Branchial Sentence Examples
The water is expelled from the branchial chambers by one or two tubes opening by one orifice in most Batrachians.
In these, as in Patella, the typical ctenidia are aborted, and the branchial function is assumed by close-set lamelliform processes arranged in a series beneath the mantle-skirt on either side of the foot.
The heart in Patella consists of a single auricle (not two as in Haliotis and Fissurella) and a ventricle; the former receives the blood from the branchial vein, the latter distributes it through a large aorta which soon leads into irregular blood-lacunae.
The surface of the neck is covered by integument forming the floor of the branchial cavity.
Near this and less advanced into the branchial chamber is the single renal organ or nephridium r with its opening to the exterior r'.Advertisement
It corresponds to the right of the two primitive ctenidia in the untwisted archaic condition of the molluscan body, and does not project freely into the branchial cavity, but its axis is attached (by concrescence) to the mantle-skirt (roof of the branchial chamber).
This is a groove, the edges of which are raised and ciliated, lying near the branchial plume in the genera which possess that organ, whilst in Firoloida, which has no branchial plume, the osphradium occupies a corresponding position.
All exto the roof of the branchial tinct.
Pulmonata are widely distinguished from a small number of Streptoneura at one time associated with them on account of their mantle-chamber being converted, as in Pulmonata, into a lung, and the ctenidium or branchial plume aborted.
Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.Advertisement
The gill-pores occur on each side of the dorsal aspect of the worm in a longitudinal series at the base of a shallow groove, the branchial groove.
They occur in the branchial region, and also extend to a variable distance behind it.
In exceptional cases they are either confined to the branchial region or excluded from it.
When they are arranged in uniserial or biserial rows the genital ducts open into or near the branchial grooves in the region of the pharynx and in a corresponding position in the post-branchial region.
An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.Advertisement
Mesosomatic segments furnished with large plate-like appendages, the 1st pair acting as the genital operculum, the remaining pairs being provided with branchial lamellae fitted for breathing oxygen dissolved in water.
In the former case the larva creeps along the tadpole until it reaches the branchial opening into which it darts, fixes its sucker, and then throws off its cilia.
Its further development takes place partly in the branchial chamber and partly in the bladder, which it reaches by travelling the whole length of the alimentary canal.
These Polystomum deposit their eggs in the branchial chamber and die at the metamorphosis of their host.
On each side, behind the head, there is a row of seven branchial openings, through which the water is conveyed to and from the gills.Advertisement
The Branchiopoda have a very variable number of body-segments, with or without a shield, simple or bivalved, and some of the postoral appendages normally branchial.
The Copepoda have normally a segmented body, not enclosed in a bivalved shell-covering, the segments not exceeding eleven, the limbs not branchial.
To these succeed eight pairs of foliaceous branchial appendages on the front division of the body, followed on the hind division by four pairs of powerful bifurcate swimming feet and two rudimentary pairs, the number, though not the nature, of these appendages being malacostracan.
There are also now two more genera, Paranebalia (Claus, 1880), in which the branchial feet are much longer than in Nebalia, and Nebaliopsis (Sars, 1887), in which they are much shorter.
The constituents of the last have often been classed as Copepoda, and among the Branchiopods must be regarded as aberrant, since the "branchial tail " implied in the name has no feet, and the actual feet are by no means obviously branchial.Advertisement
This " leaf-footed " suborder has the appendages which follow the second maxillae variable in number, but all foliaceous and branchial.
Respiration is conducted by the general surface, by the branchial lamina (external branch) of the feet, and the vesicular appendage (when present) at the base of this branch.
The former, with the feet for the most part concealed by the carapace, is subdivided into two tribes, the Ctenopoda, or " comb-feet," in which the six pairs of similar feet, all branchial and nonprehensile, are furnished with setae arranged like the teeth of a comb, and the Anomopoda, or " variety-feet," in which the front feet differ from the rest by being more or less prehensile, without branchial laminae.
In these the furcal branches are linear or rudimentary, the shell is without rostral sinus, and, besides distinguishing characters of the second 2ntennae, they have always a branchial plate well developed on the first maxillae, which is inconstant in the other tribe.
The chief points in which they vary are - (1) in the structure of the ctenidia or branchial plates; (2) in the presence of one or of two chief muscles, the fibres of which run across the animal's body from one valve of the shell to the other (adductors); (3) in the greater or less elaboration of the posterior portion of the mantle-skirt so as to form a pair of tubes, by one of which water is introduced into the sub-pallial chamber, whilst by the other it is expelled; (4) in the perfect or deficient symmetry of the two valves of the shell and the connected soft parts, as compared with one another; (5) in the development of the foot as a disk-like crawling organ (Arca, Nucula, Pectunculus, Trigonia, Lepton, Galeomma), as a simple plough-like or tongueshaped organ (Unionidae, &c.), as a re-curved saltatory organ (Cardium, &c.), as a long burrowing cylinder (Solenidae, &c.), or its partial (Mytilacea) or even complete abortion (Ostraeacea).
Branchial filaments united by vascular interfilamentar junctions and vascular interlamellar junctions; the latter contain the afferent vessels.
Modiolarcidae.-Foot with a plantar surface; the two branchial plates serve as incubatory pouches.
Mantle closed to a considerable extent; siphons well developed; gills much folded and frequently prolonged into the branchial siphon.
Gills prolonged into the branchial siphon.
Near the base of the ctenidium is a patch of sensory epithelium innervated from the branchial nerve, forming a sense-organ called the osphradium, whose function is to test the water entering the branchial cavity.
The branchial current is maintained by the cilia which cover the surface of the ctenidia, except in Cephalopoda, in which cilia are absent and the current is due to muscular action.
The stomach opens into a short straight rectum which opens into the branchial chamber.
In some cases the branchial respiration a p pears to be insufficient, and the intestinal tract acts as an accessory breathing organ.
The larvae are aquatic, active, armed with strong sharp mandibles, and breathe by means of seven pairs of abdominal branchial filaments.
The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.
The first part of the alimentary canal consists of the pharynx or branchial sac, the side walls of which are perforated by upwards of sixty pairs of elongated slits, the gill-clefts.
The primary and secondary bars which separate and divide the successive gill-clefts from one another are traversed by blood-vessels which run from a simple tubular contractile ventral branchial vessel along the bars into a dorsal aorta.
The ventral branchial vessel lies below the hypobranchial groove or endostyle, and is the representative of a heart.
The backward-directed epipods usually carry branchial vesicles.
The forward-directed exopods either act as valves or form a tube (rarely two tubes), protensile and retractile, for regulating egress of water from the branchial regions.
The genuine Isopoda are divided among the Flabellifera, in which the terminal segment and uropods form a flabellum or swimming fan; the Epicaridea, parasitic on Crustaceans; the Valvifera, in which the uropods fold valve-like over the branchial pleopods; the Asellota, in which the first pair of pleopods of the female are usually transformed into a single opercular plate; the Phreatoicidea, a fresh-water tribe, known as yet only from subterranean waters in New Zealand and an Australian swamp nearly 6000 ft.
From the above-named isopods the present order is strongly differentiated by having heart and breathing organs not in the pleon, but in the peraeon, or middle body, the more or less simple branchial vesicles being attached to some or all of the last six pairs of trunklegs.
So closely allied are these two fishes that their distinctness can be proved only by an examination of the gill-apparatus, the allis shad having from sixty to eighty very fine and long gill-rakers along the concave edge of the first branchial arch, whilst the twaite shad possesses from twenty-one to twenty-seven stout and stiff gill-rakers only.
The number of exites is less constant, but, in A pus, two are present, the proximal branchial in function and the distal forming a stiffer plate which probably aids in swimming.
In the Decapoda the branchial system is more complex.
The gills are inserted at the base of the thoracic limbs, and lie within a pair of branchial chambers covered by the carapace.
They may have rudimentary exopodites, and may or may not have branchial filaments or lamellae developed on their posterior faces.
It seems probable that there are branchial plumes or filaments in some Arthropoda (some Crustacea) which can be identified with the distinct branchial organs of Chaetopoda, which lie dorsal of the parapodia and are not part of the parapodium.
On the other hand, we cannot refuse to admit that any of the processes of an Arthropod parapodium may become modified as branchial organs, and that, as a rule, branchial out-growths are easily developed, de novo, in all the higher groups of animals.
Therefore, it seems to be, with our present knowledge, a hopeless task to analyse the branchial organs of Arthropoda and to identify them genetically in groups.
In higher specialized forms these branchial processes become first of all limited to five segments of the mesosoma, then sunk beneath the surface as pulmonary organs, and finally atrophied, their place being taken by a well-developed tracheal system.
With rare exceptions, branchial plates are developed either by modification of a ramus of the limbs or as processes on a ramus, or upon the sides of the body.
Sarasin (17), whose great work on the development of Ichthyophis is one of the most important recent contributions to our knowledge of the batrachians, Amphiuma is a sort of neotenic Caecilian, a larval form become sexually mature while retaining the branchial respiration.
Although there are four branchial arches in all the larval forms of the three orders, and throughout life in the Sirenidae, the perenni vZ.3 Pa.
First, second Bb l, First basiand third epi branchial.
Some branchial motor axons travel with the inferior alveolar nerve.
Several branchial motor nerves are also given off as the mandibular nerve enters the infratemporal fossa.
Embryology The superior parathyroids are derived from the fourth branchial pouches and the inferior parathyroids from the third branchial pouches.
Thus the Polyartemiidae, which compensate themselves for their stumpy little tails by having nineteen instead of the normal eleven pairs of branchial feet, consist exclusively of Polyartemia forcipata (Fischer, 1851).
In the Cumacea and Tanaidacea only the first thoracic limb has a branchial epipodite.
The gills, borne on four arches, are internal and enclosed in the branchial chambers.
The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.
The fore limbs grow simultaneously, and even more rapidly, but remain concealed within a diverticulum of the branchial chambers until fully formed, when they burst through the skin (unless the left spiraculum be utilized for the egress of the corresponding limb).
The prostomium bears often processes, both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth in those tube-dwelling Annelids.
A second closely-allied genus of this family is Pseudobranchus, differing in having a single branchial aperture on each side instead of three, and only three fingers.