How to use Bottom in a sentence
At the bottom of the hill a sharp turn waited.
The path to the bottom was unguarded.
Alex asked as they reached the bottom step.
There is a solid bottom everywhere.
They looked down, and at the bottom they saw some lambs huddled together among the rocks.Advertisement
The bottom of the lake glowed with souls.
He crossed the room and snatched the gym bag at the bottom of her wardrobe.
The car spun around at the bottom of the hill, spraying gravel in a wild circle.
Jake obeyed and darted to the bottom of the stairs, pacing.
The bottom was solid rock covered with fine sand.Advertisement
And if history is an accurate guide, that wealth will be partially redistributed to the poor—even the poorest of the poor, the bottom billion.
Several pretty large logs may still be seen lying on the bottom, where, owing to the undulation of the surface, they look like huge water snakes in motion.
This was somewhat like cutting a hole in the bottom of a ship to let the water out.
But he also knew (or rather felt at the bottom of his heart) that by resigning himself now to the force of circumstances and to those who were guiding him, he was not only doing nothing wrong, but was doing something very important--more important than anything he had ever done in his life.
After adding a bottom border, she changed to the red icing.Advertisement
The braids not only held it out of her eyes, but thinned the bottom part down enough that it would lay loose across her shoulders and down her back without frizzing.
It sounds like the Lucky Pup Mine is at the bottom of the whole business.
Landon was in the bottom floor of the fortress, waiting with a familiar face in the study.
Most of them rested in piles at the bottom of the lake while some floated in the water.
Destiny giggled, revealing top and bottom teeth in matching pairs.Advertisement
The bottom of the lake was lined with green gems, the source of the strange light.
In Sasha's zoo, he was at the bottom of the food chain of the otherworldly collection of creatures.
Rhyn snatched it and read it before tearing off the strip at the bottom with the hotel's address.
We.ll have to scrub this place from top to bottom to make sure no one else pops up somewhere they shouldn.t be.
She trotted to the bottom and waved her band before the access pad, waiting as the stone door opened.Advertisement
The favourite food of the American beaver is the water-lily (Nuphar luteum), which bears a resemblance to a cabbage-stalk, and grows at the bottom of lakes and rivers.
She stood at the bottom of the hill leading towards the command center.
The removal of the coal broken at the working face to the pit bottom may in small mines be effected by hand labour, but more Under.
In addition to this it is necessary to have an extra system of fixed guides at the surface and at the bottom, where it is necessary to keep the cage steady during the operations of loading and landing, there being a much greater amount of oscillation during the passage of the cage than with fixed guides.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.Advertisement
In Koepe's method the drum is replaced by a disk with a grooved rim for the rope, which passes from the top of one cage over the guide pulley, round the disk, and back over the second guide to the second cage, and a tail rope, passing round a pulley at the bottom of the shaft, connects the bottoms of the cages, so that the dead weight of cage, tubs and rope is completely counterbalanced at all positions of the cages, and the work of the engine is confined to the useful weight of coal raised.
The smaller duff is separated by vibrating or rotating screens into a great number of sizes, which are cleaned by washing in continuous current or pulsating jigging machines, where the lighter coal rises to the surface and is removed by a stream of water, while the heavier waste falls and is discharged at a lower level, or through a valve at the bottom of the machine.
An ingot gradually builds up from the bottom of the crucible, the carbon electrode being raised from time to time automatically or by hand to suit the diminution of resistance due to the shortening of the arc by the rising ingot.
The loess soil, chiefly a mixture of porous clay and carbonate of lime, forms the bluffs that border the bottom lands of the Missouri.
The basin is comparatively narrow, and the Tagus, like the other rivers of the Iberian tableland, generally flows in a rather confined valley, often at the bottom of a rocky gorge below the general level of the adjacent country.Advertisement
It is plain that all those who think thus of the soul make it at bottom corporeal.
The chief cultivation is rice, with about two acres of dry or hill rice to one of wet bottom.
In the so-called "Buchner funnel," the filtering vessel is cylindrical, and the paper receives support by being laid upon its flat perforated bottom.
C. Gooch, which has come into common use in quantitative analysis where the solid matter has to be submitted to heating or ignition, consists of a crucible having a perforated bottom.
By means of a piece of stretched rubber tubing, this crucible is supported in the mouth of an ordinary funnel which is connected with an exhausting apparatus; and water holding in suspension fine scrapings of asbestos, purified by boiling with strong hydrochloric acid and washing with water, is run through it, so that the perforated bottom is covered with a layer of felted asbestos.Advertisement
It was during this struggle that Lord Uxbridge launched two of his cavalry brigades on the enemy; and the "Union brigade" catching the French infantry unawares rode over them, broke them up, and drove them to the bottom of the slope with the loss of two eagles.
It stops over one of three orifices in the bottom plate of the balance.
Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.
At first the piglet stuck in the neck of the vase and I thought I should get him, after all, but he wriggled himself through and fell down into the deep bottom part--and I suppose he's there yet.
Something was moving among the rocks at the bottom of the chasm.Advertisement
Ignorance seems to be at the bottom of all these contradictions.
This is that portion, also, where in the spring, the ice being warmed by the heat of the sun reflected from the bottom, and also transmitted through the earth, melts first and forms a narrow canal about the still frozen middle.
The water is so transparent that the bottom can easily be discerned at the depth of twenty-five or thirty feet.
The shore is composed of a belt of smooth rounded white stones like paving-stones, excepting one or two short sand beaches, and is so steep that in many places a single leap will carry you into water over your head; and were it not for its remarkable transparency, that would be the last to be seen of its bottom till it rose on the opposite side.
These wash back and forth in shallow water on a sandy bottom, and are sometimes cast on the shore.Advertisement
As I was desirous to recover the long lost bottom of Walden Pond, I surveyed it carefully, before the ice broke up, early in '46, with compass and chain and sounding line.
From the bottom of the slope, where the parleys had taken place, came the report of musketry.
Meeting a comrade at the last post station but one before Moscow, Denisov had drunk three bottles of wine with him and, despite the jolting ruts across the snow-covered road, did not once wake up on the way to Moscow, but lay at the bottom of the sleigh beside Rostov, who grew more and more impatient the nearer they got to Moscow.
From the back porch came the sound of feet descending the steps, the bottom step upon which snow had fallen gave a ringing creak and he heard the voice of an old maidservant saying, Straight, straight, along the path, Miss.
I couldn't hold them in, my hands grew numb in the sharp frost so that I threw down the reins--'Catch hold yourself, your excellency!' says I, and I just tumbled on the bottom of the sleigh and sprawled there.
Hardly had they reached the bottom of the hill before their pace instinctively changed to a gallop, which grew faster and faster as they drew nearer to our uhlans and the French dragoons who galloped after them.
Pierre went on with the soldiers, quite forgetting that his inn was at the bottom of the hill and that he had already passed it.
On reaching the bottom, Dolokhov told the Cossacks accompanying him to await him there and rode on at a quick trot along the road to the bridge.
Perplexed as to what kind of movers worked at such an hour, she roamed through the row house from top to bottom.
The bottom line is Shipton killed his wife.
Shipton cut a short section of rope and left it up there so it would look like someone cut it when he was part way to the bottom.
Yes. But Weller told me in the hospital that in the confusion of getting Shipton out of the gorge, no one examined the bottom of the cliff, where he landed.
The bottom line is, if this guy really loves you, he will find it in himself to accept you, fangs and all.
Sarah pinched her bottom lip with her thumb and index finger.
At the bottom of the basket sat a bottle wrapped in ice.
It must be sixty feet to the bottom.
She trotted through the square until she found it and crouched beside it to see names at the very bottom, the names of the nobles' servants.
Four steps in, the stone bottom dropped out from under him, and he all but dropped her into the depths of the Springs.
He kept looking over the edge, his complexion paling when a rock leaped over the edge and bounced its way to the bottom.
It's the sudden stop at the bottom.
At the bottom of the trail they dismounted and walked their horses for a while.
It was a good 15 feet to the bottom from the ledge she was on.
She put a foot on the bottom rail, between the bars and gave herself a boost.
He caressed her stomach, gradually moving his hand up under her shirt until he reached the bottom of her bra.
The copper tray hit the bottom of the can with a loud clatter, spewing ashes into the stale office air.
His dripping frame emerged from the water and he strode toward her as if the bottom of the creek were sand.
She allowed her feet to touch the bottom and stood.
He took a jar lid from the cupboard and lit a match, holding it on the bottom of the candle until it began to melt.
At the bottom she staggered to retain her balance.
The cover was partially complete, with a few areas marked along one side and the bottom as being reserved for additional stories.
She pushed his crystal into the bottom of the container then strung Ashley's crystal onto the cord.
The houses of the city are built of stone, their walls commonly showing the massive masonry of the Incas at the bottom, crowned with a light modern superstructure roofed with red tiles.
But in the course of time, notwithstanding many criticisms and objections, the reform spread from bottom fermentation to top fermentation breweries on the continent and in America.
The flasks were then well shaken, and the yeast cell or cells settled to the bottom, and gave rise to a separate yeast speck.
In a top fermentation - typical of English breweries - the yeast rises, in a bottom fermentation, as the phrase implies, it settles in the vessel.
It has not, however, been possible to transform a typical top yeast into a permanent typical bottom yeast.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
Peter had already determined to institute a most searching inquisition in order to get at the bottom of the mystery of the flight.
The five fixed webs are attached to the table which is secured to the bottom of the box by the screws p. The three movable webs are attached to the projections XX on the frame aa.
The architrave is flat, and there is a space over it, serving both to admit light and to relieve the pressure on it from above, and the size decreases slightly from the bottom to the top. Within the doorway is, as a rule, a niche on the right, and a staircase ascending in the thickness of the wall to the left; in front is another similar doorway leading to the chamber in the interior, which is circular, and about 15 ft.
The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell.
The automatic inlet of cold water to the hot water system from the main house tank or other source is controlled by a ball valve, which is so fixed as to allow the water to rise no more than an inch above the bottom of the tank, thus leaving the remainder of the space clear for expansion.
The supply from the cold water cistern enters the bottom of the cylinder, and thence travels by way of the return pipe to the boiler, where it is heated, and back through the flow pipe to the cylinder, which is thus soon filled with hot water.
N.N.E., on the opposite side of the Pulwar, rises a perpendicular wall of rock, in which four similar tombs are cut, at a considerable height from the bottom of the valley.
Mean Karstens, 2047 fathoms. If we include the enclosed depth, and seas, the North Atlantic has a mean depth of 1800 bottom fathoms. The South Atlantic has a mean depth of deposits.
The greater part of the bottom of the Atlantic is covered by a deposit of Globigerina ooze, roughly the area between l000 and 3000 fathoms, or about 60% of the whole.
The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
He does not seem to have found any English trumpeters capable of playing as high parts as those of the German Clarin-Bldser, and his plan seems generally to get as many oboes and bassoons as could be procured to double the top and bottom of his string-band.
Here the crane-post is extended into a long mast and is furnished with pivots at the top and bottom; the mast is supported by two " back ties," and these are connected to the socket of the bottom pivot by the " sleepers."
Here the place of the jib is taken by two inclined legs joined together at the top and pivoted at the bottom; a third back-leg is connected at the top to the other two, and at the bottom is coupled to a nut which runs on a long horizontal screw.
Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece, which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal FIG.
The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
But the mere paying out of sufficient slack is not a guarantee that the cable will always lie closely along the bottom or be free from spans.
Whilst it is being paid out the portion between the surface of the water and the bottom of the sea lies along a straight line, the component of the weight at right angles to its length being supported by the frictional resistance to sinking in the water.
Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.
The case is firmly fixed to a " bridge " B with its back or bottom in a vertical position.
To the brass bottom of the case is attached 'a thin disk of polished hard carbon C, which is slightly less in diameter than the brass bottom, so that the carbon disk almost entirely covers this brass back, leaving only a slight annular space around its edge.
All organic forms are at bottom but one organization, and the inorganic world shows the same formative activity in various degrees or potences.
In truth, Schopenhauer's conception of the world as the activity of a blind force is at bottom a materialistic and mechanical rather than a spiritualistic and teleological theory.
In the Fucaceae, on the other hand, there is a single prismatic apical cell situated at the bottom of a groove at the growing apex of the thallus, which cuts off cells from its sides to add to the peripheral, and from its base to add to the central permanent cells.
Stomata are often situated at the bottom of pits in the surface of the leaf.
Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.
From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."
Plicatulae have been found attached to these coprolites, showing that they were already hard bodies when lying at the bottom of the Chalk ocean.
The ovary is three-celled, and lies at the bottom of this tube.
It prefers clear streams flowing over a gravelly bottom, and deep, still water, keeping close to the bottom in winter but disporting itself near the surface in the sunshine of summer.
In 1826 the idea occurred to him of attacking this problem by means of pendulum experiments at the top and bottom of a deep mine.
In the deltas of shoal rivers, with a strong tide or current and no land visible, a 5 lb lead is substituted for the log-ship; the lead rests on the bottom, and the speed is obtained in a manner similar to that previously described.
In the simplest and crudest method, as practised in Sicily, a mass of the ore is placed in a hole in the ground and fired; after a time the heat melts a part of the sulphur which runs down to the bottom of the hole and is then ladled out.
When the latter is reached and the pit completed, the larva settles down at the bottom, buried in the soil with only the jaws projecting above the surface.
Slipping to the bottom the prey is immediately seized by the lurking ant-lion; or if it attempt to scramble again up the treacherous walls of the pit, is speedily checked in its efforts and brought down by showers of loose sand which are jerked at it from below by the larva.
It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.
His rails were wedge-shaped in section, much wider at the top than at the bottom, with the intermediate portion or web thinner still, and he recommended that they should be made 18 ft.
The weight required to cause the downward motion is obtained either by means of the material which has to be transported to the bottom of the hill or by water ballast, while to aid and regulate the motion generally steam or electric motors are arranged to act on the main drums, round which the cable is passed with a sufficient number of turns to prevent slipping.
When water ballast is employed the water is filled into a tank in the bottom of the wagon or car, its quantity, if passengers are carried, being regulated by the number ascending or descending.
On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.
These in turn converge to a pair of single lines which lead to two groups of marshalling sidings, called " gridirons " from their shape, and these again converge to single lines leading to " lower reception and departure lines " at the bottom of the slope.
The heavy sparks are projected from the tubes in straight lines and are caught by the louvres L, L, L, and by them deflected downwards to the bottom of the smoke-box, where they collect in a heap in the space D round a tube which is essentially an ejector.
The task of constructing a system of government from the bottom, of reconciling the conflicting and often jealously sensitive elements, called for tact, firmness, industry and deep insight into human nature, all of which Governor Taft displayed in a marked degree.
The larva has a breathing-tube, and floats head downwards; when disturbed it wriggles to the bottom (Christy).
In central Europe it thrives best in enclosed, preserved waters, with a clayey or muddy bottom and with an abundant vegetation; it avoids clear waters with stony ground, and is altogether absent from rapid streams. The tench is distinguished by its very small scales, which are deeply imbedded in a thick skin, whose surface is as slippery as that of an eel.
They live on small animals or soft vegetable substances, which they root up from the bottom.
In the east of the state much of the valley of each of the larger streams is several feet above the stream's present highwater mark and forms the "hommock" or "second bottom" lands.
Deposits of the Tertiary period form the basis of more than half the state, extending from the border of the Cretaceous westward nearly to the Yazoo Delta and the Mississippi Bottom, and southward to within a few miles of the Gulf coast.
The steppes along the bottom of the principal valley are for the most part too dry to be cultivated without irrigation.
The remarkable discovery has been made that in deep lakes such Limnaei do not breathe air, but admit water to the lung-sac and live at the bottom.
Beneath him was originally nothing but a huge void with muddy black water at the bottom, in which his image was reflected, becoming ultimately solidified into P'tahil, his son, who now partakes of the nature of matter.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
With the rise and fall of the tide the discharge pipes are flushed at the bottom.
The conception of the Unconscious, by which von Hartmann describes his ultimate metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as paradoxical as it sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation for the Absolute of German metaphysicians.
In some years between 1852 and 1867 the old mackerel disappeared off Guernsey from the surface, and were accidentally discovered feeding at the bottom.
In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.
Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.
The tools may be standing at the bottom - while he is playing with the slack of the cable or they may be swinging all the time several feet from the bottom.
They are consecutively filled with nitroglycerin, and are lowered to the bottom of the well, one after the other, by a cord wound upon a reel, until the required number have been inserted.
The initial diameter of the well drilled from the bottom of this pit is in some instances as much as 36 in., bore-holes of the larger size being preferred, as they are less liable to become choked, and admit of the use of larger bailers for raising the oil.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
Nemertines live in the sea, some being common amongst the corals and algae, others hiding in the muddy or sandy bottom, and secreting gelatinous tubes which ensheath the body along its whole length.
In all Heteronemertines there is on each side of the head a longitudinal slit of varying length but generally considerable depth, in the bottom of which the dark red brain is very plainly visible by transparency.
In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.
Ancient historical reminiscences and natural phenomena, especially volcanic catastrophes, are at the bottom of the legend.
A cover of one of the vases was found dislodged and lying on the bottom of the stone coffer.
Most of these are perforated for mounting on threads or wires, and had been, no doubt, originally connected together to form one or more of the elaborate girdles, necklaces and breast ornaments then worn by the women.3 On the bottom of the stone box there was similar dust, pieces of bone and jewelry, and also remains of what had been vessels of wood.
It occupies the bottom and sides of a narrow valley opening out towards the sea between high cliffs.
This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.
In Debussy's art the top and bottom are also involved in the antipolyphonic laws of such masses of sound, thus making these laws paramount.
Wasdale Head, between Gable and the Scafell range, is peculiarly grand, with dark grey screes and black crags frowning above its narrow bottom.
They have never been known to charge and pierce the bottom of ships with their weapons, as the swordfish does.
Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.
The European town is situated at the bottom of a beautiful reach of the Hugli, with clean wide thoroughfares, and many elegant residences along the river-bank.
A wall and esplanade extend along the bottom of the cliffs, and there is a fine stretch of sandy beach.
Many of the freshwater algae which form a mere crust, such as Palmella cruenta, may be placed in a vessel of water, where after a time they float like a scum, the earthy matter settling down to the bottom, and may then be mounted by slipping a piece of mica under them and allowing it to dry.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
Each of the larger streams, as well as a large proportion of the smaller ones, is accompanied by a belt of bottom land, of greater or less width, lying low as regards the stream, and liable to overflow at times of high water.
The range of temperature is not sufficient to give the variety of annual wild flowers of more northern climates; nevertheless flowers cover the bottom lands and uplands in great profusion.
There are benches with backs not only in the bottom row, but also above and below the diazoma.
The bottom should slope towards the outer edge, where a drain should be cut, with an outlet, and on this sloping bottom should be laid a thickness of from 9 in.
The remarkably level character of the Red River district is due to horizontal deposits in the bottom of this lake, which have been little dissected by river erosion.
Given that such observations at the surface of the sea, at intermediate levels and at the bottom are sufficiently numerous and are of a high degree of precision, general conclusions as to the movements of the ocean may be deduced from established theorems in hydrodynamics.
The water sinks below the surface and continues to flow along the sea bottom back towards the equator.
This surface drifting water is cold and as it enters into intermediate zones it remains colder than the water in situ there and is therefore denser; it sinks below the surface and continues to flow along the bottom either back to the polar regions or towards the equator.
Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
Entering the Barents Sea (that is, the area between the ice and the northern coast of Europe), these currents flow along the bottom.
There is more inorganic nitrogen in the sea near the land than in mid-ocean and there is more at the sea bottom than near the surface; finally, there is more in the later winter than at any other season.
The bottom water is relatively rich in these substances as well as in decaying organic matter, and would become progressively richer but for the slow drift towards the equator and the welling-up of bottom water to the surface in these latitudes.
On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
It can retract the tentacles, shut its shell, and sink to the bottom.
In the siphon used as a container for aerated waters a tube passes through the neck of the vessel, one end terminating in a curved spout while the other reaches to the bottom of the interior.
The furnace has, in addition to the usual tuyeres near the bottom, a second set near the throat in order to effect a complete oxidation of all combustible matter.
The hearth always has an Arents siphon tap. This is an inclined channel running through the sidewall, beginning near the bottom of the crucible and ending at the top of the hearth, where it is enlarged into a basin.
The slag and matte formed float upon the lead in the crucible and are tapped, usually together, at intervals into slag-pots, where the heavy matter settles on the bottom and the light slag on the top. When cold they are readily separated by a blow from a hammer.
Water is scarce and brackish, and is chiefly found at the bottom of low ranges of hills, which abound in some parts; and the inhabitants of the extensive sandy tracts suffer greatly from the want of it.
The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.
The two opposing theories express at bottom, in the phraseology of their own time, the radical divergence of pantheism and individualism - the two extremes between which philosophy seems pendulum-wise to oscillate, and which may be said still to await their perfect reconciliation.
At the general election of 1790 he came forward as a candidate for that distinguished constituency, in opposition to Fox and Lord Hood, but was defeated; and, at a second trial in 1796, he was again at the bottom of the poll.
The stones at the bottom are slightly reddish, owing to vegetable substances.
This was opposed by Trumbie and all the more progressive elements in the new State, who realized that the claim to Skutari knocked the bottom out of the whole Yugoslav case against Italy and Austria.
Further, there is the peculiar cauldron on one conical foot, round which the fire was built, the cylindrical hone pierced for suspension, and the cup with a rounded bottom.
The country west of the Drakensberg, though part of the main South African tableland, is not uniform in character, consisting of (I) elevated downs, (2) their slopes, (3) the flat " bottom " land.
The whole is then left to itself, when crystals of tin gradually separate out on the bottom of the basin.
In 1744 the king was compelled to abandon Carteret, and the coalition or " Broad Bottom" party, led by Chesterfield and Pitt, came into office.
It may be compared in its general form with the woollen jubba of Arabia, which reached to the knees and was sewn down the front (except at the top and bottom).
It is often decorated with a fringed border from top to bottom.
The acid is then slowly run out by an opening in the bottom of the pan in which the operation is conducted, and water distributed carefully over its surface displaces it in the interstices of the cotton, which is finally subjected to a course of boiling and washing with water.
The regulation is effected by locks and movable dams, the latter so designed that in times of flood or frost they can be dropped flat on the bottom of the river.
It is a widelydistributed species, being found throughout the northern and temperate seas of Europe, Asia and America, extending as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediterranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, where it always feeds close to the bottom.
The main haulage tracks are laid at the bottom of the stope, which thus forms the level.
In the working of thick deposits the block of ground between two levels is divided into horizontal sections or floors which are worked either from above downward or from of Thick the bottom upward; in the first case the separate floors are worked by one of the caving systems; in the second, generally with the aid of filling.
Before abandoning a room it is usual to cover the bottom of the working-place with laggingpoles, which facilitate the mining of the floor below.
The bottom-slice caving system of mining begins at the bottom of a hundred-foot block of ground, a floor being excavated under the whole area, leaving pillars of sufficient size to support the ground above.
When rock filling is available, as when the ore contains much barren material to be left behind in mining, the ore body is divided into blocks of convenient height as above, and these blocks are divided into floors, the bottom floor of each block however being attacked.
The ore is mined in the ordinary way, by pick and shovel if soft, or by the aid of powder if necessary, and the funnel-shaped bottom of the pit is maintained at such an angle that little or no shovelling is required to bring the excavated material to the shaft.
Before the bottom of these pits reaches the level of the haulage roads below, a new set of roads will have been driven at a lower level and connected with the excavations above by the shafts.
Near the top and bottom of hoisting shafts the tracks are usually graded to permit the cars to be run to and from the shaft by gravity.
The lower cut is of a skip for either ore or water; note valve in bottom.
Instead of raising the load in one lift from the bottom of the shaft, one or more intermediate 1 A full discussion of this subject is given in Trans.
At the end of the stroke, when his platform comes opposite to a corresponding platform on the other rod, he steps over on to the latter during the instant of rest prior to the reversal of the stroke, descends with the second rod on this down stroke, steps again at the proper time to a platform of the first rod and so on to the bottom.
As the larger part of the water in a mine comes from the surface, the cost of drainage may be reduced by intercepting this surface water, and collecting it at convenient points in the pump shaft from which it may be raised at less cost than if permitted to go to the bottom.
Ventilation may be produced by heating the air of the mine, as for example, by constructing a ventilating furnace at the bottom of an air shaft.
In this case the piston is solid, and the outlet pipe, G which is placed at the bottom of the cylinder, has a valve F opening outwards, the inlet pipe and valve are the same as before.
Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.
What came out below was a compact cylinder with a rounded bottom, consisting of so many layers superimposed upon one another.
His contemporary Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710), who was inspector of the rivers and canals at Bologna, had ascribed this diminution of velocity in rivers to transverse motions arising from inequalities in their bottom.
The attention of Newton was also directed to the discharge of water from orifices in the bottom of vessels.
He supposed a cylindrical vessel full of water to be perforated in its bottom with a small hole by which the water escaped, and the vessel to be supplied with water in such a manner that it always remained full at the same height.
In well-drained localities the border may be partially below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope outwards towards an efficient drain.
The shoots are trained up near the glass, and, with plenty of heat (top and bottom) and of water, with air and light, and manure water occasionally, will form firm, strong, well-ripened canes in the course of the season.
Employing the notation in which the molecule is represented vertically with the aldehyde group at the bottom, and calling a carbon atom+or - according as the hydrogen atom is to the left or right, the possible configurations are shown in the diagram.
The boiling juice is run down into subsiding tanks, where it cools, and at the same time the albumen, which has been suddenly coagulated by momentary exposure to high temperature, falls to the bottom of the tank, carrying with it the vegetable and other matters which were in suspension in the juice.
Thus clear liquor alone is run off, and the mud and cloudy liquor at the bottom of the tank are left undisturbed, and discharged separately as required.
The sloping sides of the conical bottom can be freed from the coating of scum which forms upon them every two or three hours by two rotatory scrapers, formed of L-irons, which can be slowly turned by an attendant by means of a central shaft provided with a suitable handle.
The scums then settle down to the bottom of the cone, whence they are run off to the scum tank.
This defecator is made with a hemispherical copper bottom, placed in.
If double-bottomed defecators are used in sufficient number to allow an hour and a half to two hours for making each defecation, and if they are of a size which permits any one of them to be filled up by the cane-mill with juice in ten to twelve minutes, they will make as perfect a defecation as is obtainable by any known system; but their employment involves the expenditure of much high-pressure steam (as exhaust steam will not heat the juice quickly enough through the small surface of the hemispherical inner bottom), and also the use of filter presses for treating the scums. A great deal of skilled superintendence is also required, and first cost is comparatively large.
In the centre of the defecator an open-topped cylindrical vessel is placed, with its bottom about 6 in.
In this vessel is placed the short leg of a draw-off siphon, reaching to nearly the bottom.
The latter are circular or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, according to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans.
Earthy matter and other matter precipitated and fallen on the copper double bottom may be dislodged by a slowly revolving scraper - say every twelve hours - and ejected through the bottom discharge cock; and thus the heating surface of the copper bottom will be kept in full efficiency.
This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.
The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
Any sand or heavy matter in suspension is allowed to fall to the bottom of the pan into the " sandbox " before the melted sugar is run off to the cloth filters.
The mud collects at the bottom of the u, and allows the upper part of the bag to filter for a longer time than would be the case if the bottom end were closed and if the bag hung straight like the letter I.
Each cistern is fitted kith a perforated false bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, to receive the char which is poured in from the top, and packed as evenly as possible until the cistern is filled.
A small pipe entering below the false bottom allows the air in the cistern to escape as it is displaced by the water or syrup. In some refineries this pipe, which is carried up to a higher level than the top of the cistern, is fitted with a whistle which sounds as long as the air escapes.
After the sweets have come away, cold water is passed through the char until no trace of lime or sulphate of lime is found in it; then a large manhole at the bottom of the cistern is opened, and the washed and spent char is removed.
Below each retort, and attached to it, is a cooler formed of thin sheet-iron, which receives the hot char as it passes from the retort, and at the bottom of the cooler is an arrangement of valves which permits a certain amount of char to drop out and no more.
In the Philosophy of the Practical, but more especially in the work entitled What is living and what is dead of the Philosophy of Hegel Croce criticizes the erroneous treatment of the opposites, and shows that on the contrary every opposition has at bottom a distinction from which it arises, and that therefore the true unity is unity-distinction, which is development and, as such, opposition that is continuously surpassed and continually re-appearing to be again surpassed.
When a little soil is shaken up with water in a tumbler the sand particles rapidly fall to the bottom and form a layer which resembles ordinary sand of the seashore or river banks.
The pile is from time to time taken down and rebuilt, the tobacco from the top going to the bottom and that exposed at the edges being turned in to the centre.
The tree succeeds in deep, sandy or calcareous loams, and in stiff loams resting on a gravelly bottom.
The bottom of a crucible is perforated by a pipe which projects into the crucible to about two-thirds of its height.
A bath, even of very impure zinc, is allowed to stand at about the temperature of the melting-point of the metal for forty-eight or more hours, whereupon the more easily oxidizable impurities can be largely removed in the dross at the top, the heavier metals such as lead and iron settling towards the bottom.
This method is rarely practised except by the rollers of zinc. A certain amount of refined zinc can be dipped from the furnace; a further amount, nearly free from iron, can be liquated out of the ingots cast from the bottom of the bath in a subsequent slow remelting, and it is sometimes possible to eliminate a zinciferous lead which collects in the sump of the furnace.
A piece of iron called the slade is bolted to the bottom of the frame, and this, running along the sole of the furrow, acts as a base to the whole implement.
A "crested" furrow is obtained by the use of a share, the wing of which is set at a higher altitude than the point, but this type of furrow is less generally found than the "rectangular" form obtained by a level-edged share, which leaves a flat bottom.
Ideally regarded, feudalism covered Europe with a network of these fiefs, rising in graded ranks one above the other from the smallest, the knight's fee, at the bottom, to the king at the top, who was the supreme landowner, or who held the kingdom from God.
In the best-known form a plumbago crucible was used with a hole cut in the bottom to receive a carbon rod, which was ground in so as to make a tight joint.
In starting the furnace, the bottom is prepared by ramming it with charcoal-powder that has been soaked in milk of lime and dried, so that each particle is coated with a film of lime, which serves to reduce the loss of current by conduction through the lining when the furnace becomes hot.
The condensing water enters at the top and is conducted to the bottom of the inner tube, which it fills and then flows over the outside of the outer tube; it collects in the bottom funnel and is then led off.
Dittmar showed that this may be avoided by leading a fine, steady stream of dry gas - air, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, &c., according to the substance operated upon - through the liquid by means of a fine capillary tube, the lower end of which reaches to nearly the bottom of the flask.
A tube closed at the bottom is traversed by an open narrower tube, and the arrangement is fitted in the neck of the distilling flask.
For the distillation of liquids the retort is usually a cylindrical pot placed vertically; cast iron is generally employed, in which case the bottom is frequently incurved and thicker than the sides in order to take up the additional wear and tear.
Simply on the strength of his parliamentary reputation Gladstone was nominated, without his consent, for Manchester, and was placed at the bottom of the poll; but, having been at the same time nominated at Newark, was again returned.
There the bottom slopes very abruptly, descending precipitously at a point not far from the north-east coast of the main island, where soundings have shown 4655 fathoms. This, the deepest sea-bed in the world, is called the Tuscarora Deep, after the name of the United States man-of-war which made the survey.
It consists of a stoneware tank with a thin sheet of platinum-iridium alloy at either end forming the primary electrodes, and between them a number of glass plates reaching nearly to the bottom, each having a platinum gauze sheet on either side; the two sheets belonging to each plate are in metallic connexion, but insulated from all the others, and form intermediary or bi-polar electrodes.
Bottom of ingot, forged and annealed, magnified 29 diameters.
From bottom of ingot as cast, magnified 2g diameters.
In 1744 he had been very busy assisting in the negotiations for the establishment of the new "broad bottom" administration, and showed no sympathy for the Jacobite expedition in 1745.
In the latter case the larva crawls about the bottom of the water or up the stems of plants, with its thickly-chitinized head and legs protruding from the larger orifice, while it maintains a secure hold of the silk lining of the tube by means of a pair of strong hooks at the posterior end of its soft defenceless abdomen.
The " cradle " is a simple appliance for treating somewhat larger quantities, and consists essentially of a box, mounted on rockers, and provided with a perforated bottom of sheet iron in which the " pay dirt " is placed.
This consists of a cast-iron pan having a shallow cylindrical bottom holding mercury, in which a wooden muller, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels.
The roasted mineral, slightly moistened, is introduced into a vat made of stoneware or pitched planks, and furnished with a double bottom.
Chlorine, generally prepared by the interaction of pyrolusite, salt and sulphuric acid, is led from a suitable generator beneath the false bottom, and rises through the moistened ore, which rests on a bed of broken quartz; the gold is thus converted into a soluble chloride, which is afterwards removed by washing with water.
The precipitation is carried out in tanks or vats made with"wooden sides and a cement bottom.
The gold and other metals are precipitated on the under surfaces of the turnings and fall to the bottom of the compartment as a black slime.
The pots, which are usually cylindrical with a hemispherical bottom, may hold as much as 13,000 to 16,000 oz.
Generally the reaction mixture is allowed to cool, and the residue, which settles to the bottom of the pot, consists of gold together with copper, lead and iron sulphates, which are insoluble in strong sulphuric acid; silver sulphate may also separate if present in sufficient quantity and the solution be sufficiently cooled.
This species usually constructs its nest on the bottom, excavating a hollow in which a bed of grass, rootlets or fibres is prepared; walls are then raised, and the whole is roofed over with the like material.
Its nest is generally placed among weeds above the bottom of the water.
They occur in mud and on sea-weeds at the bottom of shallow seas below low-water mark and devour organic debris.
Strickland established a new system of education based on the principle of beginning from the bottom, by teaching to read and write in Maltese as the medium for assimilating, at a further stage, either English or Italian, one at a time, and aiming at imparting general knowledge in colloquial English.
Mr Hore often failed to find bottom with a line of 168 fathoms. The French explorer, Victor Giraud, reported 647 metres (about 350 fathoms) off Mrumbi on the west coast, and Moore depths of 200 fathoms and upwards near the south end.
It has a depth of 6 to io fathoms, with a good bottom, and large ships can anchor at a cable's length from the shore.
From the bottom there leads P another fine tube, bent upwards, and then at right angles so as to be at the same level as the capillary branch.
Many variations of this apparatus are in use; in one of the commonest there are two cylindrical chambers, joined at the bottom, and each provided at the top with fine tubes bent at right angles; sometimes the inlet and outlet tubes are provided with caps.
A long tube (a) terminates at the bottom in a cylindrical chamber of about 100-150 cc. capacity.
To prevent the bottom of the apparatus being knocked out by the impact of the substance, a layer of sand, asbestos or sometimes mercury is placed in the tube.
This may be accomplished by using a vessel with a somewhat wide bottom, and inserting the substance so that it may be volatilized very rapidly, as, for example, in tubes of Wood's alloy, D and by filling the tube with hydrogen.
He spliced together all the sounding-lines on board, rightly said that since the days of Columbus and Magellan no and with a weight of 1501b attached he found bottom in 683 such revelation regarding the surface of our planet had been fathoms and secured a sample of fine soft blue mud.
Since that the moment of the lead touching the bottom by the sudden time the British cable-ships have been busy in all the oceans slackening in the rate at which the line ran out.
American scientific enterprise, mainly in very deep water, though in a few instances he overestimated under the guidance of Professor Alexander Agassiz, has been the depth by failing to detect the moment at which the lead active in the North Atlantic and especially in the Pacific Ocean, touched bottom.
Instead of the expensive mile-long stout hemp lines used and since 1887 those of the prince of Monaco in his yachts, as by Ross, Maury introduced a ball of strong twine attached to a well as numerous Danish vessels in the sea between Iceland and cannon shot, which ran it out rapidly; when the bottom was Greenland, conspicuous amongst which were the expeditions reached the twine was cut and the depth deduced from the length in1896-1898on board the " Ingolf."
The time of touching bottom i studied by the Norwegian expedition on board the " VOringen " was judged by timing each loo-fathom mark and noting the in 1876-1878, and the north polar basin by Nansen and Sverdrup sudden increase in the time interval when the shot reached the in the " Fram " in 1893-1896, the Mediterranean by the Italians bottom.
Maury, however, recognized that in great depths on the " Washington " and by the Austrians on the " Pola " the surest guarantee of bottom having been reached was to bring in 1890-1893, the latter carrying the investigations to the Red up a sample of the deposit.
The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
The soundings are made by means of a special machine fitted with a brake so adjusted that the revolution of the drum is stopped automatically the instant the lead touches the bottom, and the depth can then be read directly from an indicator.
The line is hauled in by a steam or electric winch, and the sounding-tube containing a sample of the bottom deposit is rapidly brought on board.
All attempts to dispense with a lead and line and to measure the depth by determining the pressure at the bottom have hitherto failed when applied to depths greater than 200 fathoms; a new hydraulic manometer has been tried on board the German surveying ship " Planet."
All deep-sea measurements are subject to uncertainty because the sounding machine merely measures the length of wire which runs out before the lead touches bottom, and this agrees with the depth only when the wire is perpendicular throughout its run.
Oceanic Deposits.-It has long been known that the deposits which carpet the floor of the ocean differ in different places, and coasting sailors have been accustomed from time immemorial to use the lead not only to ascertain the depth of the water but also to obtain samples of the bottom, the appearance of which is often characteristic of the locality.
One of the most effective early forms was the snapper or " deep-sea clamm " of Sir John Ross, a pair of powerful spring jaws held apart by an arrangement which when released on striking the bottom allowed the jaws to close, biting out and holding securely a substantial portion of the ground.
A simpler form of collector, now almost universally used, is a plain brass tube which is driven into the bottom of the sea by the weight of the sounding lead, and in which the deposit may be retained by a valve or other contrivance, though in many cases friction alone suffices to hold the punched-out core.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
The bottom of the Black Sea is covered by a stiff blue mud in which Sir John Murray found much sulphide of iron,' grains or needles of pyrites making up nearly 50% of the deposit, and there are also grains of amorphous calcium carbonate evidently precipitated from the water.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
The amount of carbonic acid in solution may also be increased by submarine exhalations in regions of volcanic disturbance, but it must be remembered that the critical pressure for this gas is 73 atmospheres, which is reached at a depth of 400 fathoms, so that carbonic acid produced at the bottom of the ocean must be in liquid form.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
The observations of Aime in 1845 and of Semmola in the Gulf of Naples in 1881 show that the surface water in winter cools until the whole mass of water from the surface to the bottom, in 1600 fathoms or more, assumes the same temperature.
Curve B shows the typical distribution of temperature in an enclosed sea, in this case the Sulu Basin of the Malay Sea, where from the level of the barrier to the bottom the temperature remains uniform or homothermic. Curve C shows a typical summer condition in the polar seas, where layers of sea-water at different temperatures are superimposed, the arrangement from the surface to 200 fathoms is termed FIG.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
The marginal rises and continental shelves prevent this cold bottom water from penetrating into the depths of the enclosed and fringing seas.
When the wind acts on the surface of the sea it drives before it the particles of the surface layer of water, and, as these cannot be parted from those immediately beneath, the internal friction of the fluid causes the propelling impulse to act through a considerable depth, and if the wind continued long enough it would ultimately set the whole mass of the ocean in motion 'right down to the bottom.
If there were strong currents at the bottom of the ocean the uniform accumulation of the deposit of minute shells of globigerina and radiolarian ooze would be impossible, the rises and ridges would necessarily be swept clear of them, and the fact that this is not the case shows that from whatever cause the waters of the depths are set in motion, that motion must be of the most deliberate and gentlest kind.
In exceptional cases, when a strong deep current does flow over a rise, as in the case of the Wyville Thomson Ridge, the bottom is swept clear of fine sediment.
At the bottom of the double allocation there was, no doubt, that confusion of Ethiopia with India which is as old as Virgil and perhaps older.
Air is then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface.
The miners work in the bottom in the same manner as divers in an ordinary diving-bell.
In the United States and Scotland rectangular pits secured by timber framings are still common, but the tendency the pressure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere when it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to that of the working space below when it is intended to communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken in the bottom.
The chilled brine enters through a central tube of small diameter, passes to the bottom of the outer one and rises through the latter to the surface, each system of tubes being connected above by a ring main with the circulating pumps.
Galleries driven at right angles to these are known as a " dip " or " rise headings," according to their position above or below the pit bottom.
To secure the perpendicularity of the shaft, it is necessary to leave a large mass or pillar of the seam untouched around the pit bottom.
This pillar is known in Scotland as the " pit bottom stoop."
The " Challenger " and other oceanographic expeditions have shown that on the bottom of the deep sea concretions of phosphate are now gathering around the dead bodies of fishes lying in the oozes; consequently the formation of the concretions may have been carried on simultaneously with the deposition of the strata in which they occur.
Valleys are deeply sunk in the plateau, the largest with bottom lands of sufficient width to give rise to strips of fertile farm land.
Each of the three canals is to have a minimum depth of 12 ft., a minimum bottom width in rivers and lakes of 200 ft., and in other sections a bottom width generally of 75 ft.
One of them went to the bottom with five hundred souls.
Most of the bluffs along the principal river valleys, especially those in the south-east, are entirely bare of vegetation, but on the bottom lands along the rivers and streams considerable patches of cottonwood and willows are common.
The substructure which supported the platforms on which the dwellings were placed was most frequently of piles driven into the bottom of the lake.
Less frequently it consisted of a stack of brushwood or fascines built up from the bottom and' strengthened by stakes penetrating the mass so as to keep it from spreading.
The platform itself was usually composed of rough layers of unbarked stems, but occasionally it was formed of boards split from larger stems. When the mud was too soft to afford foothold for the piles they were mortised into a framework of tree trunks placed horizontally on the bottom of the lake.
On the other hand, when the bottom was rocky so that the piles could not be driven, they were steadied at their bases by being enveloped in a mound of loose stones, in the manner in which the foundations of piers and breakwaters are now constructed.
It is represented at the bottom of the lake by a layer of charcoal mixed with implements of stone and bone and other relics highly carbonized.
The second is represented above the bottom by a series of piles with burnt heads, and in the bottom by a layer of charcoal mixed with corn, apples, cloth, bones, pottery and implements of stone and bone, separated from the first layer of charcoal by 3 ft.
The huts of this last settlement appear to have had cattle stalls between them, the droppings and litter forming heaps at the lake bottom.
The girders carry a floor or platform either on top (deck bridges) or near the bottom (through bridges).
By curving the top boom of a girder to form an arch and the bottom boom to form a suspension chain, the need of web except for non-uniform loading is obviated.
These piles have a flat flange at the bottom, and water is pumped in at the top of the pile, which is weighted to prevent it from rising.
The compression members are of timber, except the struts and bottom chord panels next the river piers, which are of steel.
The value of H is equal to the maximum tension on the bottom flange, or compression on the top flange, of a girder of equal span, equally and similarly loaded, and having a depth equal to the dip of the suspension bridge.
Hope alone remained at the bottom, the lid having been shut down before she escaped.
The common shrimp is found abundantly on the coasts of the British Islands, in shallow water wherever the bottom is sandy.