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botanical

botanical

botanical Sentence Examples

  • The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.

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  • of the White Sea, which is a botanical limit for many species).

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  • Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.

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  • It stands on a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view westward of the bay and rock of St Michel.

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  • The public buildings include the palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre.

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  • The same belief is shown in the botanical names applied to many plants, e.g.

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  • In addition to this, Helen has built me a herbarium, a little room fitted up with closets for my plants, shelves for my botanical books, and a great table whereon to manipulate them all.

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  • I didn't press her as we entered Lauritzen Gardens, and strolled the paths of public Botanical Park.

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  • So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.

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  • So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.

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  • Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.

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  • Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

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  • Nearly akin to these are several other forms of little but botanical interest; not _ far removed is the black or dyer's oak, F rom Isotschy op. c i t.

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  • Besides other open spaces there is Burger's park, originally planned, during the first British occupation, as a botanical garden.

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  • On the whole, greater weight is due to the evidence from botanical sources than to that derived from philology, particularly since the discovery both of the wild almond and of a form like a wild peach in Afghanistan.

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  • among its 40,000 volumes, and a botanical garden, rich in specimens of the Balkan flora.

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  • Thus the botanical evidence seems to indicate that the wild almond is the source of cultivated almonds, peaches and nectarines, and consequently that the peach was introduced from Asia Minor or Persia, whence the name Persica given to the peach; and Aitchison's discovery in Afghanistan of a form which reminded him of a wild peach lends additional force to this view.

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  • CROCUS, a botanical genus of the natural order Iridaceae, containing about 70 species, natives of Europe, North Africa,.

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  • CROCUS, a botanical genus of the natural order Iridaceae, containing about 70 species, natives of Europe, North Africa,.

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  • The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'

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  • Very little is known of the plants of the interior of northern China, but it seems probable that a complete botanical connexion is established between it and the temperate region of the Himalaya.

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  • But it has few distinctive botanical features.

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  • In the following sections the botanical sense of the word is followed, the term being used generally as opposed to animals.

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  • The parks are the Domain, with a botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree.

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  • The botanical name is taken from a W.

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  • The natural history branch was removed to a building at South Kensington (the Natural History Museum) in 1881, where the zoological, botanical and mineralogical exhibits are kept.

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  • The study of the distribution of species dates back to the time of the early systematists, the study of vegetation to the time of the early botanical travellers.

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  • He was the author of several contributions to the literature of horticulture, including a Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Dahlia (1838), and a Pocket Botanical Dictionary (1st ed., 1840).

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  • The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.

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  • Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large group of plants.

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  • The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.

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  • Even in the best equipped botanical garden it is impossible to have, at one and the same time, more than a very small percentage of the representatives of the flora of any given region or of any large group of plants.

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  • - Practically, every botanical and zoological publication of recent date has its bearing on evolution.

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  • - Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.

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  • This well-marked sub-region has a deeper interest than the botanical.

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  • The zoological provinces of Asia correspond very closely with the botanical.

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  • Considerable difficulty is encountered in attempting to draw up a botanical classification of the species of Gossypium.

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  • He also edited the Cottage Calendar, the Horticultural Register and the Botanical Magazine.

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  • Adjoining the governor's residence are the botanical gardens, where many European plants are tested with a view to acclimatization.

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  • Hence a good herbarium forms an indispensable part of a botanical museum or institution.

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  • There are large herbaria at the British Museum and at the Royal Gardens, Kew, and smaller collections at the botanical institutions at the principal British universities.

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  • Of those in the United States of America, the chief, formed by Asa Gray, is the property of Harvard university; there is also a large one at the New York Botanical Garden.

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  • The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.

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  • In connexion with the university is a botanical garden; with the national sanitary service, a biological laboratory, and special services for small-pox, glanders and yellow fever.

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  • The city owned in 1905 about 290 acres of parks and "open spaces," the chief being Roath Park of Too acres (including a botanical garden of 15 acres), Llandaff fields of 70 acres, and Cathays Park of 60 acres, which was acquired in 1900 mainly with the view of placing in it the chief public buildings of the town.

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  • Facing the botanical gardens a new central post-office, in the Renaissance style, was built in 1887.

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  • On the north-east side of the suburb of St Georg a botanical museum and laboratory have been established.

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  • Honolulu has other parks, a fine Botanical Garden, created by the Bureau of Agriculture, several public squares, several hospitals, a maternity home, the Lunalilo Home for aged Hawaiians, an asylum for the insane, several schools of high rank both public and private - notably Oahu College on the E.

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  • True caoutchouc, the principal constituent of all rubbers, is probably essentially one and the same substance, from whatever botanical source it may have been derived.

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  • The violets comprise a large botanical genus (Viola) - in which more than 200 species have been described - found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few are found in Australasia.

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  • aaK6s, a bag), a botanical term for the membranous sacs containing the reproductive spores in certain lichens and fungi.

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  • Brazil not only is marvellously rich in botanical species, but included at the beginning of the 10th century the largest area of virgin forest on the surface of the earth.

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  • The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.

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  • To the north of the Water of Leith lie Inverleith Park, the Arboretum and the Royal Botanical Garden.

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  • The city proper occupies two indented tongues of land, having a water frontage on Port Jackson, and extending from Rushcutter's Bay on the east to Blackwattle Bay on the west, a distance of 8 m., nearly two miles of which is occupied by the Domain and the botanical gardens.

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  • Adjoining are two smaller parks, Cook Park and Philip Park, while north of these stretches the Domain and the botanical gardens.

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  • The botanical gardens on the southern shores of Farm Cove are the finest in the Commonwealth and are distinguished for their immense collection of exotics.

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  • CONVOLVULACEAE, a botanical natural order belonging to the series Tubiflorae of the sympetalous group of Dicotyledons.

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  • The delay in the establishment of the doctrine of organic evolution was due, not to the ignorant and unobservant, but to the leaders of zoological and botanical science.

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  • lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.

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  • "Alexander's foot," botanical name Anacyclus Pyrethrum, is the pellitory of Spain.

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  • WALNUT (Juglans), a botanical genus of about ten species (nat.

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  • The walnut is mentioned in the earliest British botanical writings, and is supposed to have been introduced by the Romans.

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  • DUCKWEED, the common botanical name for species of Lemna which form a green coating on fresh-water ponds and ditches.

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  • a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south Arabia was due to the French officers, M.

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  • of Accra, are the government sanatorium and botanical gardens.

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  • Its botanic collection contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is attached a fine botanical garden.

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  • Jalap has been known in Europe since the beginning of the 17th century, and derives its name from the city of Jalapa in Mexico, near which it grows, but its botanical source was not accurately determined until 1829, when Dr. J.

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  • The city possesses also an academy of the fine arts, with a gallery of paintings; and the university a library of 120,000 volumes, a natural history museum, botanical garden and agricultural schools.

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  • Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research.

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  • The botanical garden, with its large palm-house, the Hofgarten, surrounded with arcades containing frescoes of Greek landscapes by Rottmann, and the Maximilian park to the east of the Isar, complete the list of public parks.

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  • There is also a botanical garden.

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  • The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the British Protestant), the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary), the Philosophical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.

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  • AROIDEAE (Arum family), a large and wide-spread botanical order of Monocotyledons containing about 1000 species in 105 genera.

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  • There are here a cathedral and a botanical garden.

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  • Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.

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  • The Camoens grotto, where the exiled poet found leisure to celebrate the achievements of his ungrateful country, lies in a secluded spot to the north of the town, which has been partly left in its native wildness strewn with huge granite boulders and partly transformed into a fine botanical garden.

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  • Among the public institutions of the city should be mentioned the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass.

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  • Buitenzorg is the usual residence of the governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, and is further remarkable on account of its splendid botanical garden and for its popularity as a health !resort.

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  • Between this and 1880 a museum, a school of agriculture, and a culture garden were added, and since then library, botanical, chemical, and pharmacological laboratories, and a herbarium have been established.

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  • Besides a good picture gallery in the Ratshof, and the 13thcentury church of St John, Yuriev possesses a university, with an observatory, an art museum, a botanical garden and a library of 250,000 volumes, which are housed in a restored portion of the cathedral, burned down in 1624.

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  • It is significant that botanical notes are added to the poem, and that its eulogies of scientific men are frequent.

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  • In 1738 he was made a knight of the Thistle, and for several years lived in retirement in Bute, engaged in agricultural and botanical pursuits.

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  • He engraved privately about 1785 at enormous expense Botanical Tables containing the Different Familys of British Plants, while The Tabular Distribution of British Plants (1787) is also attributed to him.

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  • It is chiefly distinguished for its mathematical and philosophical studies, and possesses a famous observatory, established in 1811 by Frederick William Bessel, a library of about 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a botanical garden, laboratories and valuable mathematical and other scientific collections.

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  • in 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.

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  • It has a number of admirable public buildings, while, among several parks and recreation grounds, mention must be made of the fine botanical garden, 750 acres in extent, where, in Lake Wendouree, pisciculture is carried on with great success.

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  • The extensive gardens which occupy the hillside behind the palace are adorned with fountains and cascades; the botanical garden contains manytrees from northern climates.

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  • A new era dawned on botanical classification with the work of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836).

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  • At an early age Antoine became botanical demonstrator in the Jardin des Plantes, and was thus led to devote his time to the science of botany.

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  • This opened up a new field of research, and led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries.

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  • The question of the mode in which the floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to important speculations by such eminent botanical travellers as Charles Darwin, Sir J.

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  • The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.

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  • LILY,' Lilium, the typical genus of the botanical order Liliaceae, embracing nearly eighty species, all confined to the northern hemisphere, and widely distributed throughout the north temperate zone.

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  • In the New Buildings, or the Lybed quarter, are the university and the botanical gardens.

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  • (From a drawing in the Botanical Gallery at the British Museum.) FIG.

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  • During his professoriate he wrote many scientific and popular works, besides contributing largely to the Botanical Register, of which he was editor for many years, and to the Gardener's Chronicle, in which he had charge of the horticultural department from 1841.

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  • 1858), was made keeper of the botanical department in 1895, the only instance of two brothers becoming heads of departments at the museum.

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  • Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the fine botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the museum of antiquities (Museum van Oudheden), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was P. F.

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  • Around the city lie five great parks - Royal Park, in which are excellent zoological gardens; Yarra Park, which contains the leading cricket grounds; the Botanical Gardens, sloping down to the banks of the river; Albert Park, in which is situated a lake much used for boating; and Studley Park on the Yarra river, a favourite resort which has been left in a natural state.

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  • The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.

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  • chevrefeuille), botanical name Lonicera, a genus of climbing, erect or prostrate shrubs, of the natural order Caprifoliaceee, so named after the 16th-century German botanist Adam Lonic2r.

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  • has since been found sporadically in a similar situation in other botanical gardens, its most recent appearance being at Lille.

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  • Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).

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  • Northward lies Clondalkin, with its round tower, marking the site of the important early see of Cluain Dolcain; Glasnevin, with famous botanical gardens; Finglas, with a ruined church of early foundation, and an Irish cross; and Clontarf, a favoured resort on the bay, with its modern castle and many residences of the wealthy classes in the vicinity.

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  • Several of the largest and finest sugar estates in the world are situated in the vicinity, including the Soledad (with a botanical experiment station maintained by Harvard University), the Terry and others - most of them connected with the city by good driveways.

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  • There is one lake within the urban limits, the Lagoa de Rodrigo de Freitas, near the Botanical Garden, separated from the sea by a narrow sand beach, which is being gradually filled in.

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  • This section during the past century has extended southward along the bay shore in a string of suburbs known as the Cattete and Botafogo, with that of Larangeiras behind the Cattete in a pretty valley of the same name, and thence on or near the Atlantic coast as Largo dos Leoes, Copacabana and Gavea, the last including the Botanical Garden.

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  • The public parks and gardens are numerous and include the Botanical Garden with its famous avenue of royal palms (Oreodoxa regia); the Passeio Publico (dating from 1783), a small garden on the water-front facing the harbour entrance; the Jardim d'Acclamacao, forming part of the Praca da Republica (once known as the Campo de Sant' Anna) with its artistic walks and masses of shrubbery; the Praca Tiradentes (the old Largo do Rocio, afterwards rechristened Praca da Constituicao) with its magnificent equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.

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  • Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.

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  • RICE (Greek 6p15"zt, Latin oryza, French riz, Italian riso, Spanish arros, derived from the Arabic), a well-known cereal, botanical name Oryza sativa.

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  • The library contains upwards of 250,000 volumes and 600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens.

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  • According to Jerome, he died in 16 B.C. It is possible that he wrote also a botanical work.

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  • Among the public institutions are government botanical gardens, primary schools and a high school.

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  • auros, self, and yapia, marriage), a botanical term for self-fertilization.

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  • (i) Botanical lists have been published by von Oppenheim (Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii.

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  • In 1867 botanical investigations by M.

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  • But other relations between the different properties of solutions have been investigated by another series of conceptions which we shall proceed to develop. Some botanical experiments made about 1870 suggested the idea of semi-permeable membranes, i.e.

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  • It has a military school, a first-class meteorological station and a botanical garden.

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  • The Cismegiu or Ci§migiu Park, which has a circumference of about r m., is laid out between the Plevna road and the Calea Victories; and there are botanical and zoological gardens.

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  • The botanical name is from Lat.

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  • Pleasant gardens and promenades extend on the north side of the town, together with a botanical garden.

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  • fungus, a mushroom), the botanical name covering in the broad sense all the lower cellular Cryptogams devoid of chlorophyll, which arise from spores, and the thallus of which is either unicellular or composed of branched or unbranched tubes or cell-filaments (hyphae) with apical growth, or of more or less complex wefted sheets or tissue-like masses of such (mycelium).

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  • About fifty species of Saccharomyces are described more or less completely, but since many of these cannot be distinguished by the microscope, and some have been found to develop physiological races or varieties under special conditions of - ?u growth, the limits are still far too ill-defined for complete ep botanical treatment of the genus.

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  • The botanical garden (1874) contains an observatory with a statue of Tycho Brahe, and the chemical laboratory, mineralogical museum, polytechnic academy (1829) and communal hospital adjoin it.

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  • By common consent the arboretum in the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew is one of the finest in the world.

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  • The botanical gardens at Kew were thrown open to the public in 1841 under the directorate of Sir William Hooker.

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  • It is perhaps the largest collection of hardy trees and shrubs known, comprising some 4500 species and botanical varieties.

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  • There is a small but very select collection of trees at Oxford, the oldest botanical garden in Great Britain, which was founded in 1632.

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  • There is a fine arboretum in the botanical gardens at Ottawa, in Canada (65 acres).

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  • above the sea; the extension of the Luneta, the principal pleasure-ground; a boulevard for several miles along the bay; a botanical garden; and new market buildings.

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  • Here, adjoining one another, are the botanical gardens, the grounds surrounding Government House, the official residence of the governor of the state, and the Houses of Parliament, and Queen's Park, which is used as a recreation ground.

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  • Brisbane is well provided with parks and open spaces; the Victoria Park and Bowen Park are the largest; the high-lying Mount Coot-tha commands fine views, and there are other parks and numerous recreation grounds in various parts of the city, besides the admirable botanical gardens and the gardens of the Acclimatization Society.

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  • There are also a Protestant church, St Anne's, a school of arts, a polytechnic institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange, gymnasium, deafmute institution, orphan asylum, several remarkable fountains dating from the 16th century, &c. Augsburg is particularly well provided with special and technical schools.

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  • Among his other acts of munificence may be mentioned his gift to the Apothecaries' Company of the botanical or physic garden, which they had rented from the Chelsea estate since 1673.

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  • Besides the large Maximir park and botanical gardens, many of the squares are planted with trees and adorned with statues; while the whole city is surrounded by vineyards and country houses.

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  • There is a promenade along the harbour and a botanical garden.

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  • Attached to it are a library, an observatory, a botanical garden, and a physical and natural history museum.

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  • From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).

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  • In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, and in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but also to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, and by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants.

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  • The great temple of Karnak was largely built by him; most of the remaining chambers are his, including the beautiful botanical waIls showing foreign plants.

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  • The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.

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  • His botanical researches were carried on by Frederik Liebmann (1813-1856).

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  • ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ayyeEov, receptacle, and o-71pua, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits - the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.

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  • Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.

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  • g came to be employed in botanical classification as the name of a class, an arbitrary limitation had to be set to its signification, and this was not always in keeping with its original meaning.

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  • There are fine botanical gardens at Tanglin on the outskirts of the town.

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  • and Paseo de TacOn, runs westward through the city past the botanical gardens and the Quinta de los Molinos to the citadel of El Principe (1774-1794).

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  • The gardens of Los Molinos, where the captainsgeneral formerly maintained their summer residence, and the adjoining botanical gardens of the university, contain beautiful avenues of palm trees.

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  • Unlike many other large geographical areas, India is remarkable for having no distinctive botanical features peculiar to itself.

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  • The town has monuments to the Bavarian king, Maximilian II., and to other famous men; it contains a botanical garden and a public park.

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  • The Royal Botanical Gardens at Pamplemousses, which date from the French occupation of the island, contain a rich collection of tropical and extra-tropical species.

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  • A large park and botanical gardens add to the attractions of the town.

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  • With Theophrastus, accordingly, in his botanical inquiries, for example, the alternatives of classification, the normal sequence of such and such a character upon such another, the conclusion of rational probability, are what counts.

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  • About 600 species of plants were catalogued in desert California in 1891 by a government botanical party.

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  • The Botanical Park, which has an area of 84 acres, lies on the south bank of the Torrens, on the east of the city.

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  • There are extensive conservatories, botanical museums, including the magnificent herbarium and a library.

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  • The university of Pavia has long been famous as a medical school, and has the oldest anatomical cabinet in Italy; in addition it has a natural history museum founded under Spallanzini in 1772, a botanical garden, begun in 1774, and excellent geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections.

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  • decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.

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  • The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.

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  • Connected with it are a library of over 200,000 volumes, geological, anatomical and mineralogical institutions, a hospital, several clinical establishments, laboratories and a botanical garden.

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  • The town possesses a technical high school, having (since 1900) power to confer the degree of doctor of engineering, and attended by about 2000 students, two gymnasia, a school of agriculture, an artisans' school and a botanical garden.

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  • These kinds, however, are now only regarded as botanical curiosities, and are rarely grown in private or commercial establishments.

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  • The Natural History Museum, the observatory and meteorological office, and the botanical gardens are under the supervision of the royal academy of sciences.

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  • AGAVE, a large botanical genus of the natural order Amaryllidaceae, chiefly Mexican, but occurring also in the southern and western United States and in central and tropical South America.

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  • From the Botanical Magazine, by permission of Lovell Reeve and Co.

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  • Communications were opened with China with a view to obtain fresh plants and seeds, and a deputation, composed of gentlemen versed in botanical studies, was despatched to Assam.

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  • East of the town is a large park and botanical gardens, beyond which is a residential suburb.

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  • Finally, there are numerous horticultural societies, large nurseries and gardening schools at Stockholm, Alnarp and elsewhere, and botanical gardens attached to the universities of Lund and Upsala.

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  • Amongst its numerous auxiliaries may be mentioned the library, with 200,000 volumes, the observatory, the meteorological institute, the botanical garden, seminaries of theology, philology and education, and well equipped clinical, anatomical and physical institutes.

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  • In 1826 he graduated as doctor of medicine with a dissertation on the Rhamnaceae; but the career which he adopted was botanical, not medical.

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  • It is of especial botanical interest, because, in accordance with Robert Brown's discoveries, the Cycadeae and Coniferae were placed in the new group Phanerogames gymnospermes.

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  • Botanists are agreed that the only species in general cultivation in Great Britain is the one which Bauhin, in his Phytopinax, p. 89 (1596), called Solanum tuberosum esculentum, a name adopted by Linnaeus (omitting the last epithet), and employed by all botanical writers.

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  • That he anticipated in any manner the inductive philosophy cannot be contended; his botanical studies did not lead him, like his contemporary Konrad von Gesner, to any idea of a natural system of classification, and he rejected with the utmost arrogance and violence of language the discoveries of Copernicus.

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  • Pearson, Beyond Petsora Eastward, with botanical and geological appendices by H.

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  • Other features of these parks are a small botanical garden in Cwmdonkin, a good collection of waterfowl in Brynmill, and a small aviary of the rarer British birds in Victoria Park, which also has a meteorological station in connexion with the meteorological office, and a statue of Mr William Thomas of Lan erected in 1905 in appreciation of the work done by him in preserving and obtaining "open spaces" for Swansea.

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  • 10 (1898); publications of the Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson; also titles under archaeology below, particularly Bandelier's " Final Report."

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  • Among the other university institutions are the academic hospital, the maternity hospital, the physiological institution, the chemical laboratory, the zoological museum, the botanical garden and the observatory on the Kdnigsstuhl.

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  • The new buildings were erected in 1876, and connected with them are a library of 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a hospital, a botanical garden and a school of forestry.

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  • Important buildings include the university hall (1882), the academic union of the students (1850 containing an art museum; the astronomical observatory, built in 1866, though observations have been carried on since 1760; the botanical museum, and ethnographical and industrial art collections, illustrating life in southern Sweden from early times.

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  • agrimonia, a transformation of apye t&w, a word of unknown etymology), a slender perennial herb (botanical name, Agrimonia Eupatoria, natural order Rosaceae), 12 to 3 ft.

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  • Belvedere House, the official residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, is situated close to the botanical gardens in Alipur, the southern suburb of Calcutta.

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  • 2), a rootless plant, which hangs in long grey lichen-like festoons from the branches of trees, a native of Mexico and the southern United States; the water required for food is absorbed from the moisture in the air by peculiar hairs which cover the (From The Botanical Magazine, by permission of Lovell, Reeve & Co.) FIG.

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  • Before this calamity Abe, contained II I° houses and 13,000 inhabitants; and its university had 40 professors, more than 500 students, and a library of upwards of 30,000 volumes, together with a botanical garden, an 1 The object of the story of the encounter is to explain the name Helkath-hazzurim, the meaning of which is doubtful (Ency.

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  • Close to the Zoological Gardens are the Botanical Gardens, and a small park, also the property of a private society, in which there is a variety theatre.

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  • It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.

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  • The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, On the History of Plants, in nine books (originally ten), and On the Causes of Plants, in six books (originally eight), which constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the middle ages.

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  • For his astronomical work see ASTRONOMY (Historical Section), and for the botanical works, see Dr J.

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  • The city is the see of a Greek Catholic archbishop and of an Armenian archbishop, and contains a Lamaist monastery, as well as technical schools, an ichthyological museum, the Peter museum, with ethnographical, archaeological and natural history collections, a botanical garden, an ecclesiastical seminary, and good squares and public gardens, one of which is adorned with a statue (1884) of Alexander II.

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  • in the late 16th century, a mineralogical museum, a good botanical garden, and an observatory.

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  • There are two large parks and an excellent botanical garden.

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  • On these four expeditions he made collections of plants and animals of inestimable value, including nearly twenty thousand zoological and sixteen thousand botanical specimens.

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  • See also the annual reports on the Seychelles issued by the Colonial Office; those from 1901 onward contain valuable botanical reports.

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  • rudus, rubbish), a botanical term for plants growing on rubbish heaps or in waste places.

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  • SiK-rvov, a net, and the termination -rye pis, produced), a botanical name proposed by John Lindley for a class including certain families of Monocotyledons which have net-veined leaves.

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  • He had made very considerable progress in medical, botanical and chemical science, and he was an excellent classical scholar, and extensively read in general literature.

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  • Karlsruhe possesses further the Zahringen museum of curiosities, which is in the left wing of the Schloss; an architectural school (1891); industrial art school and museum; cadet school (1892); botanical and electrotechnical institutes; and horticultural and agricultural schools.

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  • There are several public parks and gardens on well-chosen elevated sites, the principal being the Botanical Garden, from which the city and port are well seen.

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  • He made botanical excursions into different countries, and Flora Marienbadensis, oder Pflanzen and Gebirgsarten, gesammelt and beschrieben, written by him, was published at Prague by Kedler, 1837.

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  • There are also a celebrated observatory, long under the direction of Wilhelm Klinkerfues (1827-1884), a botanical garden, an agricultural institute and various hospitals, all connected with the university.

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  • The botanical gardens adjoin.

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  • Market gardening is carried on in the neighbourhood; and there are large botanical gardens.

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  • Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.

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  • Apart from the botanical interest of these diversities, as indications of the faculty of variation in plants, and possibly as clues to the genealogy and origin of the cultivated plant, their practical importance is very great.

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  • This is adorned with statues and frescoes by modern German artists, and has near it the chemical, physical, botanical, geological, seismological and zoological institutes, also the observatory, all designed by Eggert and built between 1877 and 1888.

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  • CUPULIFERAE, a botanical order, or, in recent arrangements, group of orders, containing several familiar trees.

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  • South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.

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  • A botanical station was opened in 1894, and the cultivation of American and Egyptian cotton was taken in hand in 1902.

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  • Its buildings include a chapel, a dining hall, a library, a lecture theatre, laboratories, classrooms, private studies and dormitories for the students, apartments for resident professors, and servants' offices; also a museum containing a collection of anatomical and pathological preparations, and mineralogical, botanical and geological specimens.

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  • The Spanish steppes deserve a special notice, since they are not confined to one of the four botanical provinces, but are found in all of them except the last.

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  • The botanical and geological surveys of the state are carried on by the university; the former has been largely under the supervision of Charles Edwin Bessey (b.

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  • He studied anatomy and medicine at the university of Pisa, where he took his doctor's degree in 1551, and in 1555 became professor of materia medica and director of the botanical garden.

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  • Here we shall deal only with its botanical interest.

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  • It is impossible to give a rigid botanical definition of the term " flower."

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  • In modern botanical works the group is often known as the seed-plants (Spermatophyta).

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  • Symmetry, then, in botanical language, has reference to a certain definite numerical relation of parts.

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  • In the present article the subject of vegetable palaeontology is treated from a botanical point of view.

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  • Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.

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  • With few exceptions, the remains of Palaeozoic Algae are of comparatively little botanical interest.

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  • Our aim is not simply to give a summary of the most striking botanical features of the several floras that have left traces in the sedimentary rocks, but rather to attempt to follow the different phases in the development of the vegetation of the world, as expressed in the contrasts exhibited by a comparison of the vegetation of the Coal period forests with that of the succeeding Mesozoic era up to the close of the Wealden period.

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  • A characteristic member of the southern botanical province, Schizoneura gondwanensis (fig.

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  • the northern and southern botanical provinces.

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  • These post-Permian floras, as represented by the Upper Gondwana beds of India and corresponding strata in Australia, South Africa, and South America, differ but slightly from the northern floras, and point to a uniformity in the Rhaetic and Jurassic vegetation which is in contrast to the existence of two botanical provinces during the latter part of the Palaeozoic period.

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  • Among the large number of Mesozoic Ferns there are several species founded on sterile fronds which possess but little interest Filicales, from a botanical standpoint.

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  • The numerous species of fronds from Jurassic and Wealden rocks of North America and Europe referred to Thyrsopteris, a recent monotypic genus confined to Juan Fernandez, are in the majority of cases founded on sterile leaves, and of little or no botanical value.

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  • New York Botanical Garden, vol.

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  • Whatever doubt may be left as to the exact botanical position of these early Lower Cretaceous Angiosperms, it is clear that both Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are represented by several types of leaves, and that the flora extended over wide areas in North America and Greenland, and is found again at a few points in Europe.

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  • The Tertiary formations have been assigned to six periods; these are termed - Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and each has its own botanical peculiarities.

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  • It was not suspected,, or the fact was ignored, that the break between Cretaceous and Tertiary - made so conspicuous by striking changes in the aquatic animals - had little or no importance in botanical history.

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  • From Europe it will be convenient to pass to a distant region of similar latitude, so that we may see to what extent botanical provinces existed in Eocene and Oligocene times.

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  • I didn't press her as we entered Lauritzen Gardens, and strolled the paths of public Botanical Park.

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  • In mid December, ten green anoles (Anolis carolinensis) were introduced into the botanical house.

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  • Suitable subjects include small arthropods, parts of the same, microfungi, some algae, some botanical preparations.

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  • botanical gardens, preceded by a class on Nature in the Islands.

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  • botanical illustrator for many years.

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  • botanical pharmaceuticals.

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  • botanical illustrations with a love plant forms.

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  • botanical specimens bought back from all parts of the British Empire by engineers taking the forestry courses.

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  • botanical drawings provide crisp, floral images suitable for single screen prints or use in detail.

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  • Collections include botanical, zoological, geological and paleontological specimens from all over the world.

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  • We strayed from the main path to visit the city's botanical gardens.

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  • At his own expense he subsequently made and maintained a botanical garden at Zanzibar.

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  • The Jardin des Plantes was the first botanical garden in France, built in 1593.

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  • We strayed from the main path to visit the city 's botanical gardens.

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  • colourinal full color illustrations of all species, combining beauty with botanical accuracy.

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  • We strayed from the main path to visit the city's botanical gardens.

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  • Siberian ginseng belongs to a different botanical family than Korean and American ginseng, but the properties and uses of all three are similar.

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  • I am inspired by botanical illustrations as well as the works of science fiction writers and see my role as a similar one.

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  • David More has been a botanical illustrator for many years.

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  • Short biographies of past inductees are featured and the botanical gardens are covered extensively, including the commissioned statues of famous players.

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  • The loss is not only botanical but includes invertebrates and other animals which rely on the habitat.

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  • memoirs of the Botanical survey of South Africa 62.

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  • moa bones to Owen and botanical specimens to Hooker.

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  • shaving gel that contains natural botanical extracts for a smooth close clean shave.

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  • He retired in 1858; and after some traveling, spent the rest of his life collecting botanical specimens from around the world.

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  • Roy Watling, retired Head of Mycology at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Edinburgh, describes some of the intricacies of fungal systematics.

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  • Beyond the city discover tranquil vineyards, small fishing villages, the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens and the Cape of Good Hope.

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  • Many edible fungi depend upon minute and often obscure botanical characters for their determination, and may readily be confounded with worthless or poisonous species; but that is not the case with the common mushroom, for, although several other species of Agaricus somewhat closely approach it in form and colour, yet the true mushroom, if sound and freshly gathered, may be distinguished from all other fungi with great ease.

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  • Besides the Belt there are several parks and reserves, including botanical and acclimatization gardens, the so-called Ocean Beach, and two race-courses.

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  • MISTLETOE 1 (Viscum album), a species of Viscum, of the botanical family Loranthaceae.

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  • HORSETAIL (Equisetum), the sole genus of the botanical natural order Equisetaceae, consisting of a group of vascular cryptogamous plants (see Pteridophyta) remarkable for the vegetative structure which resembles in general appearance the genera of flowering plants Casuarina and Ephedra.

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  • It stands on a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view westward of the bay and rock of St Michel.

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  • Nearly akin to these are several other forms of little but botanical interest; not _ far removed is the black or dyer's oak, F rom Isotschy op. c i t.

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  • - Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.

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  • The vast bulk of botanical and zoological work on living and extinct forms published during the last quarter of the 19th.

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  • - Practically, every botanical and zoological publication of recent date has its bearing on evolution.

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  • The same belief is shown in the botanical names applied to many plants, e.g.

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  • The parks are the Domain, with a botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree.

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  • In the following sections the botanical sense of the word is followed, the term being used generally as opposed to animals.

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  • In its systematized form, as a branch of botanical study, it is of recent date, and, as now understood, the subject first received special attention about 1850, when the nature of parasitism began to be intelligible; but many disjointed references to diseased conditions of plants had appeared long before this.

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  • As a botanical term, ecology denotes that branch of botany which comprises the study of the relations of the individual plant, or the species, or the plant community with the habitat.

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  • The study of the distribution of species dates back to the time of the early systematists, the study of vegetation to the time of the early botanical travellers.

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  • This well-marked sub-region has a deeper interest than the botanical.

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  • But it has few distinctive botanical features.

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  • The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'

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  • This takes account of - (I) the ArcticAlpine zone, including all the vegetation of the region bordering on perpetual snow; (2) the Boreal zone, including the temperate lands of North America, Europe and Asia, all of which are substantially alike in botanical character; (3) the Tropical zone, divided sharply into (a) the tropical zone of the New World, and (b) the tropical zone of the Old World, the forms of which differ in a significant degree; (4) the Austral zone, comprising all continental land south of the equator, and sharply divided into three regions the floras of which are strikingly distinct - (a) South American, (b) South African and (c) Australian; (5) the Oceanic, comprising all oceanic islands, the flora of which consists exclusively of forms whose seeds could be drifted undestroyed by ocean currents or carried by birds.

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  • The public buildings include the palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre.

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  • ACROGENAE (" growing at the apex"), an obsolete botanical term, originally applied to the higher Cryptogams (mosses and ferns), which were erroneously distinguished from the lower (Algae and Fungi) by apical growth of the stem.

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  • of the White Sea, which is a botanical limit for many species).

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  • Very little is known of the plants of the interior of northern China, but it seems probable that a complete botanical connexion is established between it and the temperate region of the Himalaya.

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  • The zoological provinces of Asia correspond very closely with the botanical.

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  • The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.

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  • Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.

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  • In addition to this, Helen has built me a herbarium, a little room fitted up with closets for my plants, shelves for my botanical books, and a great table whereon to manipulate them all.

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  • A useful ornithological bibliography of the Austrian-Hungarian dominions was printed in the Verhandlungen of the Zoological and Botanical Society of Vienna for 1878, by Victor Ritter von Tschusi zu Schmidhofen.

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  • Considerable difficulty is encountered in attempting to draw up a botanical classification of the species of Gossypium.

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  • Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

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  • He was the author of several contributions to the literature of horticulture, including a Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Dahlia (1838), and a Pocket Botanical Dictionary (1st ed., 1840).

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  • He also edited the Cottage Calendar, the Horticultural Register and the Botanical Magazine.

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  • 7rrepOv, feather, 7rrepis, fern), a name often used to denote the whole botanical class of Pteridophytes, including both the true ferns, Filicales, by far the largest group of this class in the existing flora, and the fern-like plants,.

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  • Adjoining the governor's residence are the botanical gardens, where many European plants are tested with a view to acclimatization.

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  • Hence a good herbarium forms an indispensable part of a botanical museum or institution.

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  • There are large herbaria at the British Museum and at the Royal Gardens, Kew, and smaller collections at the botanical institutions at the principal British universities.

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  • Of those in the United States of America, the chief, formed by Asa Gray, is the property of Harvard university; there is also a large one at the New York Botanical Garden.

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  • The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.

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  • The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.

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  • The specimens should be collected when the capsules are just appearing above or in the colesule or calyx; if kept in a damp saucer they soon arrive at maturity, and can then be mounted in better condition, the fruit-stalks being too fragile to bear carriage in a botanical tin case without injury.

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  • In connexion with the university is a botanical garden; with the national sanitary service, a biological laboratory, and special services for small-pox, glanders and yellow fever.

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  • The city owned in 1905 about 290 acres of parks and "open spaces," the chief being Roath Park of Too acres (including a botanical garden of 15 acres), Llandaff fields of 70 acres, and Cathays Park of 60 acres, which was acquired in 1900 mainly with the view of placing in it the chief public buildings of the town.

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  • Thus the botanical evidence seems to indicate that the wild almond is the source of cultivated almonds, peaches and nectarines, and consequently that the peach was introduced from Asia Minor or Persia, whence the name Persica given to the peach; and Aitchison's discovery in Afghanistan of a form which reminded him of a wild peach lends additional force to this view.

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  • On the whole, greater weight is due to the evidence from botanical sources than to that derived from philology, particularly since the discovery both of the wild almond and of a form like a wild peach in Afghanistan.

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  • Facing the botanical gardens a new central post-office, in the Renaissance style, was built in 1887.

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  • On the north-east side of the suburb of St Georg a botanical museum and laboratory have been established.

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  • Honolulu has other parks, a fine Botanical Garden, created by the Bureau of Agriculture, several public squares, several hospitals, a maternity home, the Lunalilo Home for aged Hawaiians, an asylum for the insane, several schools of high rank both public and private - notably Oahu College on the E.

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  • among its 40,000 volumes, and a botanical garden, rich in specimens of the Balkan flora.

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  • The botanical name is taken from a W.

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  • True caoutchouc, the principal constituent of all rubbers, is probably essentially one and the same substance, from whatever botanical source it may have been derived.

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  • The violets comprise a large botanical genus (Viola) - in which more than 200 species have been described - found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few are found in Australasia.

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  • aaK6s, a bag), a botanical term for the membranous sacs containing the reproductive spores in certain lichens and fungi.

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  • Brazil not only is marvellously rich in botanical species, but included at the beginning of the 10th century the largest area of virgin forest on the surface of the earth.

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  • The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.

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  • The botanical gardens of Brazil are developing into permanent exhibitions of the flora of the regions in which they are located.

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  • To the north of the Water of Leith lie Inverleith Park, the Arboretum and the Royal Botanical Garden.

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  • The city proper occupies two indented tongues of land, having a water frontage on Port Jackson, and extending from Rushcutter's Bay on the east to Blackwattle Bay on the west, a distance of 8 m., nearly two miles of which is occupied by the Domain and the botanical gardens.

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  • Adjoining are two smaller parks, Cook Park and Philip Park, while north of these stretches the Domain and the botanical gardens.

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  • The botanical gardens on the southern shores of Farm Cove are the finest in the Commonwealth and are distinguished for their immense collection of exotics.

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  • CONVOLVULACEAE, a botanical natural order belonging to the series Tubiflorae of the sympetalous group of Dicotyledons.

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  • The delay in the establishment of the doctrine of organic evolution was due, not to the ignorant and unobservant, but to the leaders of zoological and botanical science.

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  • lishing the doctrine of organic evolution by the introduction into the web of the zoological and botanical sciences of a new science.

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  • Besides other open spaces there is Burger's park, originally planned, during the first British occupation, as a botanical garden.

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  • The natural history branch was removed to a building at South Kensington (the Natural History Museum) in 1881, where the zoological, botanical and mineralogical exhibits are kept.

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  • (See also separate articles on boroughs.) Bathing (at certain hours) and boating are permitted in the ornamental waters in several of the parks, music is provided and much attention is paid to the protection of waterfowl and other birds, while herds of deer are maintained in some places, and also botanical gardens.

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  • ALEXANDERS (botanical name, Smyrnium Olusatrum, natural order Umbelliferae), a stout herbaceous plant with a furrowed, much-branched stem 1 -3 ft.

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  • "Alexander's foot," botanical name Anacyclus Pyrethrum, is the pellitory of Spain.

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  • WALNUT (Juglans), a botanical genus of about ten species (nat.

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  • The walnut is mentioned in the earliest British botanical writings, and is supposed to have been introduced by the Romans.

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  • DUCKWEED, the common botanical name for species of Lemna which form a green coating on fresh-water ponds and ditches.

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  • a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south Arabia was due to the French officers, M.

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  • of Accra, are the government sanatorium and botanical gardens.

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  • Its botanic collection contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is attached a fine botanical garden.

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  • Jalap has been known in Europe since the beginning of the 17th century, and derives its name from the city of Jalapa in Mexico, near which it grows, but its botanical source was not accurately determined until 1829, when Dr. J.

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  • The city possesses also an academy of the fine arts, with a gallery of paintings; and the university a library of 120,000 volumes, a natural history museum, botanical garden and agricultural schools.

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  • Godin, a member of the French commission for measuring an arc of the meridian near Quito, became professor of mathematics at San Marcos in 1750; and the botanical expeditions sent out from Spain gave further zest to scientific research.

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  • The botanical garden, with its large palm-house, the Hofgarten, surrounded with arcades containing frescoes of Greek landscapes by Rottmann, and the Maximilian park to the east of the Isar, complete the list of public parks.

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  • There is also a botanical garden.

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  • A fine park more than 80 acres in extent lies to the south of the city, which is rich in open spaces and promenades, the latter including the botanical garden and the Promenade de l'Arquebuse, in which there is a black poplar famous for its size and age.

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  • The following periodicals, all of which date from the 18th century, are still published: the Gospel Magazine (1766, with which is incorporated the British Protestant), the Wesleyan Methodist Magazine (1778), Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1786), Evangelical Magazine (1793; since 1905 the Evangelical British Missionary), the Philosophical Magazine (1798), now known as the London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine.

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  • AROIDEAE (Arum family), a large and wide-spread botanical order of Monocotyledons containing about 1000 species in 105 genera.

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  • There are here a cathedral and a botanical garden.

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  • Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.

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  • The Camoens grotto, where the exiled poet found leisure to celebrate the achievements of his ungrateful country, lies in a secluded spot to the north of the town, which has been partly left in its native wildness strewn with huge granite boulders and partly transformed into a fine botanical garden.

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  • He had previously published some medical and botanical dissertations, besides his Exercitationes quaedam Mathematicae, containing a solution of the differential equation proposed by Riccati and now known by his name.

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  • Among the public institutions of the city should be mentioned the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass.

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  • Buitenzorg is the usual residence of the governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, and is further remarkable on account of its splendid botanical garden and for its popularity as a health !resort.

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  • Between this and 1880 a museum, a school of agriculture, and a culture garden were added, and since then library, botanical, chemical, and pharmacological laboratories, and a herbarium have been established.

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  • Besides a good picture gallery in the Ratshof, and the 13thcentury church of St John, Yuriev possesses a university, with an observatory, an art museum, a botanical garden and a library of 250,000 volumes, which are housed in a restored portion of the cathedral, burned down in 1624.

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  • It is significant that botanical notes are added to the poem, and that its eulogies of scientific men are frequent.

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  • In 1738 he was made a knight of the Thistle, and for several years lived in retirement in Bute, engaged in agricultural and botanical pursuits.

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  • He engraved privately about 1785 at enormous expense Botanical Tables containing the Different Familys of British Plants, while The Tabular Distribution of British Plants (1787) is also attributed to him.

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  • It is chiefly distinguished for its mathematical and philosophical studies, and possesses a famous observatory, established in 1811 by Frederick William Bessel, a library of about 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a botanical garden, laboratories and valuable mathematical and other scientific collections.

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  • in 1811, and the endowments were diverted four years later to the support of an athenaeum, and afterwards of a gymnasium, with which a physiological cabinet and a botanical garden are connected.

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  • It has a number of admirable public buildings, while, among several parks and recreation grounds, mention must be made of the fine botanical garden, 750 acres in extent, where, in Lake Wendouree, pisciculture is carried on with great success.

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  • The extensive gardens which occupy the hillside behind the palace are adorned with fountains and cascades; the botanical garden contains manytrees from northern climates.

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  • A new era dawned on botanical classification with the work of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836).

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  • At an early age Antoine became botanical demonstrator in the Jardin des Plantes, and was thus led to devote his time to the science of botany.

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  • This opened up a new field of research, and led the way in the study of Cryptogamic reproduction, which has since been much advanced by the labours of numerous botanical inquiries.

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  • The question of the mode in which the floras of islands and of continents have been formed gave rise to important speculations by such eminent botanical travellers as Charles Darwin, Sir J.

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  • The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.

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  • LILY,' Lilium, the typical genus of the botanical order Liliaceae, embracing nearly eighty species, all confined to the northern hemisphere, and widely distributed throughout the north temperate zone.

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  • In the New Buildings, or the Lybed quarter, are the university and the botanical gardens.

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  • (From a drawing in the Botanical Gallery at the British Museum.) FIG.

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  • During his professoriate he wrote many scientific and popular works, besides contributing largely to the Botanical Register, of which he was editor for many years, and to the Gardener's Chronicle, in which he had charge of the horticultural department from 1841.

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  • 1858), was made keeper of the botanical department in 1895, the only instance of two brothers becoming heads of departments at the museum.

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  • Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the fine botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the museum of antiquities (Museum van Oudheden), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was P. F.

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  • Around the city lie five great parks - Royal Park, in which are excellent zoological gardens; Yarra Park, which contains the leading cricket grounds; the Botanical Gardens, sloping down to the banks of the river; Albert Park, in which is situated a lake much used for boating; and Studley Park on the Yarra river, a favourite resort which has been left in a natural state.

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  • The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.

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  • chevrefeuille), botanical name Lonicera, a genus of climbing, erect or prostrate shrubs, of the natural order Caprifoliaceee, so named after the 16th-century German botanist Adam Lonic2r.

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  • has since been found sporadically in a similar situation in other botanical gardens, its most recent appearance being at Lille.

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  • Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).

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  • Northward lies Clondalkin, with its round tower, marking the site of the important early see of Cluain Dolcain; Glasnevin, with famous botanical gardens; Finglas, with a ruined church of early foundation, and an Irish cross; and Clontarf, a favoured resort on the bay, with its modern castle and many residences of the wealthy classes in the vicinity.

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  • Several of the largest and finest sugar estates in the world are situated in the vicinity, including the Soledad (with a botanical experiment station maintained by Harvard University), the Terry and others - most of them connected with the city by good driveways.

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  • There is one lake within the urban limits, the Lagoa de Rodrigo de Freitas, near the Botanical Garden, separated from the sea by a narrow sand beach, which is being gradually filled in.

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  • This section during the past century has extended southward along the bay shore in a string of suburbs known as the Cattete and Botafogo, with that of Larangeiras behind the Cattete in a pretty valley of the same name, and thence on or near the Atlantic coast as Largo dos Leoes, Copacabana and Gavea, the last including the Botanical Garden.

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  • The public parks and gardens are numerous and include the Botanical Garden with its famous avenue of royal palms (Oreodoxa regia); the Passeio Publico (dating from 1783), a small garden on the water-front facing the harbour entrance; the Jardim d'Acclamacao, forming part of the Praca da Republica (once known as the Campo de Sant' Anna) with its artistic walks and masses of shrubbery; the Praca Tiradentes (the old Largo do Rocio, afterwards rechristened Praca da Constituicao) with its magnificent equestrian statue of Dom Pedro I.

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  • Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.

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  • RICE (Greek 6p15"zt, Latin oryza, French riz, Italian riso, Spanish arros, derived from the Arabic), a well-known cereal, botanical name Oryza sativa.

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  • The library contains upwards of 250,000 volumes and 600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens.

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  • According to Jerome, he died in 16 B.C. It is possible that he wrote also a botanical work.

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  • Among the public institutions are government botanical gardens, primary schools and a high school.

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  • auros, self, and yapia, marriage), a botanical term for self-fertilization.

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  • (i) Botanical lists have been published by von Oppenheim (Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii.

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  • In 1867 botanical investigations by M.

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  • But other relations between the different properties of solutions have been investigated by another series of conceptions which we shall proceed to develop. Some botanical experiments made about 1870 suggested the idea of semi-permeable membranes, i.e.

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  • It has a military school, a first-class meteorological station and a botanical garden.

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  • An association of two organisms to their mutual advantage is known as symbiosis, and the lichen in botanical language is described as a symbiotic union of an alga and a fungus.

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  • The Cismegiu or Ci§migiu Park, which has a circumference of about r m., is laid out between the Plevna road and the Calea Victories; and there are botanical and zoological gardens.

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  • The botanical name is from Lat.

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  • Pleasant gardens and promenades extend on the north side of the town, together with a botanical garden.

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  • fungus, a mushroom), the botanical name covering in the broad sense all the lower cellular Cryptogams devoid of chlorophyll, which arise from spores, and the thallus of which is either unicellular or composed of branched or unbranched tubes or cell-filaments (hyphae) with apical growth, or of more or less complex wefted sheets or tissue-like masses of such (mycelium).

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  • About fifty species of Saccharomyces are described more or less completely, but since many of these cannot be distinguished by the microscope, and some have been found to develop physiological races or varieties under special conditions of - ?u growth, the limits are still far too ill-defined for complete ep botanical treatment of the genus.

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  • The botanical garden (1874) contains an observatory with a statue of Tycho Brahe, and the chemical laboratory, mineralogical museum, polytechnic academy (1829) and communal hospital adjoin it.

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  • By common consent the arboretum in the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew is one of the finest in the world.

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  • The botanical gardens at Kew were thrown open to the public in 1841 under the directorate of Sir William Hooker.

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  • It is perhaps the largest collection of hardy trees and shrubs known, comprising some 4500 species and botanical varieties.

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  • There is a small but very select collection of trees at Oxford, the oldest botanical garden in Great Britain, which was founded in 1632.

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  • There is a fine arboretum in the botanical gardens at Ottawa, in Canada (65 acres).

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  • above the sea; the extension of the Luneta, the principal pleasure-ground; a boulevard for several miles along the bay; a botanical garden; and new market buildings.

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  • Here, adjoining one another, are the botanical gardens, the grounds surrounding Government House, the official residence of the governor of the state, and the Houses of Parliament, and Queen's Park, which is used as a recreation ground.

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  • Brisbane is well provided with parks and open spaces; the Victoria Park and Bowen Park are the largest; the high-lying Mount Coot-tha commands fine views, and there are other parks and numerous recreation grounds in various parts of the city, besides the admirable botanical gardens and the gardens of the Acclimatization Society.

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  • There are also a Protestant church, St Anne's, a school of arts, a polytechnic institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an exchange, gymnasium, deafmute institution, orphan asylum, several remarkable fountains dating from the 16th century, &c. Augsburg is particularly well provided with special and technical schools.

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  • Among his other acts of munificence may be mentioned his gift to the Apothecaries' Company of the botanical or physic garden, which they had rented from the Chelsea estate since 1673.

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  • Besides the large Maximir park and botanical gardens, many of the squares are planted with trees and adorned with statues; while the whole city is surrounded by vineyards and country houses.

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  • There is a promenade along the harbour and a botanical garden.

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  • Attached to it are a library, an observatory, a botanical garden, and a physical and natural history museum.

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  • From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).

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  • In 1709 he became professor of botany and medicine, and in that capacity he did good service, not only to his own university, but also to botanical science, by his improvements and additions to the botanic garden of Leiden, and by the publication of numerous works descriptive of new species of plants.

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  • The great temple of Karnak was largely built by him; most of the remaining chambers are his, including the beautiful botanical waIls showing foreign plants.

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  • The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.

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  • His botanical researches were carried on by Frederik Liebmann (1813-1856).

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  • ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term "Angiosperm" (ayyeEov, receptacle, and o-71pua, seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contradistinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits - the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.

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  • Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.

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  • CLIMBING' FERN, the botanical genus Lygodium, with about twenty species, chiefly in the warmer parts of the Old World, of interest from its climbing habit.

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  • g came to be employed in botanical classification as the name of a class, an arbitrary limitation had to be set to its signification, and this was not always in keeping with its original meaning.

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  • Yamanouchi, " The LifeHistory of Polysiphonia violacea," Botanical Gazette (vol.

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  • There are fine botanical gardens at Tanglin on the outskirts of the town.

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  • and Paseo de TacOn, runs westward through the city past the botanical gardens and the Quinta de los Molinos to the citadel of El Principe (1774-1794).

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  • The gardens of Los Molinos, where the captainsgeneral formerly maintained their summer residence, and the adjoining botanical gardens of the university, contain beautiful avenues of palm trees.

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  • Unlike many other large geographical areas, India is remarkable for having no distinctive botanical features peculiar to itself.

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  • granum, seed, from an Aryan root meaning "to wear down," which also appears in the common Teutonic word "corn"), a word particularly applied to the seed, in botanical language the "fruit," of cereals, and hence applied, as a collective term to cereal plants generally, to which, in English, the term "corn" is also applied (see GRAIN TRADE).

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  • The town has monuments to the Bavarian king, Maximilian II., and to other famous men; it contains a botanical garden and a public park.

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  • The Royal Botanical Gardens at Pamplemousses, which date from the French occupation of the island, contain a rich collection of tropical and extra-tropical species.

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  • A large park and botanical gardens add to the attractions of the town.

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  • With Theophrastus, accordingly, in his botanical inquiries, for example, the alternatives of classification, the normal sequence of such and such a character upon such another, the conclusion of rational probability, are what counts.

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  • About 600 species of plants were catalogued in desert California in 1891 by a government botanical party.

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  • The Botanical Park, which has an area of 84 acres, lies on the south bank of the Torrens, on the east of the city.

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  • There are extensive conservatories, botanical museums, including the magnificent herbarium and a library.

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  • The university of Pavia has long been famous as a medical school, and has the oldest anatomical cabinet in Italy; in addition it has a natural history museum founded under Spallanzini in 1772, a botanical garden, begun in 1774, and excellent geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections.

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  • decidere, to fall down), a botanical and zoological term for "falling in season," as of petals after flowering, leaves in autumn, the teeth or horns of animals, or the wings of insects.

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  • In 1908 ten departments had been organized: Botanical Research, with a "desert laboratory" (1903) at Tucson, Arizona; Economics and Sociology (1904); Experimental Evolution, with a station (1904) at Cold Spring Harbor, New York (see Huntington, N.Y.); Geophysical Research, with a laboratory (1906-1907) at Washington - investigations have been carried on by the U.S. Geological Survey and at McGill University, Toronto; Historical Research (1903); Marine Biology, with a laboratory (1904) at Tortugas, Florida; Meridian Astrometry (1906; work is carried on especially at Dudley Observatory, Albany, New York); Research in Nutrition, with a laboratory (1906) at Boston, Massachusetts - investigations (since 1904) had been carried on at Yale and Wesleyan universities; Solar Physics, with observatory (1905) on Mount Wilson, California, and workshops at Pasadena, California, and Terrestrial Magnetism (1903; headquarters in Washington); the institution had assisted Luther Burbank in his horticultural experiments since 1905, and had published the Index Medicus since 1903; and it makes occasional grants for minor research and tentative investigations.

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  • The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.

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  • Connected with it are a library of over 200,000 volumes, geological, anatomical and mineralogical institutions, a hospital, several clinical establishments, laboratories and a botanical garden.

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  • The town possesses a technical high school, having (since 1900) power to confer the degree of doctor of engineering, and attended by about 2000 students, two gymnasia, a school of agriculture, an artisans' school and a botanical garden.

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  • XXoopos, pale green), the botanical term for loss of colour in a plant-organ, a sign of disease; also in medicine, a form of anaemia (see BLOOD: Pathology).

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  • These kinds, however, are now only regarded as botanical curiosities, and are rarely grown in private or commercial establishments.

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  • The Natural History Museum, the observatory and meteorological office, and the botanical gardens are under the supervision of the royal academy of sciences.

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  • AGAVE, a large botanical genus of the natural order Amaryllidaceae, chiefly Mexican, but occurring also in the southern and western United States and in central and tropical South America.

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  • From the Botanical Magazine, by permission of Lovell Reeve and Co.

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  • Communications were opened with China with a view to obtain fresh plants and seeds, and a deputation, composed of gentlemen versed in botanical studies, was despatched to Assam.

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  • East of the town is a large park and botanical gardens, beyond which is a residential suburb.

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  • Finally, there are numerous horticultural societies, large nurseries and gardening schools at Stockholm, Alnarp and elsewhere, and botanical gardens attached to the universities of Lund and Upsala.

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  • He spent nearly all his life in Upsala, building anatomical laboratories, conducting musical concerts, laying out botanical gardens, arranging medical lecture rooms - in a word, expending ceaseless energy on the practical improvement of the university.

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  • Amongst its numerous auxiliaries may be mentioned the library, with 200,000 volumes, the observatory, the meteorological institute, the botanical garden, seminaries of theology, philology and education, and well equipped clinical, anatomical and physical institutes.

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  • In 1826 he graduated as doctor of medicine with a dissertation on the Rhamnaceae; but the career which he adopted was botanical, not medical.

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  • It is of especial botanical interest, because, in accordance with Robert Brown's discoveries, the Cycadeae and Coniferae were placed in the new group Phanerogames gymnospermes.

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  • Botanists are agreed that the only species in general cultivation in Great Britain is the one which Bauhin, in his Phytopinax, p. 89 (1596), called Solanum tuberosum esculentum, a name adopted by Linnaeus (omitting the last epithet), and employed by all botanical writers.

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  • That he anticipated in any manner the inductive philosophy cannot be contended; his botanical studies did not lead him, like his contemporary Konrad von Gesner, to any idea of a natural system of classification, and he rejected with the utmost arrogance and violence of language the discoveries of Copernicus.

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  • Pearson, Beyond Petsora Eastward, with botanical and geological appendices by H.

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  • Other features of these parks are a small botanical garden in Cwmdonkin, a good collection of waterfowl in Brynmill, and a small aviary of the rarer British birds in Victoria Park, which also has a meteorological station in connexion with the meteorological office, and a statue of Mr William Thomas of Lan erected in 1905 in appreciation of the work done by him in preserving and obtaining "open spaces" for Swansea.

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  • 10 (1898); publications of the Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson; also titles under archaeology below, particularly Bandelier's " Final Report."

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  • Among the other university institutions are the academic hospital, the maternity hospital, the physiological institution, the chemical laboratory, the zoological museum, the botanical garden and the observatory on the Kdnigsstuhl.

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  • The new buildings were erected in 1876, and connected with them are a library of 240,000 volumes, a zoological museum, a hospital, a botanical garden and a school of forestry.

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  • Important buildings include the university hall (1882), the academic union of the students (1850 containing an art museum; the astronomical observatory, built in 1866, though observations have been carried on since 1760; the botanical museum, and ethnographical and industrial art collections, illustrating life in southern Sweden from early times.

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  • agrimonia, a transformation of apye t&w, a word of unknown etymology), a slender perennial herb (botanical name, Agrimonia Eupatoria, natural order Rosaceae), 12 to 3 ft.

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  • Belvedere House, the official residence of the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, is situated close to the botanical gardens in Alipur, the southern suburb of Calcutta.

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  • 2), a rootless plant, which hangs in long grey lichen-like festoons from the branches of trees, a native of Mexico and the southern United States; the water required for food is absorbed from the moisture in the air by peculiar hairs which cover the (From The Botanical Magazine, by permission of Lovell, Reeve & Co.) FIG.

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  • Before this calamity Abe, contained II I° houses and 13,000 inhabitants; and its university had 40 professors, more than 500 students, and a library of upwards of 30,000 volumes, together with a botanical garden, an 1 The object of the story of the encounter is to explain the name Helkath-hazzurim, the meaning of which is doubtful (Ency.

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  • Close to the Zoological Gardens are the Botanical Gardens, and a small park, also the property of a private society, in which there is a variety theatre.

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  • It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.

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  • The most important of his books are two large botanical treatises, On the History of Plants, in nine books (originally ten), and On the Causes of Plants, in six books (originally eight), which constitute the most important contribution to botanical science during antiquity and the middle ages.

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  • For his astronomical work see ASTRONOMY (Historical Section), and for the botanical works, see Dr J.

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  • The city is the see of a Greek Catholic archbishop and of an Armenian archbishop, and contains a Lamaist monastery, as well as technical schools, an ichthyological museum, the Peter museum, with ethnographical, archaeological and natural history collections, a botanical garden, an ecclesiastical seminary, and good squares and public gardens, one of which is adorned with a statue (1884) of Alexander II.

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  • in the late 16th century, a mineralogical museum, a good botanical garden, and an observatory.

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  • There are two large parks and an excellent botanical garden.

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  • On these four expeditions he made collections of plants and animals of inestimable value, including nearly twenty thousand zoological and sixteen thousand botanical specimens.

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  • See also the annual reports on the Seychelles issued by the Colonial Office; those from 1901 onward contain valuable botanical reports.

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  • rudus, rubbish), a botanical term for plants growing on rubbish heaps or in waste places.

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  • SiK-rvov, a net, and the termination -rye pis, produced), a botanical name proposed by John Lindley for a class including certain families of Monocotyledons which have net-veined leaves.

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  • He had made very considerable progress in medical, botanical and chemical science, and he was an excellent classical scholar, and extensively read in general literature.

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  • Karlsruhe possesses further the Zahringen museum of curiosities, which is in the left wing of the Schloss; an architectural school (1891); industrial art school and museum; cadet school (1892); botanical and electrotechnical institutes; and horticultural and agricultural schools.

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  • There are several public parks and gardens on well-chosen elevated sites, the principal being the Botanical Garden, from which the city and port are well seen.

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  • He made botanical excursions into different countries, and Flora Marienbadensis, oder Pflanzen and Gebirgsarten, gesammelt and beschrieben, written by him, was published at Prague by Kedler, 1837.

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  • There are also a celebrated observatory, long under the direction of Wilhelm Klinkerfues (1827-1884), a botanical garden, an agricultural institute and various hospitals, all connected with the university.

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  • The botanical gardens adjoin.

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  • Market gardening is carried on in the neighbourhood; and there are large botanical gardens.

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  • Basing his conclusions upon philological data, such as the names of wheat in the oldest known languages, the writings of the most ancient historians, and the observations of botanical travellers, De Candolle infers that the hdistromeib u a n d original home of the wheat plant was in Mesopotamia, don.

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  • Apart from the botanical interest of these diversities, as indications of the faculty of variation in plants, and possibly as clues to the genealogy and origin of the cultivated plant, their practical importance is very great.

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  • In botanical collections there exist, it is stated, herbarium specimens or other evidences of plants grown in Norway as far north as lat.

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  • This is adorned with statues and frescoes by modern German artists, and has near it the chemical, physical, botanical, geological, seismological and zoological institutes, also the observatory, all designed by Eggert and built between 1877 and 1888.

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  • CUPULIFERAE, a botanical order, or, in recent arrangements, group of orders, containing several familiar trees.

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  • South-west of these buildings, on the other side of the Johannisthal Park, are clustered the medical institutes and hospitals of the university - the infirmary, clinical and other hospitals, the physico-chemical institute, pathological institute, physiological institute, ophthalmic hospital, pharmacological institute, the schools of anatomy, the chemical laboratory, the zoological institute, the physicomineralogical institute, the botanical garden and also the veterinary schools, deaf and dumb asylum, agricultural college and astronomical observatory.

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  • A botanical station was opened in 1894, and the cultivation of American and Egyptian cotton was taken in hand in 1902.

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  • Its buildings include a chapel, a dining hall, a library, a lecture theatre, laboratories, classrooms, private studies and dormitories for the students, apartments for resident professors, and servants' offices; also a museum containing a collection of anatomical and pathological preparations, and mineralogical, botanical and geological specimens.

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  • The Spanish steppes deserve a special notice, since they are not confined to one of the four botanical provinces, but are found in all of them except the last.

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  • The botanical and geological surveys of the state are carried on by the university; the former has been largely under the supervision of Charles Edwin Bessey (b.

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  • He studied anatomy and medicine at the university of Pisa, where he took his doctor's degree in 1551, and in 1555 became professor of materia medica and director of the botanical garden.

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  • (Florence, 1583), was not only the source from which various subsequent writers, and especially Robert Morison (1620-1683) derived their ideas of botanical arrangement but it was a mine of science to which Linnaeus himself gratefully avowed his obligations.

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  • Here we shall deal only with its botanical interest.

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  • It is impossible to give a rigid botanical definition of the term " flower."

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  • In modern botanical works the group is often known as the seed-plants (Spermatophyta).

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  • Symmetry, then, in botanical language, has reference to a certain definite numerical relation of parts.

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  • In the present article the subject of vegetable palaeontology is treated from a botanical point of view.

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  • Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.

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  • With few exceptions, the remains of Palaeozoic Algae are of comparatively little botanical interest.

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  • Our aim is not simply to give a summary of the most striking botanical features of the several floras that have left traces in the sedimentary rocks, but rather to attempt to follow the different phases in the development of the vegetation of the world, as expressed in the contrasts exhibited by a comparison of the vegetation of the Coal period forests with that of the succeeding Mesozoic era up to the close of the Wealden period.

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  • A characteristic member of the southern botanical province, Schizoneura gondwanensis (fig.

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  • the northern and southern botanical provinces.

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  • These post-Permian floras, as represented by the Upper Gondwana beds of India and corresponding strata in Australia, South Africa, and South America, differ but slightly from the northern floras, and point to a uniformity in the Rhaetic and Jurassic vegetation which is in contrast to the existence of two botanical provinces during the latter part of the Palaeozoic period.

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  • Among the large number of Mesozoic Ferns there are several species founded on sterile fronds which possess but little interest Filicales, from a botanical standpoint.

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  • The numerous species of fronds from Jurassic and Wealden rocks of North America and Europe referred to Thyrsopteris, a recent monotypic genus confined to Juan Fernandez, are in the majority of cases founded on sterile leaves, and of little or no botanical value.

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  • New York Botanical Garden, vol.

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