How to use Breech in a sentence
Until the 9th century the only means for sighting cannon was by the " line of metal " - a line scored_ along the top of the gun, which, owing to the greater thickness of metal at the breech than at the muzzle, was not parallel to the axis.
The earliest form of a hind or breech sight was fixed, but in the early part of the 19th century Colonel Thomas Blomefield proposed a movable or tangent sight.
The undiagnosed breech was the group most at risk.
The best - known is Acanthus mollis (brankursine, or bears' breech), a common species throughout the Mediterranean region, having large, deeply cut, hairy, shining leaves.
This is called " quadrant elevation," and the proper inclination was given by means of the " gunner's quadrant," a quadrant and plumb bob, one leg being made long to rest in the bore, or by bringing lines scribed on the breech of the gun in line with a pointer on the carriage; these were called " quarter sights."Advertisement
It would seem that we took the citadel by breech in 1761.
A version is not appropriate for every fetus who is in the breech position at the end of pregnancy.
Ironically we had even said we would feel safe in her hands if a situation such as a breech baby arose!
Anne could not forgive this very public humiliation and it widened the breech between them into a gaping chasm.
This was one of the first military repeaters to have a bolt action breech mechanism and a tubular magazine under the barrel.Advertisement
The risks of vaginal delivery with breech presentation are much higher than with a head-first (vertex) presentation.
The degree of risk depends to a great extent on which one of the three types of breech presentations it is.
In a frank breech the baby's legs are folded up against its body.
This is the most common breech presentation and the safest for vaginal delivery.
The others include complete breech, in which the baby's legs are crossed under and in front of the body, and footling breech, in which one leg or both legs are positioned to enter the birth canal.Advertisement
Even with a complete breech, there are other factors to consider for a vaginal birth.
There is pressure on the infant's raised arms during a breech (feet-first) delivery.
Breech deliveries increase the risk of brachial plexopathy by 175-fold, often causing bilateral injuries to the lower nerve roots of the brachial plexus.
Indications that are more controversial include breech presentation, previous c-section, major congenital anomalies, cervical cerclage, and severe Rh isoimmunization.
Breech presentations were still delivered vaginally in the 1970s, but with the advent of the malpractice climate, many doctors shied away from this practice, opting to perform a c-section.Advertisement
As a result, physicians who were being trained during that time period never learned how to manage a breech vaginal delivery.
Breech presentation-The condition in which the baby enters the birth canal with its buttocks or feet first.
Breech birth is the delivery of a fetus (unborn baby) in a bottom- or foot-first position.
Between 3 to 4 percent of fetuses start labor in the breech position, which is a potentially dangerous situation.
In a complete breech, the buttocks lead the way out of the uterus, and the legs are folded in front of the body.Advertisement
A frank breech baby also has his buttocks down, but his legs will stretch straight up with his feet by his head.
An incomplete breech, also known as a footling breech, presents with one or both legs down so that the feet drop into the birth canal at delivery.
Of course, many babies are safely delivered from the breech position.
There is also a possibility of umbilical cord prolapse with a breech birth.
In some cases of breech birth, part of the umbilical cord enters the birth canal before or with the baby's feet or buttocks and pressure on the cord cuts off the blood and oxygen supply.Advertisement
Breech presentation occurs in 3 to 4 percent of all births, and up to 95 percent of women with a breech fetus choose cesarean section for birth.
The earlier a birth occurs in pregnancy, the higher the chances are that the fetus will be in a breech position.
Twenty-five percent of premature infants born before 28 weeks are breech.
Women with multiple gestations (i.e., twins or more) are more likely to have at least one fetus in a breech position simply due to space constraints in the womb.
There are generally no identifiable symptoms of a breech fetus.Advertisement
On the other hand, if the heartbeat is best heard above the level of the navel, it is likely to be breech.
The most accurate way to determine breech position is using ultrasound.
Some women choose vaginal breech delivery.
This should only be attempted if ultrasound shows that the fetus is in a favorable breech position.
The frank breech position is the preferred position for successful vaginal breech birth, and the majority of breech fetuses are in this position.Advertisement
Most babies will do very well during a breech delivery, but there is a risk of fetal injury.
Some providers may use forceps or a vacuum extraction device to help a breech baby out of the birth canal, a procedure known as assisted breech birth.
Cesarean section is the most common way to deliver a breech baby and is the method recommended by the American College of Gynecology and Obstetrics if a version has failed.
However, in difficult breech presentations, or in cases where there are multiple fetuses and one or more are breech, it may be considered the best option for delivery.
Version is successful in turning a breech baby approximately 50 percent of the time.Advertisement
However, some babies who are successfully turned will turn back to the breech position after the procedure is done, particularly if version is attempted too early before the onset of labor.
Among breech babies born after the full nine-month term, smaller babies usually do better.
There is no way to prevent a fetus from settling into the breech position at the end of pregnancy.
A woman who has had one breech fetus is at an increased risk for having another breech fetus in subsequent pregnancies.
Complete breech-A breech position in which the baby is "sitting" bottom first on the cervix with legs crossed.Advertisement
External cephalic version-Manual manipulation of the abdomen in order to turn a breech baby; also known as version.
Frank breech-A breech position where the baby is bottom first and his legs are extended upward so that his feet are near his head.
Incomplete breech-Also called a footling breech, in this position the baby has one or both feet down towards the pelvis so that his leg(s) are poised to deliver first.
The incidence of congenital hip dysplasia is also higher in infants born by cesarean and in breech position births.
This may be helpful in preparing for possible breech births associated with hip problems.
It is more common in first children than in later children and appears to be more common in babies born with a breech presentation (feet first).
Support for this theory comes from the observation that children with congenital torticollis are often breech or difficult forceps deliveries.
When the baby is upside down, or buttocks first instead of head first, it's called a breech presentation.
Ultrasounds may be performed as well, and babies who are in a breech position may be assessed for size relative to the amount of amniotic fluid.
This weapon embodied all the essential features which distinguish the ordnance of to-day from the cannon of the middle ages - it was built up of rings of metal shrunk upon an inner steel barrel; it was loaded at the breech; it was rifled; and it threw, not a round ball, but an elongated projectile with ogival head.
But while there was no doubt as to the shooting capacities of these guns, defects in the breech mechanism soon became equally patent, and in a few years caused a reversion to muzzle-loading.
The mixture, then, was composed of such materials as sulphur and naphtha with quicklime, and took fire spontaneously when wetted - whence the name of wet fire or sea fire; and portions of it were "projected and at the same time ignited by applying the hose of a water engine to the breech" of the siphon, which was a wooden tube, cased with bronze.
At the turn of the century the harbor defenses at Cork were being rebuilt to take breech loading artillery.