Brachial sentence example
The development of the brachial supports has been studied by Friele, Fischer and Oehlert.
Left brachial artery arising from a common innominate trunk, instead of coming off separately from the aortic arch.
In this development of brachial extensions of the theca the genital organs were involved, and their ripe products formed at the ends of the brachia or in the branches therefrom.
Question 17 A. false B. false C. true D. true E. true There are 3 common approaches to blocking the brachial plexus.
The brachial plexus is formed by four or five of the lowest cervical nerves; the last nerve of this plexus often marks the boundary of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae.Advertisement
Arms fork once to thrice, and bear pinnules on each or on every other brachial.
The initial phase III studies involved patients with Multiple Sclerosis, neuropathic pain, brachial plexus avulsion and cancer pain.
This causes tension on the brachial plexus which may stretch or rupture the nerves.
Air work with the breath to increase respiration and mobilize the shoulder girdle with brachial plexus work and trapezius release.
Brachial systolic and diastolic pressure and ankle systolic pressures were measured using a Hawksley random zero sphygmomanometer and Doppler probe.Advertisement
The monaural stethoscope may be placed over the brachial artery and used for measuring blood pressure.
In the arm, pressure would be applied to the brachial artery by pressing the inside of the upper arm against the bone.
Brachial plexopathy is any injury to the brachial plexus-the nerve bundles located on each side of the neck that give rise to the individual nerves controlling the muscles of the shoulders, arms, and hands.
Brachial plexopathy occurs most often during birth, when an infant's neck and shoulders are stretched apart during passage through the birth canal.
Injury to the brachial plexus is referred to by various names.Advertisement
Some names, such as obstetric Erb's palsy, refer to the specific region of the brachial plexus where the injury has occurred.
The nerves of the brachial plexus are the fifth through the eighth cervical nerves (C5, C6, C7, and C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1).
Every brachial plexus injury is different, depending on the affected nerve or nerves and the extent and severity of the injury.
There are four general types of injury, and an individual brachial plexopathy may include any or all of these injury types, on one or both (bilateral) sides of the body.
Most brachial plexus injuries in newborns are of this type.Advertisement
An avulsion is the most severe form of brachial plexus injury.
A minor brachial plexus injury can be a stretched nerve that results in a short-circuit in a few of the nerve fibers, causing temporary paralysis.
Most injuries to the brachial plexus during birth involve the C5 and C6 nerve roots, affecting the movement of the shoulder, upper arm, and elbow.
Obstetrical brachial plexopathies are classified according to the extent of the injury.
Obstetric Erb's palsy is an injury in the upper brachial plexus involving C5 and C6 and sometimes C7.Advertisement
Also called Erb/Klumpke palsy, total plexus palsy involves all of the nerve roots of the brachial plexus to at least some extent.
It is estimated that in North America between one and three of every 1,000 newborns are affected to some extent by brachial plexopathy.
However, some physicians are concerned that the late 1990s and early 2000s trend toward decreasing elective c-section deliveries will result in more cases of brachial plexopathy among newborns.
Erb's palsy is the most common type of obstetric brachial plexopathy.
Brachial plexopathy can result when the following events occur.Advertisement
An individual brachial plexopathy may include any or all of these injury types, on one or both (bilateral) sides of the body.
An infant's shoulder becomes stuck on the mother's pelvic bone during birth; the infant's neck may be stretched and the brachial plexus injured as the physician pulls on the baby to free it before circulatory or respiratory stress occurs.
Although brachial plexus injuries can occur during any birth, there are particular risk factors.
The highest rates of brachial plexus injury (7.8%) occur in newborns weighing over 10 lb (4.5 kg) who are born by assisted vaginal delivery to diabetic mothers.
Premature and underdeveloped newborns are at a decreased risk for brachial plexopathy.Advertisement
Some 50-70 percent of brachial plexus injuries occur in larger-than-average newborns, usually those over 7.7 lb (3.5 kg).
About 44 percent of brachial plexopathies occur in newborns who experienced fetal distress.
Breech deliveries increase the risk of brachial plexopathy by 175-fold, often causing bilateral injuries to the lower nerve roots of the brachial plexus.
A mother who has had previous brachial-plexus-injured infants is at a 14-fold-increased risk of having another infant with brachial plexopathy.
The symptoms of brachial plexopathy vary greatly depending on the extent and severity of the damage.Advertisement
Symptoms of such fractures and dislocations may be similar to those of brachial plexopathy and can cause infants to not move their arms.
Those at risk for obstetric brachial plexopathy are also at risk for fractures and dislocations during birth.
Therefore, stretch or praxis injuries to the brachial plexus usually heal on their own within about three months, leading to complete recovery.
Gentle massage and range-of-motion (ROM) exercises usually are initiated immediately, even in infants with very mild brachial plexopathy.
Treatment for brachial plexopathy may include a combination of exercises and focused physical, occupational, and aquatic therapies.Advertisement
Play therapies are used to extend ROM from six months of age on in children with brachial plexopathy.
About ten percent of brachial plexus injuries in infants require surgery.
Other treatments for brachial plexopathy can be used.
About 85 percent of infants with brachial plexopathy make a complete neurological recovery within three to six years.
In another study of 28 infants with damage to the upper brachial plexus and 38 infants with total plexus palsy, 92 percent recovered spontaneously.Advertisement
However, the prognosis for an individual brachial plexopathy depends on the location, severity, and extent of the damage and may be difficult to predict.
Complete recovery from brachial plexopathy may be difficult to define.
The delay in normal functioning caused by brachial plexopathy and any muscle imbalances across a joint can have a major impact on the child's growing skeleton and can result in permanent muscular-skeletal abnormalities.
The primary prevention for obstetrical brachial plexopathy is the avoidance of a potentially difficult delivery by choosing cesarean section.
Although exercises required to treat brachial plexopathy in infants may be painful, they are essential for preventing much more serious pain and suffering as the child grows.
Brachial plexus-A group of lower neck and upper back spinal nerves supplying the arm, forearm and hand.
Erb's palsy or paralysis-A condition caused by an injury to the upper brachial plexus, involving the cervical nerves C5, C6, and sometimes C7, affecting the upper arm and the rotation of the lower arm.
Klumpke's palsy or paralysis-A condition caused by an injury to the lower brachial plexus, involving the cervical nerves C7 and C8, and sometimes the thoracic nerve T1, causing weakness or paralysis in the hands and fingers.
Total plexus palsy-Erb/Klumpke palsy; a condition resulting from injury involving all of the brachial plexus nerves and affecting the entire upper extremity of the body.
There are numerous support groups across the United States for the families of children with Erb's palsy and other brachial plexopathies.
Karaca, P., et al. "Painful paresthesiae are infrequent during brachial plexus localization using low-current peripheral nerve stimulation."
If the delay occurs mainly in one developmental area, the child may have hemiplegia, a brachial plexus injury, such as Erb's or Klumple's palsy, or a broken clavicle.
In addition to these, there exists in the interior of the dorsal valve of some genera a variously modified, thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is more developed in some genera than in others.