Sisters' houses, and cultivated a quiet type of spiritual life.
For a few years they took an active share in the Evangelical Revival (173817S5); but Zinzendorf's "ecclesiola" policy prevented their growth, and not till 1853 did the English Moravians resolve to aim at "the extension of the Brethren's Church."
He as vainly sought to secure Luther's adoption of a strict rule of church discipline, after the manner of the Moravian Brethren.
Whether led by this Mattathias or not, certain Jews fled into the wilderness and found a leader in Judas Maccabaeus his reputed son, the first of the five Asmonean (Hasmonean) brethren.
This Smyrnan pretender not only proclaimed himself Messiah (c. 1650) but he was accepted in that role by vast numbers of his brethren.Advertisement
It was feared that the heresy, if suffered to make headway, would spread like wildfire among the ignorant Russian peasantry, and Archbishop Nikon was sent to Athos to threaten the recalcitrant brethren with severe temporal and eternal penalties should they remain obstinate.
Those who quitted the Society maintained, for some little time, a separate organization of their own, but sooner or later most of them joined the Evangelical Church or the Plymouth Brethren.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
Besides himself and his brother, four other clergymen were present and four "lay brethren."
From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) fifty-ninth year, I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scripture, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation."Advertisement
It was accepted as an unquestionable fact by every one who undertook to describe the catacombs, that the Christians of Rome, finding in the labyrinthine mazes of the exhausted arenariae, which abounded in the environs of the city, whence the sand used in building had been extracted, a suitable place for the interment of their martyred brethren, where also the sacred rites accompanying the interment might be celebrated without fear of interruption, took possession of them and used them as cemeteries.
These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
Those who had not yet crossed the river refused, in face of this omen, to follow their brethren; the little band, numbering 400 warriors (according to others, consisting of 2000 horsemen) decided to remain under Ertoghrul, son of the drowned leader.
The Bohemian brethren, whose intellectual originator was Peter Chelcicky, but whose actual founders were Brother Gregory, a nephew of Archbishop Rokycan, and Michael, curate of Zamberk, to a certain extent continued the Taborite traditions, and in the 15th and 16th centuries included most of the strongest opponents of Rome in Bohemia.
Christ, the firstborn among many brethren, had a natural birth at Bethlehem and also a spiritual birth begun at his baptism and consummated at his resurrection.Advertisement
The city has a public library, a business college and Central College (1897), controlled by the United Brethren in Christ (Old Constitution).
Having secretly become a Christian, Sebastian was wont to encourage those of his brethren who in the hour of trial seemed wavering in their profession.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
At one time, indeed, a Magyar archbishop and four or five bishops openly joined the Orthodox communion and willingly crowned Manuel's nominees despite the anathemas of their Catholic brethren.
The separatist movement was strongest in the south, where the Rumans were in touch with their kinsmen in Walachia and Moldavia, the Serbs with their brethren in Servia, and the Croats intent on reasserting the independence of the" Tri-une Kingdom."Advertisement
A few years after this the Brethren of the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem or Knights of the Temple came into being at the Holy City, and they settled first on the south side of Holborn near Southampton Row.
Along with his six brethren, Ken was committed to the Tower on the 8th of June 1688, on a charge of high misdemeanour; the trial, which took place on the 29th and 30th of the month, and which resulted in a verdict of acquittal, is matter of history.
At this city four brethren of his order, three of them Italians and the fourth a Georgian, had shortly before met death at the hands of the Mahommedan governor.
From Canton he travelled overland to the great ports of Fukien, at one of which, Zayton or Amoy harbour, he found two houses of his order; in one of these he deposited the bones of the brethren who had suffered in India.
The fame of his vast journeys appears to have made a much greater impression on the laity of his native territory than on his Franciscan brethren.Advertisement
The buildings of the society include a church, a school and houses for the brethren, the sisters and the widowed of both sexes, while it possesses an ethnographical museum and other collections of interest.
The religious element was more prominent in Orcy's gild at Abbotsbury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their ordinances exhibit much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls.
The brethren were aided in old age, sickness and poverty, often also in cases of loss by robbery, shipwreck and conflagration; for example, any member of the gild of St Catherine, Aldersgate, was to be assisted if he "fall into poverty or be injured through age, or through fire or water, thieves or sickness."
Alms were often given even to non-gildsmen; lights were supported at certain altars; feasts and processions were held periodically; the funerals of brethren were attended; and masses for the dead were provided from the common purse or from special contributions made by the gildsmen.
The ordinances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from the commercial competition of strangers or non-gildsmen.Advertisement
The Morwenspeches were periodical meetings at which the brethren feasted, revised their ordinances, admitted new members, elected officers and transacted other business.
Admission to the gild was not restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic body having control over the whole municipal polity.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.
He relegated many of the brethren to a quieter retreat outside the city, only retaining in Florence those best fitted to aid in intellectual labour.
Thereupon Savonarola turned, bade farewell to the brethren, and, accompanied by the faithful Domenico,.Advertisement
At Dayton are the Union Biblical seminary, a theological school of the United Brethren in Christ, and the publishing house of the same denomination.
At the colloquy of Marburg "Zwingli offered his hand to Luther with the entreaty that they be at least Christian brethren, but Luther refused it and declared that the Swiss were of another spirit.
Yet no social attractions or successes diverted him from his devotion to his profession, the welfare of his brethren in art or of the Royal Academy.
Adamson (Perth, 1638) are the lines "For what we do presage is riot in grosse, For we are brethren of the Rosie Crosse; We have the Mason Word and second sight, Things for to come we can fortell aright."
Several modern societies have been formed from time to time (some of which are still flourishing in Great Britain) for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects, but in no sense are they directly derived from the "Brethren of the Rosy Cross" of the 17th century, though keen followers thereof.Advertisement
In the course of 1842 an attack of illness led to his making a journey in Italy, where he spent some time in a monastery belonging to one of the strictest of all the monastic orders, the Passionists, brethren addicted to wearing hair shirts and scourging themselves without mercy.
In the young historian's eyes these good brethren were of much value as living and breathing historic material.
The Epistle of Polycarp. - Though Irenaeus states that Polycarp wrote many "letters to the neighbouring churches or to certain of the brethren" 4 only one has been preserved, viz.
Audubon states that the mocking-birds which are resident all the year round in Louisiana attack their travelled brethren on the return of the latter from the north in autumn.
Luther and his sympathizers were blind to the reasonableness of the fundamental teachings of these " brethren."
The English Independents and the modern Baptists, as well as the Mennonites, may be regarded as the historical continuation of lines of development going back to the Waldensians and the Bohemian Brethren, and passing down through the German, Dutch and Swiss Anabaptists.
They invaded the West Indies, seized one island after another, and formed the freebooting communities known as the Brethren of the Coast and the Buccaneers.
Already there were scattered bodies of Waldenses in Germany who had influenced, and afterwards joined, the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren.
This was one of essential equality among " the saints " or " the brethren," turning on common possession of and by the one Spirit of Christ.
These, the bishops in the first instance of provincial capitals, gradually acquired a control over their episcopal brethren in lesser cities, analogous to that of the civil governor over other provincial officials.
This comes out in the writings both of Robinson and of Henry Jacob, both of whom passed gradually from Puritanism to Separatism at a time when the silencing of some 300 Puritan clergy by the Canons of 1604, and the exercise of the royal supremacy under Archbishop Bancroft, brought these " brethren of the Second Separation " into closer relations with the earlier Separatists.
The movement in the direction of union has been still further promoted by the International Councils referred to above (section on British Congregationalism ad fin.), in which the American Congregationalists have met the representatives of their brethren in Great Britain and its colonies having the same faith and polity.
It was also agreed to allow the Arminian deputies to take part in the deliberations, only on condition that they forbore to consult with, or in any way assist, their cited brethren, but this they refused.
He bids her " Do not touch Me, for I have not yet ascended "; but to tell His brethren " I ascend to My Father and to your Father, to My God and to your God."
In the parable Lazarus returns not to earth, since Abraham foresees that the rich man's brethren would disbelieve even if one rose from the dead; in the corresponding allegory, Lazarus does actually return to life, and the Jews believe so little as to determine upon killing the very Life Himself.
In spite of the neutral attitude taken by their government a number of the Free State Boers, living in the northern part of the country, went to the Transvaal and joined their brethren then in arms against the British.
Among the smaller religious sects the Moravian Brethren, whose chief seat is at Herrnhut, are perhaps the most interesting.
Johann Friedrich Bbttger made his famous discovery in 1710, and the manufacture of porcelain was begun at Meissen, and in this reign the Moravian Brethren made their settlement at Herrnhut.
His parents were Quakers, and he himself for many years was in communion with the (Darbyite) Plymouth Brethren, but afterwards became a Presbyterian.
But though the men of the keys and the sword let him go his way unmolested, it was otherwise with his brethren of the pen.
That they had a large measure of authority of course goes without saying, but it depended always upon their brethren's recognition of their possession of the divine gift of apostleship, and the right of Churches or individuals to test their claims and to refuse to listen to them if they did not vindicate their divine call was everywhere recognized.
In Bohemia, the Evangelical Church of Czech Brethren represents a spiritual and historical continuity with the old Hussites.
Whereupon the more rigid Lutherans accused their brethren of Crypto-Calvinism, and began controversies which dealt with that charge and with a defence of the idea of ubiquity.
Almost every acre of densely populated Masovia was in the hands of her sturdy, ultra-conservative squires, in point of culture far below their brethren in Great and Little Poland.
Another sect, which ultimately found even more favour in Poland than the Calvinists, was that of the Bohemian Brethren.
The Bohemian Brethren evangelized Little Poland, but ultimately coalesced with the Calvinists at the synod of Kozminek (August 1555).
Knowing the sensitiveness of the Lithuanians as regards Volhynia and Podolia, he suddenly, of his own authority, formally incorporated both these provinces with the kingdom of Poland, whereupon, amidst great enthusiasm, the Volhynian and Podolian deputies took their places on the same benches as their Polish brethren.
Here congregated hundreds of the younger szlachta, fresh from their school benches, whence they brought nothing but a smattering of Latin and a determination to make their way by absolute subservience to their "elder brethren," the pans.
The Connexion provides for English residents wherever required, and the English ministers are oftener in their own pulpits than their Welsh brethren.
The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.
They found alike their mutual relations and their relations to other people - and not only to people, but to all living creatures - exclusively on love, and therefore they hold all people equal and brethren.
As Turkish interests demanded the isolation of the Oriental Christians from their western brethren, and as the orthodox Greek nationalists feared Latinization more than Mahommedan rule, a patriarch hostile to the union was chosen, and a synod of Constantinople in 1472 formally rejected the decisions of Florence.
The first delegated general conference met at Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, in 1815, and adopted a confession of faith, rules of order and a book of discipline, which were revised in 1885-1889, when women were first admitted to ordination, and when the Conservatives, protesting against the new constitution, withdrew and formed the body now commonly known as the United Brethren in Christ "of the Old Constitution."
Rather than scandalize weaker brethren, Paul was willing to eat herbs the rest of his life.
Then there is presented to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of water (and of a mixture,) ' and he having taken it sends up praise and glory to the father of all things by the name of the Son and Holy Spirit, and he offers at length thanksgiving (eucharistic) for our having been made -;'orthy of these things by him.
But this effect of participation in the bread and cup was not in Paul's opinion automatic, was no mere o, ', us operatum; it depended on the ethical co-operation of the believer, who must not eat and drink unworthily, that is, after refusing to share his meats with the poorer brethren, or with any other guilt in his soul.
His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.
The Western Manichaeans of the 4th and 5th centuries are much more like Christians than their Eastern brethren.
The upper story of the refectory is the "vestiarium," where the ordinary clothes of the brethren were kept.
These valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their retirement.
Beyond this we often find the calefactorium or day-room - an apartment warmed by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the day.
The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the calefactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal services.
The cemetery, the last resting-place of the brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H).
Advancing into the inner court, the buildings devoted to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren, - the kitchen, cellars, &c., - form a court of themselves outside the cloister and quite detached from the church.
The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging to the professional life of the brethren surround the great cloister.
The whole arrangements and character of the building bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble father of a body of hard-working brethren, bound by vows to a life of poverty and self-denying toil.
Prossnitz is a town of ancient origin, and in the 16th century was one of the chief seats of the Moravian Brethren.
The " coenobian " monasteries (Kow60ea), each under the rule of an abbot (iiyouµEvos), are subjected to severe discipline; the brethren are clothed alike, take their meals (usually limited to bread and vegetables) in the refectory, and possess no private property.
The arguments that had weaned him from his Zwibiglian simplicity did not satisfy his unpromoted brethren, and Jewel had to refuse admission to a benefice to his friend Laurence Humphrey (q.v.), who would not wear a surplice.
In the 13th century a master and chaplain took the place of the lay brethren, and in 1334 a chantry was founded.
No less than fourteen villages near Nicopolis embraced Catholicism, and a colony of Pavlikeni in the village of Cioplea near Bucharest followed the example of their brethren across the Danube.
This injunction he laid upon us, and all our Brethren on his death-bed, That we each continue in our respective Station till the time appointed for the next Conference at Manchester.
The preachers had agreed in 1793 that all distinction between those whom Wesley had ordained and their brethren should cease.
At Herrnhut there were conflicting tendencies, doctrinal and practical extravagances, and the organization of the brethren was very defective.
In 1777 Spangenberg was commissioned to draw up an idea fidei fratrum, or compendium of the Christian faith of the United Brethren, which became the accepted declaration of the Moravian belief.
Dominican missions went to Armenia, and in 1328 under their auspices was formed a regular order called the United Brethren, the forerunners of the Uniats of the present day, who have convents at Venice and Vienna, a college in Rome and a numerous following in Turkey.
Prerau was at one time the chief seat of the Moravian Brethren.
About that year he began the compilation of his Chronica, a work intended for the private reading of his brethren.
Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
When in 1747 "the Associate Synod," by a narrow majority, decided not to give full immediate effect to a judgment which had been passed in the previous year against the lawfulness of the "Burgess Oath," Gib led the protesting minority, who separated from their brethren and formed the Antiburgher Synod (April loth) in his own house in Edinburgh.
It was chiefly under his influence that it was agreed by this ecclesiastical body at subsequent meetings to summon to the bar their "Burgher" brethren, and finally to depose and excommunicate them for contumacy.
In the breeding-season, however, it is as noisy and conspicuous as its larger brethren while executing its aerial evolutions.
Although small Christian communities existed in Ireland and elsewhere calling themselves Brethren, and holding similar views, the accession to the ranks of Darby so increased their numbers and influence that he is usually reckoned the founder of Plymouthism.
The Brethren started a periodical, The Christian Witness, continued from 1849 as The Present Testimony, with Harris as editor and Darby as the most important contributor.
Congregations were formed in Geneva, at Lausanne, where most of the Methodist and other dissenters joined the Brethren, at Vevey and elsewhere in Vaud.
The revolution in the canton Vaud, brought about by Jesuit intrigue in 1845, brought persecution to the Brethren in the canton and in other parts of French Switzerland, and Darby's life was in great jeopardy.
He returned to England, and his reappearance was followed by divisions among the Brethren at home.
Benjamin Wills Newton, head of the community there, who had been a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, was accused of departing from the testimony of the Brethren by reintroducing the spirit of clericalism.
The majority of the Brethren out of Plymouth supported Darby, but a minority remained with Newton.
Out of this came the separation into Neutral Brethren, led by Muller, and Exclusive Brethren or Darbyites, who refused to hold communion with the followers of Newton or Muller.
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At a later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north.
More serious still, from the point of view of the Church, was the association of these wandering mendicants with the mystic heresies of the Fraticelli, the Apostolici and the pantheistic Brethren of the Free Spirit.
Of the Pietists of the second class one of the leaders was Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813), born in Dillenburg, Nassau, whose system of class-meetings was the basis of a secession from which grew the United Brethren in Christ, commonly called the "New Reformed Church," organized in 1800.
In Virginia many churches became Episcopalian and others United Brethren.
Among the members of this celebrated body was one to whom it has owed the greater part of its celebrity, yet who was regarded with little respect by his brethren, and had not without difficulty obtained a seat among them.
According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German empire- 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other confessions, 586,948 Jews, f 1,597 members of other sects and 5938 unclassified, The Christians belonging to other confessions include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900.
Rome, chastiser of the freebooters of Rhegium, saw Italian brethren in the freebooters of Messana.
Many of them seem to have rejected a belief in immortality and in a personal God, and in many ways they resemble the Brethren of the Free Spirit in the 14th century.
The revolt under the Hasmonaean family (Judas Maccabaeus and his brethren) followed, ending in 143-142 in the establishment of an independent Jewish state under a Hasmonaean prince.
Meanwhile a great part of the Jewish people was living dispersed among the cities of the Greek world, speaking Greek as their mother-tongue, and absorbing Greek influences in much larger measure than their brethren of Palestine.
Prior to the death of the khalifa, many of his soldiers deserted to join their brethren who had been captured by the sirdars troops, during the gradual advance up the Nile.
It had been foretold to his mother before his birth that he should be "a wild ass among men," and that he should dwell "before the face of" (that is, to the eastward of) his brethren.
Among those who sought refuge here was a colony of Moravian Brethren; they still occupy a separate quarter of the town, where they carry on manufactures of porcelain stoves and deerskin gloves.
The almspeople consisted of six " poor brethren " and six " poor sisters," and the teaching and governing staff of a master and a warden, who were always to be of the founder's surname, and four fellows, all " graduates and divines," among whom were apportioned the ministerial work of the chapel, the instruction of the boys, and the supervision of the almspeople.
On the 10th of May the brethren wrecked the monasteries of Perth, after a sermon by Knox,and the revolution was launched, the six or seven preachers already threatening the backward members of their party with excommunication.
The movement spread to St Andrews, to Stirling, to Edinburgh, which the brethren entered, while Mary of Guise withdrew.
Darnley being a Catholic, as far as he was anything, the jealous fears of the Brethren under Knox reached a passionate height.
The evidence that the correlation between sexually produced brethren is the same as that existing between the asexually repeated organs on an individual body renders it impossible to accept Weismann's view that one of the results produced by the differentiation of animals and plants into two sexes is an increase in the variability of their offspring.
These were handed on, from mouth to mouth, in the small companies of the brethren or sisters.
Of these ro 7 are brethren, and 73 sisters, in the order.
Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
Presently, when He told that His mother and brethren were calling for Him, He disclaimed their interference by pointing to a new circle of family relationship, consisting of all those who " do the will of God."
Young Martin went to the village school at Mansfeld; to a school at Magdeburg kept by the Brethren of the Common Lot; then to the well-known St George's school at Eisenach.
Lastly, the medieval Brethren were engaged in printing and distributing tracts, mystical, anti-clerical, sometimes socialist.
In 1828 he founded a new religious order, the Institute of the Brethren of Charity,.
However, these transformed salamanders, of which twenty-nine were obtained from 1865 to 1870, did not breed, although their branchiate brethren continued to do so very freely.
This mysterious Western, offshoot of Gnosticism had no single feature about it which could soften the hostility of a character such as Martin's, but he resisted the introduction of secular punishment for evil doctrine, and withdrew from communion with those bishops in Gaul, a large majority, who invoked the aid of Maximus against their erring brethren.
And one of the Afghan histories, quoted by Mr Bellew, relates " a current tradition " that, previous to the time of Kais, Bilo the father of the Biluchis, Uzbak (evidently the father of the Usbegs) and Afghana were considered as brethren.
Here, again, the Mahommedans are not strongly distinguished from their Hindu brethren.
Soon after he was made bishop of the church of the Brethren.
Abu Mahommed was taken prisoner and shut up with several of his brethren and cousins in the Khadra, the old palace of Moawiya, together with the two sons of Walid II.
The same sect that erected these buildings, the Moravians, or United Brethren, maintain here the Moravian College and Theological Seminary, and a well-known school for girls (the Moravian Seminary), founded as a church boarding school in 1749 and reorganized in 1785, for girls of all denominations.
Badger testifies that the Syrian proselytes to Rome were superior to their Jacobite brethren, having established schools, rebuilt their churches, increased their clergy, and, above all, having learned to live with each other on terms of peace and charity.
Indeed its founder, Ramananda, who probably flourished in the latter part of the 14th century, according to the traditional account, was originally a SriVaishnava monk, and, having come under the suspicion of laxity in observing the strict rules of food during his peregrinations, and been ordered by his superior (Mahant) to take his meals apart from his brethren, left the monastery in a huff and set up a schismatic math of his own at Benares.
But the German divines were much more in touch with the world at large than were their brethren in Italy or France; and more than one interesting attempt was made to bring theology into line with modern schools of thought.
He was specially admitted as an extraordinary member of the great priestly colleges; his name was included by the Arval Brethren in their prayers for the safety of the emperor and his house; at the games in the circus his appearance in triumphal dress contrasted significantly with the simple toga praetexta worn by Britannicus.
Throughout the remainder of his life his more learned brethren from time to time expounded to him the events of Scripture history and the doctrines of the faith, and all that he heard from them he reproduced in beautiful poetry.
They were parish ministers and subject like their brethren to church courts; their added function was to plant churches, and place ministers, elders and deacons where required.
The powers of the bishops were increased, and their brethren brought in various ways under subjection to them, and in 1609 two courts of high commission were set up by the royal authority with plenary powers to enforce conformity to the new arrangements.
Though he was almost deified by many of his brethren, who at his word agreed to modify their religious observances, yet he was unable to turn the enthusiasm of thousands to any account.
The Geonim in their " Responses " or " Questions and Answers " supplied authoritative interpretations of the Old Testament or of the Talmud, and regulated the application of the teaching of the past to the changed conditions under which their brethren now lived.
While in England on public business in 1652, Clarke published Ill News from New England, which contained an impressive account of the proceedings against himself and his brethren at Lynn, and an earnest and wellreasoned plea for liberty of conscience.
In 1 774 some of the Virginia brethren became convinced that the apostolic office was meant to be perpetuated and induced the association to appoint an apostle.
Judson appealed to his American brethren to support him in missionary work among the heathen, and Rice returned to America to organize missionary societies to awaken interest in Judson's mission.
Before 1844 the sessions of the Triennial Convention had occasionally been made unpleasant by harsh anti-slavery utterances by Northern members against their Southern brethren and somewhat acrimonious rejoinders by the latter.
The controversy between Francis Wayland and Richard Fuller (1804-1876) on the slavery question ultimately convinced the Southern brethren that separate organization for missionary work was advisable.
In 1558 he published his "Appellation" to the nobles, estates and commonalty against the sentence of death recently pronounced upon him, and along with it a stirring appeal "To his beloved brethren, the Commonalty of Scotland," urging that the care of religion fell to them also as being "God's creatures, created and formed in His own image," and having a right to defend their conscience against persecution.
Edinburgh was still doubtful, and the queen regent held the castle; but a truce between her and the lords for six months to the 1st of January 1560 was arranged on the footing that every man there "may have freedom to use his own conscience to the day foresaid" - a freedom interpreted to let Knox and his brethren preach publicly and incessantly.
All are to help their brethren, "for no man may be permitted to live as best pleaseth him within the Church of God."
From all such property, whether land or the sheaves and fruits of land, and also from the personal property of burghers in the towns; Knox now held that the state should authorize the kirk to claim the salaries of the ministers, and the salaries of teachers in the schools and universities, but above all, the relief of the poor - not only of the absolutely "indigent" but of "your poor brethren, the labourers and handworkers of the ground."
In that of St Maria the celebrated bishop of the Bohemian brethren, Johann August, was buried in 1595; but his tomb was destroyed in 1621.
The church of St Bonaventura with the convent, originally belonging to the friars minor and later to the Bohemian brethren, is now a Piaristic college.
Early in the 13th century it was given the privileges of a town and pledged to the lords of Michalovic. In the Hussite wars Jung-Bunzlau adhered to the Taborites and became later the metropolis of the Bohemian Brethren.
His brethren made him oeconomiae prefectus, but he was too "simple in worldly affairs" and too absent-minded for the post, and so they deposed him and made him sub-prior once more.
The Silingian Vandals were well-nigh exterminated, but their Asdingian brethren (with whom were now associated the remains of a Turanian people, the Alani, who had been utterly defeated by the Goths) marched across Spain and took possession of Andalusia.
The beautiful character which rose superior to weakness, poverty and slave's estate is also presented to us in the Discourses of his disciple Arrian as a model of religious resignation, of forbearance and love towards our brethren, that is, towards all men, since God is our common father.
He joined the Jesuits in 1719, was banished from Spain with his brethren in 1767, and settled at Bologna, where he died on the 2nd of November 1781.
Thus the mother of the seven brethren, whose martyrdom is related in 2 Macc. vi., vii., is called by early Christian writers " the mother of the Maccabees."
All Christians were "brethren," and the basis of pre-eminence among them was relative ability for service.
Some of the more advanced Utraquists differed but little from the German Lutherans, while the Bohemian Brethren, who at this moment greatly increased in influence through the accession of several powerful nobles, strongly sympathized with the Protestants of Germany.
Ferdinand fixed the town of Kaaden on the Saxon frontier as the spot where the troops were to meet, but on his arrival there he found that many cities and nobles - particularly those who belonged to the community of the Bohemian Brethren - had sent no men.
The Bohemian Brethren were also severely persecuted, and their bishop Augusta was imprisoned for many years.
Though he published new decrees against the Bohemian Brethren, he generally refused to sanction any measures against the Protestants, in spite of the advice of the Jesuits, who were gradually obtaining great influence in Bohemia.
The Romanists had always hated them, believing them not to be in accord with the general custom of the papal church, while the Lutherans and Bohemian Brethren considered their suppression a guarantee of their own liberty of worship.
This is undoubtedly due to the influence of the Bohemian Brethren.
Under this influence, Rudolph in 1602 issued a decree which renewed obsolete enactments against the Bohemian Brethren that had been published by King Vladislav in 1508.
It appeared therefore as a menace to the Lutherans - and all the more advanced Utraquists had now embraced that creed - as well as to the Bohemian Brethren.
Budovec of Budova, a nobleman belonging to the community of the Bohemian Brethren, became the leader of all those who were opposed to the Church of Rome.
They further demanded that the Protestants - as it now became customary to call jointly the Utraquists, Lutherans and Bohemian Brethren - and the Roman Catholics should have an equal right to hold all the offices of state, and that the power of the Jesuits to acquire land should be limited.
Besides the writers of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, we meet at this period with three historians of merit.
Though the life of Chelcicky, who has already been mentioned, was an isolated one, he is undoubtedly the indirect founder of the community of the " Bohemian Brethren," who greatly influenced Bohemian literature.
David's Theological College, Lampeter, where he gathered about him a band of earnest religious enthusiasts, known as the Lampeter Brethren, and was eventually ordained to the curacy of Charlinch in Somerset, where he had sole charge in the illness and absence of the rector, the Rev. Samuel Starkey.
As a rule they are well built and little behind their Caucasian brethren.
A mayor and twenty-four brethren who formed the council of the borough are mentioned in 1440, but the earliest charter of incorporation is that of Charles I.
The Brethren, generally known, from their place of origin, as the Plymouth Brethren, have " rooms " and adherents throughout England; the Catholic Apostolic Church ("Irvingites ") have some 80 churches; the New Jerusalem Church(Swedenborgians) had (1908) 75 " societies "; the Christian Scientists, the Christadelphians, the British Israelites and similar societies, such as the New and Latter House of Israel, the Seventh Day Baptists, deserve mention.
Anciently Courland was inhabited by the Cours or Kurs, a Lettish tribe, who were subdued and converted to Christianity by the Brethren of the Sword, a German military order, in the first quarter of the 13th century.
In 1237 it passed under the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the Sword.
Eldad first set out to visit his Hebrew brethren in Africa and Asia.
From February 1708 to April 1709 Swift was in London, urging upon the Godolphin administration the claims of the Irish clergy to the first-fruits and twentieths ("Queen Anne's Bounty"), which brought in about £2500 a year, already granted to their brethren in England.
During the middle ages the doctrines of this obscure sect, which did not itself exist long, were revived in Europe by the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit.
When he had joined a Baptist society at Bedford, and was for the first time admitted to partake of the eucharist, it was with difficulty that he could refrain from imprecating destruction on his brethren while the cup was passing from hand to hand.
Indeed, he was considered by his stern brethren as somewhat too fond and indulgent a parent.
From London he went his circuit through the country, animating the zeal of his brethren, collecting and distributing alms and making up quarrels.
I also go, brethren, to the General's village in the wilds of Uruvela."
The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence by the brethren of his house.
And as the legal manumission dissolved a son's previous agnatic relationships, so, too, the person baptized gave up father and mother, &c., and became one of a society of brethren the bond between whom was not physical but spiritual.
The publishing office of the Dunkers, or German Brethren, is at Elgin; and several popular weeklies with large circulations are published here.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 938,405 members of different religious denominations; of this total 2 33,443 were Methodists (210,593 of the Northern Church), 1 74,849 were Roman Catholics, 108,188 were Disciples of Christ (and 10,259 members of the Churches of Christ), 92,705 were Baptists (60,203 of the Northern Convention, 13,526 of the National (Colored) Convention, 8132 Primitive Baptists, and 6671 General Baptists), 58,633 were Presbyterians (49,041 of the Northern Church, and 6376 of the Cumberland Church - since united with the Northern), 55,768 were Lutherans (34,028 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference, 8310 of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and other states), 52,700 were United Brethren (48,059 of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ; the others of the " Old Constitution ") and 21,624 of the German Evangelical Synod.
To come to England, Wesley provided for spiritual discipline through the class-meeting, whose leader has to advise, comfort or exhort as occasion may arise; and (2) through the ministers, who have to bear the chief responsibility in the reproof, suspension or expulsion from communion of erring brethren.
Obedience is required to the seven commandments of Hamza, the first and greatest of which enjoins truth in words (but only those of Druse speaking with Druse); the second, watchfulness over the safety of the brethren; the third, absolute renunciation of every other religion; the fourth, complete separation from all who are in error; the fifth, recognition of the unity of "Our Lord" in all ages; the sixth, complete resignation to his will; and the seventh, complete obedience to his orders.
It is the seat of Juniata College (German Baptist Brethren), opened in 1876 as the Brethren's Normal School and Collegiate Institute, and rechartered as Juniata College in 1896, and of the State Industrial Reformatory, opened in 1888.
The last, in regulated forms, are a permanent feature of Catholicism; and the rivalries of these " regular " clergy with their " secular" or parochial brethren continue to make history to-day.
During the next hundred years its members exercised great influence on their brethren of the synod; but the counterinfluence of the mission of the Scottish Seceders (from 1742) produced a reaction.
Till 1889 they maintained two theological chairs in Belfast, where John Scott Porter (1801-1880) was a pioneer in biblical criticism; they now send their students to England for their theological education, though in certain respects their views and practices are more conservative than those of their English brethren.
In this extremity Sieyes chose as minister of police the old Terrorist Fouche, who best understood how to deal with his brethren.
In education the Scandinavian Lapps are far ahead of their Russian brethren, to whom reading and writing are arts as unfamiliar as they were to their pagan ancestors.
Meantine the Karelians were pressing on the eastern Lapps, and in the course of the i ith century the rulers of Novgorod began to treat them as the Norsemen had treated their western brethren.
Finally in the exposition of Christian Justice the Stoic doctrine of the natural union of all human interests is elevated to the full height and intensity of evangelical philanthropy; the brethren are reminded that the earth was made by God a common possession of all, and are bidden to administer their means for the common benefit; Ambrose, we should observe, is thoroughly aware of the fundamental union of these different virtues in Christianity, though he does Cicero's works are unimportant in the history of ancient ethics, as their philosophical matter was entirely borrowed from Greek treatises now lost; but the influence exercised by them (especially by the De officiis) over medieval and even modern readers was very considerable.
Calvin, indignant at the calumny which was thus cast upon the reformed party in France, hastily prepared for the press his Institutes of the Christian Religion, which he published "first that I might vindicate from unjust affront my brethren whose death was precious in the sight of the Lord, and, next, that some sorrow and anxiety should move foreign peoples, since the same sufferings threatened many."
These Calvin regarded as matters of indifference, provided the magistrates did not make them of importance, by seeking to enforce them; and he was the more willing to concede them, because he hoped thereby to meet the wishes of the Bernese brethren whose ritual was less simple than that established by Farel at Geneva.
In ancient Irish literature the functions of the druids correspond fairly closely to those of their Gaulish brethren recorded by Caesar and other writers of antiquity.
Next year Maurice Fitzgerald was made earl of Desmond, and from his three brethren descended the historic houses of the White Knight, the knight of Glin, and the knight of Kerry.
A Roman Catholic (Jesuit) mission was begun in 1861, and a large force of priests with a bishop and lay brethren and sisters engaged in education, have been at work in the island since then, except during the two FrancoMalagasy wars.'
As in the common " swallowing-myths " which we have met among bushmen and Australians, and will find among the Greeks, Qat restored his brethren to life.
Odin's brethren (in Gylfi's Mocking) are Vile and Ve, who with him slew Ymir the giant, and made all things out of the fragments of his body.
It is significant that Jacob's body is taken to Palestine, but the brethren return to Egypt; in spite of a possible allusion to the famine in v.
The northern standpoint appears when Rachel, mother of Joseph and Benjamin, is the favoured wife in contrast to the despised Leah, mother of Judah and Simeon; when Joseph is supreme among his brethren; and when Judah is included among the "sons" of Israel.
But they lived on, suffering with their orthodox brethren in the Vandal invasions of the 5th century, and like them finally disappearing before the Saracen onslaught two centuries later.
The purpose of the writer was evidently to cheer his Egyptian brethren during some persecution at Alexandria.
Here are the well preserved ruins of a former castle of the Brethren of the Sword, afterwards (from 1237) of the grandmaster of the Teutonic Knights.
In 1280 the bishop obtained a charter allowing him to replace the secular brethren residing in his hospital of St John at Cambridge by "studious scholars"; a second charter four years later entirely differentiated these scholars from the brethren of the hospital, and for them Hugh de Balsham founded and endowed the college of Peterhouse.
The tale tells of King Dasarath's court, the birth and boyhood of Rama and his brethren, his marriage with Sita, daughter of Janak king of Bideha, his voluntary exile, the result of Kaikeyi's guile and Dasarath's rash vow, the dwelling together of Rama and Sita in the great central Indian forest, her abduction by Ravan, the expedition to Lanka and the overthrow of the ravisher, and the life at Ajodhya after the return of the reunited pair.
Similarly, John XXII., in his bull Sancta Romana et Universalis Ecclesia (28th of December 1317), condemns vaguely those "profanae multitudinis viri commonly called Fraticelli, or Brethren of the Poor Life, or Bizocchi, or Beguines, or by all manner of other names."
Pissed that his morning hadn't gone as planned, he strode forward and put another bullet in the heads of each of the vamps to ensure they weren't returned to life by their brethren.
You.ll go nowhere near my blood monkey, and if any of our demon brethren attack her, you.ll defend her.
Laugh all you will, Rhyn, but this is my home, and the refuge of our Immortal brethren.
My Original brethren tell me there will be a split soon between the Watchers and the Others.
Brethren, let every man, wherein he is called, therein abide with God " .
No wonder Peter was exhorting the brethren to offer hospitality without grumbling!
The Lord then says to Peter, " When thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.
Let us love the brethren with a pure heart fervently.
Part of the success of Dublin and Wicklow is that it offers affiliated membership allowing visiting brethren from Northern Ireland to join.
For I would have you know, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man.
Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does corruption inherit incorruption.
Well, what are we, beloved brethren, in ourselves?
Heb 3 v 1 " Therefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling " .
Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?
I think many MacBook Pro owners will be very angry to discover their lower end brethren have stolen the show.
The Assembly accordingly reaffirmed the Act of 1720 in a very lengthy document, and ordered the twelve brethren to be rebuked and admonished.
Give to us a possession among our father's brethren.
The enraged brethren attacked their abbot and cellarer, pulling the cellarer from his horse and pursuing the couple for several miles.
Built like the proverbial nightclub doorman, Austin has also adopted the " thou shalt not pass " mentality of that particular brethren.
It may seem strange that the earliest Masonic jewels were from continental Brethren.
Masonic jewels were from continental Brethren.
In 1212 he sent out the brethren, two and two, to reform the world by preaching penitence.
Then said he to me see thou do it not for I am thy fellow servant & of thy brethren &c.
By resolution 68 the conference stated its desire to "maintain and strengthen the friendly relations" between the Churches of the Anglican Communion and "the ancient Church of Holland" (Jansenist, see Utrecht) and the old Catholic Churches; and resolutions 70-73 made elaborate provisions for a projected corporate union between the Anglican Church and the Unitas Fratrum (Moravian Brethren).
However, they are permitted to congregate at "the place which Yahweh shall choose," where they may perform the usual priestly duties together with their brethren who "stand there before Yahweh," and they are ' For the derivation of "Levi" see below § 4 end.
The cause of this sudden eclipse was the cruel vengeance he took on the milites, or noble order, who, emulating the example of their brethren in Bohemia, were already attempting to curb the royal power.
Some had mortgaged their houses, fields and vineyards to buy corn; others had borrowed to pay the taxes, and had sold their children to their richer brethren to repay the debt.
Consequently, underlying the canonical form of post-exilic history, one may perhaps recognize some fresh disaster, after the completion of Zerubbabel's temple, when Judah suffered grievously at the hands of its Edomite brethren (in Malachi, date uncertain, vengeance has at last been taken); Nehemiah restored the city, and the traditions of the exiles who returned at this period have been thrown back and focussed upon the work of Zerubbabel.
More important in the history of the modern church was the secession, in the decade between 1880 and 1890,, of the Old Order Brethren, who opposed Sunday Schools and.
In the winter of 1190-91 certain pious merchants from Bremen and Lubeck (towns with which the Order was still to be connected in the days of its later history) laid the foundations of a hospital in a vessel which they had drawn ashore.(fn2) Within a few years the foundation apparently became attached to the German Church of St Mary the Virgin at Jerusalem; and in March 1198 (there being present in the Holy Land a number of Germans, the relics of Henry VI.'s projected crusade), the great men of the army and the kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St Mary to the rank of an order of knights.
Before this time, and in all probability at Strassburg, where he appears to have been for some years, he had come in contact with the Beghards (see Beguines) and Brethren of the Free Spirit, whose fundamental notions he may, indeed, be said to have systematized and expounded in the highest form to which they could attain.
Episcopacy in a stricter sense is the system of the Moravian Brethren and the Methodist Episcopal Church of America (see Methodism).
They are hymns of the laity, describing with much beauty and depth of feeling the emotions of the pilgrim when his feet stood within the gates of Jerusalem, when he looked forth on the encircling hills, when he felt how good it was to be camping side by side with his brethren on the slopes of Zion (cxxxiii.), when a sense of Jehovah's forgiving grace and the certainty of the redemption of Israel triumphed over all the evils of the present and filled his soul with humble and patient hope.
Yet the " Five Dissenting Brethren " would have failed to secure toleration even for themselves as Congregationalists - such was the dread felt by the assembly for Anabaptists, Antinomians, and other " sectaries " - had it not been for the vaguer, but widespread Independency existing in parliament and in the army.
Christ's principle of love was widely interpreted to mean chiefly love for the Christian brotherhood, and within that circle the virtues of hospitality, charity and helpfulness were widely exercised; and if the salvation of his own soul was regarded as the most important affair of every man, the service of the brethren was recognized as an imperative Christian duty.
The dormi- tory, as a rule, was placed on the east side of the cloister, running over the calefactory and chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal services.
In 1796, Alexander Kilham, who refused to abstain from agitation for further reform, and accused his brethren of priestcraft, was expelled from their ranks and the New Connexion was formed with 5000 members (see Methodist New Connexion).
The term akhwan, or ikhwan, signifies "brethren," and the tenets of the brotherhood are those of Wahabism revived and intensified (see 28.245).
But the genealogical relations were rather with the Edomites, Midianites and other peoples of North Arabia and the eastern desert than with Egypt proper, and this is indicated by the expressions that "they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur that is east of Egypt, and he settled to the eastward of his brethren" (see MIZRAIM).
The ruling caste in Nigeria, on the other hand, despise their pastoral brethren, and through generations of polygamy with the conquered tribes have become more Negroid in type, black, burly and coarse featured.
He afterwards retracted his compliance with the adiaphora, and never really swerved from the views set forth in the Loci communes; but he regarded the surrender of more perfect for less perfect forms of truth or of expression as a painful sacrifice rendered to the weakness of erring brethren.
There is therefore in a large class, of cases an indication that the variability of an array of brethren, produced either sexually or asexually, is a constant fraction of the variability of the race to which the brethren belong.
For the sacrificial system of H (= Law of Holiness) is less developed than that of P, and in particular shows no knowledge of the sinand trespass-offerings; the high priest is only Primus inter pares among his brethren, xxi.
The king appointed as government officials at Prague men of that section of the Utraquist party that was nearest to Rome, while a severe persecution of the extreme Hussites known as the Bohemian Brethren took place (see HussITEs).
In secret he gave himself up to ceaseless prayer; in public he threw himself at the brethren's feet to entreat their intercessions.
Namyawaza, for instance, whom Itakkama (see above) accuses of disloyalty, writes thus to the Pharaoh, " Behold, I and my warriors and my chariots, together with my brethren and my SA-GAS, and my Suti 10 are at the disposal of the (royal) troops, to go whithersoever the king, my lord, commands."
Despite its smaller size, the Nano's click wheel is just as easy and efficient to use as its bigger brethren.
Of course, sports gear is also ideal to wear on game day, when team morale is at its peak and you're among your fellow fan brethren, who take the game just as seriously and feel just as passionately as you do!
The navy suit became as ubiquitous for men as for women once women entered the workforce en masse and believed they had to dress as drably as their brethren did.
For these reasons, this careful earth sign tends to coexist best with patient water signs and his pragmatically-oriented earth brethren.
When you examine the romantic potential of Virgos in contrast to their fellow zodiac brethren, it is important to understand that different aspects of an individual's natal chart will manifest Virgo in a greatly different manner.
His followers were known as the Brethren of Chelcic, and wore a distinctive dress.
With the Brethren, however, the chief stress was laid, not on doctrine, but on conduct.
At the battle of the White Hill (1620) the Bohemian Protestants were routed; the Brethren were driven from their homes; the Polish branch wis absorbed in the Reformed Church of Poland; and then many fled, some to England, some to Saxony, and some even to Texas.
Of the "Hidden Seed" the greater number were Germans; they were probably descended from a colony of German Waldenses, who had come to Moravia in 1480 and joined the Church of the Brethren; and, therefore, when persecution broke out afresh they naturally fled to the nearest German refuge.
A certain Conrad Schmidt placed himself at the head of a community of Thuringian flagellants, who took the name of Brethren of the Cross.
Numbers of Beghards joined the Brethren of the Cross, and the two sects were confounded in the rigorous persecution conducted in Germany by the inquisitor Eylard Schoneveld, who almost annihilated the flagellants.
The Brethren lived in Schwarzenau in peace under the tolerant Count Heinrich Albrecht of Wittgenstein.
Eventually, Count Heinrich was pressured to rid the area of religious dissidents, and the Brethren felt compelled to leave.
The church officers (generally unpaid) comprise bishops (or ministers), elders, teachers, deacons (or visiting brethren) and deaconesses - chiefly aged women who are permitted at times to take leading parts in church services.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
Over each of the twenty districts of the Order was set a commander (Komtur), with the brethren of his house at his side as advisers.
The lay subjects of the Order consisted of two classes; on the one hand there were the conquered Prussians, in a position of serfdom, bound in time of war to serve with the brethren in foreign expeditions; on the other hand there were the German immigrants, both urban and rural, along with the free Prussians who had voluntarily submitted and remained faithful.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
The Order was at variance within itself; some of the houses of the brethren refused to obey the marshal, and the grand master quarrelled with the German master.
The brethren of East Prussia, however, still sighed for independence; and they pursued the policy of choosing German princes to be grand masters of the Order, in the hope of regaining liberty by their aid.
Few of the brethren resisted; and the Order quietly ceased from the land where for three hundred years it had had its being.
The pupils at Brienne, far from receiving a military education, were grounded in ordinary subjects, and in no very efficient manner, by brethren of the order, or society, of Minims. The moral tone of the school was low; and Napoleon afterwards spoke with contempt of the training of the "monks" and the manner of life of the scholars.
On the whole Brandt's labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that consideration must be paid to osteology; for his position was such as to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably placed brethren had succeeded in doing.
Thanks to Mr Sclater, the Ray Society was induced to publish, in 1867, an excellent translation by Mr Dallas of Nitzsch's Pterylography, and thereby, however tardily, justice was at length rendered by British ornithologists to one of their greatest foreign brethren.'
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
Yet one must remember, in justice to Alexius, the gravity of the problem by which he was confronted; nor was the conduct of the crusaders themselves such that he could readily make them his brethren in arms.
At Tiberias a little squadron of the brethren of the two Orders went down before Saladin's cavalry in May; at Hattin the levy masse of the kingdom, some 20,000 strong, foolishly marching over a sandy plain under the heat of a July sun, was utterly defeated; and after a fortnight's siege Jerusalem capitulated (October 2nd, 1187).
The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
During the first three centuries the fortitude of these "witnesses" won the admiration of their brethren.
What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life--love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward.
Podébrad's persecution of the newly-founded community of the Bohemian brethren is certainly a blemish on his career.
Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1598 under the style of a mayor, 6 brethren and 12 capital burgesses.
The moderator has no special power or supremacy over his brethren, but is honoured and obeyed as Primus inter pares.
He died on the journey in March 1607; and thus, as one of the brethren pronounced his epitaph, " seeking Cathay he found heaven."
The revival of the Moravian Brethren was German in origin.
It is possible that some had escaped by taking timely refuge among their brethren in Judah; indeed, if national tradition availed, there were doubtless times when Judah cast its eye upon the land with which it had been so intimately connected.
There were Jews in the Byzantine empire, in Rome, in France and Spain at very early periods, but it is with the Arab conquest of Spain that the Jews of Europe began to rival in culture and importance their brethren of the Persian gaonate.
The Jews of Hungary shared with their brethren in Austria the same alternations of expulsion and recall.
They were especially numerous in the Rhineland in the end of the 13th and during the 14th century; and they seem to have corrupted the originally orthodox communities of Beghards, for Beghards and Brethren of the Free Spirit are used henceforward as convertible terms, and the same immoralities are related of both.
The first house of the Brethren was founded at Deventer by Gerhard Groot and his youthful friend Florentius Radewyn; and here Thomas a Kempis received his training.
Artisans came from a great distance to view and honour the image of the popular writer whose best efforts had been dedicated to the cause and the sufferings of the workers of the world; and literary men of all opinions gathered round the grave of one of their brethren whose writings were at once the delight of every boy and the instruction of every man who read them.