Bremen, Germany (Capital) >>
at Bremen, 14 m.
and Reise durch die Grosse Wfiste fiber Rhadames nach Tripoli (Bremen, 1868).
of Sweden, and conquered the duchy of Bremen.
Cotton growing under European direction began about 1900, with the result that in 1901-1902 over 100,000 lb of cotton grown from native, American and Egyptian seed were shipped to Bremen.
Even the free cities were divided, Hamburg and Lubeck for, Bremen and Frankfort against.
"Futures" are not used in all markets-for instance, they are not to be found at Bremen; and in those in which they are used they play parts of different prominence-at Havre, for instance, the transactions in "futures" are of incomparably less relative importance than they are at Liverpool.
It is pleasantly situated at the foot of a lofty range of hills, which here dip down to the river, at the junction of the main lines of railway from Bremen and Hanover to Hamburg, which are carried to the latter city over two grand bridges crossing the southern and the northern arms of the Elbe.
Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received municipal rights in 1297.
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
In 845 church, monastery and town were burnt down by the Norsemen, and two years later the see of Hamburg was united with that of Bremen and its seat transferred to the latter city.
While still a lad he became successively bishop of Bremen, bishop of Verden and coadjutor of Halberstadt, while at the age of eighteen he was the chief commandant of the fortress of Stade.
Among the best authorities on the history of the sermon are Abbe Maury: Essai sur l'eloquence de la chaire (2 vols., Paris, 1810); Rothe, Geschichte der Predigt (Bremen, 1881).
Ernst, Les Produits de Venezuela (Bremen, 1874); A.
London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
epistolae interpretatio historicoexegetica (Bremen, 1844); and H.
BREMEN, a free state in the German empire, bearing the title Freie Hansestadt Bremen.
It falls into three distinct parts: (1) the largest portion, with the city of Bremen, lying on both banks, but chiefly on the right, of the lower course of the Weser, surrounded by the Prussian province of Hanover and the grandduchy of Oldenburg, and consisting in the main of lowland country intersected by canals and dykes; (2) the town and district of Vegesack, lying separate from, but immediately north of the main portion, on the right bank of the river; (3) the port of Bremerhaven, 46 m.
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
As a member of the German empire, the state of Bremen has one voice in the Bundesrat and returns one member to the Imperial diet (Reichstag).
Formerly Bremen was a free port, but from the 1st of October 1888 the whole of the state, with the exception of two small free districts in Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, joined the' German customs union.
The state has two Amtsgerichte (courts of first instance) at Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, and a superior court, Landgericht, at Bremen, whence appeals lie to the Oberlandesgericht for the Hanseatic towns in Hamburg.
The judges of the Bremen courts are appointed by a committee of members of the senate, the Burgerschaft and the bench of judges.
Kohl of Bremen to prepare the first volume (1868) of the Historical Society's Documentary History, and he discovered a MS. of Hakluyt's Discourse on Western Planting, which was edited, partly with Woods's notes, by Charles Dean in 1877.
of Berlin on the main line of railway to Hanover and at the junction of lines to Bremen, Magdeburg and Wittenberge.
The family of his mother migrated to England from Cologne in the reign of Henry II.; his father, Thedmar by name, was a citizen of Bremen who had been attracted to London by the privileges which the Plantagenets conferred upon the Teutonic Hanse.
UELZEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the Ilmenau, east of the famous Liineburger Heide, at the junction of the railway connecting Hamburg, Hanover, Bremen and Stendal, 52 m.
Always a place of great trading importance, long the place of election for the German kings, and until 1866, together with Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck, one of the four free cities of Germany, it still retains its position as one of the leading commercial centres of the German empire.
from Bremen, at the junction of a line to Vechta.
He next engaged in literary and tutorial work in Bremen, and on the outbreak of the revolution, in February 1848, was sent to Paris, as correspondent of the Bremer Zeitung.
It is reached by steamer from Geestemiinde, Emden, Bremen or Hamburg, and at low tide by road from the mainland.
The Danish army at once dispersed and the duchy of Bremen was recovered by the Swedes, who in the early autumn swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies.
of Bremen, and at the crossing of the main lines of railway, Berlin to Cologne and Hamburg to Frankfort-on-Main.
It is connected by railway with Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, Hameln, Cologne, Altenbeken and Cassel, and the facilities of intercourse have, under the fostering care of the Prussian government, enormously developed its trade and manufactures.
There is more than one meaning of Bremen discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
According to one account, he travelled as far as Bremen, called there by Archbishop Hermann in order to reform the musical service.
In 1186 the emissaries of the archbishop of Bremen began to preach Christianity among the Ehsts and Letts, and in 1201 the bishop of Livonia established his residence at Riga.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
The Weser on the whole is shallow, and navigation above Bremen is sometimes interrupted by drought.
Until 1894 the fairway up to Bremen had a minimum depth of little over 8 ft.; thereafter important works were undertaken, the minimum depth was made 18 ft., and the importance of Bremen as a port was greatly enhanced.
A system of waterways (the Geeste and Hadelner canals, meeting one another at Bederkesa) connects the estuary of the Weser with that of the Elbe; a canal between the Hunte and the Leda gives connexion with the Ems. On the upper Weser (above Bremen) the navigation, which is interrupted by occasional rapids, is assisted by locks and weirs.
The principal town on the Weser is Bremen.
DORT An assembly of the Reformed Dutch Church, with deputies from Switzerland, the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse, East Friesland, Bremen, Scotland and England, called to decide the theological differences existing between the Arminians (or Remonstrants) and the Calvinists (or Counter-Remonstrants), was held at Dort or Dordrecht in the years 1618 and 1619.
Bishoprics were founded at Bremen, Minster, Verden, Minden, Paderborn, Osnabruck, Hildesheim and Hamburg, and one`founded at Seligenstadt was removed to Halberstadt.
Some of these bishoprics were under the authority of the archiepiscopal see of Cologne, others under that of Mainz, and this arrangement was unaltered when in 834 Hamburg was raised to an archbishopric. In 847 the bishopric of Bremen was united with Hamburg, but the authority of this archbishopric extended mainly over the districts north and east of the Elbe.
The next duke, John's son Magnus I., spent much time in struggles with the archbishop of Bremen and the bishop of Ratzeburg; he also assisted the progress of the Reformation in Lauenburg.
Adam of Bremen >>
Hartwig, archbishop of Bremen, wished these sees to be under his authority, but Henry contested this claim, and won the right to invest these bishops himself, a privilege afterwards confirmed by the emperor Frederick I.
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
HEINRICH WILHELM MATTHIAS OLBERS (1758-1840), German astronomer, was born on the 11th of October 1758 at Arbergen, a village near Bremen, where his father was minister.
Olbers settled as a physician in Bremen towards the end of 1781, and practised actively for above forty years, finally retiring on the 1st of January 1823.
Barkhausen (Bremen, 1844); Allgemeine geographische Ephemeriden, iv.
These were increased in 1815 by the Brunswick, Bremen, Schleswig-Holstein, Strassburg and Eichsf eld (Saxony) Bible Societies, and the Icelandic Bible Society.
These leading narratives are supplemented by Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, chap. 38 (247 Lappenberg) of book iv.
ADAM OF BREMEN, historian and geographer, was probably born in Upper Saxony (at Meissen, according to one tradition) before 1045.
He came to Bremen about 1067-1068, most likely on the invitation of Archbishop Adalbert, and in the 24th year of the latter's episcopate (1043 ?-1072); in 1069 he appears as a canon of this cathedral and master of the cathedral school.
Of his minor informants he names several, such as Adelward, dean of Bremen, and William the Englishman, "bishop of Zealand," formerly chancellor of Canute the Great, and an intimate of Sweyn Estrithson.
German is the official language, though among themselves the natives speak a dialect of Frisian, barely intelligible to the other islands of the group. There is regular communication with Bremen and Hamburg.
These boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg and the free state of Bremen, the former stretching southward from the North Sea nearly to the southern boundary of Hanover.
Although the carrying trade of Hanover is to a great extent absorbed by Hamburg and Bremen, the shipping of the province counted, in 1903, 750 sailing vessels and 86 steamers of, together, 55,498 registered tons.
Hanover is intersected by important trunk lines of railway; notably the lines from Berlin to Cologne, from Hamburg to Frankfort-onMain, from Hamburg to Bremen and Cologne, and from Berlin to Amsterdam.
of Sweden in 1715; and by the peace of Stockholm in November 171 9 the elector received the duchies of Bremen and Verden, which formed an important addition to the electorate.
Kuhtmann (Bremen, 1901) and M.
Secondly, there is the so-called " Vallum," in reality no vallum at all, but a broad flat-bottomed ditch out of which the earth has been cast up on either side into g Bremen (Rochester) ijffabilasrciu.n
Among later writers much valuable information is given by Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes, Procopius, Gregory of Tours, Bede, Paulus Diaconus, Widukind, Thietmar, Adam of Bremen and Saxo Grammaticus, as well as by the early laws and charters.
His object was twofold: first, to obtain the control of the great German rivers the Elbe and the Weser, as a means of securing his dominion of the northern seas; and secondly, to acquire the secularized German bishoprics of Bremen and Werden as appanages for his younger sons.
He skilfully took advantage of the alarm of the German Protestants after the battle of White Hill in 1620, to secure the coadjutorship to the see of Bremen for his son Frederick (September 1621), a step followed in November by a similar arrangement as to Werden; while Hamburg by the compact of Steinburg (July 1621) was induced to acknowledge the Danish overlordship of Holstein.
11 But, though the baptism of Vladimir (c. 956-1015) was a heavy blow to Slavonic idolatry, mission work was carried on with but partial success; and it taxed all the energies of Adalbert, bishop of Bremen, of Vicilin, bishop of Oldenburg, of Bishop Otto of Bamberg the apostle of the Pomeranians, of Adalbert the martyr-apostle of Prussia, to spread the word in that country, in Lithuania, and in the territory of the Wends.
The North German or Bremen Society split into a strict Lutheran or Leipzig agency and the Hermannsburg Mission, which aimed at a more primitive and apostolic method.
BREMERHAVEN, a seaport town of Germany, in the free state of Bremen, on the right bank and estuary of the Weser, at the confluence of the Geeste, 38 m.
of the city of Bremen by rail.
It is built on a tract of territory ceded to Bremen by Hanover in 1826, and further increased by treaty with Prussia in 1869.
and one to Johann Smidt (1773-1859), the burgomaster of Bremen to whose enterprise the harbour of Bremerhaven is due.
BREMEN, a city of Germany, capital of the free state of Bremen, and one of the Hanseatic towns.
It is a peculiarity of the domestic accommodation of Bremen that the majority of the houses, unlike the custom in most other German towns, where flats prevail, are occupied by a single family only.
The industries and manufactures of Bremen are of considerable variety and extent, but are more particularly developed in such branches as are closely allied to navigation, such as shipbuilding, founding, engine-building and rope-making.
Bremen owes its fame almost exclusively to its transmaritime trade, mainly imports.
In two articles, tobacco and rice, Bremen is the greatest market in the world; in cotton and indigo it takes the first place on the continent, and it is a serious rival of Hamburg and Antwerp in the import of wool and petroleum.
Bremen city, Bremerhaven and Vegesack) increased from 2869 of 1,258,529 aggregate tonnage in 1883, to 4024 of 2,716,633 tons in 1900.
Bremen is the centre for some of the more important of the German shipping companies, especially of the North German Lloyd (founded in 1856), which, on the 1st of January 1905, possessed a fleet of 382 steamers of 693,892 tons, besides lighters and similar craft.
Bremen also shares with Hamburg the position of being one of the two chief emigration ports of Germany.
In 787 Bremen was chosen by St Willehad, whom Charlemagne had established as bishop in the pagi of the lower Weser, as his see.
In 848 the destruction of Hamburg by the Normans led to the transference of the archiepiscopal see of Hamburg to Bremen, which became the seat of the archbishops of HamburgBremen.
granted to Archbishop Adaldag "in the place called Bremen" (in loco Bremun nuncupato) the right to establish a market, and the full administrative, fiscal and judicial powers of a count, no one but the bishop or his advocatus being allowed to exercise authority in the city.
Bremen had been admitted to the Hanseatic league in 1283, but was excluded in 1285, and not readmitted until 1358.
But though in Bremen the efforts of the craftsmen's "arts" to secure a share of power had been held in check and the gilds never gained any importance, the city government did not, as at Cologne and elsewhere, develop into a close patrician oligarchy.
There was thus no artificial restraint put upon individual enterprise, and the question of the government having been settled, Bremen rapidly developed in wealth and influence.
The Reformation was introduced into Bremen in 1522 by Heinrich von Zutphen.
In 1532 Bremen joined the league of Schmalkalden, and twice endured a siege by the imperial forces.
1566), who, though he himself was instrumental in introducing the reformed model into his other diocese of Verden, is reckoned as the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Bremen.
Protestantism was not, however, definitively proclaimed as the state religion in Bremen until 1618.
In 1646 Bremen received the privileges of a free imperial city from the emperor Ferdinand III.; but Sweden, whose possession of the archbishopric was recognized two years later, refused to consent to this, and in 1666 attempted vainly to assert her claims over the city by arms - in the socalled Bremen War.
of Great Britain) acquired the archbishopric, he recognized Bremen as a free city.
See Buchenau, Die freie Hansestadt Bremen (3rd ed., Bremen, 1900, 5 vols.); Bremisches Urkundenbuch, edited by R.
von Bippen, Geschichte der Stadt Bremen (Bremen, 1892-1898); F.
The word first appeared in print in Adam of Bremen's Descriptio Insularum Aquilonis, an appendix to his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, published by Lindenbrog in 1595.
The fact that the Icelandic sagas concerning Vinland are not contemporaneous written records has caused them to be viewed by many with suspicion; hence such a significant allusion as that by Adam of Bremen is not to be overlooked.
ADOLF BASTIAN (1826-), German ethnologist, was born at Bremen on the 26th of June 1826.
Political Divisions.The empire is composed of the following twenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wtirttemberg; the grand-duchies of Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin,, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg and Saxe-Weimar; the duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen; the principalities of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, SchwarzburgSondershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the, free towns of Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
With the exception of those on the east coast of Schleswig-Holstein, all the important trading ports of Germany are river ports, such as Emden,Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Stettin, Danzig, Konigsberg, Memel.
The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., above the point where they unite, form by their junction the Weser, which has a course of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries the Aller, the Leine from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Oceangoing steamers, however, cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at Bremerhaven.
The same average obtains also on the humid north-west coast of Germany as far as Bremen and Hamburg.
The mountain forests consist chiefly of firs, Free Towns pines and larches, but contain Lbeck also silver firs, beeches and Bremen oaks.
The increase of population during 1895 1900 was greatest in Hamburg, Bremen, LUbeck, Saxony, Prussia and Baden, and least in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Wakieck.
Bremen Bremen 214,953
Apart from the free cities, Hamburg, Bremen and Lbeck, the kingdom of Saxony is the most, and MecklenburgStrelitz the least, closely peopled state of the empire.
But, to this number must be added 284,787 foreigners who in that year were shipped from German ports (notably Hamburg and Bremen) to distant parts.
Glass and porcelain are largely produced in Bavaria; lace in Sxony; tobacco in Bremen and Hamburg; chemicals in the Prussian province of Saxony; watches in Saxony (Glashutte) and Nuremberg; toys in Bavaria; gold and silver filagree in Berlin and Aschaffenburg; and beer in Bavaria and Prussia.
The last important addition was in October 1888, when Hamburg and Bremen were ~ncorporated.
Navigaiion.The seamen of Frisia are among the best in the world, and the shipping of Bremen and Hamburg had won a respected name tong before a German mercantile marine, properly co called, was heard of.
Since 1868 all German ships have carried a common flagblack, white, red; but formerly Oldenburg, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, LUbeck, Mecklenburg and Prussia had each its own flag, and Schleswig-Holstein vessels sailed under the Danish flag.
The chief ports are Hamburg, Stettin, Bremen, Kiel, Lbeck, Flensburg, Bremerhaven, Danzig (Neufahrwasser), Geestemunde and Emden; and the number and tonnage of vessels of foreign nationality entering and clearing the ports of the empire, as compared with national shipping, were in 1906:
The ports of Hamburg and Bremen, which are the chief outlets for emigration to the United States of America, carry on a vast commercial trade with all the chief countries of the world, and are the main gates of maritime intercourse between the United Kingdom and Germany.
The difficulties arising to Prussia from this source were experienced in a still greater degree by the seaports of Bremen and Hamburg, which were severely hampered by the particularism displayed by Hanover.
The passenger ports of Germany affording oversea communications to distant lands are mainly those of Bremen (Bremerhaven) and Hamburg (Cuxhaven) both of which are situate on the North Sea.
Bremen I I
The free cities of Lbeck, I-Iamburg and Bremen, as sovereign states, form a separate class.
Bremen 208,815 13,506
His jurisdiction embraced the territories occupied by the five ancient German tribes, and included the five archbishoprics of Mainz, Treves (Trier), Cologne, Salzburg and Bremen.
But soon he was compelled to share his duties with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, and a year or two later Adalbert became virtually the ruler of Germany, leaving Anno to attend to affairs in Italy.
The young king was generous and was endowed with considerable intellectual gifts; but passing as he did from Annos gloomy palace at Cologne to Adalberts residence in Bremen, whore he was petted and flattered, he became wayward and wilful.
to the imperial authority was unlawful and, meeting in December 1530, laid the foundation of the important league of Schmalkalden, among the first members of the confederation being the rulers of Saxony and Hesse and the cities of Bremen and Magdeburg.
To the Swedes were granted Western Pomerania, with Stettin, and the archbishopric of Bremen and the bishopric of Verden.
For the rest the sovereigns of Wflrttemberg and Saxony retained the title of king bestowed upon them by Napoleon, and this title was also given to the elector of Hanover; the dukes of Weimar, Mecklenburg and Oldenburg became grand dukes; and LUbeck, Bremen, Hamburg and Frankfort were declared free cities.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
On this occasion Bismarck accepted the decision, but when important interests were at stake he showed himself as ready to crush opposition as in the older days, as in the case of Hamburg and Bremen.
Then there were other systems in Hamburg and in Bremen.
Everywhere, except in Bremen, the currency was on a silver basis.
The first step was the inclusion of Hamburg and Bremen in the Zollverein; this was necessary if German maritime enterprise was to become a national and not merely a local concern, for the two Hansa cities practically controlled the whole foreign trade and owned three-quarters of the shipping; but so long as they were excluded for the Customs Union their interests were more -cosmopolitan than national.
A similar treaty was made with Bremen, the free port of that city being situated near the mouth of the Weser at Bremerhaven; and in 1888, the necessary works having been completed, the cities entered the Customs Union.
Luderitz, a Bremen tobacco merchant, approached Bismarck on the question of establishing a trading station on the coast at Angra Pequena.
In 1836 an Urkundenbuchof Frankfort was published, and this example has been widely followed, the work done in Cologne, in Bremen and in Mainzbeingperhaps specially noticeable.
This would point to the fact that the Limfjord was then open at both ends, and agree with Adam of Bremen (iv.
Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."
The bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, the province of Farther Pomerania and the isle of Riigen which her armies had actually conquered, and which had been guaranteed to her by a whole catena of treaties, went partly to the upstart electorate of Hanover and partly to the upstart kingdom of Prussia, both of which states had been of no political importance whatever at the beginning of the war of spoliation by which they were, ultimately, to profit so largely and so cheaply.
von Bremen, Friedrich der Grosse (Bd.
Authentic drawings done by him in boyhood, however, exist, including one in silver-point of his own likeness at the age of thirteen in the Albertina at Vienna, and others of two or three years later in the print room at Berlin, at the British Museum and at Bremen.
The Louvre also possesses some good examples, and many others are dispersed in various public collections, as in the Musee Bonnat at Bayonne, at Munich, Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfort, Dresden, Basel, Milan, Florence and Oxford, as well as in private hands all over Europe.
About the same time Lubeck and Bremen merchants settled there, and their settlement became an important seaport of the Hanseatic League.
LEER, a town and river port in the Prussian province of Hanover, lying in a fertile plain on the right bank of the Leda near its confluence with the Ems, and at the junction of railways to Bremen, Emden and Minster.
In the 13th century it passed to the archbishopric of Bremen.
In 1648 Stade became the capital of the principality of Bremen under the Swedes; and in 1719 it was ceded to Hanover, the fate of which it has since shared.
Its position as the first German emporium of the west end of the Baltic has been to some extent impaired by Hamburg and Bremen since the construction of the North Sea and Baltic Canal, and by the rapid growth and enterprise of Stettin.
The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially dissolved, Lubeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion with Bremen and Hamburg.
ARNOLD HERMANN LUDWIG HEEREN (1760-1842), German historian, was born on the 25th of October 1760 at Arbergen, near Bremen.
His grandfather, Andreas, originally a Bremen merchant, was one of the founders (1st of January 1766) of the banking-house of Grote, Prescott & Company in Threadneedle Street, London (the name of Grote did not disappear from the firm till 1879).
In 1624 he was forced by the war to retire to Bremen; there in 1625 he deposited his library in that of the town (his books were bought by the town in 1646, but many of his MSS.
About this time, during the interregnum, a federation of more than a hundred towns was formed, beginning on the Rhine, but spreading as far as Bremen in the north, Zurich in the south, and Regensburg in the east, with the object of helping to preserve the peace.
At the peace in 1815, however, only four were spared, namely, Frankfort, Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, these being practically the only ones still in a sufficiently flourishing and economically independent position to warrant such preferential treatment.
With others like Bremen, Hamburg and Magdeburg, it was long in the balance which class they belonged to.
He sought to increase the influence of his archbishopric, sent missionaries to Finland, Greenland and the Orkney Islands, and aimed at making Bremen a patriarchal see for northern Europe, with twelve suffragan bishoprics.
In 1069 he was recalled by Henry, when he made a further attempt to establish a northern patriarchate, which failed owing to the hostility of the papacy and the condition of affairs in the Scandinavian kingdoms. He died at Goslar on the 16th or 17th of March 1072, and was buried in the cathedral which he had built at Bremen.
He made Bremen a city of importance, and it was called by his biographer, Adam of Bremen, the New Rome.
See Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, edited by J.
There the matter stood, until it was taken up by the "Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations" at conferences held at the Hague (1875), Bremen (1876) and Antwerp (1877).
He retained his chair at Gottingen until his death at Bremen on the 3rd of June 1882.
from Hanover by the railway to Bremen.
Copper carbonate is also the basis of the valuable blue to green pigments verditer, Bremen blue and Bremen green.
s Heinrich Oldenburg (c. 1626-1678) was a native of Bremen, but had settled in England in the time of the commonwealth.
Having studied theology at Lingen and Halle, he became successively rector of the grammar school at Mors (1793), professor of theology at Duisburg (1800), preacher at Crefeld, and afterwards at Kettwig, Consistorialrath and superintendent in Bernburg, and, after declining an invitation to the university of Bonn, pastor of the Ansgariuskirche in Bremen (1824).
He died at Bremen on the 14th of April 1845.
We hear from Adam of Bremen that Anund was young in years but old in wisdom and cunning; he was called Kolbrannea because he had the houses of evildoers burnt.
He appears to have died about 1050, according to Adam of Bremen.
This king had become a Christian, but soon quarrelled with Adalhard, archbishop of Bremen, and endeavoured to secure the independence of the Swedish church, which was not obtained for another century.
Bremen in his History (iv.
1; Adam of Bremen, Gesta hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum iii.
What she actually got was (1) Upper Pomerania, with the islands of Riigen and Usedom, and a strip of Lower Pomerania on the right side of the Oder, including the towns of Stettin, Garz, Damm and Gollnow, and the isle of Wollin, with the right of succession to the rest of Lower Pomerania in the case of the extinction of the Brandenburg Hohenzollerns; (2) the town of Wismar with the districts of Poel and Neukloster; (3) the secularized bishoprics of Bremen and Verden; and (4) 5,000,000 rix-dollars.
In 1675 Pomerania and the bishopric of Bremen were overrun by the Brandenburgers, Austrians and Danes.
I, 1 20 Hanover Stockholm > 7) and obtained the bishoprics of Bremen and Verden for Frederiks- herself and Stettin for her confederate Prussia.
Luderitz, of Bremen, established a trading station here in 1883, and his agent concluded treaties with the neighbouring chiefs, who ceded large tracts of country to the newcomers.
His other works deal mainly with the history of Hamburg, and include Hamburgische Chroniken in Niederstichsischer Sprache (Hamburg, 1852-1861); Geschichtsquellen des Erzstiftes and der Stadt Bremen (Bremen, 1841); Hamburgisches Urkundenbuch (Hamburg, 1842); Urkundliche Geschichte des Hansischen Stahlhofes zu London (Hamburg, 1851); Hamburgische Rechtsalterthiimer (Hamburg, 1845); and Urkundliche Geschichte des Ursprunges der deutschen Hanse (Hamburg, 1830), a continuation of the work of G.
For the Monumenta Germaniae historica he edited the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, the Gesta Hammenburgensis ecclesiae pontificum of Adam of Bremen and the Chronica Slavorum of Helmold, with its continuation by Arnold of Lubeck.
Having studied law at Gottingen, he became chief magistrate at Lilienthal, near Bremen, in 1788.
Lying apart from the system are the Lehrter Bahnhof for Hamburg and Bremen, the Stettiner for Baltic ports, and the Gorlitzer, Anhalter and Potsdamer termini for traffic to the south, of which the last two are fine specimens of railway architecture.
of Berlin, on the line to Bremen.
Riga was founded in 1158, as a storehouse at the mouth of the Diina (Dvina), by a few Bremen merchants.
This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein, in the Duchy of Brunswick, in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, and in the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and LÃ¼beck.
Placed at the age of fifteen in a counting-house at Bremen, he was impelled by his desire to obtain a situation as supercargo on a foreign voyage to study navigation, mathematics and finally astronomy.
Harlingen has become the most considerable seaport of Friesland since the construction of the large outer harbour in 1870-1877, and in addition to railway and steamship connexion with Bremen, Amsterdam, and the southern provinces there are regular sailings to Hull and London.
It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio, the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (the Pennsylvania system), the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line, the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic; the Northern Central; the Western Maryland and the Maryland & Pennsylvania railways; and by steamship lines running directly to all the more important ports on the Atlantic coast of the United States, to ports in the West Indies and Brazil, to London, Liverpool, Southampton, Bristol, Leith, Glasgow, Dublin, Belfast, Havre, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Bremen, Hamburg and other European ports.
For a short time Anno exercised the chief authority in the kingdom, but he was soon obliged to share this with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, retaining for himself the supervision of Henry's education and the title of magister.
Small wonder, then, if Adam of Bremen, and the monkish annalists who follow him, describe Sweyn as a grim and bloody semi-pagan, perpetually warring against Christian states.
They belonged to the metropolitan see of Bremen, then to Lund, lastly to Nidaros, 1237.
x., Bremen, 1817); J.
appeared at many important festivals, including Aldeburgh, Salzburg, Copenhagen, Bremen and Spitalfields.
Soon the gigantic form of the Bremen, with its two vast yellow funnels, looms before us.
microgravity conditions were achieved by releasing a capsule in the drop tower Bremen.
part timerd I taught African Literature part-time for five years at the University of Bremen.
Buttner, Die Forschungsstation Bismarckburg and Adeli (1894); Das deutsche Schutzgebiet Togo (Bremen, 1891); L.
In the winter of 1190-91 certain pious merchants from Bremen and Lubeck (towns with which the Order was still to be connected in the days of its later history) laid the foundations of a hospital in a vessel which they had drawn ashore.(fn2) Within a few years the foundation apparently became attached to the German Church of St Mary the Virgin at Jerusalem; and in March 1198 (there being present in the Holy Land a number of Germans, the relics of Henry VI.'s projected crusade), the great men of the army and the kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St Mary to the rank of an order of knights.
(999-1063), Adam of Bremen (1075), Albertus Magnus (d.
The Anglo-Saxons of the time were of course well acquainted with Island (first thus named in 870) Slesvic and Norweci (Norway), and there is no need to have recourse to Adam of Bremen (1076) to account for their presence upon this map. The broad features of the map were derived no doubt from an older document which may likewise have served as the basis for the map of the world engraved on silver for Charlemagne, and was also consulted by the compilers of the Hereford and Ebstorf maps (see fig.
At an assembly of 1629, Lubeck, Bremen and Hamburg were entrusted with the task of safeguarding the general welfare, and after an effort to revive the League in the last general assembly of 1669, these three towns were left alone to preserve the name and small inheritance of the Hansa which in Germany's disunion had upheld the honour of her commerce.
His son and successor Ordulf, who became duke in 1059, carried on a long and obstinate struggle with Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen, who was compelled to cede one-third of his possessions to Ordulf's son Magnus in 1066.
Donandt, Versuch einer Geschichte des bremischen Stadtrechts (Bremen, 1830, 2 vols.); Bremisches Jahrbuch (historical, 19 vols., 1864-1900); and Karl Hegel, Stddte and Gilden, vol.
This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein, in the Duchy of Brunswick, in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, and in the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and LÃƒ¼beck.
The Imperial army, strictly speaking, was one third composed of Dutch, Belgians, men from the borders of the Rhine, Piedmontese, Swiss, Genevese, Tuscans, Romans, inhabitants of the Thirty-second Military Division, of Bremen, of Hamburg, and so on: it included scarcely a hundred and forty thousand who spoke French.
At Togo Bremen merchants had trading stations, and taking advantage of this fact Dr Gustav Nachtigal, German imperial commissioner, induced the king of Togo (July 5, 1884) to place his country under German suzerainty.
Rotermund, Bremen, 1819); Ersch-Gruber's Encyklopaedie, ii.
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