But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
The Habsburgs and the Bourbons The decline of French influence at the close of the reign of Louis XIV.
Left the Habsburgs and the Spanish Bourbons without ~ serious rivals.
The Spanish Bourbons held Naples and Sicily, as well as the duchy of Parma.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
Intral Italy, that of the Bourbons and that of Garibaldi.
In 1814 he attached himself to the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy for Seine-Inferieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, in which capacity he was a leader of the Liberal opposition.
Like Alexandre, Charles joined the Bourbons, succeeding Alexandre as deputy in 1829.
A Russo-Turkish fleet wrested Corfu from the French; and the Neapolitan Bourbons, emboldened by the news of the battle of the Nile, began hostilities with France which preluded the war of the Second Coalition.
The Bourbons of Naples had broken their treaty engagements with Napoleon, though in this matter they were perhaps as much sinned against as sinning.
After Austerlitz the conqueror fulminated against them, and sent southwards a strong column which compelled an Anglo-Russian force to sail away and brought about the flight of the Bourbons to Sicily (February 1806).
The situation was such as to tempt Napoleon on to an undertaking on which he had probably set his heart in the autumn of 1806, that of dethroning the Spanish Bourbons and of replacing them by a Bonaparte.
He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
That the son of a Corsican notary should have been able to dispose of the Spanish Bourbons in this contemptuously easy way is one of the marvels of history.
As for France, she received the Bourbons, along with the old frontiers.
But the passports which the provisional government asked from Wellington were refused, and as the country was declaring for the Bourbons, his position soon became precarious.
Barely eight months after the restoration of the Bourbons in the autumn of 1875, Sagasta accepted the new state of things, and organized the Liberal dynastic party that confronted Canovas and the Conservatives for five years in the Cortes, until the Liberal leader used the influence of his military allies, Jovellar, Campos and others, to induce the king to ask him to form a Cabinet in 1881.
He fought in the army of the Bourbons, and later in the service of Austria, and died in 1825.
It was Peter's intention to marry his second daughter to the young French king Louis XV., but the pride of the Bourbons revolted against any such alliance.
As Gaston left only daughters, the viscounty passed at his death to the family of Foix, from whom it was transmitted through the houses of Grailly and Albret to the Bourbons, and they, in the person of Henry IV., king of Navarre, made it an apanage of the crown of France.
After the second restoration of the Bourbons he was exiled, and retired to Gratz where he occupied himself with literary work.
In 1814 he was a member of the provisional government by whom the Bourbons were recalled, and he attended the congress of Vienna, with Talleyrand, as minister plenipotentiary.
His family having been steady royalists, he entered the Gardes du corps at the return of the Bourbons, and during the Hundred Days he sought refuge first in Switzerland and then at Aix-en-Savoie, where he fell in love, with abundant results of the poetical kind.
Immediately upon the fall of the empire he declared himself a Royalist, and remained faithful to the Bourbons through the Hundred Days.
During the Hundred Days he was deputy for Herault in the chamber of representatives, and pronounced himself strongly against the return of the Bourbons, and for religious freedom.
He returned to Naples as captain on Massena's staff to fight the Bourbons and the Austrians in 1806, and subsequently went to Spain, where he followed Jerome Bonaparte in his retreat from Madrid.
Turned out of the army he became a civil engineer, but when the Bourbons were expelled a second time in 1806 and Joseph Bonaparte seized the throne of Naples, he was reinstated in his rank and served in the expedition against the brigands and rebels of Calabria.
During the revolution of 1848 against the Bourbons of Naples, Messina was bombarded for three consecutive days.
Garibaldi landed in Sicily in 1860, and Messina was the last city in the island taken from the Bourbons and made a part of united Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
Took up his abode at the hotel Talleyrand, and there occurred the conference wherein the statesman persuaded the victorious potentate that the return of the Bourbons was the only possible solution of the French problem, and that the principle of legitimacy alone would guarantee Europe against the aggrandizement of any one state or house.
Everything was brought into a state of uncertainty once more by the escape of Napoleon from Elba; but the events of the Hundred Days, in which Talleyrand had no share - he remained at Vienna until the Toth of June - brought in the Bourbons once more; and Talleyrand's plea for a magnanimous treatment of France under Louis XVIII.
The rest of his life calls for little notice except that at the time of the July Revolution of 1830, which unseated the elder branch of the Bourbons, he urged Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, to take the throne offered to him by popular acclaim.
On the return of the Bourbons the painter was exiled with the other remaining regicides, and retired to Brussels, where he again returned to classical subjects: "Amor quitting Psyche," "Mars disarmed by Venus," &c. He rejected the offer, made through Baron Humboldt, of the office of minister of fine arts at Berlin, and remained at Brussels till his death on the 29th of December 1825.
His advance to Paris was a series of triumphs, his power waxing with every league he covered, and when he reached Paris the Bourbons had fled.
On the first abdication of Napoleon (April 11th, 1814) and the restoration of the Bourbons, he, however, retired to Rome where he received a welcome.
In 1832 again an abortive insurrection broke out in support of the Bourbons, at the instigation of the duchess of Berry; t1 ?
Fleury was driven by Chauvelin to more energetic measures; he concluded a close alliance with the Spanish Bourbons and sent two armies against the Austrians.
In his last moments he cursed both the Bourbons and Admiral Sir Sidney Smith for having induced him to engage in this reckless adventure (1806).
In 1860 he prepared the legislative unification of Italy, opposed the idea of an alliance between Piedmont and Naples, and, after the fall of the Bourbons, was sent to Naples as administrator of justice, in which capacity he suppressed the religious orders, revoked the Concordat, proclaimed the right of the state to Church property, and unified civil and commercial jurisprudence.
And the Bourbons generally; the emperor Francis might have been tempted to support the cause of Napoleon's son and his own grandson, who had been proclaimed in Paris as Napoleon II.; and if the restoration of Louis - which Wellington believed would alone restore permanent peace to France and to Europe - was to be effected, the allies must be confronted on their arrival in Paris with the accomplished fact.
On the return of the Bourbons in 1815 he was consequently suspended from the House of Peers, but was recalled in 1819.
Had taken Paris at the price of a mass, it became possible for the popes to play off the Bourbons against the Habsburgs; but the transfer of favour was made so gradually that the opposition of the papacy to Spain did not become open till just before Clement VIII.
In 1812 he exhibited "Cain after the murder of Abel" (formerly in Luxembourg), and, on the return of the Bourbons, was much employed in works of restoration and decoration at Versailles.
And the Bourbons, Berryer, like his father, was an ardent Legitimist; and in the spring of 1815, at the opening of the campaign of the Hundred Days, he followed Louis XVIII.
Et Marie Leczynska 0900); P. Boye, Lettres du roi Stanislas a Marie Leszczynska 1 7541766 (Paris and Nancy, 1901); and C. Stryienski's book on Marie Josephs de Saxe (La Mere des trois derniers Bourbons, Paris, 1902).
The long rivalry between Bourbons and Habsburgs was thus ended, and France and Austria War.
He was again in Paris after the return of Napoleon from Elba, and showed his dislike of the Bourbons and his sympathy with Bonaparte by writing in 1816 a pamphlet entitled The substance of some letter s written by an Englishman resident in Paris during the last reign of the emperor Napoleon.
When the Bourbons were restored, his hatred against Napoleon led him to become a Legitimist - a conclusion which says more for the simplicity of his character than for the strength or logic of his political creed.
He was faithful to the Bourbons during the Hundred Days; in fact, was 1 This prediction is sometimes attributed to Laplace.
The Sicilians, unlike the Neapolitans, were thoroughly alienated from the Bourbons, whom they detested, and after the Garibaldi andfhe peace of Villafranca (July 18J9) Mazzini's emissaries, Thousand.
On the restoration of the Bourbons he was summarily expelled from the Academy and from the archiepiscopal palace.
The Bourbons, on their return, dismissed him, though this treatment was not, compared to that meted out to Ney and others, excessively harsh.
The appointment of auditor to the council of state; and after the restoration of the Bourbons he became master of requests.
On the second restoration of the Bourbons he was made councillor of state and secretary-general of the ministry of the interior.
Much more clearly than most men, he saw that the Bourbons were tottering to their fall, but how to prevent that fall he did not know.
On the fall of the Directory by was made a senator and grand officer of the Legion of Honour; under the empire he became a count; and after the restoration of the Bourbons he took his seat as a peer.
The existence of the so-called family compact by which the Bourbons of France and Spain bound themselves in an offensive alliance against England having been brought to light, Pitt urged that it should be met by an immediate declaration of war with Spain.
Induced the Cortes to assist him in setting aside the Salic law, which the Bourbons had introduced since the beginning of the 18th century, and to re-establish the older succession law of Spain.
It had fallen to insignificance under the Bourbons, but since 1860 it has rapidly recovered.
His former relations with Talleyrand facilitated negotiations in Paris, and his great influence with the emperor was used in favour of the restoration of the Bourbons, and, after Waterloo, against the imposition of a ruinous war indemnity on France.
The people only gave him power that he might rid them of the Bourbons and because they saw that he was a great man.
De Beausset bowed low, with that courtly French bow which only the old retainers of the Bourbons knew how to make, and approached him, presenting an envelope.
Specialist historians describing the campaign of 1813 or the restoration of the Bourbons plainly assert that these events were produced by the will of Alexander.
But the universal historian Gervinus, refuting this opinion of the specialist historian, tries to prove that the campaign of 1813 and the restoration of the Bourbons were due to other things beside Alexander's will--such as the activity of Stein, Metternich, Madame de Stael, Talleyrand, Fichte, Chateaubriand, and others.
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