Escaping to South America in 1836, he was given letters of marque by the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which had revolted against Brazil.
Regaining liberty, he renewed the war against Brazil, and took Porto Allegro.
MATTO GROSSO, an inland state of Brazil, bounded N.
They are magnificent evergreen trees, with apparently whorled branches, and stiff, flattened, pointed leaves, found in Brazil and Chile, Polynesia and Australia.
Araucaria brasiliana, the Brazil pine, is a native of the mountains of southern Brazil, and was introduced into Britain in 1819.
The largest species is the giant armadillo (Priodon gigas), measuring nearly a yard long, from the forests of Surinam and Brazil; while one of the smallest is Dasypus minutes, a near ally of the larger D.
of the Orinoco and Apure, with the Yuruari territory on the E., the Caroni river forming the boundary, and the Amazonas territory and Brazil on the S.
The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).
In the course of his travels in Brazil (1815-1817), Prince Max of Wied met with this bird, and in 1823 there appeared from his pen N.
The Seriema inhabits the campos or elevated open parts of Brazil, from the neighbourhood of Pernambuco to the Rio de la Plata, extending inland as far as Matto Grosso (long.
by Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay and the Atlantic, W.
The Misiones territory of the extreme north-east belongs to the older highlands of Brazil, is densely wooded, and has ranges of hills sometimes rising to a height of moo to 1300 ft.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.
The telegraph lines of Argentina are subject to the national telegraph law of 1875, the international telegraph conventions, and special conventions with Brazil and Uruguay.
This able leader, eager to reach Asuncion as quickly as possible, sent on his ships to the river Plate, but himself with a small following marched overland from Santa Catherina on the coast of Brazil to join Irala.
After the conclusion of the peace with Brazil, the Unitarians placed themselves under the leadership of General Juan de Lavalle, the victor of Ituzaingo.
The first efforts of Urquiza to rouse the country against the oppressor were unsuccessful, but in 1851 he concluded an alliance with Brazil, to which Uruguay afterwards adhered.
The dictator of Paraguay had quarrelled with Brazil for its intervention in the internal affairs of Uruguay, and he demanded free passage for his troops across refused, and alliance was formed between Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, for joint action against Lopez.
In March 1895 President Cleveland gave his decision, which was wholly favourable to the contention of Brazil.
In October 1900 Dr Manuel Campos Salles, president of Brazil, paid a visit to Buenos Aires, and was received with great demonstrations of friendliness.
Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of Charles I., were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on the 23rd of June, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed, England securing Tangier and Bombay, with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about 300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.
Besides these interesting European fossils, a certain number of didelphian bones have been found in the caves of Brazil, but these are either closely allied to or identical with the species now living in the same region.
The species of Scytalopus are as small as Wrens, mostly of a dark colour, and inhabit parts of Brazil and Colombia, one of them occurring so far northward as Bogota.
MACEIO or Macayo, a city and port of Brazil and capital of the state of Alagoas, about 125 m.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current, is deflected southwards and follows Currents.
The development of the equatorial and the Brazil currents in the South Atlantic has already been described.
Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
CUYABA, or Cutaba, capital of the inland state of Matto Grosso, Brazil, about 972 m.
PIAUHY, or Piauhi, a north-eastern state of Brazil, bounded N.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
cluding bush-forest in Africa and campos serrados in Brazil P
In Brazil the myrtles are represented by monkey-pots (Lecythideae).
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
From caves of Minas Geraes in Brazil, O.
PERNAMBUCO, a north-eastern state of Brazil, bounded N.
The railways of the state are the Recife and Sao Francisco (77 m.), Central de Pernambuco (132 m.) and Sul de Pernambuco (120 m.) - all government properties leased to the Great Western of Brazil Railway Co., Ltd., since 1901.
Many of the hollow agates of Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst-crystals in the interior.
In the same year he was nominated a Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Prussian Order "Pour le Merite," and belonged to the Legion of Honour of France and to the Order of the North Star of Sweden and Norway.
It runs conterminous with the southern border of Brazil, and lies between 30° and 35° S.
The boundaries separating it from Rio Grande do Sul, a province of Brazil, are Lake Mirim, the rivers Chuy, Jaguarao and Quarahy, and a cuchilla or low range of hills called Santa Ana.
They are ramifications of the highlands of Brazil.
Fauna.-Among wild animals the tiger or ounce-called in the Guarani language the ja-gud or "big dog"-and the puma are found on the frontier of Brazil and on the wooded islets and banks of the larger rivers.
A long struggle for dominion in Uruguay between Brazil and the revolutionary government of Buenos Aires was concluded in 1828, through the mediation of Great Britain, Uruguay being declared a free and independent state.
GOYAZ, an inland state of Brazil, bounded by Matto Grosso and Para, on the W., Maranhao, Bahia and Minas Geraes on the E., and Minas Geraes and Matto Grosso on the S.
In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.
Hadfield, Brazil, the Falkland Islands, &c. (1854); W.
SERGIPE (originally Sergipe D'El-Rey), a small Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N.
The only manufacturing industries of importance are cotton mills, sugar factories and distilleries, one of the largest sugar usines in Brazil being located at Riachuelo near Larangeiras.
Jews made their way to America early in the 16th century, settling in Brazil prior to the Dutch occupation.
Others of the more important totals are: France 95,000 (besides Algeria 63,000 and Tunis 62,000); Italy 52,000; Persia 49,000; Egypt 39,000; Bulgaria 36,000; Argentine Republic 30,000; Tripoli 19,000; Turkestan and Afghanistan 14,000; Switzerland and Belgium each 12,000; Mexico 90oO; Greece 8000; Servia 6000; Sweden and Cuba each 4000; Denmark 3500; Brazil and Abyssinia (Falashas) each 3000; Spain and Portugal 2500; China and Japan 2000.
col., 372), who, however, mistakenly thought it was the same as the Trogon pavoninus, a congeneric but quite distinct species from Brazil, that had just been described by Spix.
Between these two mountain chains the head streams of the Parana and Sao Francisco are intermingled - the one flowing inland and southward to the-great La Plata estuary, the other northward and eastward across the arid highlands of Brazil to the Atlantic coast in io ° 30' S.
Part of these rivers are navigable for small steamers, and the Sao Francisco must some day be of great importance in the development of Central Brazil.
River transport has some local value on the upper Sao Francisco and its larger tributaries, and this will be greatly increased when the Central do Brazil railway reaches the head of navigation on that river.
Whereupon a reply came from Paris (28th of November) that the French emperor refused to admit the envoys of "the king who reigns in Brazil, the king who reigns in Sicily or the king who reigns in Sweden."
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
" During the period from 1786 to 1790 the West Indies furnished about 70% of the British supply, the Mediterranean countries 20%, and Brazil 8%; whilst the quantity contributed by the United States and India was less than 1% and Egypt contributed none.
Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No 76).
A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
Brazil.-The cotton-growing region in Brazil comprises a belt some 200 M.
BRAZIL, a city and the county-seat of Clay county, Indiana, U.S.A., situated in the west central part of the state, about 16 m.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
The first settlement here was in 1844; and Brazil was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was chartered as a city in 1873.
Brazil nuts >>
BELLO-HORIZONTE, or Minas, a city of Brazil, capital of the state of Minas Geraes since 1898, about 50 m.
of Ouro Preto, connected with the Central of Brazil railway by a branch line 9 m.
The city has grown rapidly, and is considered one of the most attractive state capitals of Brazil.
But the music was delayed until the strange incident of a message from the emperor of Brazil encouraged Wagner to complete it in 18J9.
OURO PRETO (" Black Gold"), a city of the state of Minas Geraes, Brazil, 336 m.
Ouro Preto is connected with Miguel Burnier, on the Central of Brazil railway, by a metre-gauge line 31 m.
Burton (Highlands of Brazil, London, 1869) says that its shape "is that of a huge serpent, whose biggest end is about the Praga....
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
Ouro Preto is the seat of the best mining school in Brazil.
In Brazil little or nothing is done by the central government, but the progressive states of Sao Paulo and Mines Gerdes have commissaos geographicos e geologicos engaged in the production of topographical maps.
de Beaurepaire-Rohan (1876) to prepare a map of Brazil on a scale of I: 200,000 has never been acted upon, and in the meantime we are dependent upon works like the Atlas do imperio do Brazil by Mendes de Almeida (1868) or the maps in our general atlases.
ACRE, or AQUIRY, a river of Brazil and principal tributary of the Purus, rising on the Bolivian frontier and flowing easterly and northerly to a junction with the Purus at 8° 45' S.
The name is also applied to a district situated on the same river and on the former (1867) boundary line between Bolivia and Brazil.
In July 1899 the Acreanos declared their independence and set up a republic of their own, but in the following March they were reduced to submission by Brazil.
Various disorders followed until Brazil decided to occupy Puerto Alonso with a military force.
Three of the most important slave systems still remained in which no steps towards emancipation had been taken - those of the Southern United States, of Cuba and of Brazil.
There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.
In 1830 the traffic was declared piracy by the emperor of Brazil.
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
On Brazilian: Fletcher and Kidder, Brazil and the Brazilians (9th ed., 1879).
The berries are of fine quality, and despite the competition of Brazil there is no (agricultural) reason why the home market at least should not be supplied from Cuban estates.
Cables connect the island with Florida, Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, Porto Rico, the lesser Antilles, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
Bahia, Brazil (State) >>
For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory 1 by the Portuguese government in Brazil.
" Plantation " Para rubber from Ceylon and the Malay States has brought prices equal to and often exceeding those of fine Para rubber from Brazil.
Para rubber from Brazil generally contains about 15% of water, whilst " plantation " Para is usually nearly dry and contains 1% of water or less.
In Brazil alone it is stated that the rubber area amounts to at least one million sq.
America especially abundant in Brazil, and successfully introduced into other countries (Plate II.
America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.
Para Rubber is so named from the Para province of Brazil, from the principal town of which, also known as Para, most of the rubber is shipped.
In Brazil the trees are found in different districts, but flourish best on rich alluvial clay slopes by the side of rivers, where there is a certain amount of drainage, and the temperature reaches from 89° F.
The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.
That derived from Brazil, however, is generally inferior, being mixed with wood and dirt.
America down to the slopes of Chimborazo; the Cordilleras of the Andes separating the Castilloas from the Heveas of Brazil.
American plateau in Brazil from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro, at a height of 3000 to 5000 ft.
These veins consist of felspar, quartz and mica, often with smaller amounts of other crystallized minerals, such as tourmaline, beryl and garnet; they are worked for mica in India, the United States (South Dakota, Colorado and Alabama), and Brazil (Goyaz, Bahia and Minas Geraes).
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
PETROPOLIS, a city of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in an elevated valley of the Serra de Estrella, 2634 ft.
railway, now a part of the Leopoldina system, which connects with Rio de Janeiro and Nictheroy on the coast, and with the station of Entre Rios on the Central of Brazil railway.
Petropolis was founded in 1845 by Julius Frederick Kdler under the auspices of the emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro II., on lands purchased by his father, Dom Pedro I., in 1822.
It imports great quantities of wool from the Argentine and Australia, and is in regular communication with New York, London and the chief ports of the United Kingdom, Brazil and the far East.
In the " Alabama " arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
BRAZIL, a republic of South America, the largest political division of that continent and the third largest of the western hemisphere.
Brazil is bounded N.
The Spanish and Portuguese crowns attempted to define the limits between their American colonies in 1750 and 1777, and the lines adopted still serve in great part to separate Brazil from its neighbours.
In the boundary disputes which have followed, Brazil seems to have pursued this traditional policy, and generally with success.
This line was fixed by the treaty of 1851, by which the control of Lake Mirim remains with Brazil.
Beginning at the mouth of the Quarahy, the boundary line between Brazil and Argentina ascends the Uruguay, crosses to the source of the Santo Antonio, and descends that small stream and the Iguassu to the Parana, where it terminates.
With regard to the section between the Amazon and the Apaporis river, already settled between Brazil and Peru, the territory has been in protracted dispute between Peru, Ecuador and Colombia; but a treaty of limits between Brazil and Ecuador was signed in 1901 and promulgated in 1905.
The boundary with Colombia, fixed by treaty of April 24, 1907, follows the lower rim of the Amazon basin, as defined by Brazil.
and Brazil about 5405.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
The two great river basins of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata comprise within themselves, approximately, three-fifths of the total area of Brazil.
The great Brazilian plateau, which is the most important physical division of Brazil, consists of an elevated tableland moo to 3000 ft.
(other measurements give 9823 ft.), probably the highest summit in Brazil.
This great chapadao is in many respects the best part of Brazil, having a temperate climate,- extensive areas of fertile soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall.
hares gencia Victoria do Brazil, having an abundant rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of fertile soil.
This elevated valley is noted for its fertility and was once the principal coffee-producing district of Brazil.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana under the arbitration award of 1900.
The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
This is one of the most important fluvial systems of Brazil, but its economic value is impaired by the great waterfalls of Guayra, or Sete Quedas, and Uribu-punga, and by the rapids and waterfalls in the majority of its affluents near their junction with the main stream.
Between the two great waterfalls of the Parana there is an open channel of 276 m., passing through a rich and healthy country, and receiving large tributaries from one of the most fertile regions of Brazil.
Compared with the number, length and volume of its rivers, Brazil has very few lakes, only two of which are noticeable for their Lakes.
The coast of Brazil is indented with a number of almost landlocked bays, forming spacious and accessible harbours.
The first is the harbour for the city of Victoria, and the other two for ports of the same name in southern Brazil.
Brazil is a region which has been free from violent disturbances since an early geological period.
The mountain ranges of the east of Brazil, from Cape St Roque to the mouth of the river Plate, are composed chiefly of crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
Devonian beds also lie upon the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly horizontal strata.
The Carboniferous system in Brazil presents itself under two facies, the one marine and the other terrestrial.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
In the interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental origin and of which the age is uncertain.
From the above account it will appear that, excepting near the coast and in the basin of the Amazon, there is no evidence that any part of Brazil has been under the sea since the close of the Devonian period.
Brazil lies almost wholly within the torrid zone, less than one-twelfth of its area lying south of the tropic of Capricorn.
Extreme variations in temperature are often produced by cold south-west storms from the Argentine pampas, which sweep across southern Brazil as far north as Cape Frio, the fall in temperature sometimes being 22° to 27°.
Winter rains are more frequent in southern Brazil, and violent storms prevail in August and September.
The indigenous fauna of Brazil is noteworthy not only for the variety and number of its genera and species, but also for its deficiency in the larger mammals.
Bates in The Naturalist on the River Amazons) says: " Brazil, moreover, is throughout poor in terrestrial mammals, and the species are of small size."
Of Quadrumana there are about fifty species in Brazil, all arboreal, thirty-eight of which inhabit the Amazon region.
Of the plantigrades, Brazil has no bears, but has the related species of raccoon (Nasua socialis and N.
Only one species of hare is found in Brazil, the Lepus brasiliensis, and but one also of the squirrel (Scyurus).
Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
The common name in Brazil is preguica, which is equivalent to its English name.
Of the ruminants, Brazil has only four or five species of Cervidae, which are likewise common to other countries of South America.
Perhaps the most interesting mammal of Brazil is the manati, or sea-cow (Manatus americanus), which inhabits the lower Amazon and sometimes reaches a length of 15 to 20 ft.
The avifauna of Brazil is rich in genera, species and individuals, especially in species with brilliantly-coloured plumage.
It is estimated that more than half the birds of Brazil are insectivorous, and that more than one-eighth are climbers.
One of the most striking species of the former is the brilliantlycoloured arara (Macrocercus, L.), which is common throughout northern Brazil.
Another interesting species is the toucan (Ramphastos), whose enormous beak, awkward flight and raucous voice make it a conspicuous object in the great forests of northern Brazil.
The thrush is represented by a number of species, one of which, the sabia (Mimus), has become the popular song-bird of Brazil through a poem written by Gonsalves Dias.
There are but few species of ducks, and they are apparently more numerous in southern Brazil than on the Amazon.
Most prominent among these is the American alligator, of which there are, according to Netterer, two genera and eight species in Brazil.
The fauna of the rivers and coast of Brazil is richer in species and individuals than that of the land.
In strong contrast to the poverty of Brazil in the larger mammals is the astonishing profusion of insect life in every part of the country.
Brazil not only is marvellously rich in botanical species, but included at the beginning of the 10th century the largest area of virgin forest on the surface of the earth.
Formerly this coast region furnished large quantities of Brazil-wood (Caesalpinia echinata), and the river valleys have long been the principal source of Brazil's best cabinet-wood - rosewood (Dalbergia nigra), jacaranda (Machaeriumfirmum,Benth.),vinhatico (Plathymenia foliosa, Benth.), peroba (Aspidosperma peroba), cedro, &c. The exotic mangabeira (mango) is found everywhere along the coast, together with the bamboo, orange, lemon, banana, cashew, &c.
The economic plants of Brazil, both indigenous and exotic, are noticeably numerous.
A closely-related species or variety (Euterpe edulis) is the well-known palmito or cabbage palm found over the greater part of Brazil, whose terminal phylophore is cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.
The first explorers of Brazil reported a numerous Indian population, but, as the sea-coast afforded a larger and more easily acquired food supply than did the interior, the Indian population was probably numerous only in a comparatively small part of this immense territory, along the sea-coast.
Modern explorations have shown that the unsettled inland regions of Brazil are populated by Indians only where the conditions are favourable.
But there is no record that the inland districts of western and north-western Brazil were treated in this manner, and their present population may be assumed to represent approximately what it was when the Europeans first came.
Brazil has never had a "colour line," and there has never been any popular prejudice against race mixtures.
These returns will serve to correct the exaggerated estimate of 22,315,000 for 1900 which was published in Brazil and accepted by many foreign publications.
This strengthening of the white population of the South with fresh European blood must eventually divide Brazil into two distinct sections: the white states of the south, and the mixed or coloured states of the north.
The total number of colonists and immigrants entering Brazil between 1804 and 1902, inclusive, according to official returns, was 2,208,353.
The development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a great extent by two unfavourable conditions-by the chain of mountains or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the settlements along the Atlantic, which compel 1 The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at Gotha and used by A.
10,600 The policy of the national government has been gradually to lease all its lines except the Estrada de Ferro Central do Brazil, which is retained for sentimental reasons.
All the large cities of Brazil are liberally provided with tramways, those of the city of Sao Paulo, where electric traction is used, being noticeably good.
Brazil is lamentably deficient in steamship communication considering its importance in a country where the centres of population are separated by such distances of coasts and river.
Brazil is a member of the Postal Union, and like Argentina exacts higher nominal rates of postage upon outgoing mail than those agreed upon to cover the depreciation in her own currency.
The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into effect until 1896.
Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to less than a dozen.
The imports, exports and domestic trade of Brazil 2105 4093 Miles.
Although an agricultural country, Brazil does not produce all its own bread and meat, and the imports of wheat, wheat flour, rice, fish, jerked beef and preserved meats, lard, butter, beans, potatoes, packed fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and other food-stuffs, are surprisingly large.
The exports cover a wide range of agricultural, pastoral and natural productions, including coffee, rubber, sugar, cotton, cocoa, Brazil nuts, mate (Paraguay tea), hides, skins, fruits, gold, diamonds, manganese ore, cabinet woods and medicinal leaves, roots and resins.
Brazil is essentially an agricultural country.
No other country has been able to equal Brazil in the production of coffee, and under better labour conditions the country might compete with the foremost in the production of cane sugar, cotton and tobacco.
One of the most common and important productions of Brazil is mandioca (Manihot), of which there are two well-known species, M.
From it is made farinha de mandioca, which is the bread of the common people of Brazil, and tapioca.
In some parts of southern Brazil the fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone do well, but within the tropics they thrive well only at a considerable elevation above sea-level.
A very large part of the jerked beef consumed in Brazil is imported from Argentina and Uruguay, and some beef cattle also are imported.
In Rio Grande do Sul, where it has attained its greatest development, about 400,000 beeves are slaughtered annually for the manufacture of jerked beef (xarque), beef extract, &c. Little attention has been given to sheep in Brazil except in the southern states, and even there the flocks are small.
Although the coast and river fisheries of Brazil are numerous and valuable, cured fish is one of the staple imports, and foreign products are to be found even along the Amazon.
The extractive or forest industries of Brazil were among the first to engage the attention of Europeans, and have always been considered a principal source of colonial and national wealth.
The collection of Brazil nuts along the Amazon and its tributaries is essentially a poor man's industry, requiring no other plant than a boat.
The export of cabinet woods is not large, considering the forest area of Brazil and the variety and quality of the woods.
The overthrow of the monarchy by a military revolt in Rio de Janeiro on 15th November 1889, resulted in the creation of a federal republic under the name of United States of Brazil (Estados Unidos do Brazil).
The loss of the armoured turret ship "Aquidaban" by a magazine explosion in the bay of Jacarepagua, near Rio de Janeiro, in 1905, had left Brazil with but one fighting vessel (the " Reachuelo ") of any importance.
Perhaps the best educational work in Brazil is done in these private schools.
The moral character of churchmen in Brazil has been severely criticized by many observers, and the ease with which disestablishment was effected is probably largely due to their failings.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
In no country have these charities received more generous support than in Brazil.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
In science Brazil has accomplished very little, although many eminent foreign naturalists have spent years of study within her borders.
The more important contributions to our present knowledge of Brazil, however, have been obtained through the labours of foreign naturalists.
von Eschwege, who spent nineteen years in Brazil (1809-1828), the list includes A.
Among other scientists of a later date who have published important works on Brazil are the American geologists O.
The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.
in 1808 broke down some of these restrictions, and the first year of his residence in Rio de Janeiro saw the establishment of the first printing press in Brazil and the publication of an official gazette.
In no country, perhaps, has the press exercised a more direct and powerful influence upon government than in Brazil, and in no other country can there be found so high a percentage of journalists in official life.
In historical literature Brazil has produced one writer of high standing - Francisco Adolpho Varnhagen (Visconde de Porto Seguro), whose Historia Geral do Brazil is a standard authority on that subject.
The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.
In the field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples in Brazil.
£163,802,675 In addition to these, the government was still responsible for interest guarantees on fourteen railways, or sections of existing lines, with an aggregate capital of about £4,900,000 held in Europe and 12, 0 55,44 0 milreis held in Brazil, on which the national treasury paid in interest £191,324 and 1,398,493 milreis.
The paper currency of Brazil consists of both treasury issues and bank-notes, the latter issued under government supervision.
L.) History Brazil was discovered in February 1499 (o.s.) by Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a companion of Columbus.
He made no settlement, but Brazil.
The colonization of Brazil was prosecuted, however, by subjects of the Portuguese monarchy, who traded thither chiefly for Brazil-wood.
This, it will be remembered, is the spot where Cabral first took possession of Brazil.
The Portuguese were obliged to abandon their settlement; but several of them returned at a later period, with Brazil.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
fostered by the licentious encouragement of some abandoned priests who had found their way to Brazil.
Over these persons the Jesuits had no authority; and it was not until the arrival of the first bishop of Brazil in 1552, that anything like an efficient check was imposed upon them.
Next year Sousa was succeeded by Duarte da Costa, who brought with him a reinforcement of Jesuits, at the head of whom was Luis de Gran, appointed, with Nobrega the chief of the first mission, joint provincial of Brazil.
Nobrega's first act was one which has exercised the most beneficial influence over the social system of Brazil, namely, the establishment of a college on the then unreclaimed plains of Piratininga.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
Nicholas Durand de Villegagnon, a bold and skilful seaman, having visited Brazil, saw at once the advantages which might accrue Settle- to his country from a settlement there.
Mem de Sa continued to hold the reins of government in Brazil upon terms of the best understanding with the clergy, and to the great advantage of the colonies, for fourteen years.
On the expiration of his power, which was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenco da Veiga was appointed governor.
No sooner had Brazil passed under the Spanish crown, than English adventurers directed their hostile enterprises against its shores.
But it was on the part of the Dutch that the most skilful and pertinacious efforts were made for securing a footing in Brazil; and they alone of all the rivals of the Portuguese have left traces of their presence in the national spirit and institutions of Brazil.
The honours bestowed upon the Indian chiefs for their assistance in this war broke down in a great measure the barrier between the two races; and there is at this day a greater admixture of their blood among the better classes in Bahia than is to be found elsewhere in Brazil.
The government, thus left in quiet possession of the rest of Brazil, had time to concentrate its attention upon the Dutch conquests.
In 1649 a rival company was started in Portugal known as the Brazil Company, which sent out a fleet to help the colonists in Pernambuco.
Slowly the Dutch lost ground and the outbreak of war with England sounded the knell of their dominion in Brazil.
It was not, however, till 1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash indemnity and certain commercial privileges.
After this, except some inroads on the frontiers, the only foreign invasion which Brazil had French to suffer was from France.
The important part which the inhabitants of Sao Paulo have played in the history of Brazil has been already adverted to.
In the course of eight years, the limited period of his government, he succeeded in asserting the Dutch supremacy along the coast of Brazil from the mouth of Sao Francisco to Maranhao.
In 1640 the revolution which placed the house of Braganza on the throne of Portugal restored Brazil to masters more inclined to promote its interests and assert its possession than the Spaniards.
The same infatuated passion for mining speculation which had characterized the Spanish settlers in South America now began to actuate the Portuguese; labourers and capital were drained off to the mining districts, and Brazil, which had hitherto in great measure supplied Europe with sugar, sank before the competition of the English and French.
While the population of Brazil continued to increase, the moral and intellectual culture of its inhabitants was left in great measure to chance; they grew up with those robust and healthy sentiments which are engendered by the absence of false teachers, but with a repugnance to legal ordinances, and encouraged in their ascendancy over the Indians to habits of violence and oppression.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
The Portuguese government, under the administration of Carvalho, afterwards marquis of Pombal, attempted to extend to Brazil the bold spirit of innovation which directed all his efforts.
The policy of many of Pombal's measures is more than questionable; but his admission of all races to equal rights in the eye of the law, his abolition of feudal privileges, and the firmer organization of the powers of the land which he introduced, powerfully co-operated towards the development of the capabilities of Brazil.
The most important feature in the history of Brazil during the first thirty years following the retirement of Pombal was the conspiracy of Minas in 1789.
Removed from all communication with the rest of the world except through the mother country, Brazil remained unaffected by the first years of the great revolu 4 tionary war in Europe.
Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of Napoleon.
When he resolved upon the invasion and conquest of Portugal, the prince regent, afterwards Dom John VI., having no means of resistance, decided to take refuge in Brazil.
He created a regency in Lisbon, and departed for Brazil on the 29th of November 1807, accompanied by the queen Donna Maria I., the royal family, all the great officers of state, a large part of the nobility and numerous retainers.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
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