Two hundred years ago there lived in Boston a little boy whose name was Benjamin Franklin.
I found Boston is an expensive place to live.
Mr. Endicott told me about the great ships that came sailing by from Boston, bound for Europe.
Could that Boston newspaper woman possibly be correct?
I will go to Boston in June and I will buy father gloves, and James nice collar, and Simpson cuffs.
Boston was a tad rowdy back then and we were kind of young and frisky ourselves.
Boston was a tad rowdy back then and we were kind of young and frisky ourselves.
West Newton is not far from Boston and we went there in the steam cars very quickly.
Martha is a trauma nurse in a large Boston hospital.
It came from Boston, a few hundred miles away; sort of like the tip you just made.
"It was bound to happen," I said as I passed the Boston paper to the others as they joined us.
Outside of Boston, in Peabody.
He's only here until Sunday night when we drop him off in Boston for his flight back to the west coast.
The LeBlanc's house is a tiny cape cod, on a dead end street in south Peabody, a Boston bedroom community.
I encouraged him to enroll at nearby Boston University in hopes he'd find an interest.
The LeBlanc's had picked up Howie at his Boston apartment so the car was packed tightly.
She flew directly to Boston on Friday and I met her at Logan Airport at six.
I'll miss my class in Boston but maybe I won't get lost someplace smaller.
Three calls were telephoned from Boston, New York and Connecticut while two were made on untraceable phones.
He then left for Boston and a flight that would arrive a few hours after Julie's.
It was a Boston and I searched through it, searching to see if Ethel Reagan was still tracking the Psychic Tipster.
It made me feel very sad to leave Boston and I missed all of my friends greatly, but of course I was glad to get back to my lovely home once more.
I am studying in Boston, with my dear teacher.
If my little sister comes to Boston next June, will you let me bring her to see you?
The crowd drew up to the large table, at which sat gray-haired or bald seventy-year-old magnates, uniformed and besashed almost all of whom Pierre had seen in their own homes with their buffoons, or playing boston at the clubs.
Pierre, as one of the principal guests, had to sit down to boston with Count Rostov, the general, and the colonel.
Martha would drive Howie to Boston's Logan Airport for his flight back to California while Quinn would remain to pack up his equipment before leaving later for a hundred mile drive to their home in nearby Peabody, Mass.
There's no way he'd consent to travel all the way from Boston.
We decided to take the evening off and have a nice meal in Boston.
He needed a written map to perform simple chores like finding a grocery store or getting around Boston.
"Our Boston newspaper friend Ethel Reagan writes she's anxious to talk to the guy," she continued.
The next day, Ethel Reagan reported in her Boston paper on a personal interview with Youngblood.
He was talking to someone in Boston.
Julie from Boston reentered the picture bright one Monday morning when she accompanied Howie into the office.
Boston is great but it's incredibly busy all the time.
The article was penned by our old Boston nemesis, Ethel Reagan.
Warning that Boston woman sounds prudent, though I'm not sure she has a clue to finding the so-called Psychic tipster.
Other than catching sight of Howie, together with Julie and Molly entering church on Sunday morning, we saw nothing more of our associate's Boston visitors.
It was midafternoon before we got Howie on the road, first to Boston and then a flight west.
I can't come down to Boston...
I looked forward to weekends when he'd come back down to Boston and we'd get together.
Can you go down to Boston and get her on a plane out here?
Julie's not in Boston.
She'll drive Howie's car back to Boston and leave the car at the airport and fly out this evening.
I owed a follow up call to both Ethel Reagan at the Boston newspaper and Agnes Delanco, at After.
I questioned the newspaper woman in Boston, by telephone, in hopes of enticing her to meet with me under the guise of my writing a magazine article.
She kissed and hugged her daughter until I thought I'd have to pull them apart, but finally left in Howie's car for Boston and her flight.
I jumped in and explained that Molly was at our house and Julie was on route to the Boston airport.
"Or Boston," I said.
I used the break in at Ethel Reagan's place as an excuse to have Howie visit both Boston burglaries.
Then this newspaper lady in Boston gave her an out and she jumped on it like Roy Rogers on Trigger.
Instead I listened to his harangue about the difficulty they encountered with the session I'd practically demanded, the break-ins in Boston.
There's an afternoon Amtrak train that makes the trip from South Station in Boston to Philly in less than five hours.
But it's at least a two hour drive to Boston.
I parked our car here, at the East Boston airport, as we were scheduled to return together by air.
More depressing news filled the paper; a drive-by shooting in Dorchester, a knifing at a Boston bus stop and a baby abandoned in a rest room at Logan Airport.
A blue haired old lady with a walker and her mate hauling an oxygen tank looked at me as If I was the Boston strangler.
God love him—he had followed the Boston Red Sox for sixty years and couldn't even dream of ever being there himself.
When I was twelve I hitchhiked from Boston to Birmingham.
The letters, eleven in all, were not from Ouray, but to a Ouray minister's wife, from her sister, a Boston matron.
He paused, letting his pronouncement sink in and then added, There's a couple of ladies from Boston who are shopping for airplane tickets as we sit here.
Sure enough, in just a couple of days she gets a message from these ladies up in Boston.
Two ladies are flying all the way from Boston to buy some old underwear, a yellow dress and a bunch of junk?
"I just hope these Boston ladies don't think this box of yours has some truly valuable items in it," Cynthia said.
None was longer than a page and each asked after Annie's health and wellbeing and then added a few lines that mentioned that all was well in Boston.
The second earliest dated letter expressed sorrow that the wedding could not take place in Boston and a gift was being shipped separately.
I was telling Mrs. Edith about these here letters and how the two ladies from Boston will be coming to Bird Song.
Her sister in Boston wasn't very talkative.
I hope the Boston sisters find some use for these awful things.
Didn't the Boston ladies have any interest in the other items you're donating to the museum?
The letters written from Boston are answering correspondence Annie presumably wrote to her sister.
Them Boston ladies would have said if they knew any cousins.
And I need to be top-alert today, with all the research stuff I have to do before them Boston ladies get here.
Cynthia had received a phone call from the Boston sisters telling her their flight was delayed and they weren't now expected until late afternoon.
"That ought to please your Boston ladies, seeing a picture of their great-aunt and uncle," Cynthia remarked as she examined the picture.
Just as the glue was drying on the small wooden cross, a noise at the front door announced the arrival of the sisters from Boston.
Well, I guess it's time we see if Fred needs any help with our guests from Boston.
I just said I wasn't sharing anything with that Boston shrew, I didn't say I was quitting the caper.
"You could wait until they return to Boston and then mail it to them," Dean suggested.
Did the Boston sisters get all the poop on Annie before you got there?
Then he wrote her sister Rachael in Boston affirming her lies.
What do you suppose caused her to leave a cultured and safe life in Boston and come west?
Something must have happened in that Boston house to drive her away.
I suspect she might have known why her sister left Boston.
I know we'll probably never learn the answer, but I still can't fathom what could have happened back in Boston to make Annie Quincy desert a comfortable life.
Boston seems so long ago, and so very far away.
Here, my duties are light, even less than our Emma back in Boston.
"Oh, that one," Fred said, realizing Effie was perpetuating the misinformation about Annie Quincy's past, creating Annie the prostitute as a salvageable soul of Reverend and Mrs. Martin, a separate person from the true Boston ancestor.
It'll give him something to do now that the Annie Quincy business is over and the sisters are returning to Boston.
One or the other of the Boston sisters?
They are about to go back to Boston.
He thought about how it would feel to sit holding her on the lawn, listening to the Boston Pops.
Coach Grayson, first name Henry, had gone oh-for-four, lifetime, in just two games for the Boston Braves in the late forties.
Mustache was Alfred Nota, from Boston, and tic-face was Homer Flanders, from Philadelphia.
The word on the street is he works for a crime family in Boston and hires out for special projects.
He's probably back in Boston or off someplace else doing a job for hire.
He studied at the Boston Latin School, and graduated at Harvard in 1850.
Hinsdale, were published at Boston, in two volumes, in 1882.
Its site was not that of the present college, but of two earlier halls called Boston and Hare, where the new schools now are.
He perished at sea on board a steamboat which was totally consumed by fire while on a voyage from New York to Boston, on the night of the 13th-14th of January 1840.
(New York, 1811-1812), and were republished with a Memoir by Rev. Tryon Edwards (2 vols., Boston, 1850).
The same year a postal express to Leavenworth, Kansas (ro days, letters 25 cents an ounce) was established; and telegraph connexion with Boston and New York ($9 for ro words) in 1863.
Huguenot churches were formed on Staten Island, New York, in 1665; in New York City in 1683; at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1686; at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1687; at New Rochelle, New York, in 1688; and at other places.
But there were exceptions: Irish Presbyterians from Ulster formed a church at Londonderry, New Hampshire, which, about 1729, grew into a presbytery; the Boston presbytery, organized in 1745, became in 1774 the synod of New England with three presbyteries and sixteen ministers; and there were two independent presbyteries, that of "the Eastward" organized at Boothbay, Maine, in 1771, and that of Grafton, in New Hampshire, founded by Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers interested in Dartmouth College.
French's best-known work is "Death Staying the Hand of the Sculptor," a memorial for the tomb of the sculptor Martin Milmore, in the Forest Hills cemetery, Boston; this received a medal of honour at Paris, in 1900.
Among his other works are: a monument to John Boyle O'Reilly, Boston; "Gen.
It is served by the Maine Central railway, by several electric lines, and by steamboat lines to Portland, Boston and several other ports.
Washington, Working With the Hands (New York, 1904); and Thrasher, Tuskegee, Its Story and Its Work (Boston, 1900).
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
to N.E., connecting Burlington, Montpelier and St Albans and affording connexion to the north with Montreal and to the south over trackage shared with the Boston & Maine, with the New London Northern which is leased by this road, and the Rutland railway (New York Central system) extending along the western edge of the state and connecting Rutland with Burlington to the north and with Bellows Falls and Bennington to the south.
These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
The southern part of the state was early opened to railways, the Sullivan County railway (operated by the Boston & Maine) having been opened in 1849; and in 1850 the state had 290 m.
Robinson, Vermont (Boston, 1892) in the "American Commonwealths" Series.
Seward (5 vols., new ed., Boston, 1883), '' edited by George E.
Seward; Lincoln and Seward (New York, 1874), by Gideon Welles; and William Henry Seward (new ed., Boston, 1899), by T.
of Boston, the Neponset river forming a large part of its N.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and is primarily a residential suburb of Boston, with which it is connected by electric lines.
Ripley, Boston, 1835 and 1838), a collection of fugitive papers in criticism and philosophy and history.
Stearns of Boston (Mass.).
(Boston, 1904), or to the earlier and admirably complete Oskischumbrische Grammatik of R.
The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
Experiments very similar to these of Edison were made by Elisha Gray of Boston, Mass., and described by him in papers communicated to the American Electrical Society in 1875 and 1878.
Speech has been habitually transmitted for business purposes over a distance of 1542.3 m., viz., over the lines of the American Telegraph and Telephone Company from Omaha to Boston.
Thayers Dawn of Italian Independence (Boston, 1893) is gushing and not always accurate; C. Cants Dell indipendenza italiana cronistoria (Naples, 1872-1877) is reactionary and often unreliable; V.
Boston Soc. Nat.
In 1832 her father, who had for six years been the pastor of a church in Boston, accepted the presidency of the newly founded Lane Theological Seminary at Cincinnati.
See Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe, compiled from her letters and journals by her son, Charles Edward Stowe (Boston, 1890).
Life and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe, edited by Annie Fields (Boston, 1898).
Westboro is served by the Boston & Albany railway and by interurban electric lines.
(Boston, 1899); D.
Davis, Physical Geography (Boston, 1899).
Portland is served by the Maine Central, the Boston & Maine, and the Grand Trunk railways; by steamboat lines to New York, Boston, Bar Harbor, Saint John, N.B., and other coast ports, and, during the winter season, by the Allan and Dominion transatlantic lines.
When the port of Boston was closed by Great Britain in 1774 the bell of the old First Parish Church (Unitarian) of Portland (built 1740; the present building dates from 1825) was muffled and rung from morning till night, and in other ways the town showed its sympathy for the patriot cause.
On the 20th of June 1843 he died suddenly at Boston.
Munro, Rise of the Russian Empire (Boston, 1900); F.
The guarantee for this activity may be illustrated by a single fact: the combined building operations, in 1908, of San Francisco, Seattle, Portland, Los Angeles, Spokane and Salt Lake City exceeded the combined building operations of Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Kansas City, Boston, Baltimore and Cincinnati during the same year.
Daggett, Railroad Reorganization (Boston, 1908); M.
In the year 1894 an elevated railway was built in Liverpool, and in 1900 a similar railway was constructed in Boston, U.S.A., and the construction of a new one undertaken in New York.
This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.
In England it was greatly stimulated by the visit of Mrs Hayden, a professional medium from Boston, in the winter of 1852-1853.
Capron, Modern Spiritualism, its Facts, &c. (Boston, 1855), for the early history of the movement in America; J.
of Boston, Mass.
It is served by the Western Division of the Boston & Maine railway.
He received his earlier education in his native city, until the removal of his family in 18c8 to Boston.
His further pursuit of the legal profession seemed to be out of the question, and on his return to Boston he remained quietly at home.
Its success upon its publication in Boston was immediate.
He had dealt summarily with the striking policemen in Boston Sept.
Already in April 1919, during a strike of telephone operators in Boston, he had proposed that the state take over the lines, but the trouble was soon settled.
He was promoted to commodore in 1898, to rear-admiral on the 3rd of March 1899, and was made commandant of the Boston (Charlestown) Navy Yard in October of the same year.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway, by inter-urban electric lines and in summer by steamers to Boston.
- For the sources of the early history of Plymouth consult (George) Mourt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation of Plymouth (Boston, 1865, and numerous other editions); William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (Boston, 1858, and several later editions), the most important source of information concerning Plymouth before 1646; the Plymouth Colony Records (12 vols., Boston, 1855-1861); the Records of the Town of Plymouth (3 vols., Plymouth, 1889-1903); J.
Young's Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1841); and E.
See also, James Thacher's History of the Town of Plymouth (Boston, 1832); W.
Davis's History of the Town of Plymouth (Philadelphia, 1885); also his Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth (Boston, 2nd ed., 1899); and his Plymouth Memories of an Octogenarian (Plymouth, 1906); and John A.
Goodwin, The Pilgrim Republic (Boston, 1888).
(Boston, 1858); the appreciative sketch by J.
Studies," Baltimore, 1897); Henry Adams, Documents relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815 (Boston, 1878); A.
See Moses Coit Tyler, Patrick Henry (Boston, 1887; new ed., 1899), and William Wirt Henry (Patrick Henry's grandson), Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence and Speeches (New York, 1890-1891); these supersede the very unsatisfactory biography by William Wirt, Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817).
He graduated at Harvard in 1863, continuing to study languages and philosophy with zeal; spent two years in the Harvard law school, and opened an office in Boston; but soon devoted the greater portion of his time to writing for periodicals.
"ROBERT BACON (1860-1919), American banker, was born in Boston, Mass., July 5 1860.
He graduated from Harvard in 1880 (in the class with Theodore Roosevelt), and the following year entered the banking house of Lee, Higginson & Co., in Boston.
P. Nichols appeared at Boston, U.S.A., in 1889.
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile (Boston and New York, 1898), and the Colonization of the South (Philadelphia, 1904) are standard authorities for the French and English periods (1699-1781).
In the latter year he helped to organize the banking and brokerage firm of Hornblower & Weeks, Boston, Mass., of which he was a member until 1912.
He was captured with the Davis party on the 10th of May 1865, and was imprisoned in Fort Warren, Boston Harbour, until the following October.
Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Boston, 1875), i.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
Admitted to the bar in Boston in 1805, Webster began the practice of law at Boscawen, but his father died a year later, and Webster removed in the autumn of 1807 to Portsmouth, then one of the leading commercial cities of New England.
Webster removed to Boston in June 1816.
- The Works of Daniel Webster (6 vols., Boston, 1851) contain a biographical memoir by Edward Everett; G.
McIntyre (ed.), Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster (18 vols., Boston, 1903); Fletcher Webster (ed.), Daniel Webster's Private Correspondence (2 vols., Boston, 1857); H.
C. Lodge, Daniel Webster (Boston, 1899); J.
McCall, Daniel Webster (Boston, 2902); and Norman Hapgood, Daniel Webster (Boston, 28 99).
See Azel Ames, The May-Flower and Her Log (Boston, 1901); Blanche McManus, The Voyage of the Mayflower (New York, 1897); The General Society of Mayflower: Meetings, Officers and Members, arranged in State Societies, Ancestors and their Descendants (New York, 1901).
In the following May, after the fall of the Confederacy, he was arrested at his home and taken to Fort Warren, in Boston harbour, where he was confined until the 12th of October.
In 1768 he removed to Boston.
Two years later, with that degree of moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the "Boston Massacre," charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony.
Adams, The Works of John Adams, with Life (Io vols., Boston, 1850-1856); John and Abigail Adams, Familiar Letters during the Revolution (Boston, 1875); J.
Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885; later edition, 1899), in the " American Statesmen Series"; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898).
vols., Boston, 1875), The Water Birds (2 vols., Boston, 1884); Elliott Coues, Check List of North American Birds (Boston, 2882), Key to North American Birds (Boston, 1887), Birds of the Northwest, U.S. Geological Survey, Misc. pubs., No.
The works of Audubon, and the Fauna Boreali-Americana of Richardson and Swainson have already been noticed, but they need naming here, as also do Nuttall's Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada (2 vols., Boston, 1832-1834; 2nd ed., 1840); and the Birds of Long Island (8 vo, New York, 1844) by J.
The next attempt of importance appeared in the American Standard Natural History, published in Boston in 1885.
Portsmouth is served by the Boston & Maine railway, by electric lines to neighbouring towns, and in summer by a steamboat daily to the Isles of Shoals.
In December 1 774 a copy of the order prohibiting the exportation of military stores to America was brought from Boston to Portsmouth by Paul Revere, whereupon the Portsmouth Committee of Safety organized militia companies, and captured the fort (Dec. 14).
In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river.
The best history is Rufus King, Ohio; First Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York, 1888), in the "American Commonwealths" series.
Alexander Black's Story of Ohio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account.
Slocum, Ohio Country between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's Life of Anthony Wayne in Sparks' "Library of American Biography" (Boston, 1834-1838), series i.
In 1846 he made his first appearance in Boston as Sir Lucius O'Trigger in The Rivals at the Howard Athenaeum, and in the next season he became a member of the Boston Museum, in which stock company he remained for thirty-five years.
Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several minor roads once in dependent.
It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.
around the peninsula are spanned by causeways and bridges, East Boston only, that the harbours may be open to the navyyard at Charlestown, being reached by ferry (1870), and by the electric subway under the harbour.
The bridge of chief artistic merit is the Cambridge Bridge (1908), which replaced the old West Boston Bridge, and is one feature of improvements long projected for the beautifying of the Charles river basin.
The Old South church has many associations; it was, for instance, the meeting-place of the people after the " Boston Massacre " of 1770, when they demanded the removal of the British troops from the city; and here, too, were held the meetings that led up to the " Boston Tea Party " of 1773.
The original King's chapel (1688, present building 1749-1754) was the first Episcopal church of Boston, which bitterly resented the action of the royal governor in 1687 in using the Old South for the services of the Church of England.
' Faneuil Hall is the headquarters of the Ancient and Honourable Artillery Company of Boston, the oldest military organization of the country, organized in 1638.
Boston compares favourably with other American cities in the character of its public and private architecture.
One of the great public works of Boston is its subway for electric trams, about 3 m.
The branch to East Boston (1900-1904) passes beneath the harbour bed; it is the first double-track tunnel in the United States, and the first all-cement tunnel (diameter, 23.6 ft.) in the world.
The two huge steam-railway stations of the Boston & Maine and the Boston & Albany systems also deserve mention.
The former (the North, or Union station, 1893) covers 9 acres and has 23 tracks; the latter (the South Terminal, 1898), one of the largest stations in the world, covers 13 acres and has 32 tracks, and is used by the Boston & Albany and by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways.
Morton; an emancipation group of Thomas Ball with a portrait statue of Lincoln; a fine equestrian statue, by the same sculptor, of Washington, one of the best works in the country (1869); an army and navy monument in the Common by Martin Millmore, in memory of the Civil War; another (1888) recording the death of those who fell in the Boston Massacre of 1770; statues of Admiral D.
Rimmer); and a magnificent bronze bas-relief (1897) by Augustus St Gaudens commemorating the departure from Boston of Colonel Robert G.
There was a public municipal library in Boston before 1674 - probably in 1653; but it was burned in 1747 and was apparently never replaced.
From 1847 to 1851 he arranged gifts from France to American libraries aggregating 30,655 volumes, and a gift of 50 volumes by the city of Paris in 1843 (reciprocated in 1849 with more than 1000 volumes contributed by private citizens) was the nucleus of the Boston public library.
and pamphlets), the Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791; 50,300), the Boston medical library (founded 1874; about 80,000), the New England Historic-Genealogical Society (founded 18 45; 33,750 volumes and 34,150 pamphlets), the state library (founded 1826; 140,000), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1780; 30,000), the Boston Society of Natural History (founded 1830; about 35,000 volumes and 27,000 pamphlets).
Rogers, the first president; Boston University (chartered in 1869; Methodist Episcopal; co-educational); the New England Conservatory of Music (co-educational; private; 1867, incorporated 1880), the largest in the United States, having 2400 students in 1905-1906; the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy (1852); the Massachusetts Normal Art School (1873); the School of Drawing and Painting (1876) of the Museum of Fine Arts; Boston College (1860), Roman Catholic, but open to all denominations; St John's Theological Seminary (1880), Roman Catholic; Simmons College (1899) for women, and several departments of Harvard University.
Boston University was endowed by Isaac Rich (1801-1872), a Boston fish-merchant, Lee Claflin (1791-1871), a shoe manufacturer and a benefactor of Wesleyan University and of Wilbraham Seminary, and Jacob Sleeper.
In theatrical matters Boston is now one of the chief American centres.
The Federal Street theatre-the first regular theatrewas established in 1794, the old Puritan feeling having had its natural influence in keeping Boston behind New York and Philadelphia in this respect.
The dramatic history of the city is largely associated with the Boston Museum, built in 1841 by Moses Kimball on Tremont Street, and rebuilt in 1846 and 1880; here for half a century the principal theatrical performances were given.
Montgomery Field, until in 1903 the famous Boston Museum was swept away, as other interesting old places of entertainment (the old Federal Street theatre, the Tremont theatre, &c.) had been, in the course of further building changes.
The Boston theatre dates from 1854, and there were seventeen theatres altogether in 1900.
As a musical centre Boston rivals New York.
This orchestra has done much for music not only in Boston but in the United States generally.
In 1908 the Boston Opera Company was incorporated, and a site for an opera house was obtained on the north side of Huntington Avenue.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
Its ascendancy was identical with the long predominance of the New England literary school, who lived in Boston or in the country round about.
Two Boston periodicals (one no longer so) that still hold an exceptional position in periodical literature, the North American Review (1815) and the Atlantic Monthly (1857), date from this period.
The great majority of names in the long list of worthies of the commonwealth-writers, statesmen, orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are intimately connected with Boston.
Among the city's daily newspapers the Boston Herald (1846), the Boston Globe, the Evening Transcript (1830), the Advertiser (1813) and the Post (1831) are the most important.
Commercial interests are largely concentrated in East Boston.
In 1840 Boston was selected as the American terminus of the Cunard Line, the first regular line of trans-Atlantic steamers.
Boston ships went to all parts of the globe.
The Cunard arrangement was the first of various measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return to relations of reciprocity.
deep. Railway rates have also been a matter of vital importance in recent years; Boston, like New York, complaining of discriminations in favour of Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans and Galveston.
Boston also feels the competition of Montreal and Portland; the Canadian roads being untrammelled in the matter of freight differentials.
The total tonnage in foreign trade entering and leaving in 1907 was 5,148,429 tons; and in the same year 9616 coasting vessels (tonnage, 10, 261,474) arrived in Boston.
of cattle, and of the various meat and dairy products classed as provisions, Boston is easily second to New York.
The Waltham watch and the Singer sewing-machine had their beginning in Boston in 1850.
Government.-Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822; although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for incorporation, beginning as early as 1650.
In 1822 Boston became a city.
The powers of the old township were much more extensive than those of the present city of Boston, including as they did the determination of the residence of strangers, the allotment of land, the grant of citizenship, the fixing of wages and prices, of the conditions of lawsuits and even a voice in matters of peace and war.
Boston proper is only the centre of a large metropolitan area, closely settled, with interests in large part common.
The metropolitan water district (1895) included in 1908 Boston and seventeen cities or townships in its environs; the metropolitan sewerage district (1889) twenty four; the park service (1893) thirty-nine.
Independence is further curtailed by other state boards semi-independent of the city - the police commission of three members from 1885 to 1906, and in 1906 a single police commissioner, appointed by the governor, a licensing board of three members, appointed by the governor; the transit commission, &c. There are, further, county offices (Suffolk county comprises only Boston, Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop), generally independent of the city, though the latter pays practically all the bills.
of Boston; the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts school for the blind (1832), famous for its conduct by Samuel G.
Boston was one of the first municipalities of the country to make provision for the separate treatment of juvenile offenders; in 1906 a juvenile court was established.
Simmons College and Harvard University maintain the Boston school for social workers (1904).
Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left boo() to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the city.
Largely owing to activity in public works Boston has long been the most expensively governed of American cities.
The metropolitan water board - of whose expenditures Boston bears only a share - expended from 1895 to 1900 $20,693,870; and the system was planned to consume finally probably 40 millions at least.
Boston paid in 1907 36% of all state taxes, and about 33, 62, 47 and 79% respectively of the assessments for the metropolitan sewer, parks, boulevards and water services.
The improvement of the Back Bay and of the South Boston flats was in considerable measure forced upon the city by the commonwealth.
The population of Boston at the end of each decennial period since 1790 was as follows:-(1790), 18,320; (1800), 24,937; (1810), 33,787; (1820), History.-John Smith visited Boston Harbour in 1614, and it was explored in 1621 by a party from Plymouth.
There were various attempts to settle about its borders in the following years before John Endecott in 1628 landed at Salem as governor of the colony of Massachusetts bay, within which Boston was included.
At that time a " bookish recluse," William Blaxton (Blackstone), one of the several " old planters " scattered about the bay, had for several years been living on Boston peninsula.
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
1 In 1851 the mayor of the English Boston sent over a copy of that city's seals, framed in oak from St Botolph's church, of which John Cotton, the famous Boston divine (he came over in 1633) had been vicar.
In 1855 a number of For several years it was uncertain whether Cambridge, Charlestown or Boston should be the capital of the colony, but in 1632 the General Court agreed " by general consent, that Boston is the fittest place for public meetings of any place in the Bay."
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
In 1692 the first permanent and successful printing press was established; in 170 4 the first newspaper in America, the Boston News-Letter, which was published weekly until 1776.
Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
Another, Daniel Neal, in 1720, found Boston conversation " as polite as in most of the cities and towns in England, many of their merchants having the advantage of a free conversation with travellers; so that a gentleman from London would almost think himself at home at Boston, when he observes the number of people, their houses, their furniture, their tables, their dress and conversation, which perhaps is as splendid and showy as that of the most considerable tradesmen in London."
At this time Boston was the most flourishing town of North America.
In the years 1760-1776 Boston was the most frequently recurring and most important name in British colonial history.
Opposition to the measures of the British government for taxing and oppressing the colonies began in Boston.
The Stamp Act, passed in 1765, was repealed in 1766; it was opposed in Boston by a surprising show of determined and unified public sentiment.
This incident is known as the " Boston Massacre."
But they would not profit by Boston's misfortune.
The evacuation closed the heroic period of Boston's history.
A Boston vessel, the " Columbia " (Captain Robert Gray), opened trade with the north-west coast of America, and was the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe (1787-1790).
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
It was Boston commerce that was most sorely hurt by the embargo and non-importation policy of President Jefferson.
In politics the period is characterized by Boston's connexion with the fortunes of the Federalist party.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
Unitarian tendencies away from the Calvinism of the old Congregational churches were plainly evident about 1750, and it is said by Andrew P. Peabody (1811-1893) that by 1780 nearly all the Congregational pulpits around Boston were filled by Unitarians.
Organized Universalism in Boston dates from 1785.
The American Unitarian Association, organized in 1825, has always retained its headquarters in Boston.
In the period from 1822 to the Civil War anti-slavery is the most striking feature of Boston's annals.
Boston had long since taken her place in the very front of anti-slavery ranks, and with the rest of Massachusetts was playing somewhat the same part as in the years before the War of Independence.
But it is not upon material prosperity that Boston rests its claims for consideration.
- See the annual City Documents; also Justin Winsor (ed.) The Memorial History of Boston, including Suffolk County.
1630-1880 (4 vols., Boston, 1880-1881), a work that covers every phase of the city's growth, history and life; S.
Boston (2 vols., Boston, 1854; and later editions), and Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston (Boston, 1873, and later editions); Josiah Quincy, A Municipal History of.
1830 (Boston, 1852); C. W.
Ernst, Constitutional History of Boston (Boston, 1894); H.
Sprague, City Government in Boston - its Rise and Development (Boston, 1890); E.
Hale, Historic Boston and its Neighbourhood (New York, 1898), and L.
Swift, Literary Landmarks of Boston (Boston, 1903).
Boston has been described in many works of fiction, and the reader may be referred to the novels of E.
Holmes' Poet and Autocrat, and Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter, as pictures of Boston life at various periods since early colonial days.
Boston (Game) >>
Mahan, Sea-Power in its Relation to the War of 1812 (2 vols., Boston, 1905); and William Kingsford, The History of Canada, vol.
Foreign and Colonial Laws: Field, Landholding and the relation of Landlord and Tenant in various Countries; Ruling Cases (American Notes), (London and Boston, 1894-1901).
The first settlement in New Haven (called Quinnipiac, its Indian name, until 1640) was made in the autumn of 1637 by a party of explorers in search of a site for colonization for a band of Puritans, led by Theophilus Eaton and the Rev. John Davenport, who had arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, from England in July 1637.
In 1770 most of the merchants agreed not to import goods from England and transferred their trade with New York City, where Loyalist influence was strong, to Boston and Philadelphia.
When news of the embargo of the port at Boston arrived at New Haven, a Committee of Correspondence was at once formed; and in the War of Independence the people enthusiastically supported the American cause.
Boston: Canadian S.
It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Albany (New York Central & Hudson River) railways, and by two inter-urban electric lines.
The settlement was first called "Boston Plantation," or "Poontoosuck," but in 1761, when it was incorporated as a township, the name was changed to Pittsfield, in honour of the elder William Pitt.
Nutting, The Days of Prince Maurice (Boston and Chicago, 1894).
Cory's Hunting and Fishing Florida (Boston, 1896) and A.
1 (Boston, Mass., 1891).
(Boston, Mass., 1904); P. Haupt, Ecclesiastes (Baltimore, 1905).
The young Genevans failed in business, passed a severe winter in the wilds of Maine, and returned to Boston penniless.
With these volumes was published an excellent biography, The Life of Albert Gallatin, also by Henry Adams; another good biography is John Austin Stevens's Albert Gallatin (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen" series.
on remarkable revival services in Western New York, in Philadelphia (1828), in New York City (1829-1830 and 1832, the New York Evangelist being founded to carry on his work), in Boston (1831, 1842-1843, 1856-1857), in London (1849-1850) and throughout England and Scotland (1858).
Leonard, The Story of Oberlin (Boston, 1898); and A.
See Charles McCarthy, The Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political Anti-Masonry in the United States, 1827-1840, in the Report of the American Historical Association for 1902 (Washington, 1903); the Autobiography of Thurlow Weed (2 vols., Boston, 1884); A.
The best collections of Robin Hood poems are those of Ritson (8vo, 1795) and Gutch (2nd ed., 1847), and of Professor Child in the 5th volume of his invaluable English and Scotch Popular Ballads (Boston, 1888).
Gummere's Old English Ballads (Boston, 1894).
and is served by an interurban electric line and by steamboat lines to Portland, Boston, Bangor, Bar Harbor and other coast ports.
CHELSEA, a city of Suffolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., a suburb of Boston.
It is situated on a peninsula between the Mystic and Chelsea rivers, and Charlestown and East Boston, and is connected with East Boston and Charlestown by bridges.
It is served by the Boston & Maine and (for freight) by the Boston & Albany railways.
Until 1739, under the name of Winnisimmet, Chelsea formed a part of Boston, but in that year it was made a township; it became a city in 1857.
See Mellen Chamberlain (and others), History of Chelsea (2 vols., Boston, 1908), published by the Massachusetts Historical Society.
Hist., iv., Boston, 1885) applied this term in a new wider sense to all the Ratitae, and recently W.
The outbreak of the American War put a stop to the trade of his master, and he thereupon left Salem and went to Boston, where he engaged himself as assistant in another store.
On the evacuation of Boston by the royal troops, therefore, in 1776, he was selected by Governor Wentworth to carry despatches to England.
Dr. Reisner, working for Boston, was not held up by the war, but continued his excavations in the Giza pyramid field and in Nubia, making good finds in both places.
(1914), p. 1 59, ff.; (42) Harvard African Studies, II.; Boston Museum Bulletin, Feb.
35, 2 37; (43) Boston Museum Bulletin, April 1914, Dec. 1915; (44) Karanog, 1910; Buhen, 1911; (45) Ann.
1911; (48) Meroe, p. 49, ff.; (49) Boston Museum Bulletin, Nov.
An English translation of the chief portions in Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898), ch.
Four instances have, however, been recorded of its occurrence on the British coasts, one on the coast of Norfolk in 1588, one in the Firth of Forth in 1648, one near Boston in Lincolnshire in 1800, while a fourth entangled itself among rocks in the Sound of Weesdale, Shetland, in September 1808.
Hoosick Falls is served by the Boston & Maine Railroad, and is connected by electric railway with Bennington, Vermont, about 8 m.
Returning to Massachusetts in 1849, he became a clerk and subsequently a junior partner in a prominent Boston commercial house.
All these varieties were represented at the annual show of the Kennel Club in the autumn of 1905, and at the representative exhibition of America held under the management of the Westminster Kennel Club in the following spring the classification was substantially the same, additional breeds, however, being Boston terriers - practically unknown in England, - Chesapeake Bay dogs, Chihuahuas, Papillons and Roseneath terriers.
In July 1656 two women Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived at Boston.
There are no steam railways, but an electric line connects South Hadley and South Hadley Falls with the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Boston & Maine railways at Holyoke.
For fourteen years, first at Dedham, Massachusetts, and after 1833 at Boston, he devoted himself, with great success, to his profession.
In carrying out his work he met with bitter opposition, being attacked particularly by certain school-masters of Boston who strongly disapproved of his pedagogical theories and innovations, and by various religious sectaries, who contended against the exclusion of all sectarian instruction from the schools.
at Boston in1867-1890.as the Life and Works of Horace Mann.
Mann, the Educator (Boston, 1896), and George A.
He died on shipboard in Deal harbour, England, on the 23rd of September 1789 after having embarked for America on a Boston packet.
The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
M`Dougall, Fugitive Slaves, 1619-1865 (Boston, 1891).
Ficklen above cited, another by the same author in collaboration with Grace King (New Orleans, 1902) and another (more valuable) by Albert Phelps (Boston, 1905), in the American Commonwealth Series.
Ballou, History of Cuba, or Notes of a Traveller (Boston, 1854); R.
Dana, To Cuba and Back (Boston, 18J9); J.
Rawson's Report, 1866; Stark's History and Guide to the Bahama Islands (Boston, Mass., 1891); Bahama Islands (Geog.
John Thoreau, his father, who married the daughter of a New England clergyman, was the son of a John Thoreau of the isle of Jersey, who, in Boston, married a Scottish lady of the name of Burns.
Thoreau's fame will rest on Walden; or, Life in the Woods (Boston, 1854) and the Excursions (Boston, 1863), though he wrote nothing which is not deserving of notice.
After Thoreau's death were also published: The Maine Woods (Boston, 1863); Cape Cod (Boston, 1865); A Yankee in Canada (Boston, 1866).
The standard editions of his works are The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, Riverside edition (II vols., Boston, 18 941895), and Manuscript edition (12 vols., ibid., 1907).
Channing, Thoreau: The Poet Naturalist (Boston, 1873); R.
Emerson, an introductory note to Excursions (Boston, 1863); F.
Sanborn, Henry David Thoreau (Boston, 1882), in the ` American Men of Letters Series "; H.
Thoreau (Boston, 1908).
It is served by the Boston & Maine and the Central Vermont railways, and by interurban electric railways to Northampton, Holyoke, Sunderland and Pelham.
Folwell's Minnesota, the North Star State (Boston, 1908), in the " American Commonwealth series "; E.
The valley portion is level and contains several settlement centres, the largest of which, a busy industrial village (manufactures of cotton and paper), bears the same name as the township, and is on a branch of the Boston and Albany railroad.
(Boston, 1842; new edition, 1861).
See Mackenzie, Life of Decatur (Boston, 1846).
It is at the intersection of two branches of the Boston & Maine railway, and is served by several interurban electric lines.
During a two years' visit to England he sought earnestly to gain friends to his colony's cause, but returned to Boston in April 1776 convinced that a friendly settlement of the dispute was impossible.
This step, which caused him to be ostracized for a time from the Boston circles in which he had been reared, brought him the cases of the fugitive slaves, Shadrach, Sims and Burns, and of the rescuers of Shadrach.
On the night following the surrender of Burns (May 1854) Dana was brutally assaulted on the Boston streets.
In 1857 he became a regular attendant at the meetings of the famous Boston Saturday Club, to the members of which he dedicated his account of a vacation trip, To Cuba and Back (1857).
See Charles Francis Adams, Richard Henry Dana: a Biography (2 vols., Boston Mass., 1891).
See C. C. Pinckney, Life of General Thomas Pinckney (Boston, 1895).
Shepard, in the "American Statesmen Series" (revised ed., Boston, 1899).
Richard graduated at Harvard in 1826, and, after studying law at Newburyport, was admitted to the bar at Boston in 1830.
He had already taken to journalism, and in 1832 he became joint founder and editor of a daily newspaper, the Boston Atlas.
His first ministerial charge was over a small village parish, West Roxbury, a few miles from Boston; here he was ordained as a Unitarian clergyman in June 1837 and here he preached until January 1846.
But on the 19th of May 1841 he preached at Boston a sermon on "the transient and permanent in Christianity," which presented in embryo the main principles and ideas of his final theological position, and the preaching of which determined his subsequent relations to the churches with which he was connected and to the whole ecclesiastical world.
The Boston Unitarian clergy denounced the preacher, and declared that the "young man must be silenced."
A number of gentlemen in Boston, however, invited him to give a series of lectures there.
His friends, however, resolved that he should be heard in Boston, and there, beginning with 1845, he preached regularly for fourteen years.
Previous to his removal from West Roxbury to Boston Parker spent a year in Europe, calling in Germany upon Paulus, Gervinus, De Wette and Ewald, and preaching in Liverpool in the pulpits of James Martineau and J.
After January 1846 he devoted himself exclusively to his work in Boston.
By his voice, his pen, and his utterly fearless action in social and political matters he became a great power in Boston and America generally.
A collected edition of his works was published in England by Frances Power Cobbe (14 vols., 1863-1870), and another - the Centenary edition - in Boston, Mass., by the American Unitarian Association (14 vols., 1907-1911); a volume of Theodore Parker's Prayers, edited by Rufus Leighton and Matilda Goddard, was published in America in 1861, and a volume of Parker's West Roxbury Sermons, with a biographical sketch by Frank B.
Sanborn, was published in Boston, Mass., in 1892.
Frothingham's Theodore Parker: a Biography (Boston, 1874); and John White Chadwick's Theodore Parker, Preacher and Reformer (Boston, 1900), the last containing a good bibliography.
Hamilton; Daniel C. Gilman, James Monroe (Boston, 1883), in the " American Statesman Series "; J.
Bowditch, was published at Boston, U.S. (1829-1839), in 4 vols.
It is served by the Boston & Maine railroad and by electric railways to Andover, Boston, Lowell, Haverhill and Salem, Massachusetts, and to Nashua and Salem, New Hampshire.
distant), and by the coasting steamers (from Boston) of the Eastern Steamship Co.
of Albany; on the Delaware & Hudson and Boston & Maine railways.
White (Boston, New York and London, 1898) in the "Yale Studies in English."
Scruggs, The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics (2nd ed., Boston, 1905); W.
It is served by the Maine Central railway, by steamboat lines to Boston, and by inter-urban electric railway.
1839), for many years a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, he obtained various organometallic compounds of silicon.
Raymond, Peter Cooper (Boston, 1900).
Tyler, Forty Years among the Zulus (Boston, 1891); British official Military Report on Zululand (1906); W.
Albany is a terminus of the New York Central & Hudson River, the Delaware & Hudson and the West Shore railways, and is also served by the Boston & Maine railway, by the Erie and Champlain canals (being a terminus of each), by steamboat lines on the Hudson river and by several inter-urban electric railways connecting with neighbouring cities.
Scott O'Connor, The Silken East (London, 1904); Talbot Kelly, Burma (London, 1905); an exhaustive account of the administration is contained in Dr Alleyne Ireland's The Province of Burma, Report prepared on behalf of the university of Chicago (Boston, U.S.A., 2 vols., 1907).
Francis (Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, Boston, Mass., 1855) led him to propose variations in the accepted formulae for the discharge over weirs, and a generation later a very complete investigation of this subject was carried out by H.
See Life and Writings of Wilbur Fisk (New York, 1842), edited by Joseph Holdich, and the biography by George Prentice (Boston, 1890), in the American Religious Leaders Series; also a sketch in Memoirs of Teachers and Educators (New York, 1861), edited by Henry Barnard.
THOMAS HUTCHINSON (1711-1780), the last royal governor of the province of Massachusetts, son of a wealthy merchant of Boston, Mass., was born there on the 9th of September 1711.
In 1737 he began his public career as a member of the Boston Board of Selectmen, and a few weeks later he was elected to the General Court of Massachusetts Bay, of which he was a member until 1740 and again from 1742 to 1 749, serving as speaker in 1 747, 1 74 8 and 1749.
Though he recognized the legality of the Stamp Act of 1765, he considered the measure inexpedient and impolitic and urged its repeal, but his attitude was misunderstood; he was considered by many to have instigated the passage of the Act, and in August 1765 a mob sacked his Boston residence and destroyed many valuable manuscripts and documents.
He was acting governor at the time of the "Boston Massacre" in 1770, and was virtually forced by the citizens of Boston, under the leadership of Samuel Adams, to order the removal of the British troops from the town.
His Diary and Letters, with an Account of his Administration, was published at Boston in 1884-1886.
Hosmer's Life of Thomas Hutchinson (Boston, 1896), and a biographical chapter in John Fiske's Essays Historical and Literary (New York, 1902).
HENRY ADAMS (1838-), American historian, son of Charles Francis Adams and grandson of John Quincy Adams, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 16th of February 1838.
Another brother, Charles Francis Adams, Jr. (1835-), born in Boston on the 27th of May 1835, graduated at Harvard in 1856, and served on the Union side in the Civil War, receiving in 1865 the brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army.
There were 173 of these factories working in Cuba in 1908-1909, among which the " Chaparra," in the province of Oriente, turned out upwards of 69,000 tons of sugar in the crop of about 20 weeks, and the " Boston " had an output of about 61,00o tons in the same time.
The fine picture of "Christ bearing the Cross" (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most important manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
Bar Harbor is served by the Maine Central railway and by steamship lines to New York, Boston, Portland and other ports.
He died in Boston on the 24th of December 1878.
It is served by the Boston & Maine, and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways, and by interurban electric railways.
Braintree was first incorporated in 1640 from land belonging to Boston and called Mount Wollaston, and was named from the town in England.
Wilson, - Quincy, Old Braintree and Merry Mount (Boston, 1906); C. F.
Adams, Jr., Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (Boston, 1892 and 1896); W.
Lubeck and Hamburg, however, dominated the German trade in the ports of the east coast, notably in Lynn and Boston, while they were strong in the organized trading settlements at York, Hull, Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth and Bristol.
Watertown is served by the Fitchburg division of the Boston & Maine railway, and is connected with Boston, Cambridge, Newton (immediately adjacent and served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway) and neighbouring towns by electric railways.
It is a residential and manufacturing suburb of Boston.
For the first quarter century Watertown ranked next to Boston in population and area.
In the First Parish Church, the site of which is marked by a monument, the Provincial Congress, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775; the Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778, and the Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many of the well-known Boston families made their homes in the neighbourhood.
Drake, History of Middlesex County (2 vols., Boston, 1880); Conyers Francis, A Historical Sketch of Watertown to the close of its Second Century (Cambridge, 1830); S.
Whitney, Historical Sketch of Watertown (Boston, 1906); and "Watertown," by S.
The Watertown Records (4 vols., Watertown and Boston, 1894-1906) have been published by the Historical Society of Watertown (organized in 1888 and incorporated in 1891).
Bennett's The Monitor and the Navy under Steam (Boston, 1900); and William Swinton, Twelve Decisive Battles of the War (New York, 1867).
At the request of her parents, who were acquainted with the success attained in the case of Laura Bridgman, one of the graduates of the Perkins Institution at Boston, Miss Anne M.
Unfortunately an exact record of the steps in her education was not kept; but from 1888 onwards, at the Perkins Institution, Boston, and under Miss Sarah Fuller at the Horace Mann school in New York, and at the Wright Humason school, she not only learnt to read, write, and talk, but became proficient, to an exceptional degree, in the ordinary educational curriculum.
Dudley, Nantucket Centennial Celebration; Historic Sites and Historic Buildings (Nantucket, 1895); Obed Macy, History of Nantucket (Boston, 1835); L.
Copway, History of the Ojibway Indians (Boston, 1850); P. Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians (1861); A.
A valuable edition of the De aquis (text and translation) has been published by C. Herschel (Boston, Mass., 1899).
He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1837, studied law in Boston, was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1840, and practised his profession in Boston.
He also took a deep interest in religious matters, was a prominent member of the Church of the Disciples (Unitarian; founded in Boston by the Rev. James Freeman Clarke), and was assistant editor for some time of The Christian World, a weekly religious paper.
He died suddenly of apoplexy, at Boston, on the 30th of October 1867.
Andrew (2 vols., Boston and New York, 1904).
tr., Boston, U.S.A., 1902); J.
of Boston, is served by the Boston & Albany railroad; it has the Walnut Hill preparatory school, the Leonard Morse hospital, and a public library, the Morse institute, which was given by Mary Ann Morse (1825-1862) and was built in 1873.
Drake's History of Middlesex County (Boston, 1880); and Oliver N.
Bacon, History of the Town of Natick (Boston, 1856).
Partly through restrictive local legislation and partly as a result of the operation of the Suffolk system of redemption in Boston, these institutions were always conservative.
On the loth, D'Estaing returned to the port with his fleet badly crippled, and only to announce that he should sail to Boston to refit.
Richman, Rhode Island: Its Making and Meaning, 1636-1683 (2 vols., 1902), and Rhode Island: A Study in Separatism (Boston and New York, 1905).
Edward Field (Editor), State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation at the end of the Century: A History (3 vols., Boston, 1902), is valuable for the more recent history of the state.
The second company, the Ohio Company of Associates, was formed at Boston on the 3rd of March 1786.
of Boston and about 20 m.
in area, traversed by the Nashua river, crossed by the Northern Division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad, and by the Fitchburg Division of the Boston & Maine, and connected with Boston, Worcester and other cities by interurban electric lines.
Jackson, James Martineau, a Biography and a Study (Boston, 1900); H.
C. Bolton in Boston Bull.
The other pre-revolutionary magazines were the Boston American Magazine (1743-1747), in imitation of the London Magazine; the Boston Weekly Magazine (1743); the Christian History (1743-1744); the New York Independent Reflector (1752-1754); the Boston New England Magazine (1758-1760), a collection of fugitive pieces; the Boston Royal American Magazine (1774-1775); and the Pennsylvania Magazine (1775-1776), founded by Robert Aitken, with the help of Thomas Paine.
The Anthology Club was established at Boston in 1803 by Phineas Adams for the cultivation of literature and the discussion of philosophy.
Ticknor, Everett and Bigelow were among the members, and were contributors to the organ of the club, the monthly Anthology and Boston Review (1803-1811), the forerunner of the North American Review.
TheDial(1840-1844), Boston, the organ of the transcendentalists, was first edited by Margaret Fuller, and subsequently by R.
Brownson's Quarterly Review began as the Boston Quarterly Review in 1838, and did much to introduce to American readers the works of the modern French philosophical school.
Among the most representative are: the Popular Science Monthly, New York; the monthly Boston Journal of Education; the quarterly American Journal of Mathematics, Baltimore; the monthly Cassier's Magazine (1891), New York; the monthly American Engineer (1893), New York; the monthly House and Garden, Philadelphia; the monthly Astrophysical Journal, commenced as Sidereal Messenger (1882), Chicago; the monthly American Chemical Journal, Baltimore; the monthly American Naturalist, Boston; the monthly American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Philadelphia; the monthly Outing, New York; the weekly American Agriculturist, New York; the quarterly Metaphysical Magazine (1895) New York; the bi-monthly American Journal of Sociology, Chicago; the bi-monthly American Law Review, St Louis; the monthly Banker's Magazine, New York; the quarterly American Journal of Philology (1880), Baltimore; the monthly Library Journal (1876), New York; the monthly Public Libraries, Chicago; Harper's.
Children's magazines originated with the Young Misses' Magazine (1806) of Brooklyn; the New York St Nicholas (monthly) and the Boston Youth's Companion (weekly) are prominent juveniles.
Faxon's Check list of American and English Periodicals (Boston, 1908).
Kroeger's Guide to Reference Books (2nd ed., Boston, 1908).
Poole's Index to Periodical Literature (1802-1881, revised ed., Boston, 1891); 1st supplement, 1882-1887, by W.
Poole (Boston, 1901); 1st supplement,1900-1904(Boston, 1905); The Co-operative Index to Periodicals (1885-1894, ed.
SAMUEL PIERPONT LANGLEY (1834-1906), American physicist and astronomer, was born at Roxbury, Boston, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of August 1834.
He preached in the Presbyterian church at East Hampton, Long Island (1798-1810, being ordained in 1 799); in the Congregational church at Litchfield, Connecticut (1810-1826), in the Hanover Street church of Boston (1826-1832), and in the Second Presbyterian church of Cincinnati, Ohio (1833-1843); was president of the newly established Lane Theological Seminary at Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, and was professor of didactic and polemic theology there (1832-1850), being professor emeritus until his death.
At Litchfield and in Boston he was a prominent opponent of the $rowing "heresy" of Unitarianism, though as early as 1836 he was accused of being a "moderate Calvinist" and was tried for heresy, but was acquitted.
Upon his resignation from Lane Theological Seminary he lived in Boston for a short time, devoting himself to literature; but he broke down, and the last ten years of his life were spent at the home of his son, Henry Ward Beecher, in Brooklyn, New York, where he died on the 10th of January 1863.
Lyman Beecher's published works include: A Plea for the West (1835), Views in Theology (1836), and various sermons; his Collected Works were published at Boston in 1852 in 3 vols.
His son, Edward Beecher (1803-1895), was born at East Hampton, Long Island, on the 27th of August 1803, graduated at Yale in 1822, studied theology at Andover, and in 1826 became pastor of the Park Street church in Boston.
From 1830 to 1844 he was president of Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois, and subsequently filled pastorates at the Salem Street church, Boston (1844-1855), and the Congregational church at Galesburg, Illinois (1855-1871).
See Wilson, Critical Sketches of some Commanders (Boston, 1895).
Saint Johnsbury is served by the Boston & Maine and the Saint Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railways.
Recent progress is reported in the scientific periodicals, especially in The Iron and Steel Metallurgist, formerly The Metallographist (Boston, Mass.), and Metallurgic (Halle).
Interested in a variety of subjects, he devoted himself chiefly to the philosophy of religion, and published The Science of Thought (Boston, 1869; revised 1891).
FRANCIS PARKMAN (1823-1893), American historian, was born in Boston on the 16th of September 1823.
One of this good clergyman's sons, Samuel Parkman, became an eminent merchant in Boston, and exhibited much skill in horticulture.
Samuel's son, Francis Parkman, a graduate of Harvard in 1807, was one of the most eminent of the Boston clergymen, a pupil and friend of Channing, and noted among Unitarians for a broadly tolerant disposition.
of Boston, and it :may be doubted if anywhere else can be found another such magnificent piece of wilderness so near to a great city.
So recently as the middle of the 19th century, however, it covered the western half of the continent, and could be reached by a journey of 1600 or 1700 miles from Boston to the plains of Nebraska.
He died at Jamaica Plain, near Boston, on the 8th of November 1893.
Farnham (Boston, 1900).
The city is served by the Boston & Maine, and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways, and by an interurban line.
SAMUEL ADAMS (1722-1803), American statesman, was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the 27th of September 1722.
He was a second cousin to the elder John Adams. His father, whose Christian name was also Samuel, was a wealthy and prominent citizen of Boston, who took an active part in the politics of the town, and was a member of the Caucus (or Caulker's) Club, with which the political term "caucus" is said to have originated; his mother was Mary Fifield.
He repeatedly failed in business, notably as manager of a malt-house, largely because of his incessant attention to politics; but in the Boston townmeeting he became a conspicuous example of the efficiency of that institution for training in statecraft.
Samuel Adams first came into wider prominence at the beginning of the Stamp Act episode, in 1764, when as author of Boston's instructions to its representatives in the general court of Massachusetts he urged strenuous opposition to taxation by act of parliament.
To promote the ends he had in view he suggested non-importation, instituted the Boston committees of correspondence, urged that a Continental Congress be called, sought out and introduced into public service such allies as John Hancock, Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy, and wrote a vast number of articles for the newspapers, especially the Boston Gazette, over a multitude of signatures.
The intense excitement which followed the "Boston Massacre" Adams skilfully used to secure the removal of the soldiers from the town to a fort in the harbour.
He it was, also, who managed the proceedings of the "Boston Tea Party," and later he was moderator of the convention of Massachusetts towns called to protest against the Boston Port Bill.
When he first read that instrument he was very much opposed to the consolidated government which it provided, but was induced to befriend it by resolutions which were passed at a mass meeting of Boston mechanics or "tradesmen" - his own firmest supporters - and by the suggestion that its ratification should be accompanied by a recommendation of amendments designed chiefly to supply the omission of a bill of rights.
He died on the 2nd of October 1803, at Boston.
- Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams (3 vols., Boston, 1865), by W.
Hosmer's Samuel Adams (Boston, 1885), an excellent short biography in the "American Statesmen Series"; M.
It is served by the Central Vermont and the Boston & Maine railways.
Biddeford is served by the Boston & Maine railway, and is connected by electric lines with Portland and with Old Orchard Beach, a popular summer resort north of the Saco river.
In 1842-1855 he was pastor of the South Congregational Church of Boston, and in 1855-1860 was preacher to the university and Plummer professor of Christian Morals at Harvard; he then left the Unitarian Church, with which his father had been connected as a clergyman at Hadley, resigned his professorship and became pastor of the newly established Emmanuel Church of Boston.
See Memoir and Letters of Frederic Dan Huntington (Boston, 1906), by Arria S.
of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston, 1884) there is an excellent chapter by Gregory B.
from 1877 to 1880 (2 vols., Boston, Mass., 1888); S.
(Boston, 1868); and W.
The best history of the state is George P. Garrison's Texas (Boston and New York, 1903), in the American Commonwealths series, but its treatment of the period since 1845 is too brief.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790), American diplomat, statesman and scientist, was born on the 17th of January 1706 in a house in Milk Street, opposite the Old South church, Boston, Massachusetts.
He had married young and had migrated from Banbury to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1685.
Benjamin could not remember when he did not know how to read, and when eight years old he was sent to the Boston grammar school, being destined by his father for the church as a tithe of his sons.
The correspondence was shown to Franklin by a mysterious " member of parliament " to back up the contention that the quartering of troops in Boston was suggested, not by the British ministry, but by Americans and Bostonians.
In 1743, from the circumstance that an eclipse not visible in Philadelphia because of a storm had been observed in Boston, where the storm although north-easterly did not occur until an hour after the eclipse, he surmised that storms move against the wind along the Atlantic coast.
Sparks's edition (10 vols., Boston, 1836-1842; revised, Philadelphia, 1858) also contained fresh matter; and there are further additions in the edition of John Bigelow (Philadelphia, 1887-1888; 5th ed., 1905) and in that by Albert Henry Smyth (to vols., New York, 1905-1907).
Morse, Jr., Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1889, in the American Statesmen series); J.
McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters (Boston, 1887, in American Men of Letters series); Paul L.
Hale, Jr., Franklin in France (2 vols., Boston, 1888); J.
P. Baker (Boston, Mass., 1907), are interesting additions to the literature of the subject.
LEVI PARSONS MORTON (1824-), American banker and politician, was born at Shoreham, Vermont, on the 16th of May 1824.1 He was in business at Hanover, New Hampshire, in1843-1849and in Boston in 1849-1854.
The Blue Hills in Milton are the nearest elevations to the coast, and are conspicuous to navigators approaching Boston.
Monadnock (in New Hampshire, nearN.E.Massachusetts), the Blue Hills near Boston, Greylock, in the north-west, and Wachusett in the centre, are the most commanding remnant-summits (known generically as " Monadnocks ") of the original mountain system.
Till drumlins, notably abundant on the lowland about Boston and the highland near Spencer; morainic hills, extending, e.g.
About Boston, and to the north of it, the shore is rocky and picturesque.
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