Boccaccio, the contented bourgeois, succeeded to Dante, the fierce aristocrat.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
was a "bourgeois king."
determined the simultaneous fall of the bourgeois rgime and the establishment of the democracy in power.
But, among these bourgeois Th those who were called Feuillants, from the name of pai~tles.
But the acceptance of a portfolio in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified Socialist party (March 1906).
That in plain clothes, en bourgeois, as the French call it, is not so numerous, but fulfils a higher, or at least a more confidenti mission.
Weill, La France sous la monarchie de juillet (Paris, 1902); Emile Bourgeois, "The Orleans Monarchy," ch.
Bourgeois, Le Capitulaire de Kiersy-sur-Oise (Paris, 1885); V.
difficulty; by his mother, Louise of Savoy, and his sister Marguerite; by all the rough young soldiery; by the nobles, tired of the bourgeois ways of Louis XI.
There are four main classes or crus (literally growths, but more correctly types or qualities), namely, the " grands crus classes " or " classed growths " and the bourgeois, artisan and peasant growths.
He had exchanged his moderate republicanism for radical views before he became war minister in the cabinet of Leon Bourgeois (1895-1896).
LEON VICTOR BOURGEOIS AUGUSTE (1851-), French statesman, was born at Paris on the 21st of May 1851, and was educated for the law.
by de Vaissiere (Paris, 1897-1899); Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris, ed.
Bourgeois in 1811.
Bourgeois and E.
Personally Daunou was reserved and somewhat austere, preserving in his habits a strange mixture of bourgeois and monk.
The reports which he drew up upon educational questions drew attention to him, and on the 3rd of November 1895 he entered the Bourgeois cabinet as minister of public instruction, resigning with his colleagues on the 21st of April following.
Bourgeois, R.A., in 181 I, with a separate endowment.
Palmerston, indeed, who did not believe that under the Bourgeois Monarchy France would translate her brave words into action, was in favour of settling the Turco-Egyptian question once for all by depriving Mehemet Ali of Egypt as well.
Bourgeois, Le Bienheureux Innocent V (Paris, 1899); J.
AILLY, PIERRE D' (1350-1420), French theologian, was born at Compiegne in 1350 of a bourgeois family, and studied in Paris at the celebrated college of Navarre.
Leon Bourgeois as president of the committee appointed to deal with the FrancoGerman treaty, the necessity for the ratification of which he demonstrated.
In 1921 the total number of Socialists of every complexion in the House of Deputies was 141, as opposed to 137 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 199, Germans 72, Magyars 7).
Bourgeois Neuchatel et la politique prussienne en Franche-Comte (Paris, 1877).
The Bolsheviks, having killed a number of imprisoned " bourgeois," abandoned the city and the whole region after heavy losses.
Guesde, nevertheless, continued to oppose the opportunist policy of Jaures, whom he denounced for supporting one bourgeois party against another.
In the Goblet ministry of1886-1887he was minister of public instruction, and in the Bourgeois cabinet of1895-1896he held the portfolio for foreign affairs.
If, as has been claimed, Louis owed to them any of his tendency to prefer the society of the poor, or rather of the bourgeois, to that of the nobility, their example was his best lesson in the craft of kingship. In June 1436, when scarcely thirteen, he was married to Margaret (c. 1425-1445), daughter of James I.
1373), French bishop, was born at Montdidier, although he belonged to a bourgeois family of Orleans, where he first attended school before coming to Paris.
The district was mainly inhabited by peasants; it contained few important towns, and the bourgeois were but a feeble minority.
Charles and Rene of Anjou retired from court, and the greater part of the members of the king's council were drawn from the bourgeois classes.
Dissensions among the citizens, or between the nobles and the bourgeois, frequently ended in the adoption of a podestat.
The new Assembly which had met on the 1st of October 179 had a majority favorable to the constitutional monarchy and to the bourgeois franchise.
In the Senate the Socialists numbered 68, as against 75 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 103, Germans 37, Magyars 3).
ARISTIDE BRIAND (1862-), French statesman, was born at Nantes, of a bourgeois family.
As minister of finance in the Bourgeois cabinet (from the 3rd of November 1895 to the 21st of April 1896) he tried without success to introduce an income-tax.
In order to cover this recourse was had as usual, not to remedies, but to palliatives worse than the evil: heavy usurious loans, debasement of the coinage, creation of stocks that were perpetually being converted, and ridiculous charges which the bourgeois, sickened with officialdom, would endure no longer.
The Bourgeois ministry appeared to consider that popular opinion would enable them to override what they claimed to be an unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house; but the public was indifferent and the senate triumphed.
But, even when all conscious bias is eliminated, the unconscious bias remains, and Rankes history of the Reformation is essentially a middle-class, even bourgeois, presentment.
The whole feudal system crumbled before the revolutionary insistence of the peasants; for their masters, bourgeois or nobles, terrified by prolonged riots, capitulated and gradually had to consent to make the resolutions of the 4th of August a reality.
" Not at all," says a bourgeois sophist (let it be Pierson, Hume or Kant), " the working-man's opinion on this question is a personal view, a subjective view; he would have been quite as justified in thinking that the employer is his benefactor and that the sausage is hashed leather, for he is unable to know a thing as it is (Ding an Sick)."
Bourgeois's career as an homme de gouvernement.
parloir aux bourgeois.
This time events worked in his favour; the industrial insurrection of June made the middle classes and the mass of the rural population look for a saviour, while it turned the industrial population towards Bonapartism, out of hatred for the republican bourgeois.
La Fayettes fusillade of the republicans, who demanded the deposition of the king (July 17, 1791), led to a definite split between the democratic party and the bourgeois party.
Anarcho-communism symbolized moral integrity: the romance of artistic ' delirium ' undermining the ' machinic assemblages ' of bourgeois conformity.
He is also a retired investment banker, and is also a petty bourgeois landlord.
bestialityexposures of the Stalinist bestialities perpetrated upon revolutionists damage the Soviet Union in the eyes of the bourgeois world?
A regime of bourgeois Bonapartism in Russia or Poland would not be a stable regime.
But when one leaves, one is expected to leave, become a bourgeois.
That makes an impression on the despairing petty bourgeois.
When the Assembly, by the law of the 31st of May 1850, restricted universal suffrage and reduced the number of the electors from 9 to 6 millions, he was able to throw upon it the whole responsibility for this coup d'etat bourgeois.
Between the two came the Flame, the Marais, the troop of trembling bourgeois, sincerely attached to the Revolution, but very moderate in the defence of their ideas; some seeking a refuge from their timidity in hard-working committees, others partaking in the violence of the Jacobins out of weakness or for reasons of state.
To cut off all danger from royalists or terrorists the Convention now voted the Constitution of the year III.; suppressing that The con- of 1793, in order to counteract the terrorists, and stitution re-establishing the bourgeois limited franchise with of the election in two degreesa less liberal arrangement than year!!!.
Thus the bourgeois republic reaped the fruits of its predecessors external policy.
It also managed to engage private interests in state reform by creating the Grand Livre de la Dette Publique (September 1326, 1793), and enlisted peasant and bourgeois savings in social reforms by the distribution and sale of national property.
Leaning on the bourgeois, conservative, liberal and anti-clerical republicans, they were no more able than was the Thermidor party to re-establish the freedom that had been suspended by revolutionary despotism; they created a ministry of police, interdicted the clubs and popular societies, distracted the press, and with partiality undertook the separation of Church and State voted on the 18th of September 1794.
The growing disposition of the bourgeois and artisan classes, not in the large towns only, to imitate the intellectuals in desiring to live in closer touch with the rest of Europe as regards social, economic, scientific and political progress, embittered the struggle between the forces of Liberalism and those of Catholicism, powerfully entrenched in the affections of the women and the illiterate masses of the peasantry.
In point of fact, bourgeois democracy is the political formula for free trade, nothing more.
artful diplomatic dodges might well be of value here and there for the petty parliamentary chess moves of bourgeois clique.
Much better to join forces with the petty bourgeois Scottish National Party in campaigning for an independent capitalist Scotland.
Blum is merely a conservative middle bourgeois who fatally gravitates to the society of the big bourgeois.
For some sections embrace a modern secular bourgeois or nationalist ideology, while other sections gravitate toward some form of secular working class response.
In the red light district, wealthy bourgeois Jane Lodge (Alexandra Delli Colli) goes to visit a live sex show.
bourgeois democracy is the political formula for free trade, nothing more.
bourgeois revolution could no longer satisfy the masses.
bourgeois ideologies was only an effect of the power of the media.
bourgeois republic, gained ground.
The petty bourgeois intelligentsia, which is in every way dependent on the big bourgeois intelligentsia, which is in every way dependent on the big bourgeoisie, obtained the leadership over the peasantry.
At this point, the Labor Party changed into a purely bourgeois party almost overnight.
But, like ourselves, Luxemburg opposes any suppression of criticism, even bourgeois criticism.
It follows that under communism there remains for a time not only bourgeois law, but even the bourgeois state, without the bourgeoisie!
The Church knew as well as we do that in our era the alternative to Fascism is revolutionary Communism, and not bourgeois democracy.
Eddie Ford argues that it is an essentially bourgeois ideology, and presents a communist analysis.
For him, the capitulation of ' a completely bourgeois Parliament ' then, was the pattern for 1961.
The early 19th century bourgeois fear of the ' dangerous classes ' now returned as the fear of the growing ' underclass ' .
We get a ' bourgeois ' this and a ' bourgeois ' that and references to ' the ruling bourgeoisie ' .
The labor bureaucracy is an integral part of bourgeois society.
The ruling bureaucracy of the Second International is the least independent, the most cowardly and corrupted section of bourgeois society.
To be a bourgeois careerist, that is to be committed to a one-sided set of values.
It testifies to the collapse of all the illusions cherished by bourgeois democrats.
childish to think that bourgeois belles lettres can make a breach in class solidarity.
From the point of view of even classical bourgeois political economy, Cliff's argument was a pure evasion.
How, in that case, is the imperceptible, " gradual, " bourgeois counterrevolution conceivable?
In the second instance, the reverse took place--the proletariat, the petty-bourgeois democrats, the bourgeois republicans, Napoleon III.
The study of Paris that follows traces the developments of the architectural forms of Absolutism and of bourgeois domesticity between 1600 and 1800.
Long before me bourgeois historians had described the historical development of this class struggle and bourgeois economists, the economic anatomy of classes.
espoused a romantic bourgeois nationalism, looking back to a mythologised feudal past.
fetters of feudalism, bourgeois relations develop automatically.
As Dukes remarks in his footnote, " Communist society here seems bourgeois or even feudal.
Lenin expected as much: Paul Milyukov, the new foreign minister, was a bourgeois liberal patriot.
fraternizeame ultra-revolutionary, sincerely and honorably fraternizing with the people, when bourgeois society had no way out but revolution.
He brought also a bourgeois guard of honor, a fine troop, which melted away in battle like butter on a hot gridiron.
The Labor Party was based on the growth of trade unionism, which was largely cut off from revolutionary influences and under bourgeois hegemony.
It does not follow from this, however, that science is no more than bourgeois ideology.
insignificant minority, American workers read only the bourgeois press.
What attitude should the working class take toward the capitalist class and the bourgeois intelligentsia?
labor bureaucracy is an integral part of bourgeois society.
feudal landlordism still existed in some parts of the country and bourgeois democracy had not yet been fully established.
I make no mention of the workers, who, it seems to me, long ago lost all respect for bourgeois legality.
Neither should we play the bourgeois game of humiliating Galloway because of the cat business nor the red leotard BB required him to wear.
In this respect, as in many others, the gentlemen Anarchists fully imitate the bourgeois liberals.
The author dresses his bourgeois liberalism in a coat cut according to the latest fashion.
lumpen proletariat or working class or middle class or bourgeois.
marketable commodity, even for the bourgeois houses.
If we follow Iglesias's thesis, this runs from comfortable, bourgeois irrelevance to casual misogyny.
We must destroy bourgeois ideas and values, bourgeois morality, the bourgeois standards which create the mental and moral slavery of the proletariat.
The Congress Socialists were criticized for providing a left cover for bourgeois nationalism.
More evident still is the subordinate role played by petty bourgeois pacifism with regard to Imperialism in the United States.
He loathed the bourgeois notions of acceptable sexuality and sexual behavior, and in particular the tradition of female passivity.
petty bourgeois Scottish National Party in campaigning for an independent capitalist Scotland.
Vague pacifist agitation, veiled by socialist phraseology, is an excellent tool for the bourgeois rÃ©gime.
prankish history provide revolutionary bourgeois democracy with a leader from the school of orthodox, revolutionary Marxism?
They aren't lumpen proletariat or working class or middle class or bourgeois.
What were the historical conditions which gave strength to this ' bourgeois radicalism?
As a result, the coalition between big capital and bourgeois reformism has disappeared.
refracted through the prism of bourgeois liberalism and is thus timid in its methods and aims.
A regime of bourgeois Bonapartism in Russia or Poland would not be a stable regime of bourgeois Bonapartism in Russia or Poland would not be a stable regime.
The latter, as we have seen, sought to make the Irish nation a cradle for petty bourgeois Catholic respectability.
Why should not prankish history provide revolutionary bourgeois democracy with a leader from the school of orthodox, revolutionary Marxism?
rightist elements, acting behind the scenes, wanted the restoration of the bourgeois regime.
serai jamais femme de bourgeois, moi!
sexism of late 19th century bourgeois society.
stand guard over bourgeois legality?
standardizeresponds to this anxiety by synchronizing bourgeois behavior with capital, thereby standardizing class behavior compatible with a return on investment mentalitÃ© .
The author views things from the idealist standpoint of a bourgeois democrat, not the materialist standpoint of a Social-Democrat.
Beginning particularly with John Stuart Mill, bourgeois science differentiated itself into an Ethics called utilitarianism and a science called Economics.
This could be seen at its crassest in the vulgar bourgeois economists, but the vulgar bourgeois economists, but the vulgar Marxists soon followed in their footsteps.
As a minister of the crown Roland exhibited a bourgeois brusqueness of manner and a remarkable combination of political prejudice with administrative ability.
The bourgeois revolutionists of France had all been philosophes, but their philosophy had at least paid lip-service to " reason "; the Russian revolutionists who formed the majority of the first and second Dumas, as though inspired by the exalted nonsense preached by Tolstoi, 1 subordinated reason to sentiment, until - their impracticable temper having been advertised to all the world - it became easy for the government to treat them as a mere excrescence on the national life, a malignant growth to be removed by a necessary operation.
Plekhanov and Struve were at that time the chief exponents of Marxism: they adopted the teaching of Karl Marx as regards the necessary sequence of economic stages - feudalism, bourgeois individualism, capitalism, proletarian upheaval.
The " red room " was the meeting-place in a small cafe in Stockholm of a society of needy journalists and artists, whose failure and despair are shown off against the prosperity of a typical bourgeois couple.
His avarice and unscrupulous plundering of the revenues of the realm, the enormous fortune which he thus amassed, his supple ways, his nepotism, and the general lack of public interest in the great foreign policy of Richelieu, made Mazarin the especial object of hatred both by bourgeois and nobles.
Bourgeois to his chapters (vol.
In the same reign Moliere performed Monsieur de Pourceaugnac and Le Bourgeois gentilhomme for the first time in the theatre.
But though the bourgeois had acquired through capitalism certain sources of influence, and gradually monopolized municipal and public functions, the kin~ and the peasants had also benefited by this revolution.
"Vous etes le bourgeois?" * the officer asked Gerasim.
However, it is usually refracted through the prism of bourgeois liberalism and is thus timid in its methods and aims.
For the bourgeois revolutionaries, media freedom had been founded upon the absence of state controls and the private ownership of printing presses.
The more conscious, i.e., the rightist elements, acting behind the scenes, wanted the restoration of the bourgeois regime.
Je ne serai jamais femme de bourgeois, moi !
This is in part due to the general sexism of late 19th century bourgeois society.
What about the National Socialists, who one would think ought to be the first to stand guard over bourgeois legality?
Franklin responds to this anxiety by synchronizing bourgeois behavior with capital, thereby standardizing class behavior compatible with a return on investment mentalitÃ©.
Beginning particularly with John Stuart Mill, bourgeois science differentiated itself into an Ethics called Utilitarianism and a science called Economics.
This could be seen at its crassest in the vulgar bourgeois economists, but the vulgar Marxists soon followed in their footsteps.
Once considered antiquated and bourgeois, wooden clocks of all types have recently reemerged as a valid and desired home fashion accent.
Bourgeois ministry of 1895-1896 as minister of commerce, industry, post and telegraphs, was vice-president of the Chamber from 1898 to 1902, and presided over the Budget Commission of 1899, 1901 and 1902.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
His attitude in the House of Peers in the autumn of 1815 cost him a two years' exile to Twickenham; he courted popularity by having his children educated en bourgeois at the public schools; and the Palais Royal became the rendezvous of all the leaders of that middle-class opinion by which he was ultimately to be raised to the throne.
They continued to look on the whole machinery of government, emperor and army, church and police, as their natural enemies, and remained completely under the bondage of the abstract theories of the Socialists, just as much as fifty years ago the German bourgeois were controlled by the Liberal theories.
The upper bourgeois, the aristocracy of his "good cities," were his allies both against the nobles and against the artisan class, whenever they revolted, driven to desperation by the oppressive royal taxes which furnished the money for his wars or diplomacy.
It was, however, soon clear that Palmerston's diagnosis of the temper of the French bourgeois was correct; the clamour for war subsided; on the 4th of December the address on the Egyptian Question proposed by the government was carried, and peace was assured.
This practice is almost without exception resorted to with what are known as the " classed growths " and the superior " bourgeois " wines, whilst in seasons in which the wines are of good quality it is continued down to the lower grades.
By his firm maintenance of the corporation system, each industry remained in the hands of certain privileged bourgeois; in this way, too, improvement was greatly discouraged; while to the lower classes opportunities of advancement were closed.
He held extreme Catholic views and wrote on the most risque subjects; he gave himself aristocratic airs and hinted at a mysterious past, though his parentage was entirely bourgeois and his youth very hum-drum and innocent.
The French entered the city in spite of the fierce resistance of the lazzaroni, who were devoted to the king, and with the aid of the nobles and bourgeois established the Parthenopaean Republic (January 1799).
The bureaucracy became a refuge for the nobles, and above all for the bourgeois, whose fixed incomes were lowered by the influx of precious metals from the New World, while the wages of artisans rose.
was preserved, and the suffrage was almost universal, but in two kinds: for the third estate nearly all citizens over twenty-five years of age, paying a direct contribution, votedpeasants as well as bourgeois; the country clergy were included among the ecciesiastics; the smaller nobility among the nobles; and finally, Protestants were electors and eligible.
Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.
The "red room" was the meeting-place in a small cafe in Stockholm of a society of needy journalists and artists, whose failure and despair are shown off against the prosperity of a typical bourgeois couple.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.