It runs conterminous with the southern border of Brazil, and lies between 30° and 35° S.
MACEIO or Macayo, a city and port of Brazil and capital of the state of Alagoas, about 125 m.
This per-person threshold actually exceeds the average income of three-quarters of the countries on the planet, including Mexico, Russia, and Brazil, and is about 20 percent higher than the average income of the entire planet.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
of the Orinoco and Apure, with the Yuruari territory on the E., the Caroni river forming the boundary, and the Amazonas territory and Brazil on the S.
SERGIPE (originally Sergipe D'El-Rey), a small Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N.
MATTO GROSSO, an inland state of Brazil, bounded N.
From caves of Minas Geraes in Brazil, O.
The telegraph lines of Argentina are subject to the national telegraph law of 1875, the international telegraph conventions, and special conventions with Brazil and Uruguay.
In Brazil the myrtles are represented by monkey-pots (Lecythideae).
PERNAMBUCO, a north-eastern state of Brazil, bounded N.
by Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay and the Atlantic, W.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current, is deflected southwards and follows Currents.
The boundaries separating it from Rio Grande do Sul, a province of Brazil, are Lake Mirim, the rivers Chuy, Jaguarao and Quarahy, and a cuchilla or low range of hills called Santa Ana.
Hadfield, Brazil, the Falkland Islands, &c. (1854); W.
Whereupon a reply came from Paris (28th of November) that the French emperor refused to admit the envoys of "the king who reigns in Brazil, the king who reigns in Sicily or the king who reigns in Sweden."
cluding bush-forest in Africa and campos serrados in Brazil P
The largest species is the giant armadillo (Priodon gigas), measuring nearly a yard long, from the forests of Surinam and Brazil; while one of the smallest is Dasypus minutes, a near ally of the larger D.
The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).
GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.
In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.
In the same year he was nominated a Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Prussian Order "Pour le Merite," and belonged to the Legion of Honour of France and to the Order of the North Star of Sweden and Norway.
The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras.
col., 372), who, however, mistakenly thought it was the same as the Trogon pavoninus, a congeneric but quite distinct species from Brazil, that had just been described by Spix.
Besides these interesting European fossils, a certain number of didelphian bones have been found in the caves of Brazil, but these are either closely allied to or identical with the species now living in the same region.
After the conclusion of the peace with Brazil, the Unitarians placed themselves under the leadership of General Juan de Lavalle, the victor of Ituzaingo.
The first efforts of Urquiza to rouse the country against the oppressor were unsuccessful, but in 1851 he concluded an alliance with Brazil, to which Uruguay afterwards adhered.
The dictator of Paraguay had quarrelled with Brazil for its intervention in the internal affairs of Uruguay, and he demanded free passage for his troops across refused, and alliance was formed between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, for joint action against Lopez.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
CUYABA, or Cutaba, capital of the inland state of Matto Grosso, Brazil, about 972 m.
They are magnificent evergreen trees, with apparently whorled branches, and stiff, flattened, pointed leaves, found in Brazil and Chile, Polynesia and Australia.
This able leader, eager to reach Asuncion as quickly as possible, sent on his ships to the river Plate, but himself with a small following marched overland from Santa Catherina on the coast of Brazil to join Irala.
In October 1900 Dr Manuel Campos Salles, president of Brazil, paid a visit to Buenos Aires, and was received with great demonstrations of friendliness.
PIAUHY, or Piauhi, a north-eastern state of Brazil, bounded N.
The railways of the state are the Recife and Sao Francisco (77 m.), Central de Pernambuco (132 m.) and Sul de Pernambuco (120 m.) - all government properties leased to the Great Western of Brazil Railway Co., Ltd., since 1901.
In the course of his travels in Brazil (1815-1817), Prince Max of Wied met with this bird, and in 1823 there appeared from his pen N.
Jews made their way to America early in the 16th century, settling in Brazil prior to the Dutch occupation.
Regaining liberty, he renewed the war against Brazil, and took Porto Allegro.
Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.
In March 1895 President Cleveland gave his decision, which was wholly favourable to the contention of Brazil.
Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
They are ramifications of the highlands of Brazil.
Others of the more important totals are: France 95,000 (besides Algeria 63,000 and Tunis 62,000); Italy 52,000; Persia 49,000; Egypt 39,000; Bulgaria 36,000; Argentine Republic 30,000; Tripoli 19,000; Turkestan and Afghanistan 14,000; Switzerland and Belgium each 12,000; Mexico 90oO; Greece 8000; Servia 6000; Sweden and Cuba each 4000; Denmark 3500; Brazil and Abyssinia (Falashas) each 3000; Spain and Portugal 2500; China and Japan 2000.
Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No 76).
A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
Brazil.-The cotton-growing region in Brazil comprises a belt some 200 M.
BRAZIL, a city and the county-seat of Clay county, Indiana, U.S.A., situated in the west central part of the state, about 16 m.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The first settlement here was in 1844; and Brazil was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was chartered as a city in 1873.
Brazil nuts >>
BELLO-HORIZONTE, or Minas, a city of Brazil, capital of the state of Minas Geraes since 1898, about 50 m.
of Ouro Preto, connected with the Central of Brazil railway by a branch line 9 m.
The city has grown rapidly, and is considered one of the most attractive state capitals of Brazil.
But the music was delayed until the strange incident of a message from the emperor of Brazil encouraged Wagner to complete it in 18J9.
OURO PRETO (" Black Gold"), a city of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 336 m.
Ouro Preto is connected with Miguel Burnier, on the Central of Brazil railway, by a metre-gauge line 31 m.
Burton (Highlands of Brazil, London, 1869) says that its shape "is that of a huge serpent, whose biggest end is about the Praga....
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
Ouro Preto is the seat of the best mining school in Brazil.
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.
de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of I: 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.
ACRE, or AQUIRY, a river of Brazil and principal tributary of the Purus, rising on the Bolivian frontier and flowing easterly and northerly to a junction with the Purus at 8° 45' S.
The name is also applied to a district situated on the same river and on the former (1867) boundary line between Bolivia and Brazil.
In July 1899 the Acreanos declared their independence and set up a republic of their own, but in the following March they were reduced to submission by Brazil.
Various disorders followed until Brazil decided to occupy Puerto Alonso with a military force.
Three of the most important slave systems still remained in which no steps towards emancipation had been taken - those of the Southern United States, of Cuba and of Brazil.
There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.
In 1830 the traffic was declared piracy by the emperor of Brazil.
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
On Brazilian: Fletcher and Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians (9th ed., 1879).
The berries are of fine quality, and despite the competition of Brazil there is no (agricultural) reason why the home market at least should not be supplied from Cuban estates.
Cables connect the island with Florida, Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, Porto Rico, the lesser Antilles, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
Bahia, Brazil (State) >>
For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory 1 by the Portuguese government in Brazil.
" Plantation " Para rubber from Ceylon and the Malay States has brought prices equal to and often exceeding those of fine Para rubber from Brazil.
Para rubber from Brazil generally contains about 15% of water, whilst " plantation " Para is usually nearly dry and contains 1% of water or less.
In Brazil alone it is stated that the rubber area amounts to at least one million sq.
America especially abundant in Brazil, and successfully introduced into other countries (Plate II.
America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.
Para Rubber is so named from the Para province of Brazil, from the principal town of which, also known as Para, most of the rubber is shipped.
In Brazil the trees are found in different districts, but flourish best on rich alluvial clay slopes by the side of rivers, where there is a certain amount of drainage, and the temperature reaches from 89° F.
The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.
That derived from Brazil, however, is generally inferior, being mixed with wood and dirt.
America down to the slopes of Chimborazo; the Cordilleras of the Andes separating the Castilloas from the Heveas of Brazil.
American plateau in Brazil from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro, at a height of 3000 to 5000 ft.
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
PETROPOLIS, a city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an elevated valley of the Serra de Estrella, 2634 ft.
railway, now a part of the Leopoldina system, which connects with Rio de Janeiro and Nictheroy on the coast, and with the station of Entre Rios on the Central of Brazil railway.
Petropolis was founded in 1845 by Julius Frederick Kdler under the auspices of the emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II., on lands purchased by his father, Dom Pedro I., in 1822.
It imports great quantities of wool from the Argentine and Australia, and is in regular communication with New York, London and the chief ports of the United Kingdom, Brazil and the far East.
In the " Alabama " arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
BRAZIL, a republic of South America, the largest political division of that continent and the third largest of the western hemisphere.
Brazil is bounded N.
The Spanish and Portuguese crowns attempted to define the limits between their American colonies in 1750 and 1777, and the lines adopted still serve in great part to separate Brazil from its neighbours.
In the boundary disputes which have followed, Brazil seems to have pursued this traditional policy, and generally with success.
This line was fixed by the treaty of 1851, by which the control of Lake Mirim remains with Brazil.
Beginning at the mouth of the Quarahy, the boundary line between Brazil and Argentina ascends the Uruguay, crosses to the source of the Santo Antonio, and descends that small stream and the Iguassu to the Parana, where it terminates.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.
The boundary with Colombia, fixed by treaty of April 24, 1907, follows the lower rim of the Amazon basin, as defined by Brazil.
and Brazil about 5405.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
The two great river basins of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata comprise within themselves, approximately, three-fifths of the total area of Brazil.
The great Brazilian plateau, which is the most important physical division of Brazil, consists of an elevated tableland moo to 3000 ft.
(other measurements give 9823 ft.), probably the highest summit in Brazil.
This great chapadao is in many respects the best part of Brazil, having a temperate climate,- extensive areas of fertile soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall.
hares gencia Victoria do Brazil, having an abundant rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of fertile soil.
This elevated valley is noted for its fertility and was once the principal coffee-producing district of Brazil.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana under the arbitration award of 1900.
The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
This is one of the most important fluvial systems of Brazil, but its economic value is impaired by the great waterfalls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and Uribu-punga, and by the rapids and waterfalls in the majority of its affluents near their junction with the main stream.
Between the two great waterfalls of the Parana there is an open channel of 276 m., passing through a rich and healthy country, and receiving large tributaries from one of the most fertile regions of Brazil.
Compared with the number, length and volume of its rivers, Brazil has very few lakes, only two of which are noticeable for their Lakes.
The coast of Brazil is indented with a number of almost landlocked bays, forming spacious and accessible harbours.
The first is the harbour for the city of Victoria, and the other two for ports of the same name in southern Brazil.
Brazil is a region which has been free from violent disturbances since an early geological period.
The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
Devonian beds also lie upon the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly horizontal strata.
The Carboniferous system in Brazil presents itself under two facies, the one marine and the other terrestrial.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
In the interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental origin and of which the age is uncertain.
From the above account it will appear that, excepting near the coast and in the basin of the Amazon, there is no evidence that any part of Brazil has been under the sea since the close of the Devonian period.
Brazil lies almost wholly within the torrid zone, less than one-twelfth of its area lying south of the tropic of Capricorn.
Extreme variations in temperature are often produced by cold south-west storms from the Argentine pampas, which sweep across southern Brazil as far north as Cape Frio, the fall in temperature sometimes being 22° to 27°.
Winter rains are more frequent in southern Brazil, and violent storms prevail in August and September.
The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its deficiency in the larger mammals.
Bates in The Naturalist on the River Amazons) says: " Brazil, moreover, is throughout poor in terrestrial mammals, and the species are of small size."
Of Quadrumana there are about fifty species in Brazil, all arboreal, thirty-eight of which inhabit the Amazon region.
Of the plantigrades, Brazil has no bears, but has the related species of raccoon (Nasua socialis and N.
Only one species of hare is found in Brazil, the Lepus brasiliensis, and but one also of the squirrel (Scyurus).
Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
The common name in Brazil is preguica, which is equivalent to its English name.
Of the ruminants, Brazil has only four or five species of Cervidae, which are likewise common to other countries of South America.
Perhaps the most interesting mammal of Brazil is the manati, or sea-cow (Manatus americanus), which inhabits the lower Amazon and sometimes reaches a length of 15 to 20 ft.
The avifauna of Brazil is rich in genera, species and individuals, especially in species with brilliantly-coloured plumage.
It is estimated that more than half the birds of Brazil are insectivorous, and that more than one-eighth are climbers.
One of the most striking species of the former is the brilliantlycoloured arara (Macrocercus, L.), which is common throughout northern Brazil.
Another interesting species is the toucan (Ramphastos), whose enormous beak, awkward flight and raucous voice make it a conspicuous object in the great forests of northern Brazil.
The thrush is represented by a number of species, one of which, the sabia (Mimus), has become the popular song-bird of Brazil through a poem written by Gonsalves Dias.
There are but few species of ducks, and they are apparently more numerous in southern Brazil than on the Amazon.
Most prominent among these is the American alligator, of which there are, according to Netterer, two genera and eight species in Brazil.
The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and individuals than that of the land.
In strong contrast to the poverty of Brazil in the larger mammals is the astonishing profusion of insect life in every part of the country.
Brazil not only is marvellously rich in botanical species, but included at the beginning of the 10th century the largest area of virgin forest on the surface of the earth.
Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.
The economic plants of Brazil, both indigenous and exotic, are noticeably numerous.
A closely-related species or variety (Euterpe edulis) is the well-known palmito or cabbage palm found over the greater part of Brazil, whose terminal phylophore is cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.
The first explorers of Brazil reported a numerous Indian population, but, as the sea-coast afforded a larger and more easily acquired food supply than did the interior, the Indian population was probably numerous only in a comparatively small part of this immense territory, along the sea-coast.
Modern explorations have shown that the unsettled inland regions of Brazil are populated by Indians only where the conditions are favourable.
But there is no record that the inland districts of western and north-western Brazil were treated in this manner, and their present population may be assumed to represent approximately what it was when the Europeans first came.
Brazil has never had a "colour line," and there has never been any popular prejudice against race mixtures.
These returns will serve to correct the exaggerated estimate of 22,315,000 for 1900 which was published in Brazil and accepted by many foreign publications.
This strengthening of the white population of the South with fresh European blood must eventually divide Brazil into two distinct sections: the white states of the south, and the mixed or coloured states of the north.
The total number of colonists and immigrants entering Brazil between 1804 and 1902, inclusive, according to official returns, was 2,208,353.
The development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a great extent by two unfavourable conditions-by the chain of mountains or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the settlements along the Atlantic, which compel 1 The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at Gotha and used by A.
10,600 The policy of the national government has been gradually to lease all its lines except the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brazil, which is retained for sentimental reasons.
All the large cities of Brazil are liberally provided with tramways, those of the city of Sao Paulo, where electric traction is used, being noticeably good.
Brazil is lamentably deficient in steamship communication considering its importance in a country where the centres of population are separated by such distances of coasts and river.
Brazil is a member of the Postal Union, and like Argentina exacts higher nominal rates of postage upon outgoing mail than those agreed upon to cover the depreciation in her own currency.
The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into effect until 1896.
Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to less than a dozen.
The imports, exports and domestic trade of Brazil 2105 4093 Miles.
Although an agricultural country, Brazil does not produce all its own bread and meat, and the imports of wheat, wheat flour, rice, fish, jerked beef and preserved meats, lard, butter, beans, potatoes, packed fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and other food-stuffs, are surprisingly large.
The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
Brazil is essentially an agricultural country.
No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.
One of the most common and important productions of Brazil is mandioca (Manihot), of which there are two well-known species, M.
From it is made farinha de mandioca, which is the bread of the common people of Brazil, and tapioca.
In some parts of southern Brazil the fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone do well, but within the tropics they thrive well only at a considerable elevation above sea-level.
A very large part of the jerked beef consumed in Brazil is imported from Argentina and Uruguay, and some beef cattle also are imported.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (xarque), beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
Although the coast and river fisheries of Brazil are numerous and valuable, cured fish is one of the staple imports, and foreign products are to be found even along the Amazon.
The extractive or forest industries of Brazil were among the first to engage the attention of Europeans, and have always been considered a principal source of colonial and national wealth.
The collection of Brazil nuts along the Amazon and its tributaries is essentially a poor man's industry, requiring no other plant than a boat.
The export of cabinet woods is not large, considering the forest area of Brazil and the variety and quality of the woods.
The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
Perhaps the best educational work in Brazil is done in these private schools.
The moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is probably largely due to their failings.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
In no country have these charities received more generous support than in Brazil.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
In science Brazil has accomplished very little, although many eminent foreign naturalists have spent years of study within her borders.
The more important contributions to our present knowledge of Brazil, however, have been obtained through the labours of foreign naturalists.
von Eschwege, who spent nineteen years in Brazil (1809-1828), the list includes A.
Among other scientists of a later date who have published important works on Brazil are the American geologists O.
The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.
in 1808 broke down some of these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and the publication of an official gazette.
In no country, perhaps, has the press exercised a more direct and powerful influence upon government than in Brazil, and in no other country can there be found so high a percentage of journalists in official life.
In historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high standing - Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose Historia Geral do Brazil is a standard authority on that subject.
The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.
In the field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples in Brazil.
£163,802,675 In addition to these, the government was still responsible for interest guarantees on fourteen railways, or sections of existing lines, with an aggregate capital of about £4,900,000 held in Europe and 12, 0 55,44 0 milreis held in Brazil, on which the national treasury paid in interest £191,324 and 1,398,493 milreis.
The paper currency of Brazil consists of both treasury issues and bank-notes, the latter issued under government supervision.
L.) History Brazil was discovered in February 1499 (o.s.) by Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a companion of Columbus.
He made no settlement, but Brazil.
The colonization of Brazil was prosecuted, however, by subjects of the Portuguese monarchy, who traded thither chiefly for Brazil-wood.
This, it will be remembered, is the spot where Cabral first took possession of Brazil.
The Portuguese were obliged to abandon their settlement; but several of them returned at a later period, with Brazil.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
fostered by the licentious encouragement of some abandoned priests who had found their way to Brazil.
Over these persons the Jesuits had no authority; and it was not until the arrival of the first bishop of Brazil in 1552, that anything like an efficient check was imposed upon them.
Next year Sousa was succeeded by Duarte da Costa, who brought with him a reinforcement of Jesuits, at the head of whom was Luis de Gran, appointed, with Nobrega the chief of the first mission, joint provincial of Brazil.
Nobrega's first act was one which has exercised the most beneficial influence over the social system of Brazil, namely, the establishment of a college on the then unreclaimed plains of Piratininga.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
Nicholas Durand de Villegagnon, a bold and skilful seaman, having visited Brazil, saw at once the advantages which might accrue Settle- to his country from a settlement there.
Mem de Sa continued to hold the reins of government in Brazil upon terms of the best understanding with the clergy, and to the great advantage of the colonies, for fourteen years.
On the expiration of his power, which was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenco da Veiga was appointed governor.
No sooner had Brazil passed under the Spanish crown, than English adventurers directed their hostile enterprises against its shores.
But it was on the part of the Dutch that the most skilful and pertinacious efforts were made for securing a footing in Brazil; and they alone of all the rivals of the Portuguese have left traces of their presence in the national spirit and institutions of Brazil.
The honours bestowed upon the Indian chiefs for their assistance in this war broke down in a great measure the barrier between the two races; and there is at this day a greater admixture of their blood among the better classes in Bahia than is to be found elsewhere in Brazil.
The government, thus left in quiet possession of the rest of Brazil, had time to concentrate its attention upon the Dutch conquests.
In 1649 a rival company was started in Portugal known as the Brazil Company, which sent out a fleet to help the colonists in Pernambuco.
Slowly the Dutch lost ground and the outbreak of war with England sounded the knell of their dominion in Brazil.
It was not, however, till 1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash indemnity and certain commercial privileges.
After this, except some inroads on the frontiers, the only foreign invasion which Brazil had French to suffer was from France.
The important part which the inhabitants of Sao Paulo have played in the history of Brazil has been already adverted to.
In the course of eight years, the limited period of his government, he succeeded in asserting the Dutch supremacy along the coast of Brazil from the mouth of Sao Francisco to Maranhao.
In 1640 the revolution which placed the house of Braganza on the throne of Portugal restored Brazil to masters more inclined to promote its interests and assert its possession than the Spaniards.
The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
While the population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to habits of violence and oppression.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho, afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts.
The policy of many of Pombal's measures is more than questionable; but his admission of all races to equal rights in the eye of the law, his abolition of feudal privileges, and the firmer organization of the powers of the land which he introduced, powerfully co-operated towards the development of the capabilities of Brazil.
The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of Minas in 1789.
Removed from all communication with the rest of the world except through the mother country, Brazil remained unaffected by the first years of the great revolu 4 tionary war in Europe.
Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of Napoleon.
When he resolved upon the invasion and conquest of Portugal, the prince regent, afterwards Dom John VI., having no means of resistance, decided to take refuge in Brazil.
He created a regency in Lisbon, and departed for Brazil on the 29th of November 1807, accompanied by the queen Donna Maria I., the royal family, all the great officers of state, a large part of the nobility and numerous retainers.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
15 a guese royal family in Brazil, 1807.
In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.
The inroads made on the frontiers of Rio Grande and Sao Paulo decided the court of Rio to take possession of Montevideo; Brazil de- a force of 5000 troops was sent thither from Portugal, together with a Brazilian corps; and the irregulars integral of Artigas, unable to withstand disciplined troops, were forced, after a total defeat, to take refuge beyond the river Uruguay.
The importance which Brazil was acquiring decided the regent to give it the title of kingdom, and by decree of the 16th January 1815, the Portuguese sovereignty thenceforward took the title of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves.
Although Brazil had now become in fact the head of its own mother country, the government was not in the hands of Brazilians, but of the Portuguese, who had followed the court.
Still the progress of the republican spirit in Brazil caused Dom Joao to send to Portugal for bodies of picked troops, which were stationed throughout the provincial capitals.
The Brazilian deputies on arriving in Lisbon expressed dissatisfaction with the Cortes for having begun the framing of the constitution before their arrival, for Brazil could not be treated as a secondary part of the monarchy.
Sharp discussions and angry words passed between the Brazilian and Portuguese deputies, the news of which excited great discontent in Brazil.
and the municipal council conferred upon the prince regent the title of Perpetual Defender of Brazil.
In Sao Paulo, on the 7th of September 1822, he proclaimed the independence of Brazil.
The troops in Montevideo also embarked for Portugal, and the Banda Oriental remained a part of Brazil with the title of the Provincia Cisplatina.
Before the end of 1823 the authority of the new emperor and the independence of Brazil were undisputed throughout the whole country.
The proclamation of a republic in the provinces of Pernambuco and Ceara, with the rebellion of the Cisplatina province, favoured by Buenos Aires and its ultimate loss to Brazil, were the result of the coup d'Nat of November 1823.
By this stroke of policy he saved himself and Brazil.
Negotiations were opened in London between the Brazilian and Portuguese plenipotentiaries, treating for the recognition of the independence of Brazil; and on the 25th of August 1825 a treaty was signed by which the Portuguese king, Dom John VI., assumed the title of emperor of Brazil, and immediately abdicated in favour of his son, acknowledging Brazil as an independent empire, but the treaty obliged Brazil to take upon herself the Portuguese debt, amounting to nearly two millions sterling.
The year 1828 was a calamitous one for Brazil.
It began with the defeat of the Brazilian army by the Argentine forces, and this entirely through the incapacity of the commander-in-chief; and misunderstandings, afterwards compensated by humbling money-payments on the part of Brazil, arose with the United States, France and England on account of merchant vessels captured by the Brazilian squadron blockading Buenos Aires.
It was openly suggested in the journals to reform the constitution by turning Brazil into independent federal provinces, governed by authorities popularly elected, as in the United States.
The appearance of yellow fever in 1849, until then unknown in Brazil, was attributed to the importation of slaves.
Rosas then declared war formally against Brazil.
From 1844 Brazil was free from intestine commotions, and had resumed its activity.
In 1855 the emperor of Brazil sent a squadron of eleven men-of-war and as many transports up the Parana to adjust several questions pending between the empire and was that of the right of way by the Paraguay river to the interior Brazilian province of Matto Grosso.
Though the discord resulting between the states on account of this failure was subsequently allayed for a time by a treaty granting to Brazil the right to navigate the river, every obstacle was thrown in the way by the Paraguayan government, and indignities of all kinds were offered not only to Brazil but to the representatives of the Argentine and the United States.
In 1864 the ambitious dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopez, without previous declaration of war, captured a Brazilian vessel in the Paraguay, and rapidly followed up this outrage by an armed invasion of the provinces of Matto Grosso and Rio Grande in Brazil, and that of Corrientes in the Argentine Republic. A triple alliance of the invaded states with Uruguay ensued, and the tide of war was soon turned from being an offensive one on the part of Paraguay to a defensive struggle within that republic against the superior number of the allies.
From its duration and frequent battles and sieges this war involved an immense sacrifice of life to Brazil, the army in the field having been constantly maintained at between 20,000 and 30,000 men, and the expenditure in maintaining it was very great, having been calculated at upwards of fifty millions sterling.
Notwithstanding this the sources of public wealth in Brazil were unaffected, and commerce continued steadily to increase.
progress and material prosperity made steady advancement in Brazil.
When Dom Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through Europe and the United States he appointed Princess Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so swayed in political questions by Church influence that Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. Another incident which gave strength to the opposition was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensation to slave-owners.
A provisional government was then formed and a proclamation issued to the effect that the country would henceforth be known as the United States of Brazil, and that in due time a republican constitution would be framed.
The republican government offered to compensate him for the property he had held in Brazil as emperor, but this proposal was declined.
Under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into existence, and continued till February 1891, when a national congress assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of Brazil.
Many left Brazil and went into voluntary exile, while others retired to their estates.
The second difficulty was the war waged by religious fanatics under the leadership of Antonio Maciel, known as " Conselheiro," against the constituted authorities of Brazil.
From that time Conselheiro was a victim of remorse, and to expiate his sin became a missionary in the sertao or interior of Brazil among the wild Jagunco people.
A still more interesting boundary dispute was that between Great Britain and Brazil, as to the southern frontier line of British Guiana.
The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
The result was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to hostilities.
During the remainder of the term of this president internal and financial progress were undisturbed save by an outbreak in 1904 in the Cunani district, the very portion of disputed territory which had been assigned to Brazil by the arbitration with France.
- History: Capistrano de Abreu, Descobrimento do Brazil e seu desenvolvimento no seculo xix.
(Rio de Janeiro, 1883); John Armitage, History of Brazil from 1808 to 1831 (2 vols., London, 1836); Moreira de Azevedo, Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1841); V.
Mello Moraes, Brazil historico (4 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1839); Chorographia historica, chronographica genealogica, nobiliaria e politica do Brazil (5 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1858-1863); A Independencia e o imperio do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); B.
Pereira da Silva, Varoes illustres do Brazil (2 vols., Paris,1888); Historia da fundacao do imperio brazileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Segundo Periodo do reinado de D.
(Paris, 1875); Historia do Brazil de 18 3 1 a 1840 (Rio de Janeiro, 1888); J.
P. Oliveira Martins, 0 Brazil e as colonial Portuguezas (Lisbon, 1888); S.
Southey, History of Brazil (3 vols., London, 1810-1819); J.
de Varnhagen, Historia geral do Brazil (2 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Historia das luctas com os Hollandeses (Vienna, 1871); C. E.
of South America, 1854-1904 (1904); the Revista trimensal do Instituto Historico e Geographico do Brazil (1839-1908), one or two volumes annually, is a storehouse of papers, studies and original documents bearing on the history of Brazil.
Wappaus, Geographica physica do Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, 1884); A.
Moreira Pinto, Chorographia do Brazil (5th ed., Rio de Janeiro, 1895); Therese Prinzessin von Bayern, Meine Reise inden brasilianischen Tropen (Berlin, 1897); M.
Hutchinson, Report on Trade in Brazil (Washington, 1906); F.
Brazil, Indiana >>
Natal, Brazil >>
AMAZONAS, the extreme north-western and largest state of Brazil, bounded N.
MARIANAS, or Maranhas, a tribe of South American Indians on the river Jutahy, north-western Brazil.
His parents, Joao Mendes da Silva and Louren9a Coutinho, were descended from Portuguese Jews who had emigrated to Brazil to escape the Inquisition, but in 1702 that tribunal began to persecute the Marranos in Rio, and in October 1712 Lourenca Coutinho fell a victim.
An accident prevented his sailing with his regiment to Brazil, and after a visit to Flanders, where an uncle offered to secure a commission for him, he went to England, picked up the language, and in 1752 became tutor in a Shropshire family.
Many forms of clothing, moreover, seem to call attention to those parts of the body of which, under the conditions of Western civilization at the present day, it aims at the concealment; certain articles of dress worn by the New Hebrideans, the Zulu-Xosa tribes, certain tribes of Brazil and others, are cases in point.
NATAL, a city and port of Brazil and capital of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, on the right bank of the Rio Potengy, or Rio Grande do Norte, about 2 m.
by British Guiana and Brazil, S.
by Brazil and W.
The line is subject to any question between the two countries and Brazil.
The boundary with Brazil was fixed by a special commission in 1880.
Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.
The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.
Insect life is perhaps poorer and less varied than in Brazil, but in the 14 orders of insects there are no less than 98 families, each including many genera and species.
The principal economic plants of the country are cacau, coffee, cassava (manioc) called " mandioca " in Brazil, Indian corn, beans, sweet potatoes, taro, sugar-cane, cotton and tobacco.
It is grown at elevations of 1600 to 3000 ft., and the yield is reported to be a to 2 lb per tree, which is much less than the yield in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
The flesh is eaten in Brazil.
DIAMANTINA (formerly called Tejuco), a mining town of the: state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, in the N.E.
1'°1,The typical species ranged from Argentina and Chili to Brazil.
It is a native of Panama, Venezuela, Guiana and northern Brazil.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
It was introduced into Barbadoes from Brazil in 1641, and was distributed from there to other West Indian islands.
Among them may be mentioned the aperea or restless cavy (C. porcellus or C. aperea) of Brazil; the Bolivian C. boliviensis, found at great elevations in the Andes; the Brazilian rock-cavy (C. rupestris), characterized by its short blunt claws; and the Peruvian C. cutleri.
Fossil species of Dolichotis occur in the caverns of Brazil, and also in the superficial deposits of Argentina.
NICTHEROY, or Niteroy, a city of Brazil and capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, on the E.
With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909.
These became known prematurely, and in May 1910 war was threatened between Peru and Ecuador in spite of an offer of mediation by the United States, Brazil and Argentina under the Hague Convention.
This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.
The dispute with Brazil relates to the territory acquired by that republic from Bolivia in 1867 and 1903, and was to be settled, according to an agreement A so 4 16 5 Reference to Departments & Provinces 1.
The south-east trade-wind blows obliquely across the Atlantic Ocean until it reaches Brazil.
Yuca (Manihot utilissima), known as cassava in the West Indies and mandioca in Brazil, is also widely cultivated for food and for the manufacture of starch.
Many of the forest 'trees of the upper Amazon valley of Brazil are likewise found in Peru.
and Brazil also cropped up at intervals.
A treaty was signed with Brazil 1876, by which certain physical features were accepted by both countries as the basis for the boundary.
It is found in Brazil, Guiana and Paraguay, and extends its range to the Rio del Norte, but is rare north of the isthmus of Panama.
The supplies from Mexico and Brazil were important during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
Brazil has had a large immigration (in 1895 equal to 169,524, but in 1904 only 12,447).
MELocACTus, the genus of melon-thistle or Turk's-cap cactuses, contains, according to a recent estimate, about 90 species, which inhabit chiefly the West Indies, Mexico and Brazil, a few extending into New Granada.
It comprises some 200 species, distributed from the south-west United States to Brazil and Chile.
They are natives of Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.
Of successful mediation in the strict sense there have been many instances: that of Great Britain, in 1825, between Portugal and Brazil; of France, in 1849-1850, when differences arose between Great Britain and Greece; of the Great Powers, in 1868-1869, when the relations of Greece and Turkey were strained to breaking-point by reason of the insurrection in Crete; of Pope Leo XIII., in 1885, between Germany and Spain in the matter of the Caroline Islands.
CAMPINAS, an inland city of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 65 m.
is only from 3 2.2° to 32.7° F., and the same low temperature continues throughout the Brazil Basin to the equator; but in the North American Basin from the West Indies to the Telegraph Plateau no satisfactory bottom temperature lower than 35.6° F.
In a similar manner the Brazil current, the Agulhas current and the East Australian current originate from the drift of the south-east trades, and in the North Pacific the Japan current arises from the north-east trade drift.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
harlani) from the Pleistocene of Kentucky and other parts of the United States, but more abundantly represented in the corresponding formations of South America, especially Argentina and Brazil.
The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
In Italy, Spain, Portugal and Brazil only a few monasteries survive the various revolutions, and in a crippled state; but signs are not wanting of renewed life: St Benedict's own monasteries of Subiaco and Monte Cassino are relatively flourishing.
But the Greenland colony was obscure, the country was believed to form part of Europe, and the records of the farther explorations were contained in sagas which were only rediscovered by modern scholarship. Throughout the middle ages, legendary tales of mythical lands lying in the western ocean - the Isle of St Brandan, of Brazil and Antilia - had been handed down.
In 150o the Portuguese Pedro Alvarez Cabral, while on his way to the East Indies, sighted the coast of Brazil at Monte Pascoal in the Aimores, and took formal possession.
Brazil, after a period of exploration which began in 1510, was gradually settled by the Portuguese, though its bounds on the south remained a subject of dispute with the Spaniards till the 18th century.
After the preliminary period of conquest the whole of the Spanish possessions were divided into the two "kingdoms" of New Spain, - consisting of Venezuela and the Spanish possessions north of the isthmus - and of New Castile, a title soon changed to Peru, which included the Central American isthmus and all of South America except Venezuela and Brazil.
The Portuguese settlement in Brazil was more purely colonial than the Spanish possessions.
Between 1572 and 1576 there were in Brazil the two governments of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, but its history is of little importance till the occupation of Portugal by Philip II.
After the renewal of the war between Spain and Holland in 1621, the Dutch invaded the Portuguese colony of Brazil, and seized Bahia.
During the later 17th century and the whole of the 18th, the history of the Spanish colonies and of the Portuguese in Brazil, was not, as has often been said, one of pure stagnation.
Brazil followed the same course in a milder way and a little later.
26 a between Great Britain and Brazil; Colombia and Mexico were acknowledged in December of the same year; and the recognition of the other states followed, as each was able to give guarantees of stable government.
Brazil; Caribian, around Caribbean Sea; Catamarenyan, Chaco; Changuinan, Panama; Charruan, Parana R.; Chibchan, Colombia .; Churbyan, Orinoco R.; Coconucan, Colombia; Cunan, Panama; Guaycuruan, Paraguay R.; Jivaroan, Ecuador; Kechuan, Peru; Laman, N.E.
Bolivia; Tapuyan, Brazil; Timotean, Venezuela; TU Pian, Amazon R.; Tzonecan, Patagonia; Yahgan, T.
The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.
The simplest form of navigation in Brazil was the woodskin, a piece of bark stripped from a tree and crimped at the ends.
Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
terrestris, the common tapir of the forests and lowlands of Brazil and Paraguay; and T.
Until the severance of Brazil from the Portuguese monarchy, the eldest son was prince of Brazil.
JAGUARONDI, or YAGUARONDI (Felis jaguarondi), a South American wild cat, found in Brazil, Paraguay and Guiana, ranging to north-eastern Mexico.
ESPIRITO SANTO, a maritime state of Brazil, bounded N.
BARBACENA, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m.
At Para, Brazil, is a good collection attached to the Museum Goeldi, and there are unimportant collections at Rio de Janeiro and Bahia.
Chaetomys, distinguished by the shape of its skull and the greater complexity of its teeth, contains C. subspinosus, a native of the hottest parts of Brazil.
From 1844 to 1847 he was minister to Brazil.
Returning to Brazil in 1819, he urged Dom Pedro to resist the recall of the Lisbon court, and was appointed one of his ministers in 1821.
When the independence of Brazil was declared, Andrada was made minister of the interior and of foreign affairs; and when it was established, he was again elected by the Constituent Assembly, but his democratic principles resulted in his dismissal from office, July 1823.
On the dissolution of the Assembly in November, he was arrested and banished to France, where he lived in exile near Bordeaux till, in 1829, he was permitted to return to Brazil.
Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.
Somewhat similar legends are those of the island of Brazil, of Lyonnesse, the sunken land off the Cornish coast, of the lost Breton city of Is, and of Mayda or Asmaide - the French Isle Verte and Portuguese Ilha Verde or "Green Island" - which appears in many folk-tales from Gibraltar to the Hebrides, and until 1853 was marked on English charts as a rock in 44° 48' N.
In 1823 he transferred his services to Brazil, where he helped the emperor Dom Pedro I.
He also wrote Notes on the Mineralogy, Government and Condition of the British West India Islands (1851), and a Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil (1858).
Paulo in Brazil supplied Sars with representatives of all the three in his Norwegian aquaria, in some of which the little Macrothrix elegans " multiplied to such an extraordinary extent as at last to fill up the water with immense shoals of individuals."
and the thickness of a man's thigh, and frequents the marshes of Brazil and the Guianas, where it is regarded with terror, owing to the formidable electrical apparatus with which it is provided.
labiatus), skunk (Mephitis, Spilogale and Conepatus), marten, several species of opossum (including a pigmy species of the Tres Marias islands), sloth, two species of ant-bear (Myrmecophaga tetradactylus and Cyclothurus didactylus), armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a small arboreal porcupine (Synetheres mexicanus), the kinkajou (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus), three species of deer - the white-tailed Cariacus toltecus, the little black-faced brocket, Coassus rufinus, which is also found in Brazil, and the Sonora deer (Odocoileus couesi) - the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) of Chihuahua, at least two species of hare (Lepus calotis and L.
BAHIA, an Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N.
The capital, Sao Salvador or Bahia, which is one of the principal cities and ports of Brazil, is the export town for the Reconcavo, as the fertile agricultural district surrounding the bay is called.
Bahia, Brazil (Capital) >>
Alcantara, Brazil >>
minutilla, the American stint, is darker, with olive feet, and ranges from the Arctic New World to Brazil.
Guatemala is surpassed only by Brazil and the East Indies in the quantity of coffee it exports.
Brazil 117,062,725 19,765,836 19,765,836
BAGE, a town and municipality of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 176 m.
RIO DE JANEIRO (in full, SÃo Sebastiao Do Rio DE Janeiro, colloquially shortened to Rio), a city and port of Brazil, capital of the republic, and seat of an archbishopric, on the western side of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro, or Guanabara.
There is religious toleration in Brazil, but down to the organization of the republic no non-Catholic church or chapel was permitted to have a spire or other outward symbol of a place of worship.
Railway communication with the interior is maintained by the Central do Brazil (formerly the Dom Pedro II.), Leopoldina and Melhoramentos lines, besides which there is a short passenger line up to the Corcovado about 21 m.
Rio de Janeiro is the seaport for a large area of the richest, most productive and most thickly settled parts of Brazil, including the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Geraes and a small part of eastern Salo Paulo.
It had been made the capital of the southern captaincies in 1680, and in 1762 it became the capital of all Brazil.
returned to Portugal in 1821, and on the 7th of September 1822 Brazil was declared independent and Dom Pedro I.
The first coffee tree planted in Brazil was in a convent garden of Rio de Janeiro.
Nearly all books relating to Brazil devote some attention to its capital city.
The history of its settlement and colonial development will be found in Robert Southey, History of Brazil (3 vols., London, 1810-19).
Walsh, Notices of Brazil in 1828 and 1829 (2 vols., London, 1830); Thomas Ewbank, Life in Brazil (New York, 1856); M.
P. Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians (9th ed., Boston, 1879), especially chapters iv.
PORTO ALEGRE, a city and port of Brazil, capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, at the northern extremity of Lagoa dos Patos on the eastern shore of an estuary called Rio Guahyba, about 160 m.
which may account, perhaps, for its rarity, if, indeed, it be really scarce in its native home, which is probably the eastern slopes and tablelands of the Bolivian and Peruvian foot-hills bordering on Brazil, inclusive of the headwaters of the Purus, Acre and Jurua rivers.
It may be mentioned, however, that the distribution of these later Tertiary types accords very closely with that of their existing relatives; the families of South American hystricoids being represented by a number of extinct genera in the formations of Argentina and Brazil.
Special mention may be made of Megamys, from the caves of Brazil, which, while apparently allied to the living viscacha, attained dimensions approximating to those of a hippopotamus.
Maranon, the name given to the upper Amazon), a northern state of Brazil, bounded N.
Ceara was subsequently detached, but the "state" of Maranhao remained independent until 1774, when it again became subject to the colonial administration of Brazil.
Maranhao did not join in the declaration of independence of 1822, but in the following year the Portuguese were driven out by Admiral Lord Cochrane and the province became a part of the new empire of Brazil.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.
1 The following list of standing arbitration treaties concluded after the signing of the Anglo-French treaty of October 14th 1903 is as complete as possible down to June 1910: Argentina - Brazil, September 7, 1905.
Brazil - Portugal, March 25, 1909.
„ Brazil, April 7, 1909.
„ „ Brazil, June 18, 1909.
Brazil, January 23, 1909.
Mazagan was built in 1506 by the Portuguese, who abandoned it to the Moors in 1769 and established a colony, New Mazagan, on the shores of Para in Brazil.
ARACATY, or Aracati, a city and port of Brazil, in the state of Ceara, 75 m.
The Bororos of Brazil fancy that in that shape the soul of a sleeper passes out of the body during night-time, returning to him at his awakening.
In South America there is considerable superficial resemblance between the little bush dog (Speothos venaticus) of Guiana and Brazil and the large weasel-like animal of the same countries - the tayra (Galera barbara).
In Guatemala Elaps fulvus is mimicked by Pliocerus equalis; in Mexico Elaps corallinus by Homalocranium semicinctum, and in Brazil, Elaps lemniscatus by Oxyrhopus trigeminus.
The Order of the Tower and Sword was founded in 1808 in Brazil by the regent, afterwards king John VI.
Mexico has abolished its former orders, the Mexican Eagle, 1865, and Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1853; as has Brazil those of the Southern Cross, 1822, Dom Pedro I., 1826, the Rose, 1829, and the Brazilian branches of the Portuguese orders of Christ, St Benedict of Aviz and St James.
PELOTAS, a city of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on the left bank of the Sao Gongalo river near its entrance into the Lagoa dos Patos, about 30 m.
America (Ecuador, Brazil, Argentine); some missions in Palestine.
Capuchins: Aden and Arabia, India (dioceses of Agra, Allahabad, Lahore), Seychelles, Eritrea (Red Sea), Gallas, Cephalonia, Trebizond, Mardin, Crete, Caroline Islands, Araucania, Brazil, Bulgaria.
in length, and has a wide range throughout Guiana and a great part of Brazil.
bailloni, remarkable for its yellow-orange head, neck and lower parts, inhabits the lowlands of southern Brazil.
by Brazil, S.E., S.
Paraguay proper, or the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, is traversed from north to south by a broad irregular belt of highlands, which are known as the Cordillera Ambaya, Cordillera Urucury, &c., but partake rather of the character of plateaus, and form a continuation and outwork of the great interior plateau of Brazil.
The fauna of Paraguay proper is practically the same as that of Brazil.
Immigration is on a small scale (1024 in 1908), but tends to increase; it is encouraged by the government, which seeks to divert to Paraguay some portion of the Italian labour immigrant into Brazil and Argentina.
Besides the London debt, there are many other claims on Paraguay, including (1908) about £1,950,000 due to Brazil, about £2,500,000 due to Argentina, and an internal debt of £850,000.
The name Paraguay was applied not only to the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, but to the whole Spanish territory, which now comprises parts of Brazil, Uruguay and the Argentine provinces of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones, and part of Santa Fe.
In 1864 a dispute arose between the younger Lopez and the Brazilian government, and Lopez marched an army through Argentine territory to invade southern Brazil.
This act induced the governments of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina to combine for the purpose of suppressing Lopez.
The policy of Brazil was for a time directed towards the annexation of Paraguay; the debt due to Brazil on account of the war was assessed at £40,000,000, a sum which Paraguay could never hope to pay; and it was not until 1876 that the Brazilian army of occupation was wholly withdrawn.
But the rivalry between Brazil and Argentina, and the necessity of maintaining the balance of power among the South American republics, enabled Paraguay to remain independent.
The cube is sometimes found in Brazil, but is very rare among the S.
African stones; and the dodecahedron is perhaps more common in Brazil than elsewhere.
Humboldt searched for them in the Urals on account of the similarity of the gold and platinum deposits to those of Brazil, and small diamonds were ultimately found (1829) in the gold washings of Bissersk, and later at Ekaterinburg and other spots in the Urals.
Mawe, Travels in the Interior of Brazil (1812); Treatise on Diamonds and Precious Stones (1813); Finder, De adamante (1829); Murray, Memoir on the Nature of the Diamond (1831); C. Zerenner, De adamante dissertatio (1850); H.
P. spectabile is the coapim of Angola, but has been acclimatized in Brazil and other tropical countries.
PARNAHYBA, or Parnahiba, a port of the state of Piauhy, Brazil, on the right bank of the Parnahyba river, 250 m.
Attempts at tea growing have been made in the West Indies, Brazil, Australia, Nyassaland, Mauritius, the Straits Settlements, Johore, Fiji and at San Miguel in the Azores without marked success.